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MADE BY: SANAA GUPTA POOJA SAXENA

IN THE MIDDLE OF THE EIGHTH CENTUARY ABD-AR-REHMAN THE SOLE UMAYYAD PRINCE ESCAPED DEATH FROM THE HANDS OF ABBASIDS AND FLED TO SPAIN VIATUNISIA. HIS ARRIVAL ALONG WITH HIS SEVERAL SYRIAN COURT MEMBERS TRANSFORMED THEIS UNIMPORTANT PROVINCE INTO A CENTER OF INTELLECTUAL AND CREATIVE ART WORKS. IN 8TH CENTUARY TUNISIA FEL INTO THE HANDS OD ABBASID AUTHORITY AND THEIR COLONISATION REACHED BEYOND TUNIS AND BISERTA. SPIAN AND WESTERN NORTH AFRICA WERE LESFT TO UMMAYADS. IT WAS UMMAYADS WHO BOUGHT ISLAMIC CULTURE,ART AND ARCHITECTURE TO SPAIN. THE EARLIEST SIGNIFICANT BUILDING OF UMMAYADS IN SPAIN IS THE MOSQUE OF CORDOBA, GRANADA.

SEVILLA : THE GIRALDA GRANDA : THE CORDOBA : THE ALHAMRA

THIS NOBLE SPECIMEN OF ARABIAN ARCHITECTURE WAS BEGUN BY ABDURRAHMAN I AND FINISHED BY HIS SON AND SUCCESSOR, HISHAM ; SUBSEQUENT KHALIFS OF CORDOVA, ENLARGED THE BUILDING AS OFTEN AS THE INCREASE OF POPULATION REQUIRED, UNTIL IT ASSUMED THE GENERAL FORM IN WHICH IT NOW APPEARS. THE MOSQUE IS OF A QUADRANGULAR FORM, SIX HUNDRED AND TWENTY FEET IN LENGTH FROM NORTH TO SOUTH, AND FOUR HUNDRED AND FORTY FEET IN BREADTH FROM EAST TO WEST IT WAS ORIGINALLY SURROUNDED BY FOUR STREETS, WHICH WERE DESIGNED TO PREVENT ANY OTHER BUILDING FROM COMING IN CONTACT WITH IT. OF THE TWENTY-ONE DOORS, WHICH IT ORIGINALLY HAD, ONLY FIVE ARE NOW REMAINING; THEY WERE ALL COVERED WITH BRASS PLATES OF MOST DELICATE WORKMANSHIP.

ARIAL VIEW

THE BRASS DOOR

THE HALL FOR A MOSQUE WAS INTRODUCED IN THIS PERIOD AND IN THE EAST THERE USED TO BE A COURTYARD SURROUNDED BY A COLONNADE WHICH CONTAINED A WATER BASIN FOR ABLUTIONS. A LOFTY QUADRANGULAR TOWER SERVED AS MINARET, WHILE OPPOSITE THE MAHRAB WAS SITUATED THE MAQSURA (THE CHIEFTAIN'S LODGE) CROWNED WITH A DOME DIVIDED THE MOSQUE INTO FOUR PARTS, MARKED OUT BY TWO LINES OF CLUSTERED PILLARS, CROSSING EACH OTHER AT RIGHT ANGLES. THREE OF THESE PORTIONS WERE ALLOTTED TO THE COMMON PEOPLE AND TO THE WOMEN: THE FOURTH, WHICH WAS IN THE SOUTH-EAST ANGLE, WAS APPROPRIATED TO THE IMAMS OR PRIESTS AND GREAT MEN. IN THIS LAST DIVISION WAS THE GREAT KIBLAH OR SANCTUARY PRESENT STATE- AFTER THE CONQUEST OF CORDOVA IN 1236, ST. FERDINAND CONVERTED THIS MOSQUE INTO A CATHEDRAL AND IT PRESERVED ITS ANCIENT PLAN UNTIL THE TIME OF THE EMPEROR CHARLES V. IN THE YEAR 1528, THE SPANIARDS BEGAN TO DISFIGURE ITS SYMMETRY BY MODERN ERECTIONS, WHICH CONTINUED TO BE MADE IN SUCCEEDING REIGNS, IN ORDER TO CONVERT, IT MORE EFFECTUALLY INTO A TEMPLE FOR CELEBRATING THE SOLEMN RITES OF THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION.

O R I G I N A L S T A T E

P R E S E N T S T A T E

HORSE-SHOE ARCHES OF ALTERNATE RED BRICK AND WHITE KEY STONES RESTED ON SLENDER PILLARS AND ABOVE THEM ROSE A SECOND STOREY OF ROUND ARCHES OF THE SAME TYPE AS SUPPORTED THE ORIGINAL CEDARWOOD-CEILING IT IS A LARGE CONGREGATIONAL MOSQUE WITH A DEEP SANCTUARY CONTAINING ELEVEN GALLERIES SEPARATED BY ARCADES, EACH WITH TWENTY COLUMNS. THE MAQSURA CONTAINED RICHLY DECORATED LOBAR ARCHES AND HORSE-SHOE ARCHES WHERE THE DOME SPRANG FROM TWO INTERSECTING QUADRANGLES OF ARCHES. THE MAHRAB WAS DECORATED WITH BYZANTINE GLASS MOSAIC. IN OTHER PARTS OF THE BUILDING PLASTERED FLORAL FORMS PREDOMINATE IN THE DECORATIONS. THE MIMBAR IS RICHLY CARVED AND THE MIHRAB IS COVERED WITH GLAZED TILES. THIS PLAN, WITH ITS SLENDER STONE PILLARS ,HORSE-SHOE AND LOBAR ARCHES, TILING AND STUCCO (GLAZED) ARABESQUES, IN LATER CENTURIES WAS CARRIED ON INTO GRACEFUL STYLEAND REMAINS THE DISTINCTIVE CHARACTERISTIC OF ALL MOORISH AND MUDEJAR ART IN SPAIN TILL THE 16TH CENTURY.

MIRHAB

LOBAR ARCHES MAQSURA

THE PRINCIPAL LINES, OR FEATURES, OF ITS INTERNAL DISTRIBUTION, ARE FORMED BY THE THIRTY EIGHT AISLES OR NAVES. THE COLUMNS AT PRESENT ARE ABOUT EIGHT HUNDRED AND FIFTY IN NUMBER; AND ARE FORMED OF GRANITE, PORPHYRY, JASPER, AND OTHER MARBLES THE COLUMNS ARE ALL NEARLY OF AN EQUAL LENGTH, BEING ABOUT NINE FEET BETWEEN THE BASE AND THE CAPITAL: THE THICKNESS OF THE SHAFT IS PRETTY EQUAL THROUGHOUT, BEING ABOUT EIGHTEEN INCHES IN DIAMETER. THE CAPITALS WERE, ORIGINALLY, OF THE CORINTHIAN ORDER, AND WERE BEAUTIFULLY SCULPTURED, AS WOULD APPEAR BY THE FEW THAT ARE STILL ENTIRE; AND SUCH CAPITALS, AS WERE SUPPLIED BY THE ARABIAN ARCHITECT, ARE FOR THE MOST PART IMITATIONS OF THE SAME ORDER. FROM THESE CAPITALS RISE ARCHES, WHICH SPRING FROM ONE INTER-COLUMNIATION TO ANOTHER; AND, FROM THEIR CRESCENT, OR HORSE-SHOE FORM, AS WELL AS THE ARABESQUES, INSCRIPTIONS, AND OTHER EMBELLISHMENTS, PRESENT AN ENTIRELY ORIENTAL CHARACTER

THE COLUMNS

THE CAPITAL

EACH OF THE FOUR FRONTS OF THIS NOBLE EDIFICE PRESENTS WALLS OF UNCOMMON SOLIDITY, CROWNED WITH ENGRAILED BATTLEMENTS, AND SUPPORTED BY BUTTRESSES, WHICH, AT A DISTANCE, HAVE THE APPEARANCE OF SO MANY TOWERS. THE WALLS ARE COVERED WITH PLASTER OF A GREYISH COLOUR, WHICH BEING DECAYED IN SOME PARTS, THE STONE-WORK BECOMES APPARENT; THE MASSIVE OUTSIDE PIER OR BUTTRESS, IS NINE FEET AND A HALF IN HEIGHT FROM THE GROUND TO THE BOTTOM OF THE ENGRAILED BATTLEMENT. SUCH IS THE GENERAL CHARACTER OF THE BUILDING; BUT IT IS WORTHY OF REMARK, THAT EACH FRONT DIFFERS FROM THE OTHER AS TO ITS HEIGHT AND ORNAMENTS, IN CONSEQUENCE OF THE ARABIAN ARCHITECT BEING OBLIGED TO ACCOMMODATE THE STRUCTURE TO THE VERSATILE TASTE OF THE ARABS, WHO WERE PASSIONATELY FOND OF VARIETY, ALSO TO THE INEQUALITIES OF THE SOIL; WHICH ARE SO GREAT, THAT IN ORDER TO REACH THE EDIFICE, IT BECOMES NECESSARY TO ASCEND THIRTY STEPS ON THE SOUTH SIDE, AND ON THE NORTH SIDE TO DESCEND FOURTEEN STEPS. BETWEEN MOST OF THE PROJECTING PIERS OR BUTTRESSES, DOORS ARE PLACED, WHICH ARE ORNAMENTED WITH FRET-WORK IN STUCCO, OF EQUALLY DELICATE AND DURABLE WORKMANSHIP. THESE ORNAMENTS ARE FURTHER PAINTED WITH VARIOUS BRILLIANT COLOURS; WHICH MUST HAVE PRODUCED A VERY STRIKING EFFECT BEFORE ANY ALTERATIONS WERE MADE IN THE EDIFICE.

EXTERIOR OF THE MOSQUE

THE INSCRIPTION ON THE FACADE

STUCCO

THE CHIEF ARCHITECT OF THE MOSQUE, AND THE MAN WHO LAID THE FOUNDATION OF THE MINARET, WAS AHMAD IBN BASU. IN APRIL 1172 , HE BEGAN TO MARK OUT THE SITE OF THIS NOBLE AND BEAUTIFUL MOSQUE. A VIEW OF THE SOUTH FACE OF THE GIRALDA, SHOWS THE DELICATE TRACERY AND TRADITIONAL DOUBLE WINDOWS OF ORIGINAL ALMOHAD DESIGN. THE BALCONIES WERE LATER ADDITIONS. STONES FROM THE WALLS OF AN OLD PALACE NEARBY WERE USED FOR THE FOUNDATION. SOME OF THESE STONES DATED BACK TO VISIGOTHIC OR EVEN ROMAN TIMES, USED AND RE-USED IN SUCCESSIVE BUILDINGS. WHEN THE BASE OF THE TOWER HAD RISEN A FEW METERS ABOVE GROUND, V WORK SUDDENLY STOPPED- IBN BASU DIED, WORK RECOMMENCED IN 1188, A NEW ARCHITECT, ALI AL-GHUMARI, WAS IN CHARGE. AL-GHUMARI DECIDED TO USE BAKED BRICK INSTEAD OF CUT STONE FOR THE REST OF THE MINARET, AND THE POINT OF TRANSITION CAN STILL BE CLEARLY SEEN. THE OUTER SURFACE OF THE MINARET WAS DECORATED WITH A PATTERN OF INTERLACED ARCHES IN RAISED BRICKWORK, AND GLASS PANES WERE SET IN THE WINDOWS.

SOUTH FAADE WITH DOUBLE WINDOWS

THE FLOOR PLAN

ACCESS TO THE TOP WAS BY A SERIES OF 34 GENTLY SLOPING RAMPS. THE CENTRAL CORE CONSISTED OF SEVEN ROOMS, PROBABLY USED FOR STORAGE OR AS QUARTERS FOR GUARDS, FOR THE MINARET ALSO SERVED AS A WATCHTOWER. IN 1195, AL-MANSUR WON A GREAT VICTORY AGAINST THE FORCES OF KING ALFONSO VIII IN THE BATTLE OF ALARCOS. TO CELEBRATE HIS TRIUMPH, HE ORDERED FOUR ENORMOUS GILDED BRONZE BALLS CALLED APPLES TO BE PLACED ON THE VERY TOP OF THE MINARET. THE METAL BALLS WERE GRADUATED IN SIZE, WITH THE SMALLEST AT THE TOP AND THE LARGEST AT THE BOTTOM. IN 1400, THE FIRST PUBLIC CLOCK IN SPAIN WAS INSTALLED AT THE TOP OF THE GIRALDA, AND A YEAR LATER THE DECISION WAS TAKEN TO BUILD A MODERN IN THIS CASE, GOTHIC CATHEDRAL ON THE SITE OF THE MOSQUE. IN THE COURSE OF BUILDING THE THIRD LARGEST CATHEDRAL IN CHRISTENDOM, MOST OF THE OLD ALMOHAD STRUCTURE WAS DEMOLISHED. A SECTION OF THE WALL, THE BEAUTIFUL PATIO OF THE ORANGE TREES, THE GATE OF PARDON, WITH ITS MAGNIFICENT BRONZEPLATED DOOR, AND THE MINARET WERE SPARED.

GIRLADA ALMOHAD MINARET TOWER UNDER CHRISTIAN CONTROL, BELL TOWER

BY THE MID-16TH CENTURY, SEVILLE HAD BECOME THE RICHEST CITY IN EUROPE; IT WAS FELT THAT SOME SYMBOL OF THE CITYS NEW PROSPERITY WAS REQUIRED. THE ARCHITECT HERNN RUIZ, HEAVILY INFLUENCED BY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE, CAME FORTH WITH AN AMBITIOUS DESIGN FOR INCREASING THE HEIGHT OF THE GIRALDA BY 30 METERS (100 FEET) AND TURNING THE TOP INTO A BELL TOWER. IT IS A TRIBUTE TO THE STRENGTH OF THE ALMOHAD STRUCTURE THAT IT COULD SUPPORT THE ADDED WEIGHT. RUIZS BELL TOWER WAS IN TURN SURMOUNTED BY A COLOSSAL BRONZE STATUE REPRESENTING FAITH, CALLED THE GIRALDILLO, OR WEATHERVANE, FOR IT TURNS TO INDICATE THE DIRECTION OF THE WIND. IT IS FROM THIS STATUE THAT THE GIRALDA TAKES ITS NAME; BEFORE THAT, IT WAS SIMPLY CALLED THE TOWER OR ALMINAR - THE SPANISH VERSION OF THE ARABIC WORD FOR MINARET. THREE STAGES IN THE LIFE OF THE GIRALDA: THE LEFT TOWER IS THE ALMOHAD MINARET (1198), WITH ITS FOUR GILDED 'APPLES'; THE RIGHT TOWER, UNDER CHRISTIAN CONTROL (1400), IS TOPPED WITH A BELL; THE CENTER TOWER (1568) FEATURES THE RENAISSANCE BELFRY OF HERNAN RUIZ. THE GIRALDA, ONCE PART OF THE GREAT MOSQUE, NOW SERVES AS BELL TOWER OF GOTHIC CATHEDRAL COMPLETED IN 1506. OF THE ORIGINAL MOSQUE, ONLY THE MINARET, A WALL, THE GATE OF PARDON AND PART OF THE PATIO OF THE ORANGE TREES, DEPICTED IN THE FLOOR PLAN.
THE BRONZE STATUE