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CONTENTS

S.N. 1. 2. CHAPTER PAGE NO.

INTRODUCTION

HISTORY AND PROFILE OF PARLE COMPANY. 3. DEPARTMENTS AND SECTIONS 4. ROLE OF INGREDIENTS 5. MANUFACTURING PROCESS IN DETAIL. 6. STUDY OF DEFECTS IN BISCUITS 7. TESTING METHODS OF RAW MATERIALS & FINISHED PRODUCTS 8. PACKAGING MATERIALS 9. CORRUGATED BOXES UNIT 10. MAINTENANCE 11. ETP & R.O. PLANT 12. CONCLUSION

INDIAN BISCUITS INDUSTRY

Indian Biscuits Industry is the largest among all the food industries and has a turn over of around Rs.3000 crores. India is known to be the second largest manufacturer of biscuits, the first being USA. It is classified under two sectors: organized and unorganized. Bread and biscuits are the major part of the bakery industry and covers around 80 percent of the total bakery products in India. Biscuits stands at a higher value and production level than bread. This belongs to the unorganized sector of the bakery Industry and covers over 70% of the total production. Indian Biscuits Industry came into limelight and started gaining a sound status in the bakery industry in the later part of 20th century when the urbanized society called for ready made food products at a tenable cost. Biscuits were assumed as sick-man's diet in earlier days. Now, it has become one of the most loved fast food product for every age group. Biscuits are easy to carry, tasty to eat, cholesterol free and reasonable at cost. States that have the larger intake of biscuits are Maharashtra, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Uttar Pradesh. Maharashtra and West Bengal, the most industrially developed states, hold the maximum amount of consumption of biscuits. Even, the rural sector consumes around 55 percent of the biscuits in the bakery products. The total production of bakery products have risen from 5.19 lakh tonnes in 1975 to 18.95 lakh tonnes in 1990. Biscuits contributes to over 33 percent of the total production of bakery and above 79 percent of the biscuits are manufactured by the small scale sector of bakery industry comprising both factory and non-factory units. The production capacity of wafer biscuits is 60 MT and the cost is Rs.56,78,400 with a motive power of 25 K.W. Indian biscuit industry has occupied around 55-60 percent of the entire bakery production. Few years back, large scale bakery manufacturers like cadbury, nestle, and brooke bond tried to trade in the biscuit industry but couldn't hit the market because of the local companies that produced only biscuits. The Federation of Biscuit Manufacturers of India (FBMI) has confirmed a bright future of Indian Biscuits Industry. According to FBMI, a steady growth of 15 percent per annum in the next 10 years will be achieved by the biscuit industry of India. Besides, the export of biscuits will also surpass the target and hit the global market successfully.

The word 'Biscuit' is derived from The Latin words 'Bis' (meaning 'twice') and ' Coctus' (meaning cooked or baked). The word 'Biscotti' is also the generic term for cookies in Italian. Back then, biscuits were unleavened, hard and thin wafers which, because of their low water content, were ideal food to store. Biscuit may be defined as a product based on cereals ( more than 60 % of its wt ) and contains less than 2.5 % moisture and has undergone several processing such as mixing, dough development, cutting etc. and finally baked in a oven at a suitable temperature. Making good biscuits is quite an art, and history bears testimony to that. During The 17th and 18th Centuries in Europe, baking was a carefully controlled profession, managed through a series of 'guilds' or professional associations. As technology improved during The Industrial Revolution in The 19th century, The price of sugar and flour dropped. Chemical leavening agents, such as baking soda, became available and a profusion of cookie recipes occurred. This led to the development of manufactured cookies. The bakery industry comprises mainly of bread, biscuits, cakes and pastries manufacturing units. The contributing factors for popularity of bakery products are Urbanization resulting in increased demand for ready to eat convenient products. Availability at reasonable cost. Greater nutrition quality. Availability of varieties of different textural and taste profiles and better taste. THE TYPES OF BISCUITS ARE1] SHORT DOUGH OR SOFT DOUGH BISCUITS 2] HARD DOUGH BISCUITS 3] CRACKERS OR FERMENTED DOUGH BISCUITS 1] SHORT

DOUGH OR SOFT DOUGH BISCUITS

The type of dough used for these biscuits generally lacks elasticity and extensibility and are crumbly in nature. Lower amount of water used, lower mixing period, higher amount of fat, sugar added and nature of flour used to achieve these characteristics. These biscuits are made from weak flour (7 8 %) contains low protein and no special treatment is used. E.g. Parle-G.

2] HARD DOUGH BISCUIT The dough used for biscuits are elastic & extensible so as to avoid serious shrinkage after cutting. The dough used for semi-sweet biscuit is extensible and completely lacks elasticity. The characteristic is achieved by using weak flour of 8-9 % of protein, mixing for a longer time and by treatments with water and SO2 while the dough of salted biscuits are quite elastic and extensible and this characteristics can be achieved by using hard wheat flour, longer mixing period, using low fat and sugar. But more water in dough e.g Marie. 3] CRACKERS OR FERMENTED DOUGH BISCUITS These biscuits are characterized by crispy bite, light & laminated texture, low sweetness, salty & spicy taste. These biscuits are made from hard flour with 10-12 % protein e.g. Monaco Biscuits are classified as per sensory attributes by ISI. These are 1] SWEET BISCUITSThese biscuits have more quality of fat and sugar, very short bite, sweet taste and flavored. 2] SEMI-SWEET BISCUITS These biscuits have less quantity of fat and sugar and hard in texture. 3] CRACKER BISCUITS Inner layer is flaky, has laminar like structure. These biscuits may be fermented, oil sprayed, sprinkled with salt or sugar. 4] COOKIES These biscuits have shorter bite than sweet biscuits contain very high quantity of fat and sugar than sweet biscuits.

HISTORY

AND

PROFILE

OF THE

PARLE

INDUSTRY.

In 1929 when British ruled India a small factory was set up in the suburbs of Mumbai city to manufacture sweet and toffees and the market was dominated by famous international brands that were imported freely. Despite company called Parle products, survived & succeeded by adhering to high quality & improvising from time to time. A decade later, in 1939, Parle products began manufacturing biscuits in addition to sweets & toffees. Having already established a reputation for quality. The Parle brand name grew in strength with this diversification. Parle Glucose and Parle Monaco were the first brands of biscuits to be introduced, which later went on to become leading names for great taste & quality. Apart from being the worlds largest selling biscuit Parle-G is winner of 8 Gold & 11 Silver awards at the Mond selection awards. The global standard for quality in food category. For meeting this huge demand company has its manufacturing units located strategically all over India. There are 9 Mother units located in Mumbai, Bahadurgadh, Neemrana, Bhuj, Rudrapur, Banglore, Sitarganj, Khopoli, Nashik with 68 other contract manufacturing units. Company has 3 contract manufacturing units abroad in Nigeria, Cameroon & Bangladesh.

PARLE PRODUCTS. A number of products prepared at various units of Parle are as follows. BISCUIT VARIETY PARLE-G MONACO KRACKJACK MILANO HIDE & SEEK FUN CENTRE NUMKIN PARLE-G MAGIX-CHOCO KREAMS CONFECTIONARY VARIETIES KISMI TOFFEE MELODY MANGO BITE POPPINS ORANGEE X-HALE KISMI BAR CHINTOO BAR FUNTOOSH ROLE MINT KACHHA MANGO BITE GOLGAPPA MAY FAIR CHEESLINGS HIDE & SEEK GOLDEN ARC MARIE CHOICE MILK SHAKTI MONACO JEERA

PARLE PARLE BISCUITS PVT. LTD. RIICO INDL AREA NEEMRANA DIST ALWAR(RAJASTHAN) DEPARTMENTS
I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX.

AND

SECTIONS:-

QUALITY ASSURANCE DEPARTMENT RMS DEPARTMENT PRODUCTION & MIXING DEPARTMENT BSR & EXCISE DEPARTMENT HR / PERSONNEL DEPARTMENT FINANCE & PURCHASE DEPARTMENT ENGINEERING & STORES DEPARTMENT HOUSEKEEPING & HYGIENE DEPARTMENT INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT

QA QUALITY ASSURANCE DEPARTMENT.


Actually QA is the heart of any food industry. It plays major role in concern with quality of raw materials & finished product. This quality is main motto of Parle. It helps to production dept & to run the plant smoothly. Role 1) It maintains good manufacturing practices i.e GMP for storage. 2) Maintain FIFO rules for issuing materials. 3) Implements proper formulation of products. 4) It also check & maintain online / process parameter of biscuits. 5) Testing of packing material is performed by QA. 6) QA asst. also check out shelf life of end product. 7) Quality assurance also in concern with the inspection of packets before goes to dispatch / BSR.

QA directly & indirectly helps to the company for better consumer acceptability.

1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

RMS has raw material storage line. All materials are received by RMS. Maida, Sugar , Vanaspati, chemicals etc. These are preprocessed here only. RMS has two sifters for sifting of maida, then two grinders & sieves for sugar & at the outside there are three silos of vanaspati. 6) RMS receives material, gives sample to QA lab & after passing material are issued for use. 7) RMS keeps all records of received material, suppliers address, contact no etc. If material is defective then it is rejected.

RAW MATERIAL STORES DEPARTMENT

PRODUCTION & MIXING DEPARTMENT


i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Mixing is the beginning or starting point from which biscuits production begins. It is an challenge to the employee to make proper receipe to give good biscuit. All raw materials which are pre-produced are passed to mixing area. All ingredients are added in proper sequence to the mixer. Fat, sugar & SMP are mixed in separate vessel called creamer while water, syrup, flavor, chemicals, are mixed in liquid vessel & flour comes from silos in other vessel. Mixing time, batch consistency, biscuit quality parameters are mainly controlled by Mixing area. Improper mixing or ignorance affect biscuit quality & good quality is the main aim of Parle. Production department has various section starting from rotary section, oven section, stacker table & packaging. Production planning department is concerned with total target of company & how we can achieve that target. They determine in a particular time how we can achieve that target. They determine in a particular time how we can achieve production on the basis of market demand. production planning can satisfy consumer / market demand. They maintain discipline, target, regularity in teammates. Production assistant gives training to the teammates about their work to improve their efficiency.

1) Bounded stock room is the section where finished product is dispatched. 2) All packets which are packed in C-Boxes are passed to BSR through pallets for dispatch. 3) They keep all records of received & dispatched c-boxes. 4) Here, care is taken while dispatching materials i.e condition of vehicle, its cleanliness. 5) This material is transferred to a depot / warehouse from that marketing is done. 6) It is the responsibility of BSR department to dispatch material carefully & properly. 7) The dispatched material is distributed to various dealers & malls.

BSR & EXCISE

HR DEPARTMENT
1) It is concerned with workers working efficiency, their attendance, their job details. 2) HR department also helps to teammates to improve their personality & work by Yoga courses like Art of Living. 3) It provides stationary materials to all departments. 4) All Legal & official work comes under HR.

FINANCE & PURCHASE DEPARTMENT


1) Finance department have the responsibility to store the daily data of the financial aspect and as well as to finance at required time for any material purchasing, labor charges, electrical energy etc. They also keep records of gain or loss of industry. 2) Purchase department is consulting only with the purchase of any raw materials, packaging material and other industrial accessories and any machine or machinery part.

ENGINEERING & STORES DEPARTMENT


2) Engineering department is concerned with any problem of any engineering aspect of mixers, ovens, belts, dough hopper & packaging machines. 3) It also solves problem of electrical aspects.

4) Engineering department makes a layout of total plant & give their concern at which point problem arises. 5) Their observation starts from receiving of raw materials silos, storage line, process line & discharge line. 6) Stores section contains all machinery parts or any other material for processing. 7) Rubber rolls, belts, wire band, small parts of mixer chains, grease, oil are provided by store dept.

HOUSEKEEPING & HYGIENE DEPARTMENT:-

1) This department each day keeps all sections neat & clean. 2) Workers are allowed to clean mixing area, rotary section, RMS etc. to maintain & follow 5 S Rules.

IT DEPARTMENT
As today is the era of Computers & Internet IT department is a key player in org. success or as a necessary evil. The success of the IT department lies in its ability to create, maintain and share information. Personal Computers and Work Stations Information Technology installs, maintains, and provides ongoing user support for all of the computer hardware, software, and peripherals at the user's desktop. Networks Information Technology is responsible for maintaining a secure and stable network environment, which is flexible and scaleable to meet the changing needs of users. In the competitive environment implement Information Security Management System and maintain ISMS policy of company is the main function of IT. Even it is true that corruption happens, hard drives fail, motherboards will short out, and mistakes will erase data happen rarely but taking regular Backup of all database and software avoids latter worries. Installation and configuration of useful software like Payroll, Attendance System (HR), Material Management System, Financial Accounting System (Accounts), Depot Management System (BSR) & to provide technical support to user queries.

Installation and configuration of corporate Anti-Virus system & other Regular updation of server security patch and Anti virus. Looking after Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) which is helping hand to ISMS.

ROLE

OF

VARIOUS INGREDIENTS

USED IN

BISCUIT INDUSTRY

There are two types of ingredients used in biscuit making based on the quantity of it used in actual process. These ingredients are tested for various parameters because these ingredients are having direct effect on the quality of end product produced.

INGREDIENTS

MAJOR 1. 2. 3. 4. WHEAT FLOUR SUGAR SHORTENING INVERTED SUGAR SYRUP

MINOR 1. SKIMMED MILK POWDER 2. LEAVENING AGENTS 3. LIQUID GLUCOSE 4. BUTTER 5. EMULSIFIERS 6. ENZYMES 7. SALT 8. FLAVORS 9. ANTIOXIDANTS 10. CHOCOLATE AND COCOA 11. COLORS 12. SMBS 13 . NUTS

MAJOR INGREDIENTS
1] WHEAT FLOUR It is basic ingredient in biscuits. Flour quality can be defined as ability to produce a uniformly good end product. Flour used in biscuit making should be free flowing, dry to touch, free from visible bran particles, creamy in color, free from musty flavor and rancid taste, fungal infection and other contaminations. Constituents that decide the quality of wheat flour are 1. PROTEINS 2. MINERALS OR ASH 1. PROTEINS Soft and medium hard flour (Protein content 8 -11 % ) is used. When wheat flour is mixed with water, gliadin & glutein fractions combine together to form Gluten proteins, which form the 80 % of total protein of wheat flour. Here gliadin contributes to viscous & extensible properties of gluten whereas glutenin is elestic & rubbery. 2. ASH Ash content of flour is indirect measure of degree of refinement of flour. The minerals are concentrated in areas adjacent to bran coat wheat has an ash content of 1.5 % Due to following reasons, soft wheat flour is used for Parle-G production. 1] During milling of hard wheat more of starch granules get damaged and they loose their order & crystallinity . Undamaged starch granules absorb water about 30 % of their weight whereas damaged starch granules absorb water 10 times of that amount. This high level of water absorption required for flour with greater amount of damaged Starch will interface with the spread or flow of the dough in the baking oven. 2] The flow or spread of biscuit dough during baking, taken as a measure of the flour quality, is much greater using soft wheat flour.

3] Soft wheat flour gives more tender biscuits than hard wheat flour.

2] SUGAR The chemical name for sugar is sucrose. Quantity and crystal size of sugar has big influence on biscuit texture & dimensions. 1) On caramelization during baking, it imparts a peptizing crust color & improves the general appearance. 2) On creaming with fat it helps in incorporating minute air cells in the mixture. These minute air cells form the nucleus for leavening action, which ultimately contributes to volume. 3) It tenderizes and soften the gluten 4) Improves the flavor of the product, makes biscuit hard. 5) It controls the spreading of biscuits (Spreading increases with increasing sugar ) 6) Sugar contributes the nutritional value of biscuits and it is quick source of energy. 3] FAT: Fat helps in reducing toughness of dough formed by mixing maida & water. Fat prevents gluten formation by insulating the gluten forming proteins from the water, hence a less tough dough results. - To provide sensory attributes e.g moistness, shortness, crispness and crunchiness. - It lubricates the gluten formed allowing it to slip into a new position when sheeted or formed into biscuit shapes, without the same desire to return to its original position. - It contributes to product flavour and carries flavours. - It gives palatability to the baked products and help in the development of particular structure like volume expansion, uniform granular structure, good texture, flakiness etc. besides giving food value to it. - Facilitate aeration - They interact with starch components to alter hydration and swelling properties. 4] INVERTED SUGAR SYRUP A sucrose solution rotates the plane of polarized light to the right. When the sucrose is hydrolyzed by acid or enzymes the rotation changes to the left (-ve direction) . This is because of the two sugars

produced. Dextrose & fructose has a mean rotation to the left. This change is optical rotation is known as inversion and the resulting mixture of lower sugars is called invert sugar reaction. Citric C12H22O11 + H2O Sucrose Water Acid C6H12O6 + C6H12O6 Glucose Fructose

As fructose is much sweeter than glucose or sucrose the invert sugar syrup is much sweeter than sucrose ( uninverted ). Sweetness of 80 % invert syrup is equivalent to ordinary sugar (weight per weight basis) Thus for the sweetness one can reduce the cost of sweetening by 20 % . It is made up by the inversion of cane sugar (sucrose) the help of citric acid. It helps to give color, flavour & decrease crystallization. 5] WATER: Water is a unique ingredient in biscuits dough. Almost all the water added to biscuit dough is subsequently removed in oven, but the quantity of water used may have an effect on the dough consistency that is why tap water used is treated properly prior to use in dough making. - In Parle biscuit plant water is treated via reverse osmosis plant to achieve required hardness and TDS. Water is always added at a low temperature to the other ingredients. - It influences the dough handling properties rheological / mechanical properties of dough system. - It acts as medium for various reactions and interactions such as gluten development, starch gelatinization, dissolution of water soluble components etc. - Act as medium for heat transfer during baking. - Affects storage life of raw as well as finished product. - It helps in aeration of biscuit to certain extent by the formation of water vapor.

MINOR INGREDIENTS: -

1] SKIMMED MILK POWDER - It should be free from lumps & should be odorless. - It is widely used to subtle the flavor & textural improvements & to aid surface colorings & physical characteristics as well as nutritive value of the product. - The lactose is a reducing disaccharide, which is only about 16 % as sweet as sucrose but combines with proteins by the Millard reaction, under appropriate condition of heat, at the biscuit surface during baking to give attractive reddish brown hues & surface bloom. 2] LEAVENING AGENTS Leavening is a process by which the dough is filled up with gas holes and which are retained upon baking. It is used to aerate the dough thereby render it light and porous and give the right gauge (thickness) to the biscuit. A] AMMONIUM BI-CARBONATE - It is an extremely volatile salt which when heated liberates CO2, NH3 gas and water. - Ammonium bicarbonate is extensively used for products, which are baked to low moisture content, for example cookies. The major advantage of using Ammonium bicarbonate is that it does not leaves any residue after its action. Otherwise the product shall possess ammonia odour. Its leavening effect is due to NH3, CO2 & steam due to action of heat. NH4HCO3 NH3 + CO2 + H2O

It is responsible for puffing. It is responsible for Millards maintains because it maintains acidity. It is responsible for color.

B] SODIUM BICARBONATE It is important leavening chemical used widely. It produces CO2 in presence of acid component. The acid component reacts with the soda when it gets moist to produce CO2 & steam due to action of heat. Na2CO3 + CO2 + H2O

2NaHCO3

This is the typical example of use of double acting leavening system. In this kind of system two different leavening salts are used which release the leavening gases at different temperatures. Here, Sodium bicarbonate acts at high baking temperature Sodium carbonate (washing soda) has a marked softening action on gluten causing and it also darken the crumb. 3] SALT :It is most effective concentration is around 0.75 units based on the flour weight basis. Beyond this concentration it slows down the rate of fermentation and also inhibits action of photolytic enzyme on the gluten proteins. - It causes strengthening effect & gives taste to the product. - It is used for flavour enhancing property & helps in gluten development. 4] EMULSIFIERS:These are certain chemical which help the fat and water to mix together along with flour to form homogenous mixing. They are long chain bipolar molecules having hydrophilic & hydrophobic parts. A] Finamul It stabilizes the emulsion of water and fat. It is added to the fat in an appropriate quantity and this mixture is added to the batch. It makes the biscuit have an uniform texture. The other function of Finamul is as an antioxidant. It increases the shelf life of biscuit. It delays the rancidification of the fat in biscuit which produces off flavours and decreases acceptability. B] Lecithin:-

It has very pronounced emulsifying action on fats and liquids particularly water. It facilitates the dispersion of fat in water and forms a stable emulsion. It is commercially obtained from Soyabean. 5] SMBS [SODIUM META BI SULPHATE] It is reducing agent normally used to modify the rheological properties of dough. The primary function of SMBS is to break the long tough protein chains to short weak ones. It functions by donating Hydrogen atom to the disulphide bond in gluten network thus convering it to sulphyhydral bonds. Sulphydral bonds are much weaker compared to disulphide bond and thus it mellows down gluten making dough machinable & control the pH of biscuit. It reduces the stress in dough and thus desired shaped biscuit is achieved. SMBS has a bleaching effect during storage of biscuit. The biscuit losses its color over a period of time. 6] FLAVORS :Flavors play a major role in the palatable properties of biscuits. Most artificial flavors are used in biscuits, which should be stable in the baking process. 7] CITRIC ACID It is used for the inversion of sucrose to glucose & fructose. It also helps in liberation of CO2 from unreacted Na2HCO3 ( As on heating only half of the Na2HCO3 liberated CO2 , rest remain unreacted ) in the oven. 8] CHOCOLATE
CHIPS, COCOA POWDER

& NUTS

Chocolate chips and cocoa powder contributes to flavour & taste. Nuts These are cashew bits, pistachio & almond. These are added to the biscuit, as these are nutritionally potential rich in fat & palatable.

9] COLORS

It is an important ingredient as color is a major organoleptic character imparted to biscuit. Colors occurs naturally but are very expensive in most of the cases. E.g Annatto, Caramel. Generally artificial colors are used called coal tar dyes. There are about 2000 dyes but only few are followed in food, as most of them are carcinogenic e.g Tartazine, Panceau, Brilliant Blue, Sunset yellow, Apple green, Erythrosine.

FLOW

SHEET FOR

PARLE-G PRODUCTION

Receiving of Raw materials


Not OK

Quality Check
Found OK

Rejected

Store

Maida Dumping

Sifting
Other Ingredients Sugar (Grinded)

Mixing

Fat

Moulding

Baking

Cooling

Packaging

Dispatch

MANUFACTURING PROCESS

IN

DETAIL :

RECEIVING

OF

RAW MATERIALS:

LIST OF RAW MATERIALS:


MAIDA SUGAR SKIMMED MILK POWDER HYDROGENATED VEGETABLE OIL CHEMICALS FLAVOURING AGENTS

These raw materials are supplied by a numbers of suppliers. They send the raw materials according to the specifications and conditions applied by Parle. Powered materials come in bags and boxes of various sizes. Maida is supplied in tankers from where they are transferred to silos. Liquids do come stored in drums; HVO is supplied in tanks which are emptied in silos. All the raw materials are stored in raw material store or in silos and used as and when required. For issuing the raw material, FIFO (First in First Out) system is applied. Material is issued in sequence not irregularly. Raw material is not stored more than 5-6 days. QUALITY CHECK: All raw materials received undergo a quality check before storage/use. These tests are conducted by the Quality Assurance Department. If the raw material is not found according to the specifications of Parle then it is rejected and sent back to the supplier. The raw materials are first checked for physical parameters like color, odor and presence of any foreign extraneous material. Then they are tested for various chemical and functional properties. THE
COMMON TESTS PERFORMED ON MATERIALS ARE: VALUE, WATER ABSORPTION, ACIDITY

MAIDA:- MOISTURE CONTENT, SEDIMENTATION & ASH CONTENT, GRANULARITY.

FAT:- MELTING RANGE, MOISTURE CONTENT, UNSAPONIFIABLE ACID CONTENT, PEROXIDE VALUE,IODINE VALUE. SMP:- MOISTURE

MATTER, FREE FATTY

CONTENT, SOLUBILITY AND PROTEIN CONTENT, ACIDITY. PURITY.

CHEMICALS:- %AGE

SUGAR SYRUP:- BRIX ,PH AND INVERSION.

STORAGE :The raw materials found in accordance with the specifications are stored in the raw material store from where it is issued as and when required. The raw materials are stored to meet the requirements of next 2-3 days. The maximum storage period of various raw materials is as follows: RAW MATERIAL MAIDA VANASPATI SUGAR SMP SMBS SBC ABC SALT FINAMUL FLAVOURS STORAGE TIME 7 DAYS 7 DAYS 1 MONTH 1.5 MONTHS 6 MONTHS 1 MONTH 1 MONTH 2 MONTHS 1.5 MONTHS 1 YEAR

MAIDA DUMPING

AND

SHIFTING:-

Maida dumping is done by two methods: Automatic and Manual. If automatic maida is fed to the plants from the silos. The maida is pneumatically transferred from the silos to the service tanks from where it is transferred to the sifter. The maida is sifted and then transferred to the maida service tank from where it is send to the mixing section. In the manual method the maida bags are unloaded in the maida hopper from where it is transferred to the maida service tank by a screw conveyor. The following procedure is same as that of automatic maida feeding method.

The combination of method of feeding is used and adjusted in accordance with the man power available.

SUGAR GRINDING:

The sugar bags are unloaded which is provided with a magnet which is there to remove the metal pieces present in the sugar. It is made sure that the sugar is free from moisture. This sugar is transferred to the grinder through a screw conveyor. The grinded sugar is stored in a tank provided at a bottom of the grinder. The sugar is then transferred to the service tank which sends it to the mixing section.

PUMPING

OF

FAT:

Fat stored in the silos is pumped at a temperature of 450 C. The fat is mixed with finamul, which acts as an emulsifying agent. This mixture is added to the batch in a suitable quantity so as to prepare consistent dough. The finamul is also found to have anti oxidation effects on the biscuit. The mixture of fat and finamul is added to the liquid vessel of the mixing panel from where it is mixed into the dough.

MIXING SECTION:
Mixing Section is the heart of baking industry. It is the section where all the raw materials of the recipe are mixed and consistent dough is prepared. If there is any problem in dough or defect found in the biscuit it is controlled by a change in recipe from the mixing section. The other functions carried in mixing section are weighing of chemicals and preparation of PFM and sugar syrup. There are three vessels for the purpose of mixing of various ingredients: powder vessel , liquid vessel and creamer. The flour and sugar are filled in powder vessel automatically. The liquid vessel has two parts one for RBD palm oil and other for the liquids like water, PFM and sugar syrup. The chemicals are added in as the manual dose to this vessel and are mixed with the liquid. This mixture is stirred for some time. These vessels are- emptied into the Stephan-mixer where it mixed by a high-speed motor for 1-1.5 minutes.

MOTOR OF HIGH SPEED MIXER - 60 HP In high-speed mixer chilled water is circulated to cool the dough in summer, which is desired to suppress excess gluten development. While in winter, Luke warm water is circulated to prevent chocking of fat. One batch is of approximately 180 kg. The major constituents of the dough are Maida, sugar, fat, and SMP. The batch must be consistent and its temperature must be controlled. After mixing dough is discharged into the hopper. Then with the help of two feed rolls and cutter dough comes on the dough conveyor.

VARIOUS TEMPERATURES AT MIXING SECTION:


Water Sugar Syrup Powders (sugar + flour) HVO Dough Temperature 23C 30C 30C 45C 31-32C

MIXING CONTRIBUTES IN:


1. Blending ingredients together to form a uniform mass. 2. Dispersal of a solid in a liquid or liquid in a liquid. 3. Dissolving solid in a liquid. 4. Kneading the mass to impart the development of gluten from flour proteins in the presence of water. 5. Aeration of a mass to give a lower density.

6. The build up of temperature as a result of work imparted. ROTARY SECTION: METAL DETECTION: Dough, after cutting, is passed through a metal detector, which is fixed just above the dough conveyor; it can detect all types of metallic materials. Ferrous,nonferrous,stainless steel. If a metallic particle is present in dough, detector produces a characteristic sound and that of dough is immediately removed from dough convey of bell manually. This is one of the Critical Control Points maintained at Parle. The metal detector is checked for its efficiency from time to time. MOULDING: Rotary moulder is used for this purpose consists of three rolls and a knife. Three rolls are -Die roll, feed roll and rubber roll. Rotary moulding is a simple, efficient and convenient way of machining short dough. The problems of sheeting, laminating and gauging are eliminated and there is no scrap dough for recycling, which means more uniformly developed dough pieces. The system consists of three rollers installed under the dough hopper in a triangular shape. The upper two rolls (Die roll and feed rolls) consist of a heavily seated roll that pulls the dough down from the small hopper and forces it into biscuits sized impressions in the engraved roller. At the narrowest point between the two rollers, a knife scrapes any excess dough from the surface of the engraved rolls. Position of knife can be changed to get required wt. to mould. The wt. of 12 moulds should be about 78 gm. Knife clock system denotes position of knife (usually in the range of 10 to 11), leaving the biscuit impressions in the roll full of dough. Beneath the

engraved roll is the third "extract" roller that is covered with thick rubber to make it resilient. This roller drives the cotton take way conveyor wrapped around it. Pressure (2 to 2.5 kg per cm2) is applied on the engraved roller by the extract roller, causing the dough in the engravings to adhere preferentially to the cotton conveyor, which carries the dough pieces away to the baking line. There are 31 rows present on the die roll. Each row is having 12 cups. Hence in one revolution 31 x 12 biscuits are moulded. Speed of rubber roll is more than die roll to maintain the specific length of biscuits. If the dough is extensible, it may be released from the mould between the knife and the extraction point, which reduces molding efficiently and causes dough scrap. Therefore, extensible dough should not be rotary molded. The various other parts of the rotary section are as follows: EXTRACTION BELT: This belt is used to convey moulded dough from die roll to panning table belt. Steam is produced by heating water, in the water tank placed under the extraction belt, which softens the extraction belt (made of fibre) so that adhering force between moulded dough and extraction belt is maintained. CROSS
CONVEYOR OR SCRAP CONVEYOR:

It is used to remove scrap adhering to the extraction belt. Scrap falls on cross scrap conveyor belt. Scrap collected in small hopper and directly goes to the dough hopper with the help of air blower connected to the scrap hopper to dough hopper. In case scrap is found attached to the biscuit, the distance between the belts is increased so that the scrap falls between the belts.

PANNING TABLE BELT:This is used to carry moulded dough from extraction belt to wire-band. It can serve following functions: 1. Length of moulded dough can be increased by increasing speed of panning table belt. 2. For proper placing of moulded dough on the wire-band. 3. Detach moulded dough from extraction belt.

BAKING: OVEN: Oven is one of the important part of baking industry. For baking ParleG traveling oven used is LPG or Propane direct gas fired oven. There are 10 zones in oven, 11 exhaust fans and 2 air blowers to remove excess heat and gases from oven. Each zone has different number of burners The oven consists of a wire band moving inside the moving tunnel from both the sides. The temperature set is different in each zone. The material to be baked is placed on the wire band, which moves at a definite speed. The baking time and speed of the wire band is adjusted according to the rpm of die roll and the temperature profile. Each of the zone is provided with a Damper which is there to remove moisture from the biscuit. The damper position can be varied from 0 (fully closed) to 8 (fully open) as per our requirement. The damper is closed in the initial zone for the maximum moisture retention and is fully open in the last zone for the maximum removal of the moisture. The weight of 12 unbaked biscuits is approximately 78g.

The oven is provided with a pre heater which heats the wire band to a temperature of about 120C to remove carbon and sticking problem of biscuits.

The oven is divided into three Major parts: PUFFING ZONE BAKING ZONE COLORING ZONE BRIEF : ZONE 1 : ZONE 4
TO

TO

7 10

: ZONE 7

TO

DESCRIPTION OF EACH ZONE IS GIVEN BELOW:

PUFFING ZONE (ZONE 1

TO

3): The leavening agents act a major role

in this zone. The steam and other volatile gases do rise and increase the volume of the biscuit. The leavening agents like Ammonium Bi-carbonate and Soda do produce carbon dioxide, steam and ammonia which aerate the biscuit. This gives a porous texture by the formation of puffs in the biscuit. 2 Na HC03 NH4HCO3 Na2C03+ C02+ H20 NH3 + CO2 + H2O
TO

BAKING ZONE (ZONE 3

7): This is the zone where the biscuits

actually get baked. The temperature of this zone is between 220320C. This is one of the CCP of Parle. The moisture content of biscuit gets reduced to 1.4 - 2.4% in this zone.

COLOURING ZONE(ZONE 8 TO 10): This is the zone where the colour of the biscuit is attained. The colour is achieved due to following reactions: Caramalisation * Maillard Reaction The temperature of this reaction is less than that of the baking zone.

Baking Time: 3-3.5 minutes After baking the moisture content of the biscuit is 1.4% to 2.4%. The weight of the biscuit is 82.5 g(approx). The graph of temperature of ovens is Parabolic i.e. in initial 1,2,3 zones temperature is less, then in 4,5,6 zones temperature goes to the peak point where ammonia get 100% removed and soda retains 50% in the biscuits. Later on temperature get reduced in 7,8,9,10 zones where color is developed on the biscuits. So 4,5,6 zones are critical control points.

COOLING OF BISCUITS:
Biscuits coming out of the oven are too hot to be packaged, so they are transferred to a cooling band, which is on open conveyor running between the end of the oven and the wrapping machines. Cooling is also necessary for sugar rich biscuits, as they are very soft as they leave the oven and set rigid when cool. There is also an appreciable

loss of moisture as the biscuits cool, and this is beneficial to their quality and shelf life. COOLING CONVEYOR: The cooling conveyor is made up of Convase (food grade) and biscuits are cooled naturally on the conveyor. Length of cooling conveyor should be 1.2 to 1.6 times of the oven length. An industrial metal detector is placed just above the cooling conveyor - I and at the end of cooling conveyor II and these are the critical control points of cooling section. Cooling conveyor - II is placed just below the cooling conveyor I. It carries biscuits from cooling conveyor-I to stacker. PACKAGING SECTION: The package section consists of stacking of biscuits and then packing them in the packets of 82.5 grams and 38.5 grams 209 grams 313.5 grams. After that these packs are packed in polybags with coupons. These polybags are further packed into C-boxes. These C-boxes are sent for dispatch.

STACKING: It aligns the biscuits in rows and these rows of biscuits move with stacker table belt. Biscuits are manually sorted and lined up at the beginning of stacker. There aligned biscuits are sent to packaging machine either by auto feeding or by manual feeding. Some remaining biscuits on belt are arranged in trays and rest others collected in a drum at the end of stacker.

A brush roll fitted just above stacker belt (brushes touching biscuits) to control the movement of biscuits i.e. help to come biscuits one by one. The operator at the stacker checks the biscuit quality and rejects them if they are defective. The biscuits are checked for length, width and stack height by the quality assurance lab and if the biscuits are not found in accordance with the specification they are rejected.

PACKAGING MACHINE:

Parle-G is packed in two kinds of packs: 82.5 grams and 38.5 grams 209 grams 313.5 grams packets. The unit at Neemrana has well developed packing Machines. These machines automatically wrap the wrappers around the biscuits. The commonly used packing material is BOPP (Bioxyl oriented polypropylene). The printing of the packaging material is done in the printing section of the factory. After printing, the wrappers are observed in laboratory for any type of disorderness and any type of bad odour and smells. After automatically packing of wrappers around the biscuits, sealing is done with the help of roller heaters. Some heaters are used for side sealing and some are used for cross sealing. The packing machine packs the biscuit using the stack height as the major parameter.

If packaging is not proper then these packets removed manually and collected in a drum. These are then unwrapped biscuits arranged in trays manually and trays carried for repackaging.

After packing the packets are sealed in poly bags and they are packed into cartoon boxes, these boxes are then sealed and batch number is printed by another machine and boxes are now ready for marketing. The number of packets in a polybag are as follows: 24 packets of 82.5 g in a polybag and 6 polybags in a c-box. 30 packets of 38.5 g in a polybag and 12 polybags in a c-box. 60 Packets of 209 g in a c-box. 40 Packets of 313.5 in a c-box.

DISPATCHING: The biscuits packed in a C-boxes are collected on a pallet in the B.S.R (Bounded stock room) section. These pallets are carried by a forklift. The biscuit boxes are loaded in a truck and transported to various depots situated at different locations. These depots sell these biscuits to various retailers which further sell the biscuits in the local market. The biscuits are dispatched in FIFO manner.If there is any problem found in the biscuit they are returned to the B.S.R. They are kept in the category of market complaints and immediate action is taken to improve the quality of biscuit and packaging so that there is no market complaint.

HIDE & SEEK MILANO


COOKIES
Cookies are often reffered to as small sweet cakes. They are characteerised by a formula high in sugar and shortening and low in water. In UK , cookies means something softer and thicker baked good while biscuit refer to a flat and crisp baked good. In USA , cookis covers any flat, crisp, baked good. PARLE also have the production of cookies that is HIDE & SEEK MILANO . There are four types of varieties: I. Milano Chocolate Chips. II. Milano Chocolate & Nut. III. Milano Butterscotch. IV. Milano Butternut.

RAW MATERIALS AND INGREDIENTS


Wheat flour Partially hydrogenated edible vegetable oil Sugar Butter Inverted syrup Liquid glucose Milk solids Leavening agents

Salt Emulsifier Antioxidents

GENERAL PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS


Variety : Soft Dough , wire cut or knife cut. Size : 65 mm x 12 mm thick. Design : Round with disorted top and flat. Shape : Round. Packet size : 65 gm, 135 gm. Bite : Crispy.

1) MILANO CHOCOLATE CHIPS : SPECIAL ING. CHOCOLATE CHIPS / TASTE SWEET , RICH CHOCOLATE. COLOUR BROWN.

COCOA SOLIDS.

2) MILANO CHOCOLATE & NUT : SPECIAL ING. CHOCOLATE CHIPS , CASHEW BIT & ARTIFICIAL CHOCOLATE & VANILLA FLAVOURS. TASTE SWEET , RICH CHOCOLATE. COLORS BROWN. 3) MILANO BUTTERSCOTCH : SPECIAL ING. BUTTERSCOTCH PIECES, ARTIFICIAL BUTTERSCOTCH FLAVOURS. TASTE: RICH BUTTERSCOTCH. COLORS GOLDEN TO LIGHT BROWN. 4) MILANO BUTTERNUT : SPECIAL ING. CASHEW BITS , ARTIFICIAL BUTTER TASTE RICH BUTTER. COLOUR GOLDEN TO LIGHT BROWN.
FLAVOURS.

GOLDEN ARC
Fruit Jam filled bar made by extruding dough for the jacket and jam for the filling through concentric orifices in a bar press machine. Two hoppers and two sets of forcing rollers (or screw extruders) are required to feed yhe dies. Fruit paste is led through the dough hopper portion to its designated orifice by tubes or chutes. The extruder must be adjusted to deliver a design of dough that is moving at the same speed as the oven band so as to avoid streching , wrinkling or breaking the dough strip. These bars are cut into individual cookies when they come out of oven. Special Ing. Fruit paste, starch, maltodextrin, soya lecithin, citric acid colour and flavours. Variety Exotic pineapple/ Orange flavoured rolls. Size 35 mm x 34 mm Taste Sweet & Sour. Design Cubical, flat roll. Colour Light Brown. Bite soft. Shape Recangular.

DUALTEX EXTRUDER
It is specially designed to produce the new generation of filled bars, filling of fruit jam & sweet and savoury creams can be handled.

Extruders vary in complexity from simple equipment consisting of a hopper with feed rolls that press dough through adjustable slits to very complicated devices that extrude deposit cookie batters through orifices moving in predetermined patterns. The most common type of machine consists of a hopper with one or more feed rolls to force dough through a number of tubes usually called die cups. These die may have orifices of different shapes squares, round, oval, scalloped etc. In wire cut machines, discs are sliced from the continuously extruded cylinder of dough and allowed to drop onto the oven band or transfer belt. A key hygiene feature is the ability to open up the clam shell rolls for easy cleaning. It is chosen for Highest Output, Highest Accuracy, Widest Product range, Greatest Productivity, Precise Weight control, Essy to Operate & Clean, and Minimum Downtime.

STUDY OF VARIOUS KINDS OF DEFECTS OF BISCUITS


There are various kinds of defects which are encountered during the production of biscuits. These defects may arise due to any kind of disproportion in the dough mixture or due to any problem at the rotary section or at the oven. The food technologist plays an important role in troubleshooting of these defects. These defects are checked by changing the recipe, variety and quantity of various ingredients or by making changes in machine settings at the rotary or oven level. The experience of the food technologist plays a very important role in the troubleshooting of the various kinds of biscuits to reduce the rejected biscuits. One has to make the best use of the ingredients and technology available as well as minimize wastage to the lowest possible value. The major defects observed in Parle-G are as follows: SPREADING SHRINKAGE LESS BLISTERS DARK PALE HARD BLACK
BISCUITS BISCUITS BITE OF BISCUITS SPECKS OF BISCUITS OF BISCUITS OF BISCUITS

STACK HEIGHT

POOR FINISHING

SCRAP

IN BISCUITS

DISCUSSION OF BISCUIT DEFECTS IN DETAIL


1. SPREADING OF BISCUITS: Many times it is seen that the baked biscuits are of width beyond the tolerable limit. This is known as spreading of biscuits. The major cause is soft or loose dough. The various causes and the remedies are as follows: Sr. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Causes Weak flour being used Insufficient mixing time Baking profile not appropriate Too soft dough Use of excess sugar Use of excessive ammonium bi carbonate Sugar powder too fine Solution Use strong flour or try blending Adjust mixing time Increase bottom temp. In initial zones Adjust quantity of water Use less sugar Use less ammonium bi carbonate. Use coarser sugar powder

2. SHRINKAGE

OF

BISCUITS:

Sometimes it is seen that the width of biscuit is less than acceptable. This shrinkage of biscuits. This is observed due to hard and dry dough or due to improper setting at rotary section. SR.NO CAUSES . 1. FLOUR BEING
STRONG

SOLUTION
USED IS

USE

WEAK FLOUR OR TRY BLENDING MIXING TIME

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

HIGHER HIGH TOO

MIXING TIME

ADJUST USE

DOUGH TEMPERATURE DRY A DOUGH

COLD WATER FOR MIXING WATER IN THE RECIPE

INCREASE ADJUST

INCORRECT LESS LESS


FAT

RUBBER ROLLER SPEED

THE RUBBER ROLLER SPEED FAT QUANTITY SUGAR QUANTITY

INCREASE INCREASE

SUGAR

3. LESS STACK HEIGHT: Stack height is one of the major parameters of biscuit quality. It should be ac the specifications. The stack height of 15 biscuits of Parle-G is 114 2 mm. If the height is less than 112 it is a major concern and an immediate action is to be taken to reduce wastage.

S. NO. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

CAUSES The flour used is strong Less quantity of A.B.C Less quantity of water Use of old dough Excess pressure of rubber roll Improper knife setting

SOLUTION Use weak flour or try blending Increase A.B.C in recipe Increase water Use old dough in small quantities Reduce roll pressure Adjust knife settings

7. 8

More S.M.B.S High dough temperature

Reduce quantity of S.M.B.S Use cold water and maintain dough temp. Reduce temperature of syrup Adjust mixing time

9. 10.

High sugar syrup temperature More mixing time

4. Problem Of Blisters: A blister is a lump formed on the surface of the biscuit. It may be a chemical blister or a heat blister. The various cause and remedies of blister formation are discussed below: Causes: If the batch is hard. If ammonia is more. If old dough is not properly fixed. If the dough temp is high. If the mixing time is more. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Less water. Less ABC/SBC. Rubber roller pressure high. Maida Quality. High gluten Maida. No proper water T.D.S. (70-80) Excess mixing time. Maintain water quantity as per Maida quality Control on ABC/SBC quantity Maintain rubber roller presser Check Maida quality as per standard We can not accept More higher gluten Maida Proper checking of water T.D.S. First check Maida quality and then give proper mixing time

8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

Less Soda. Starting temperature not proper in oven (puffing zone). Dough temperature. Less Fat. Raw material temperature. More standing time of dough.

Proper guidance gives to teammates who include soda in batch and proper control. Maintain oven temperature in first three zone Check dough temperature and make check list Proper guidance give to teammates who is include soda in batch and proper control. Maintain raw material temperature Not give more standing time

8. BLACK SPECKS:
The black specks may be due to the carbon particles from the oven or may be due SMP or caramalisation of sugar particles. These particles give an unattractive appearance to the biscuits. The various causes and troubleshooting methods are discussed as follows:

S. No. 1. 2. 3.

Cause Un-cleaned wire band Carbon particles falling in the oven Presence of un dissolved SMP

Remedy Clan the wire band regularly Oven must be cleaned and decarbonized regularly SMP must be dispersed well and should be free of lumps '

9. POOR

FINISHING OF BISCUITS:

This kind of problem occurs due to the chocking of rotary moulder or due to damage of cups of the moulder. moulder must be cleaned properly to avoid choking. in case of damage of cup it must be repaired or die rol must be changed. the other cause of the problem is worn out rubber roll. this problem may also be due to inconsistent dough or if the dough is very oily. This can be avoided by using proper quantity of ghee.

10. SCRAP

IN BISCUITS:

Sometimes it is seen that the scrap at rotary gets attached to the biscuit causing deterioration in its shape & giving it an unattractive appearance. This problem can be solved by increasing gaps between the belts at cross conveyor.

TESTING PROCEDURES FOR Wheat Flour (Maida) 1a. DETERMINATION OF MOISTURE PROCEDURE Weigh accurately 5 g sample of maida in a dish that is previously dried in an electric oven and weighed. Place the dish in oven maintained at 1100C for one hour. Cool the dish in the desiccators and weigh it accurately. The difference between the initial weight and the final weight is calculated. CALCULATION Moisture (% by wt.) = 100 X (W1 W2) W1 - W W1 = mass in gram of the dish with the material before drying W2 = mass in gram of the dish with the material after drying W = mass in gram of the empty dish 1b. DETERMINATION OF TOTAL ASH PRINCIPLE: The ash of a foodstuff is the inorganic residue remaining after the organic matter has been burnt away. When a high ash figure

suggests the presence of an adulterant, it is often advisable to determine the acid insoluble ash also. PROCEDURE Weigh accurately 5 g of above homogenized sample in a tarred, clean, dry & preweighed porcelain dish / Silica dish / Platinum Dish. Ignite the sample in the dish with the flame of a suitable burner (Oxidizing flame) for about one hour. Complete ignition, by keeping it in a muffle furnace at 600 +/- 20 0 C until grey ash results. Cool in a desiccators & weigh. Repeat the process till constant weight. Note the final weight.

CALCULATIONS % Ash = (W2 W1) x 100 W Where, W2 = Final wt. of dish + Ash W1 = Wt. of dish W = Wt. of sample % Ash on wet basis X 100 % Ash on Dry Basis = ---------------------------------------100 Moisture of Sample 1c. DETERMINATION OF ACID INSOLUBLE ASH PRINCIPLE: The acid insoluble ash is a measure of the sandy matter present in the sample. The ash is treated with concentrated HCl so that all minerals except silica remains insoluble, which can be further, calculated. REAGENTS: 5 N HCl: Dilute 425 ml (182.3 g) of hydrochloric acid with water to make 1000 ml.

PROCEDURE Dissolve the resultant ash (ash earlier obtained) in a 25 ml of 5 N HCl with the aid of heat. Allow cooling & filtering the contents of the dish through Whatmann filter paper no. 42. Wash the filter paper with hot water until washings are free from the acid (check with the help of pH paper). Return the filter paper & the residue to the Porcelain dish / Platinum dish / Silica dish. Keep in a muffle furnace at about 600 +/- 20 0 C for 2 hrs. Cool the dish in a dessicator & weigh. Repeat the process till constant weight is obtained.

CALCULATIONS % Acid insoluble ash = (W2 W1) x 100 W Where, W2 = Final wt. of dish + sample W1 = Wt. of dish W = Wt. of Sample. % Acid Insoluble Ash X 100 % Acid Insoluble Ash on Dry Basis = ---------------------------------------100 Moisture of Sample 1d. DETERMINATION OF GLUTEN PRINCIPLE The strength of flour depends upon both the amount and the physical qualities of the gluten. Crude gluten obtained in this way contains albumin, globulin, glutenin, gliadin and proteose. PROCEDURE Take 15 g of maida and make dough by adding about 7-8 ml of water. Allow it to stand in water for 1 hour. Then wash down the dough by squeezing in the fingers in the running water. Wash the dough until the starch is completely washed away and water squeezed out runs quite

clear. Squeeze out the water from the gluten as dry as possible. Break the gluten ball into tiny pieces and dry in the oven. Calculate the % gluten as follows. CALCULATIONS (W2 W1) X 100 % Gluten on (Wet basis) = ------------------------ = A W Where, W1 = Weight of empty dish W2 = Weight of the dish + dry Gluten W = Weight of Sample 100 X A Gluten on dry weight basis = --------------(100 M) Where, M = Moisture content of the flour 1e. DETERMINATION OF GRANULARITY PROCEDURE Transfer about 100 g of material to a hand silk sieve of 180 microns & sieve for 2 minutes. Brush the upper surface of the sieve & sieve again for one minute. The material is satisfactory if no residue remains on the sieve. 1f. DETERMINATION OF SEDIMENTATION VALUE PRINCIPLE: The volume of sediment formed when flour is suspended in water and treated with lactic acid consisting of swollen gluten and occluded starch is the sedimentation value. APPARATUS: Sedimentation Shaker, Muhlenbau cylinder (height of graduation from 0-100 ml should be 185 mm) REAGENTS: Isopropyl alcohol (99- 100 %), AR Lactic acid stock solution: Dilute 250 ml of 85 % lactic acid (AR) to 1 lit with water. Reflux diluted acid for 6 hrs without loss of volume. IPA- Lactic acid reagent: Mix thoroughly 180 ml lactic acid stock soln., 200 ml isopropyl alcohol and water to make 1 lit. Let it stand 48 hr. before using.

Bromophenol blue indicator: bromophenol blue per liter. PROCEDURE

Water

containing

mg

of

Sieve maida through 100-mesh sieve. Place 3.2 g of the sieved flour in the cylinder. Add 50 ml water containing bromophenol blue. Mix thoroughly flour & water by moving the cylinder horizontally 12 times vigorously. Start the timer & place the cylinder on shaker for 5 min. Remove the cylinder & add 25 ml of isopropyl alcohol-lactic acid reagent. Place the cylinder again on shaker for 5 min. Remove from shaker & keep the cylinder in upright position & let stand exactly 5 min. At the end of 5 minute read the volume in ml of sediment in cylinder.

1g. DETERMINATION OF ALCOHOLIC ACIDITY PRINCIPLE Flours when stored for longer period, undergoes various types of deterioration, which in turn gives high values for alcoholic acidity. Hence, alcoholic acidity is an index of deterioration of flour during storage. Alcoholic acidity therefore refers to the combined acidity as we get by 0 Hydrolysis of fats by lipases into free fatty acids. 1 Hydrolysis of proteins into amino acids by proteolytic enzymes. 2 Acidity due to the presence of certain acid salts etc. REAGENTS 90 % Alcohol: Dilute 700 ml of 95 % ethyl alcohol to 740 ml with Distilled water. 0.1N NaOH: 4 g of Analar Sodium Hydroxide per 1000 ml of distilled water & then standardize against Potassium hydrogen phthalate as follows: Transfer 0.5 g of potassium bipthalate, previously dried at 105 degrees for 2 hrs and accurately weighed to a flask & dissolve it in 75 ml of carbon dioxide free water. Add 2 drops of phenolphthalein indicator

and titrate against NaOH soln to a permanent pink colour. Each 204.2 mg of potassium bipthalate is equivalent to 1 ml of 0.1 N NaOH. Phenolphthalein TS: Dissolve 1 g of phenolphthalein in 100 ml of alcohol. PROCEDURE Weigh 5 g of sample into 250 ml of stopper conical flask. Add 50 ml of 90 % ethyl alcohol (neutralized with NaOH using phenolphthalein as indicator). Shake the contents very well & keep the flask for 24 hrs. Filter the contents through filter paper & pipette out 10 ml of filtrate for the titration. Titrate it against 0.1 N NaOH to a permanent pink colour. CALCULATION Alcoholic acidity (as H2SO4) = 24.52 X A X N weight W N = Normality of NaOH. W = Weight in g of the sample. A = Volume in ml. of 0.1 N NaOH ANALYSIS OF VANASPATI 2A. COLOUR: The color of Vanaspati accepted is yellow. 2B. ODOUR: Vanaspati is heated to 70 0 C & then odour is checked. Vanaspati should be free from foreign matter & free from any odd odour. 2C. TASTE: Vanaspati should have a characteristic taste. 2D. DETERMINATION OF PEROXIDE VALUE SCOPE: Applicable to all normal fats & oils including margarine. DEFINITION: Peroxide value is a measure of the peroxides contained in a sample of fat, expressed as mill equivalents of peroxide per 1000 g of the material. APPARATUS: Conical flask with stopper (250 ml), Burette 50 ml REAGENTS % by

1. Acetic acid Chloroform Solution: Mix 3 parts by volume of glacial acetic acid with two parts by volume of chloroform. 2. Potassium Iodide Solution: Prepare saturated solution of Potassium iodide in freshly boiled distilled water. Store in the dark. (Freshly prepared) 3. Sodium Thiosulphate Solution (0.01 N): dissolve about 1.581 g of sodium thiosulphate per 1000 ml). Standardize as follows Weigh accurately about 21 mg of potassium dichromate previously dried at 120 0 C for 4 hr. and dissolve it in 100 ml of water in a 500 ml glass stopper flask. Swirl to dissolve the sample & remove the stopper, and quickly add 3 g of KI and 5 ml of HCl. Let stand in dark for 10 mins. Rinse the stopper and inner wall of flask with water and titrate the liberated iodine with sodium thiosulphate until the solution is faint yellow in colour. Add starch T.S. and continue the titration to the discharge of the blue colour, calculate the normality as follows, g of K2Cr2O7 X 1000 Normality = ------------------------------------------ml of Na2S2O3 X 49.032 4. Starch Solution (1 %): Dissolve 5 g of starch in 500 ml of hot distilled water. Cool & filter. (Freshly Prepared) Procedure Weigh 5.0 +/- 0.05 g of sample in a 250 ml Stoppered conical flask. Add 30 ml of acetic acid chloroform solution. Swirl the flask until the sample is dissolved. Add 0.5 ml of saturated potassium iodide solution. Allow the solution to stand exactly for a minute with occasional shaking. Continue titration till the yellow colour almost disappears. Add 0.5 ml of starch solution & continue titration till the blue colour just disappears. Conduct a blank determination of the reagents. Calculations Peroxide Value = (S B) x N x 1000 Wt. of the sample Where, B = Titration of blank, ml S = Titration of sample, ml N = Normality of Sodium thiosulphate solution.

2e. Acid Value (Free Fatty Acids) Scope: Applicable to all normal oils & fats. Definition: Acid value of an oil/Fat is defined as the number of milligram of potassium Hydroxide/Sodium hydroxide required to neutralize the free fatty acids present in one gram of oil under the prescribed conditions. Reagents Ethyl Alcohol (Rectified Spirit): 95 % of volume, neutralized using phenolphthalein indicator. Phenolphthalein TS: Dissolve 1 g of phenolphthalein in 100 ml of ethyl alcohol. Standard Sodium Hydroxide (0.1 N): Dissolve 4 g of sodium hydroxide in 1 Lit water & standardize using potassium hydrogen phthalate as follows:

Transfer 0.5 g of potassium bipthalate, previously dried at 105 degrees for 2 hrs and accurately weighed to a flask & dissolve it in 75 ml of carbon dioxide free water. Add 2 drops of phenolphthalein indicator and titrate against NaOH soln to a permanent pink colour. Each 204.2 mg of potassium bipthalate is equivalent to 1 ml of 0.1 N NaOH. Procedure Weigh about 20 g of well-mixed sample into a 250 ml conical flask. Add 50 ml of neutral ethyl alcohol & 1 ml of phenolphthalein indicator solution. Boil the mixture for about 5 minutes in a water bath & titrate while hot with 0.1N NaOH, shaking vigorously during titration. Endpoint is from colorless to light pink (persisting for 30 sec.) Calculations Acid Value = Where, 56.1X V X N W

V= Volume in ml of 0.1 N NaOH W= Weight in g of sample

N= Normality of NaOH 0.0282 X 100 X Reading F.F.A. = ---------------------------------Weight of sample Acid Value F.F.A. (as oleic acid) = -----------------2 2f. Iodine Value (Wijis Method) Scope: Applicable to all normal oils & fats. Definition: Iodine value of oil is defined as the number of grams of Iodine absorbed by 100 g of the oil when determined using Wijs solution. Apparatus Glass Stopper conical flask 250 ml Measuring Cylinder (50 ml) Bulb pipette (25 ml)

Reagents Glacial Acetic Acid: AR Grade Carbon Tetra chloride: GR Grade Iodine Monochloride Carefully break open 1X 50 g ampoule of ICl and pour into 155 ml of Glacial acetic acid. Mix well & store in a well Stoppered amber colored bottle. This is the stock solution. Dilute 50 ml of Stock solution to 1000 ml by using Glacial Acetic Acid. Mix well & store in a well Stoppered clean & amber colour glass bottle. This is the solution to be used for determination of Iodine value. Potassium Iodide solution (10 %): Dissolve 10 g of Potassium Iodide AR in 90 ml of water. Store in clean and dry amber colored bottle. 0.1N Sodium Thiosulphate: dissolve about 15.81 g of sodium thiosulphate per 1000 ml). Standardize as follows: Weigh accurately about 210 mg of potassium dichromate previously dried at 120 0 C for 4 hr. and dissolve it in 100 ml of water in a 500 ml

glass stopper flask. Swirl to dissolve the sample & remove the stopper, and quickly add 3 g of KI and 5 ml of HCl. Let stand in dark for 10 mins. Rinse the stopper and inner wall of flask with water and titrate the liberated iodine with sodium thiosulphate until the solution is faint yellow in colour. Add starch T.S. and continue the titration to the discharge of the blue colour, calculate the normality as follows, gm of K2Cr2O7 X 1000 Normality = -----------------------------------ml of Na2S2O3 X 49.032 Starch Indicator: Dissolve 5 g Starch in 500 ml of hot distilled water, cool and filter (Freshly Prepared) THEORY : When oil is treated with excess of Wijs solution i.e. ICl, some ICl gets absorbed. This ICl adds on to the double bonds present in the oil. Unused ICl reacts with KI soln. & liberates an equivalent amt. of Iodine which is titrated against std. Sodium Thiosulphate soln. Iodine value is a measure of unsaturation of oils & fats.

PROCEDURE 0 Weigh accurately the quantity of filtered sample mentioned in individual monograph in a clean dry 500 ml iodine value flask containing 20 ml of Carbon tetra chloride. Gently agitate to effect solution. Add 20 ml of Iodine Monochloride solution immediately (by pipette) Stopper the flask using the quick moistened with Potassium Iodide solution & keep in the dark for 30 mins. At the end of the period remove the flask, add 15 ml of 10 % Potassium Iodide solution & 100 ml of water washing down the stopper & titrate with 0.1 N Sodium Thiosulphate using 1 2 ml of Starch solution as indicator towards the end of the titration. Vigorous shaking is necessary during & towards the end of the titration. Carry out a blank determination excluding the sample. Calculate I.V. or % Iodine absorption of the sample using the relation. CALCULATIONS 1 ml of 0.1 N Sodium Thiosulphate = 0.01269 g of Iodine

Iodine Value = 12.69 x N x (B.R. S.R.) Wt. of sample N = Normality of Sodium Thiosulphate. 2 h. DETERMINATION OF MELTING POINT ( Slip Melting Point ) Scope: Oils & fats are chiefly mixtures of glycerides. They do not exhibit either a definite or a sharp melting point. Therefore, the term M.P. does not imply the same characteristics that it does with pure crystalline substances. Capillary Slip Method Apparatus Melting point tubes thin walled, uniformly bored capillary glass tubes at both ends & with the following dimensions: Length: 50 60 mm Inside diameter: 0.8 1.1 mm Outside diameter: 1.2 1.5 mm Thermometer Beaker Heat Source PROCEDURE Melt the sample & filter it through a filter paper. Insert a clean melting point tube into the molten sample product so that a column of the material, about 10 mm long, is forced into the tube. Cautiously fuse one end of the tube in a small flame, taking care not to burn the fat. While the fat is still in the liquid state, transfer to a refrigerator & hold at 4- 10 0 C overnight (about 16 hrs.). Remove the tube from refrigerator, & attach with a rubber band to the thermometer so that the lower end of the melting point tube is even with the bottom of the bulb of the thermometer. Suspend the thermometer in a large test tube & immerse it in a beaker filled with liquid paraffin. Apply the heat to the beaker so as to increase the bath temp. at the rate of about 0.50 C per minute. As fats usually pass through an opalescent stage before melting completely, the heating is continued until the liquid in the tube is completely clear through out. Observe the temperature at which the liquid becomes clear. Report the average of 2 such separate readings, i.e. the M.P. for the fat. ANALYSIS OF SKIMMED MILK POWDER

4a. FLAVOUR & ODOUR: It shall be pleasant and clean and free from off Flavour. 4b.COLOUR: The colour of SMP accepted is slightly white to creamy white in Colour. 4c. MOISTURE PROCEDURE Weigh about 5- 10 g of Sample in Aluminium dish & keep it in air oven for 1 & half hour at a temperature of 105 110 o C. Then remove the dish from the oven & cool it in desiccators. After cooling, weigh the dish again & note the reading. Continue the heating, till we get the constant weight of the dish up to 2 mg difference. CALCULATION Moisture % = (W1 W2) x 100 (W1 W) W1 = Weight of dish + sample W2 = Weight of dish + sample after drying W = Weight of empty dish 4d. TITRATABLE ACIDITY PROCEDURE: Weigh about 5 g. of sample in a beaker & dilute it to 100 ml in a volumetric flask. Transfer 10 ml of the solution into the flask & titrate it against 0.1 N NaOH. Indicator is phenolphthalein. CALCULATIONS: 9 x N NaOH x B.R. x 10 Acidity in terms of lactic acid = ------------------------------------------Weight of Sample 4e. PROTEIN Protein can be determined by kjehldahls method. The weight of the sample to be taken is 0.5 g. PRINCIPLE:

Kjeldahls method for determining total nitrogen involves first heating with conc. Sulfuric acid. The reaction rate is accelerated by adding sodium sulphate to raise the boiling point. The catalyst used is copper sulphate. The oxidation causes the nitrogen to be converted to ammonium sulphate. After making alkaline with conc. NaOH, the liberated ammonia is distilled into HCl. The protein content is obtained by multiplying total nitrogen by an empirical factor. REAGENTS: Conc. Sulphuric acid Copper Sulphate ( LR ) Sodium Sulphate ( LR ) Granulated Zinc 0.1 N HCI: 3.646 g conc. HCl per 1000 ml of distilled water & then standardize as follows: Accurately weigh about 0.15 g of primary standard anhydrous sodium carbonate, that has been heated at a temp of 270 degrees for 1 hr. Dissolve it in 100 ml of water and add 2 drops of methyl red TS. Titrate with HCl to faint pink colour. Heat the solution to boiling and continue the titration until the pink colour doesnt disappear. Each 52.99 mg of sodium carbonate is equivalent to 1 ml of 0.1 N HCl.

0.1 N NaOH: 4 g of Analar Sodium Hydroxide per 1000 ml of distilled water & then standardize as follows: Transfer 0.5 g of potassium bipthalate, previously dried at 105 degrees for 2 hrs. and accurately weighed to a flask & dissolve it in 75 ml of carbon dioxide free water. Add 2 drops of phenolphthalein indicator and titrate against NaOH soln to a permanent pink colour. Each 204.2 mg of potassium bipthalate is equivalent to 1 ml of 0.1 N NaOH. 45 % NaOH: 45 g NaOH in 100 ml of D/ W Methyl red indicator: 0.1 g of powder in 100 ml of alcohol. Procedure: Weigh accurately about 0.5 g. of sample & transfer to a Kjeldahls flask. Add 0.3 g. of CuSO4 and 10 g. of Na2SO4 to the flask. Add 25 ml of conc. H2SO4 and heat the flask gently in an inclined position till the clear soln. is obtained. Then heat the flask on a high flame for 3 hrs.

Then cool the digestion mixture to the room temp. Wash the digest into the distilling flask with D/W. Arrange the distillation assembly. To the receiving flask add 50 ml. of 0.1 N HCI with 2- 4 drops of methyl red indicator. Connect the distillation apparatus with the delivery tube dipping in the HCI solution. To the distillation flask add Zn metal pieces. Then carefully add digestion mixture to the flask. Rinse it with water. Add 90 ml of 45% NaOH soln. to it. Add sufficient water to the flask. Check whether the assembly is airtight. Start the water flow through the condenser. Start heating the soln. Distill the liberated NH3 into HCl soln. Continue the heating till thrice the initial vol. of HCI in the receiving flask is obtained. Open the tap & wash down the condenser & the delivery tube into the receiver. Now put off the burner. Titrate the distillate with 0.1 N NaOH till pale yellow colour is obtained. Perform the blank. Calculations: (B S) X 1.4 X normality of 0.1N NaOH % Nitrogen = -----------------------------------------------------------wt. of the sample % Protein = % Nitrogen X Empirical factor Empirical Factor: 6.38

ANALYSIS OF SALT 6a. COLOUR The iodized salt should be white in colour, crystalline solid, free from visible contamination with clay, grit, other extraneous adulterants & impurities. 6b. MOISTURE Weigh about 5 10 g of Iodized salt in Aluminium dish & keep the same in air oven for 2 hrs. At a temperature of 110 0 C. Remove the dish from the oven & cool it in a desiccators. After cooling, weigh it again & note the reading. Keep the dish again in the oven, till we get the constant wt. of the dish up to 2 mg difference. Moisture % = (W1 W2) x 100 (W1 W)

W1 = Wt. of dish with sample W2 = Wt. of dish with sample after drying W = Wt. of empty dish. 6d. PURITY TEST REAGENTS 0.1 N Silver Nitrate 16.99 g of silver Nitrate dissolved in 1000 ml of water. 5 % of K2CrO4 5 g of Potassium Dichromate dissolved to 100 ml PROCEDURE Weigh accurately about 0.25 g of the salt sample previously. Dried at 1100C for 4 hrs. & dissolve it in 50 ml of water. Add 2 ml of Potassium Chromate ( 5 % of K2CrO4 in water ) & titrate with 0.1 N Silver Nitrate until orange brown colour persists for 30 seconds. CALCULATIONS ml of 0.1 N AgNO3 x 0.585 % NaCl = ------------------------------------------Weight of sample

ANALYSIS OF AMMONIUIM BICARONATE DESCRIPTION: White crystals or a crystalline powder having a slight odour of ammonia .At a temperature of 60 0 or above it volatizes rapidly, dissociating into ammonia, carbon dioxide, & water, but at room temperature it is quite stable. One g dissolves in about 6 ml of water. It is insoluble in alcohol. 7a. PURITY Reagents Methyl Orange TS Dissolve 100 mg of methyl orange in 100 ml of water, & filter if necessary.

1N Sulphuric acid Dilute 30 ml (49.04 g) of Sulphuric acid to 1000 ml. and standardize as follows, Standardization: Weigh about 1.5 g primary std anhydrous sodium carbonate, Na2CO3 that has been heated at a temp of about 270 degrees for 1 hr. Dissolve it in 100 ml of water and add 2 drops of methyl red TS. Add the acid slowly with constant stirring until the solution becomes faintly pink. Heat t6he solution to boiling, and continue the titration until the faint pink colour is no longer affected by boiling. Each 52.99 mg of sodium carbonate is equivalent to 1 ml of 1 N H2SO4 PROCEDURE Weigh accurately about 3 g, dissolve it in 40 ml of water, add methyl orange TS, & titrate with 1 N sulfuric acid. Each ml of 1 N sulfuric acid is equivalent to 79.06 mg of Ammonium Bicarbonate.

ANALYSIS OF SODIUM BICARBONATE Description: A white crystalline powder. It is stable in dry air, but slowly decomposes in moist air. Its solutions, when freshly prepared with cold water without shaking, are alkaline to litmus. The alkalinity increases as the solutions stand, is agitated, or is heated. One g dissolves in 10 ml of water. It is insoluble in alcohol. PURITY Reagents

1 N Sulphuric acid Dissolve 30 ml (49.04 g) of Sulphuric acid to 1000 ml and standardize as follows, Standardization: Weigh about 1.5 g primary std anhydrous sodium carbonate, Na 2CO3 that has been heated at a temp of about 270 degrees for 1 hr. Dissolve it in 100 ml of water and add 2 drops of methyl red TS. Add the acid slowly with constant stirring until the solution becomes faintly pink. Heat the solution to boiling, and continue the titration until the faint pink colour is no longer affected by boiling. Each 52.99 mg of sodium carbonate is equivalent to 1 ml of 1 N H2SO4 Methyl orange TS Dissolve 100 mg of Methyl Orange in 100 ml of water , & filter if necessary. PROCEDURE Weigh accurately about 3 g, previously dried over silica gel for 4 h, dissolve it in 25 ml of water, add methyl orange TS, & titrate with 1 N Sulphuric acid. Each ml of 1 N Sulfuric acid is equivalent to 84.01 mg of Sodium Bicarbonate.

ANALYSIS OF INVERT SYRUP COLOUR Colour of the syrup should be golden yellow ODOUR Odour should be sweetish pH Prepare 10 % solution and determine pH by suitable pH meter TOTAL SOLIDS % BY MASS (Brix) Total solid content is checked by Abbey Refractometer. The sample is evenly spread on the prism of refractometer & the line of demarcation of the sample on the screen is adjusted by revolving the knob of eye piece so that the line of demarcation comes exactly on the cross

section marked on the refractometer screen. The corresponding reading of the total solid content in percent is read marked below in the refractometer screen. 15c. INVERSION: This is done by Lane & Eynons method. PRINCIPLE Sugars containing potential reducing groups such as free aldehydes & ketonic groups can be oxidized quantitatively by heavy metal salts under suitable conditions. In this method Cupric ions are used to oxidize reducing sugars. Red Cuprous Oxide precipitate is formed. However the formation of reduced precipitate cannot be used to judge the endpoint of titration accurately. A dye methylene blue is added near the endpoint. This blue dye is converted into colorless leucobase by reducing sugars, thus enabling accurate judgment of endpoint. REACTIONS 2C4H4O6NaK + 2CuSO4 2C4H4O6Cu + Na2SO4 + K2SO4 C4H4O6Cu + 2NaOH Cu (OH) 2 + C4H4O6Na2 Cu (OH) 2 CuO + H2O 2CuO + (- CHO) Cu2O + (-COOH) While aldehydes are converted into corresponding acids, keto sugars are oxidized & broken down to smaller fragments. Since leucobase of methylene blue is rapidly oxidized by air, it is necessary to exclude air. This is accomplished by performing the titration while the solution being analyzed by boiling the steam produced skips out in the air. REAGENTS Fehlings Solution A Fehlings Solution B Methylene Blue Indicator Fehlings factor = B.R. in ml. x Sample wt. in g. x dilution factor PROCEDURE Weigh about 2 g of sample in 100-ml. beakers & dissolve weighed quantity of liquid glucose with 30 40 ml of water. Warm the above solution slightly, if necessary. Transfer the above solution to 100 ml volumetric flask. Make volume upto the mark in volumetric flask & shake the flask well. Subsequently pipette out Fehlings Solution A &

Solution B ( 5 ml each) in a 250 ml conical flask. Fill the burette with solution of liquid glucose & transfer about 10 15 ml in the 250 ml conical flask filled with Fehlings soln. A & B. Warm the flask, by keeping hot on a hot plate & continue to boil. Go on adding the burette solution to get slight brick red colour. Add about 0.2 ml of methylene blue indicator & continue the titration so that the endpoint reaches from blue to brick red. Note down the burette reading. CALCULATION Factor of fehling Solution x 100 INVERSION = -------------------------------------------------Weight of Sample x total solids x B.R. ANALYSIS OF WATER 22a.TOTAL HARDNESS REAGENTS Total Hardness Indicator Tablets Ammonia Ammonium Chloride Solution: Dissolve 67.5 g of Ammonium Chloride in water & add 570 ml of Ammonium Hydroxide (28 % Liquor Ammonia) & dilute to 1000 ml with distilled water. 0.02 N EDTA: Dissolve 3.72 g of Disodium Ethylenediamine tetra acetate (E.D.T.A.) per 1000 ml of distilled water. Standardization HCl (TS): Prepare by diluting 226 ml of HCl (36 %) with sufficient water to make 1000 ml. NaOH (TS): Dissolve 4.3 g of Sodium Hydroxide in water to make 100 ml. Weigh 200 mg of chelometric of Calcium carbonate & transfer to 500 ml beaker, add 10 ml of distilled water & swirl to form slurry. Cover the beaker with a watch glass & add 2 ml diluted HCl (TS) from a pipette & swirl to dissolve the contents of beaker. Wash down the sides of beaker with distilled water & dilute to 100 ml. Fill the burette with EDTA. Add about 30 ml to the beaker of Calcium Carbonate with continuous stirring. Add 15 ml NaOH (TS) and 300 mg of Hydroxy Naphthol blue indicator & continue the titration till blue endpoint. W

Molarity = --------------100.09 X V W = weight of Calcium Carbonate V = Volume of EDTA in ml. PROCEDURE Take 100 ml of homogenized sample, add to it one tablet of Total Hardness Indicator & 2 ml of Ammonia Ammonium Chloride Solution to it. Shake well. Titrate with 0.02 N Standard EDTA solutions. Endpoint is from pink to blue. CALCULATIONS 1000 X V1 Total Hardness (as Calcium Carbonate) mg / lit. = ------------V2 V1 = Volume of Standard EDTA solution. V2 = Volume of Sample taken. 22c. pH Determine the pH of Water by Ph meter which is previously standardized with pH buffer solutions 22d. DETERMINATION OF FREE CHLORINE To 100 ml of water sample add 1ml of Chlorotex reagent. Shake it well & match the colour with the strip provided with the reagent.

ANALYSIS OF FLAVOURS 33a. Odour The odour of the flavour should be characteristic. The Organoleptic analysis is most important. 33b. pH Calibrate the pH meter with standard 4 & 7 pH solutions & then measure the pH of the flavour directly.

33c. Specific gravity Weigh a clean, dry 25 ml capacity Specific gravity bottle with stopper (Wash the bottle, dry with acetone if required & place it in oven. Let it cool in desiccators. Stopper the bottle & then weigh it (W1). Then fills the bottle with distills water, stopper it & again weigh it (W2). Again wash the bottle as above & fill it with given flavour, stopper it & weigh the bottle (W3). All the weights should be measured at same temp. (Ideally 250C) Calculations W3-W1 Specific gravity = ------------W2-W1

PACKAGING MATERIALPackaging is the last step in production but first impression for the customer. Packaging materials decides the quality, shelf life of finished products. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Following packaging materials are used in Parle. Wrappers Polybags Carton Boxes Plastic Jars For Milano & Golden PVC Trays

1) WRAPPERS

1.1. Parle has its own wrapper production at Neemrana (Rajasthan) plant 1.2. Wrappers used are same (visually) for 82.5 gm, 38.5 gm, 209 gm & 313.5 gm Parle-G products but dimensions are different. 1.3. Wrapper dimension is fixed as per the Parle standard. PRINTING DETAILS 1) Every wrapper of Parle-G or Golden Arc or Milano contains necessary information as per PFA rules. 2) It contains - Net wt, Bar code system, packaging date, MRP or price, nutritional facts. - Brand Name, product name, variety, Best before use. - BOPP - These wrappers has tolerance limit of temperature of 1700 C

2) POLYBAGS
1) Polybags contains packets & these bags are then packed in CBoxes. 2) Before using polybags are analyzed in Quality Assurance Process Laboratory. 3) Polybags are of High Density Polyethylene.

3). C-BOXES 1) Corrugated Boxes consist of more than one sheet of Flute paper. 2) It is made up of flute paper, corrugated paper (Kraft paper). 3) It is of 2 Ply, 3 Ply, 5 Ply .. 18 Ply. But in Parle c-boxes are upto 5 Ply. 4) For Parle-G c-boxes used are of 3 Ply & for Golden Arc, Milano both 3 Ply & 5 Ply. 4). PLASTIC JARS1) Parle-Khopoli Plant has its own production. 2) These are used for delicates or perishable biscuits e.g Golden Arc 3) Jars are used only for Golden Arcs as its shelf life is less due to high moisture & fat content. 4) Biscuits packets are packed in jars and jars are packed in CBoxes.

5). PVC

TRAYS

1) These trays are used for Golden Arcs & Milano 2) These are used to prevent the slanting & also used to prevent the damage.

/ PLASTIC TRAYS

3) Trays are covered in or packed with wrappers. These are the packaging materials used in the company. During packaging of polybags it contains one coupon there is information of the plant, product, date, Machine number where it is packed, Batch No., Packing date. If there is any problem in polybag during transport or marketing then this coupon helps the dealer to inform the company. Also while dispatching these C-Boxes have some information as - Toatal no. of packets & wt. of one packet. - Name of the mother plants, address. - Shift, Plant no, instruction & tolerance limits.

CORRUGATED BOX UNIT


1) Parle Khopoli company has its own c-boxes manufacturing unit. 2) These c-boxes are also supplied to contract manufacturing units. 3) C-Boxes are daily produced as per the demand. MACHINERIES IN C-BOX UNIT Corrugation Machine Pasting Machine Hot Plate Rotary Cutter

Cut up Machine Printing & slotting machine Stitching Machine Strapping Machine

Each machine has different function than other machine. Process starts from Corrugation Machine up to Strapping Machine. Process in Detail 1) For C-Box preparation a special type of paper is required i.e. Corrugation paper. 2) Also flute paper is used which sticks on corrugation paper by gum. 3) Corrugation & fluting paper are sticked by using gum & forms liner by suction. 4) Corrugated paper is sucked by pressure & form a ply. 5) Later on pasted paper & previous liner paper are sticked & transferred to hot plate. 6) On hot plate with the temperature of 2200C paper is formed. 7) Prepared paper is cut on rotary cutter in two sheets. 8) On rotary cutter height & width of paper is maintained. 9) On cut up machine length is maintained so, here paper is cut as per length. 10) Later on printing is done which contains coding, brand name, mother plants & location etc.

Parle

Code
Stacking

No. of pkts X wt. of one packet

Max

Parle -G
Mktd. by KP Packed Batch no.

Boxes

Biscuit

11) These boxes are supplied to Packaging section.

SUPPLIERS OF CORRUGATED PAPER1) Vaibhav Paper mill - Vapi 2) Gajanan Paper mill - Buldhana 3) Rajeshwari Paper mill - Nashik C-BOXES ARE SUPPLIED TO FOLLOWING CMUS 1. Bunty Foods - Ambarnath 2. Shivangi Bakers - Khamgaon

3. Bombay biscuits & crackers - Nashik 4. Srujan foods - Solapur 5. Naunidhi industries Aurangabad

GUM PREPARATION
1. Gum which is used for sticking of papers is prepared in C-Box unit using - Starch Powder - Caustic soda - Water 2. 35 Kg starch powder is dissolved in 150 ltr. Water. 3. Caustic soda is first properly dissolved in little water & then mixed with starch mixture. 4. This mixture is stirred for 40-50 minutes with the help of agitator. 5. Viscosity of gum is measured by B4U cup and stop watch. 6. Viscosity range-16 to 18.

PQS is an integrated version of " 5-S, TPM, HACCP & QA "


5-S - WORK PLACE MANAGEMENT Five 'S' is an integrated concept for Work Place management

1S : SEIRI -

Organisation or re-organisation is to sort out unnecessary items in the work place and apply stratification management to discard them eg. Things not belong to that area to be removed from there. Neatness: Put the things in a proper way. Every thing should have a place and everything should be in its place. Decide the place, mark the place, put label on items. Cleaning: Here cleaning is in the form of inspection. When we are doing cleaning, we are inspecting simultaneously, if some thing is unnecessary we are discarding those things (under 1S) and if during cleaning we have seen that any item is not kept in proper place, we put them in its place (doing 2S). Standardisation: When we are doing 1-S, 2-S and 3-S, we may be facing number of problems. In 1-S it is very easy to discard items, but think why this has become unnecessary, in 2-S if things are not in proper place we simply put them back in their proper place, but here we have to think why this has happened. In 3-S, area is dirty we clean it. Here again we have to think as why this had become dirty. What is the system of cleaning, can we develop new cleaning equipment or change the equipment/way of cleaning, can we arrest the source by which area has become dirty. All this will give some solution through Brain Storming. Try to find out good solutions and standardize the system. Apply visual management for easy to follow the system. Discipline: This means whatever system we are having or developed by us under 4-S to be followed in such a way so that, standard practices become a part of our life. This will help to maintain high level of work place organization at all the time.

2S : SEITON -

3S : SEISO

4S : SEIKETSU

5S: SHITSUKE

IMPLEMENTATION PHASES OF 5-S

PHASE I Awareness programme and planning PHASE II Implementation plan PHASE III Surveillance PHASE IV Follow-up action TAGGING SYSTEM 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Tagging system highlights the defects/problems at a particular area/ machine. System develops the habit of inspection at every corner. Easy to know the maintenance schedule. To minimise breakdowns. To reduce Engineering inventory. Improve observation power.

AUTONOMUS MAINTENANCE Autonomous maintenance is unique feature of TPM. It is being realised that minor maintenance performed by operator can contribute significantly to equipment effectiveness. OBJECTIVES * Get operators in touch with their equipment to make them more familiar with it, develop curiosity and sense of belongingness and ownership. Establish and maintain basic equipment conditions cleaning lubricating and tightening. through

* *

Increase the availability of plant and machine capacity utilisation and to improve over all equipment effectiveness.

MANAGERS MODEL Purpose a. To know about the machine b. To realise working difficulties c. Think for Innovations / Kaizen / Safety. KAIZEN

Kaizen means continuous small as in official life.

improvement in personal life as well

Kaizen activity can be implemented as per the below chart KAIZEN

INDIVIDUAL

GROUP

PERSONAL

INDIVIDUAL/ OFFICIAL

STRUCTURED

UNSTRUCTURED

QUALITY CIRCLE SMALL GRP. ACTIVITY AT GRASS ROOT LEVEL

QIT AT MIDDLE MANAGEMENT LEVEL & UPPER MANAGEMENT LEVEL

ONE POINT LESSON Objectives: a. One point lesson is basically workers/operators education about the functioning of machines, quality, safety, does and don'ts in their respective work area.

b. c.

To enrich their work knowledge and upgrade skills so they perform in a better way. To educate them about their work functions, safety aspect small trouble shooting, job responsibility etc.,

'As Bhagwat Geeta Says to perform any job or activity in a better way, person must have adequate knowledge and devotion.

SMALL GROUP ACTIVITY OBJECTIVE To identify the concerned area-small problem by the involvement of all employees of that area through brain storming session and get the solution / ideas from them, if possible. SYSTEM Concerned persons of work area to be assembled minimum once in a month on the shop floor for 20-30 minutes for brain storming session. 1. 2. To list out the problems Analysis of the problem, which can be solved immediately. 1. List down the recommended solutions. 4. To develop problem bank for QC and QIT.

QUALITY CIRCLES Objective : Quality Circle is for the self and mutual development of the employee of first line (Grass Root Level) SUGGESTED STEPS FOR PROBLEM SOLVING STEP (1) : IDENTIFICATION
OF WORK RELATED PROBLEM

STEP (2) STEP(3) STEP(4) STEP(5) STEP(6) STEP(7) STEP(8) STEP(9) STEP(10) STEP(11) STEP(12)

: : : : : : : : : : :

SELECTION DEFINE

OF PROBLEM

THE PROBLEM THE PROBLEM OF CAUSES

ANALYSE

IDENTIFICATION FINDING DATA

OF THE ROOT CAUSES.

ANALYSIS SOLUTIONS

DEVELOPING FORE TRIAL

SEEING PROBABLE RESISTANCE IMPLEMENTATION

REGULAR IMPLEMENTATION FOLLOW


UP

/ REVIEW

QUALITY IMPROVEMENT TEAM Description: Quality improvement team is small group of experience people consist of 5 to 10 members to identify analyse and resolve the work related problems in their respective work area by using different SPC and SQC tools and techniques of problem solving.

JAGRUTI GROUP OBJECTIVE To develop awareness and cultural changes in the employees with respect to personal hygienic, cleanliness of factory and its surrounding areas . Jagruti Group Check List

1.

Personal Hygiene : Few examples are given below a. Nails b. Hair c. Shave d. Clothes e. Uniform condition f. Cap g. Shoe/Chappals h. Gutka/Beedi/Cigarettes i. Flowers/ Perfumes j. Glass Bangles k. Habit changed such as spitting, smoking etc through counseling

WEEKLY PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE


1. DIE ROLL KNIFE REPLACEMENT AFTER EVERY 15 DAYS. ( PLANT 1 & PLANT 2 ALTERNATELY.) 2. MULTIPACK M/C PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE. 3. STEPHAN MIXER PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE A ) Bottom slide bolts checking. B ) Top slide bolts checking. C ) Bottom slide packing condition checking. D ) Baffle motor leakage checking & packing replacement if required. E ) Baffle motor arms scrapper blades bolts checking. F ) Mixer door packing checking for damage. 4. SUGAR SYSTEM PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE A) Pneumatic pump cleaning. B) Discharge pipe cleaning. C) Screw feeder cleaning. D) Rotary seal blades cleaning. E) Dust collector bags replacement after every 15 days for respective system. F) Magnet cleaning. 5. FLOUR CONVEYING SYTEM PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE A) Flour feeding screw bottom gasket replacement after every 15 days for respective system. 6. MIXING PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE A) Sugar & flour screw glands replacement. B) Sugar & flour storage bin glands replacement. C) Chemical hopper glands replacement.

D) Oiling & greasing of creamer vessel clamp. E ) sugar & flour storage bags replacement after every 15 days or as per requirement. 7. WIREBAND TAKE UP KNIFE CLEANING & DELIVERY DRUM RUBBING. 8. ALL MECHANICAL EQUIPMENTS INPUT & OUTPUT COUPLINGS FASTENER TIGHTENING AFTER EVERY 15 DAYS. 9. LUBRICATION & GREASING OF ALL CHAINS & GEAR BOXES OF ALL MECHANICAL EQUIPMENTS. SPECIAL EQUIPMENT USED FOR CLEANING Vacuum Cleaner Machines & Vapor Clean Machines are used in the plant to cover area where human being cant reach. For utensils cleaning 0.5 N Gramicid solution is used as a disinfectant. For Hand sanitization 0.1 N Gramicid solution is used.

EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT (ETP)


FUNCTIONING OF ETP PLANT When the initial tank becomes full, aeration is started by using blowers and mixing of the content of equalization tank is carried out for about 30 min. then PH is checked. If PH is less then addition of required quantity of 10% NAOH solution is done till the PH becomes (7.5 8.0). Then pump the neutralized effluent to primary treatment tank at the rate of 15 to 16 lit/min. The sludge from primary treatment tank is drained about 5 to 10 min. once in a shift. In Bioreactor PH to be maintain between 6.5 to 8.0 this is very important. If required add 10% NAOH solution. Maintain optimum BID-mass level is about 35 to 45 % . Aeration and Dosing of Urea and DAP in the Bioreactor should be done round the clock. The Sludge from secondary filter is transferred back to the Bioreactor round the clock. Regular back wash of sand filter is to be carried out till the water become clear minimum hr. Checking of PH , TSS , COD of Inlet and Final outlet sample is carried out.

CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (COD)


OPEN REFLUX METHOD Principle Most types of organic matter are oxidized by a boiling mixture of chromic & sulphuric acid. A sample is refluxed in strongly acid solution with a known excess of Potassium Dichromate (K2Cr2O7). After digestion the remaining unreduced K2Cr2O7 is treated with ferrous ammonium sulphate (FAS), The amount of K2Cr2O7 consumed is determined and the amount of oxidizable organic matter is calculated in terms of oxygen equivalent. APPARATUS 2. Reflux apparatus consisting of 250 ml Erlenmeyer flask and lie big condencer. 3. Hot Plate

REAGENTS a) Std. K2Cr2O7 0.25 N Dissolve 12.5 gm K2Cr2O7 dried at 1030C for 2 Hr. Dilute to 1 Liter with Dilute water. Murcuric Sulphate HgSO4 b) Silver Sulphate Ag2SO4 c) Sulphuric Acid, H2SO4 d) Ferroin Indicator Solution Dissolve 1.485 gm , 1.10 phenontroline monohydrate and distilled water and dilute to 100 ml. e) FAS Ferrous Ammonium Sulphate 0.1 N 39 gm Ferrous Sulphate 20 ml H2SO4 + 400 ml dissolve & then 600 ml addition to make 1000 ml. Calculation Mg COD / L = (A-B) x N x 1000 x 8 ml sample

Where, A = Volume of FAS used for Blank ml B = Volume of FAS used for Sample ml N = Normality of FAS

Procedure Take 1 ml or sample then add 0.1 gm Silver Sulphate + 0.4 gm Mercuric Sulphate Then add 19 ml distilled water + 10 ml K2Cr2O7 (0.25 N) + 25 ml H2SO4 H2SO4 is added dropwise with continuous shaking. Then heat it & evaporate for 1 Hr. Then cool & add 80 ml of distilled water & make total volume of 140 ml Then titrate 0.1 N Ferrous Ammonium Sulphate. Indicator used is Ferroin where end point is fine red color.

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