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C O L L O Q U I A L A R A B I C O F T H E G U L F A R A B I A

A N D

S A U D I

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

1 3 * 8

HOW TO USE THIS BOOK PRONUNCIATION GUIDE

UNIT 1 Expressions of quantity; Orders and requests; 'Please'. UNIT 2 The Arabic equivalent of 'the'; The 'dual'; The plural. UNIT 3 'How much/many?' Prices; Numbers 1-10; Greetings. UNIT 4 Simple descriptive sentences; Noun-adjective phrases; Some other types of adjective. UNIT 5 Numbers 11 to 1,000,000; Age; Telling the time; Personal pronouns; 'Who?' and 'What?' i REVIEW UNIT I

18 22 30 40 49 61

UNIT 6 Expressions of place; The verb: past tense. 6 UNIT 7 Past-tense verbs: verbs beginning with a glottal stop; Past-tense verbs: 'hollow' verbs; T o say that';, 'To ask whether'; li'ann: 'because*; Expressions of manner; Further expressions of time. 76 UNIT 8 Noun-phrases; The elative adjective; Word order. 89 UNIT 9 Past-tense verbs: 'doubled' verbs; Past-tense verbs: 'weak* verbs; Time conjunctions; Ordinal numbers; Months. 100 UNIT 10 Relative clauses; Demonstrative pronouns; Demonstrative adjectives; The negative in equational sentences; 'Somebody' and 'nobody'. 112

vi CONTENTS REVIEW UNIT II 425 INTRODUCTION

UNIT 11 The imperfect verb: basic forms; The imperfect verb: different stem-types; Review of verb forms; The uses of the imperfect. 131 UNIT 12: Verb strings; The imperative: strong verbs; The imperative: other types of verb; The negative imperative. 146 UNIT 13 The present participle; The passive participle. 163 UNIT 14 The derived themes of the verb: CaCCaC, CaaCaC, tiCaCCaC and tiCaaCaC. 178 UNIT 15 The verbal noun; Co-ordinated negatives; Compound adjectives; 'Self. 194 REVIEW UNIT III 207

WHO IS THIS/BOOK FOR?

UNIT 16 The derived themes of the verb: aCCaC, inCaCaC, iCtaCaC and istaCCaC; Conditional sentences. 213 UNIT 17 Quadriliteral verbs; To wish/want' and 'to prefer'; Verbs with double objects. 228 UNIT 18 Diminutives; Uses of dbu and umtn; 'How big!' etc.; 'So-and-so'; Forms of personal address; Exhortations. 239 UNIT 19 Verb strings involving kaan/yikuun; More conjunctions; 'As if; Expressions meaning 'I think'; 'Some' and 'each other'; adverbs in -an. 251 UNIT 20 Texts. 264 ANSWER-KEY APPENDICES 270 316

This book has been written for anyone who needs to acquire a solid working knowledge 67 the education 'colloquial Arabic spoken' in an area extending from Basra in southern Iraq, down through Kuwait, Bahrain, eastern Saudi Arabia, Qatar, the" United TArab Emirates and Oman. No previous knowledge of Arabic is assumed. The emphasis is on the acquisition of a working knowledge; therefore, language items needed at the major points of social contact between Gulf Arabs and western residents are given prid6 of place. Teachers, engineers, businessmen and others who need to be able to communicate in spoken Arabic in schools, offices, shops, markets and construction sites should find this book highly useful'. Grammatical explanation is given only where it serves some clarificatory purpose, and much of the book is given over to examples and exercises of a'type which the writer hopes the learner will find relevant in coping with day-to-day living in the Gulf. Some* reading texts also deal with'the customs and beliefs common \o the area. WHAT IS 'GULF ARABIC? It is estimated that Arabic is spoken as first language by some 150 to 200 million people, living in a vast geographical area which extends from Morocco to Oman along a west-east axis, and as far south as northern Nigeria and southern Sudan. Pockets of Arabic speakers can be found in such farrflung places as Soviet Central Asia and Zanzibar. Clearly, in such a large area, there is bound to be considerable dialectal diversity, certainly comparable to the differences between what in Europe are considered separate languages: Italian and Spanish, Polish and Russian or Dutch and Standard German. The factor which unites the speakers of this abel of dialects is the Arabic literary language, which shows "rtually no regional variation, and fs used for all written com-

2 INTRODUCTON munication throughout the Arab world: The subjee>X)f- this bppk is-the educatedspoken (not written)*Arabic of one fairly large area - the Arabian Gulf - in which, despite minor dialectal variants which may be specific to the particular states which lie along it, there is such a commonality of usage that it is possible to describe a single set of language forms which will be completely understood in every part of it. This set of language formsjs what will henceforth be referred to as 'Gulf Arabic' - a variety of Arabic which "refers not so much to the Arabic spoken in.any one state, but to a variety which is.increasingly used by Gulf Arabs, from different Gulf states when they converse, with each other ana" wjth.putsiders. In its sound system, grammar and vocabulary,, 'Gulf Arabic* represents a kjryi of distillation of .the common .features of all Gulf dialects, whilst avoiding the peculiarities of any one,^ea. It also shows the influence of-literary,, Arabic in its .vocabulary because-its users', tentj. to be well-educated. From the foreigner's,point pf view,, this,type of spojcen Gulf Arabic is likely to be the most useful. Most of the data and examples which werq collected, for* tru^ bookjcome, in fact, from Bahrain- but where justifiedj a npte of important alternative forms is'made. j lJt The western resident will find that even.a modestknpwledgei of Gulf Arabic will .hugely repay the effprt expended tq acquire it. The Arabs are extremely proud of their linguistic heritage, and feel flattered-and impressed by westerners interested, enough to have tried to learn their language. From a personal point of view, too, it is very satisfying to be able to make .sense, out of^ the babble of unintelligible speech which surrounds one from the moment of arrival at the airporti Apart front its-practical value,'Gulf Arabic provides a good jumping-off point for "the further study of the Arabic language and its culture, should the-learn'er feel-inclined. Linguistically, 'Gulf Arabic is relatively close to literary Arabic, while, culturally, what remains oi 'Bedouin society provides a modern-day insight into the value's and social conditions which gave birth to Islam. t > H O W TO USE THIS B O O K * '\ * " i* '

THE PRONUNCIATION GUIDE, When learning to speak any language, it is important' tp get a feeling for what'it should sound like, and to imitate the sounds and rhythms of the language as closely as possible, howeVer odd they may seem at first: To help youm this, some preliminary^pronunciation exercises haye been provided at the beginning of the tape which accompanies thistpurse*. Before you begin to work through the course proper [ play through these exercises several tirnes with the written version of them in front of you. Tjfe first time you play the tape, just listen carefully, and mentally'repeat the Arabic'to yourself. Then listen again arid repeat aloud. It doesn't matter1 a't this stage that you dbn't'tinderstahd'the words - the idea is simply to get used to what the consonants 'aiid vowels of Gulf Arabic sound like. ' ft THE TAPE " * ." t A large amount'of the, Arabic exercise material has been recorded on tape. Exercises on tape-are marked D. These exercises, at the same time as providing *a model of Gulf Arabic speech for those learning the language dutsidelhe area, can be exploited in a number of ways (e.g. as practice in listening"comprehension"without the help of the written version). If you don't have the tape (orven if you do), it's a"good idea to get hold of a native speaker* of Arabic from the Gulf to help you with' pronunciation*. This will .obviously be easier for those learning in the Gulf itself, but should pose no problem for anyone' living within reach of a British' university'or college: over the last few years there has been an enormous student influx into Britain from the Gulf area, and in my experience they are only too willing to trade help in Arabic for English conversation. Above all, remember that it is pointless mastering the grammar

-232 4 HOW TO USE THIS BOOK

i.'-j*:*jra-A^>*r1WK*i'5tr-Air HOW TO USE THIS BOOK 5 Arabic side glaaspA. -aat glaas chaay gaam irnperf. yiguum ^ 1 gaam u raaH 2 gaam yiakil * English side glass a glass of tea
;

and vocabulary of this fascinating language'if you cannot make a passable shot at pronouncing it correctly. The difficulties in this have been greatly exaggerated. Whenever you possibly can, practise speaking the language to Gulf Arabs. Get them to correct your pronunciation and use of words ruthlessly. But one word of warning - impress on those who help you that it is Gulf, pronunciation, grammar and vocabulary that you are trying to master, not Literary Arabic or some other well-known dialect of Arabic "such as Egyptian .t THE UNITS Work through the Units in the order they are presented. Each Unit .contains a number of grammatical points, and is structured so that at the end of each piece of grammatical explanation and example there are related exercises for practice. Before you move on to the next grammatical point in the Unit, complete the exercises for the point you think you'ye mastered! These exercises generally provide generous practice on the point just covered together with material 'recycled' from previous Units. At the end of each Unit there is a Vocabulary Summary of all the new words which occur in that Unit - you will need to consult this as you do the exercises. Many of the exercises involve translation. When you have checked your answers to an exercise in the Answer-Key,'it is a good idea (and it doubles up on practice!) to use the Key as an exercise-itself, and translate it back into the other language. Try as far as possible to learn the vocabulary - at least those words you consider most useful for your purposes - as you go along. Vocabulary learning is always the most difficult part of learning a language (even one's own), and this is particularly true of an 'exotic' language like Arabic. The vocabulary in the book (about 1,500 words) should suffice for all practical purposes. A couple of hints on,vocabulary learning: try writing down individual words on small-pieces of paper on cards, Arabic on one side and English on the other, with perhaps an example of the Arabic word in use in a phrase or sentence on the Arabic-side. A pack of 50 or so of these, secured with an elastic band, can befitted easily into handbag or pocket and gone through in any idle moment. Examples:

to get up; to start 1- He got up and went 2 He smarted to eat

Another possibility is.to group wprds in your own vocabulary book according to useful criteria or 'areas' of. life'/The words can be grouped in clusters. Examples: farriash 'cleaner' kaatib 'clerk' najja'ar a~alu 'carpenter' 'potatoes' naaTuur 'watchman' muhandis 'engineer' 9ciamil 'labourer' stmich 'fish' la" Ham bagar jbeef malfuuf 'cabbage'

Extra 'spokes' can be added to these wheels as new< 'jobs' or 'kinds of food' are learnt. Such an arrangement provides a ready way bf revising and associating words in groups* according to whatever factors are important for the learner, and they are a great help to the memory. The Vocabulary Summaries at the end.of each Unit are arranged alphabetically so as to make looking words up easier - but this ordering is not meant to be a recommendation about how to learn them! ' H O W LONG WILL IT TAKE TO LEARN? The answer to this question depends on many factors - among them how thoroughly you want to learn the language, whether you are a quick learner of languages in general, etc. As an average

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|ii!|lUiUi!.U L.U. iI M i r * ! * " ' i JMi ria-ihi^iliTi

6 HOW TO USE THIS BOOK figure, I should say you should spend between 3- and 5 hours per course Unit, all of this preferably within the same week at a rate of up to an hour per day. Some Units, particularly from Unit 7 on, may take somewhat longer than this rough estimate. In addition, there are three Revision Units which, if you have properly mastered the material in the five regular Units which precede each of them, yod should be able to cover in between \ and 2 hours. Given a "rhodicum of application, it should be possible for the average learner to acquire a basic working knowledge of Gulf Arabic from this course, in about 6 months.' It cannot be too strongly emphasised that in language learning, as in the acquisition of any skill", practice is everything: take .every opportunity you can to talk'to and listen to Arabs, however little you understand at first. THE APPENDICES C The Appendices provide a quick,means of reference on a number oflcnotty points of potential confusion to the learner of Gulf Arabic. Like speakers of all languages, Gulf Arabs-show variability jn their speech. Just as the same Cockney speaker otEnglish may say 'bo'le' or 'bottled (depending perHaps on whether he's trying to 'talk proper'!),-so Gulf Arabs vary between different pronunciations of the same word. The word for 'child', for example, may be pronounced by the same speaker as jdahil or ydahil, where j and y are both acceptable and commonly used; 'I filled' may be tirdst or trdst, in one case with an -i-. and in the other without; 'she told m&' may be gdalat I'd or gaaldt Hi, involving variation in which syllable is stressed/ In all these cases, and many more, there is no change in meaning signified by the variation - indeed the speakers themselves are seldom aware of it. But to a foreign learner this.apparent instability can be confusing. It is, however, something which one has to learn.to live with, and it is reflected in this book in the fact that I have deliberately allowed variation of the types exemplified in the Appendices to occur in the body of the text - to do otherwise would be to falsify tiie facts of the language and imply consistency where its opposite is the rule. The Appendices provide a. quick check on the main points in the' language where variation occurs, and should be regularly consulted until you are clear on where possible confusion may arise.

HOW TO USE THIS BOOK 7 ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THE TEXT , i

adj. adjective adv. adverb conj. conjunction f. feminine fig. figurative use / imp. imperative irnperf. impe'rfect (tense) intrans. intransitive verb lit. literally " * m. masculine " "' n. noun p. past (tense) pass. part, passive participle pi. plural prep. preposition pres. part, present participle pron. pronoun s. singular trans. transitive verb v. verb v.n. verbal noun * signifies that a noun ending in -a is feminine and has' a final 'hidden' -r

HOEjagtttmijjff^wfiffli PRONUNCIATION GUIDE 9 PRONUNCIATION GUIDE } k m n s sh w y z [*] M [my [nl [s] [/] [w] [y] M j in "'jet' or g in 'barge*, ck in 'tack' o'r'c' in 'car', m'in 'miss-' ' n in "'nap', s in 'see-Vc ' n 'tee', sh in 'shoot', 'cash', w in 'how', 'win'. -y in 'boy', 'yet', zjn 'zither', 'haze'.

This guide is intended to help you acquire a reasonably accurate Arabic pronunciation, and to introduce you to the system of spell-1 ing used in the book. It should be used in conjunction with, the accompanying tape-recording and/or the help of a native speaker of Gulf Arabic. The, pronunciation model aimed -"at is that of an educated speaker.

Group 2 ra the "glottal stop. This sound is heard ,in the Cockney pronunciation of 'butter' ('bu'er') or the Glaswegian pronunciation of 'water.' ('wa'er'), where the t drops and is replaced by a cat,ch in the voice. In Arabic, this sound can occur at the beginning as well as in the middle of a word, as it does in German (e.g. in words like 'Achtung'). These sounds are similar to d and t in English 'day', 'tag', except-that the point of contact of the tongue-tip is the back of the upper teeth, not the gums as in English, th as jn 'thin',, 'bath'. N rth as in 'the', 'soothe'. 1 as in English 'limb', 'bill' (i.e. 'light' 1). In a few. Arabic words, the commonest of which is alldah 'God', the 1 is 'dark' like the I in 'field'.

CONSONANTS <. The consonants have been divided into three, groups: Group 1 contains those (a majority) which should give you no trouble - they are more or less identical to English equivalents; Group 2 contains those'which, from some point of view, are slightly different from their standard English equivalents, but which are similar to sounds found in regional English accents or in well-known European languages; Group 3 is the difficult group which contains sounds not found in English or common European languages, and which usually take some time to master. For the benefit of interested linguists, the IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet) value of each letter of the transliteration is given in square brackets. Group 1 letter b P ch f 8 h IPA [b] [p] [t/] ffl [g] [h] hints on pronunciation b in 'bottle' p in 'apple'. ch in 'church'. fin 'foot'. g in 'gap' h in 'hit'. In Arabic, unlike English, h can occur as the last sound of a word.

d t th dh I

Ml it] [e] [3] [i]

Group 3 Sh X H [Y] Parisian 'guttural'.r as in 'grand'. Sounds similar to the sound of gargling. Scottish ch in 'Loch Ness'. This and 9 are probably the most difficult sounds in Arabic for Europeans. H is a

10 PRONUNCIATION GUIDE voiceless sound similar to the Jhoarse expulsion of breath sometimes made by people breathing on spectacle lenses before cleaning them! It is produced from the extreme back of the throat i (the pharynx), and there is a feeling of constriction jn the muscles of the throat when > producing this,soun.d, [1] _ 9 is the voiced cqunterpajt of H. Like H, it is produced by constricting Tthe passage of air at the back of the throat, but in this case the' vocal chords vibrate. 9 is like the sound made by someone being strangled, like the Italian trilled r in 'ragazza'. M the,so-called 'emphatic' consonants. The [Sj position of the tongue is as for their nonHI emphatic counterparts s i d dh, but the tongue r*i should be flattened and broadened in the ^ [dh] mouth so that the mouth cavity feels 'filled*. At the same time, there is a feeling of muscular , tension' in the mouth and constriction (as for H and 9) at the back of the throat. The result is a duller, heavier sound for S"TlD DH compared^ with stddh. Consonants in neighbouring syllables tend to become 'emphatic' under the 'influence of these sounds, [q] this sound, which is not common in colloquial speech, is an 'educated' variant of g. It is a voiceless sound similar.to the final consonant in 'hock' except that it is produced from further back in the mouth - from the uvula, to be exact. initial Group 1 b p (often replaced byfc) ch { h k m n s sh w y z Group 2 d t th dh I ('ligh't') / ('dark') Group 3 Sh X H 9 r S T D DH 1 b*'as t pdrika 'i chalb faar 'goal hilwa jibin kariim mdsliirC ninsa samtifshaaf wdlad ydahil ziydara *' 'dkaf dazz tigdul thai] dhii libdas1 laTiif ghdsal xdali Harp ,9draf rayydal SabdaH Tabiib Ddrab DHuhur qur'dan *

PRONUNCIATION GUIDE 11 metiial gdbil (does not occur) bichar safdr bdgar sdahir .hujuum bukra jamiil sdnad jdasim fdshal ndwas shlyar kaaziino sd'al bddla bitri thaldatha hdadhii sdiaf alldah .final ' galab ., sdmach sdlaf ^ bdayig karah thai} i Jdrak sdalim gdlan naas mish gdalaw ddray bddriz * (does not occur) fariid mukaanddt * turdath fuldadh jamiil gdbil . f. !

r S T D

Pronunciation practice: consonants Using the accompanying tape, practise pronouncing the consoriants in initial, medial and final position. In words of more than one syllable, the stressed vowel is marked superscript, e.g. d.

i bdghal bdlagh ndxal taarlix bdjiar fdraH bq9l\r ddfa9 barlid ,- kathlir bdSal xaldaS JoalaaiiiT bdaTil 'arD rdDi HdaDHra -HdafiDH mlnTpqa fartiq

^ m ^ ^ ^ l ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ i ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^

f^gg^J*iwTiat.ttt3^agffA*jgsyam'*ar. 12 PRONUNCIATION GUIDE 'DOUBLED* CONSONANTS Consonants sometimes occur 'doubled' in Arabic: that is, the same consonant occurs twice in a word without an intervening,vowel. It is important when pronouncing such doubled consonants to increase the length of time over which the consonant sound is produced to approximately twice that of the single' consonant. Thus sdllaf 'to lend' is pronounced as two syllables sal-laf. Try the following contrastive exercise: single ddxal sdlaf mdra fdham HdSal ^doubled* ddxxal' sdllaf mdrra fdham HdSSal
PRONUNCIATIONTGUIDE 13

variation within the Gulf area. The notes belo'W reflect'the commonest type of pronunciation.. letter a IPA [e] hints on pronunciation Like the 'e' in Southern English 'bed', this value of 'a usually occurs between any .two Group 1 or 2 consonants, e.g. jdbal [dsebel], cham [t/em], sdmach [semct/]. It occurs at the end of words-whose last consonant is from Group 1 or 2: sdna [sene], ddlla [delle], Like Northern English 'a' in 'cat'. This value of 'a occurs whereverg/r, x, H% 9 or q precedes or follows a: baHar [bahar] xast [xast]. Wordfinally, after these same consonants, the same value of a occurs: lugha [luYa].,. * Like the vowel in English 'sob'. This value occurs whenever a precedes or follows S T D DH,, and in a few words when it occurs next to r or 'dark' /: Tabiib [tnbi.b] maHdTTa [mohDD] rabb [robb]. In,Bahrain and Qatar aa almost always has the sound of the vowel in English 'father,', whatever the consonant environment. In other partS'Of the Gulf, it only has this sound when S T D or DH occur next to it - otherwise it is similar to the vowel in Southern English 'pair', e.g.Saab = [So:b] in all dialects, but baab = [bo:b] in Bahrain, [ba:b] in Eastern Saudi Arabia, Kuwait. Similar to 'i' in 'bit', unless at the endof a word. When i occurs next to one of the consonants S T D DH it has a rather 'dull' sound. Thus i in Tibb 'medicine' sounds somewhat like the southern English pronunciation of the vowel in 'tub', At the end of a word, i has the value of 'e' in 'be', e.g. in bdyti [beyti] gtiuli [gu:li]. Similar to the long vowel in 'seem'.

[a]

Now practise pronouncing the following words which contain 'doubled' J. LI. J!consonants: _ _.<L mu9dllim muddrris muHdssin muldbbas ddshsha ddzza Hdggah Sdxxa rayydal gaSSdab baggdal shaghghdal VOWELS y Gulf Arabic vowels present no particular problem to an English speaker. There are three types of vowel: short vowels, long vowels and diphthongs: short: long: diphthongs: aiou aa ii oo uu ay aw >

[o]

aa

[D:] ,or [a:]

'

[i]

As the name implies, a * long vowel (like a 'doubled' consonant) lasts longer than a short one:' in English, 'cat* contains a short 'a* and 'cart' contains a long one. This distinction in vowel-length is made in the spelling system used in this bobk by writing the long vowels as a doubled version of the short vowel. The precise phonetic value of any vowel (what it sounds like) depends to a large extent in Arabic on the consonants which surround it, and on its position in the word. There is also a certain amount of dialectal

[i] " [i:]

'JUT

SxMK#e&t&mmM4l^^^

;>rr: i w~d&-3 14 PRONUNCIATION GUIDE! or [oo] OO U MU ay aw In the* middle'of a "word, o sounds like the vowel in 'cot': 96gub [9ogub]. At* the* end of z.> word, it is like the 'o' in 'so': kaaziino [kD:zi:noo]". f Like the long vowel in the Welsh pronunciation of 'no', d'r an extended version of the southern' English vowel in 'Dore'. Like 'u' in northern English 'pub', ^cup'. .The vowel in the German 'gut' ('good') is similar. ,% i Like the diphthong in English 'bay', or, in some speakers-' speech, more like the pure vowel in the French 'cle' ('key) but longer. Like the ""diphthong in 'mouth'. aw PRONUNCIATION-GUIDE1' l5i ndwas t gdalaw xdlliSaw HurDdw 9dwwar HifDHaw

[v.] to] on [e:]

Pronunciation practice: vowels consonant environment* Groupil and 2 chdlb consonants only fdrsha ghx H9q 'ghdsal 1 t bdHar S'TDDHand Sdbar sometimes r and'/ 'alldah aa goal kdatib i (non- non-emph*atic bint final) emphatic Tibb1 i (final) - bind ii Hun o 96gub oo < yoom *' Soob u hum i Subb uu byuut Sufduf ay bayt Tayr Vowel* a \ examples sdmd6K< thai} 'dkal dazz ndxal 9draf >bdlagh' qdniar 'Ddrab bdTal >DHdbi- rabb. raaH shaaf rayyaah Sdafi siff' Hibir Sifir Dirba Tdbxi busTi siim fiik to kaqzttno thobr* goola HooD Soot kubar muhub Tub9dan ytDrub yigdul yiruuH&un xuTuuT maHDHuuDH baHrdyn sayf bayD Sayf

SYLLABLE-TYPES 'AND STRESS" ' *" "' . * "* The stressed syllable in individual words of more than one-syllable is marked superscript a throughout the text. When wprds are strung together tororm seVrtencesV these, word-stresses 'are rnaintained, bu,t, obviously, the meaning'wnich a speaker wishes fo give his sentence leads him*fo stress some'.words mdre than others t An exhaustive treatment pf sentence-stress Is beyond "thd scope df this book, but you1 will not gof far'wrong if you simply copy", quite slavishly, the examples given" in' the" exercises. Gradiialfy you will acquire a feel for the rhythmic patterns of Arabic sentences-through listening and practice. Word-stress in-Arabic depends on syllable structure. There are Jwo kinds'of syllable: shortish),and long (lo). In the examples;below?,G andgY stand^pr 'consonant' and 'yoweP. In general, all, Arabic syllables,.must start.with a,C, and,]all syllables must have a V in them. ., ^ , jv K* short syllables CV or CCVV smicha CVC Hijra sdbab shirbat example smi-cha Hij-ra sa-bab shir-batsyllable structure CCV-CV (sh-sh) CVC-CV (sh-sh) CV-CVC (sh-sh) .CyC-CVQ (sh-sh) CV-CV-CV CV-CVC-CVC CVC-'Cvb-CVC CV-CVC-CV * (sh-sh-sh) (sh-sh-sh) (sh-sh-sh) (sh-sh-sh) (lo-sh) "(lo-sh) (lo-lo) (sh-lo) (sh-lo) (sh

Three-syllables (all short): bdraka ba-ra-ka wardgdk wa-rag-tik sim9dthum sim-9at-hum shardbna sha-rab-na long syllables CWor gdalat CCVV shgdalat CVVC or guuluuh CVVCC muDdadd baHrdyn CVCC simd9t

CW-CVC gaa-lat CCVV-CVC shgaa-lat cvy-cvyc guu-luuh mu-Daadd c v - c w c c CVC-CVCC baH-rayn CVTCVCC si-ma9t

,Jffi.v$zmMF- ":*''

16 PRONUNCIATION GUIDE From these examples it can be seen that stress is assigned on the following basis: (i) If the word contains one long syllable only, that syllable must be stressed: gdalat, shgdalat, muDdadd, baHrdyn, simd9t. (ii) If the word contains two long syllables, the last one is stressed: guuluuh. (iii) If the word contains no long syllable, t^en: (a) the ante-penultimate(syllable is stressed in words of three or more 'open' syllables (i.e. which end in a vowel): bdraka (b) the penultimate syllable is stressed in words of two syl: lables: smfcha, Hljra, sdbab and in three-syllable words if the penultimate syllable is 'closed* (i.e. e^ids in a consonant): wardgtik, sim9dthum, shardbna. These rules may appear unduly complicated at this stage, and there is 'no point in learning them by heart - a 'feel' for where stress should occur will come with practice. There is in fact a certam amount of variation in the placement of stress in certain words and types of phrase in any case (see Appendix E). 2 syllables, second one long:

PRONUNCIATION GUIDE 17 * t

mudiir, baHrdyn, ghashmdrt, 9ishriin 3 or more syllables, at least one long: , kuwaydyyfin, balaaliiT, yismaHHun, /nudarrisfin, tistahliktin, insiHdab, shifndahum, Hadddada, isti9laamdatt mu9taqaddatah

Stress exercise 2 short syllables: Hljra, slm9at, shfsmik, Hllba, fitna, gdlam 3 short syllables: (i) all 'open' bdraka, xdlaga, HdTaba, wdraga, gdlami (ii) penult, 'closed' simd9na, Dardbtik, Hijrdthum,tirdstah,shuwdndar 2 syllables, first one long: rdayiH, kdanaw, shdafat', mdaltik 2 syllables, both long: guulduh, shaafdok, xaayfiin, HaaTTUn

UNIT'1

'l

U N I T 1

l.I EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY took at the way the Arabic words for 'cup', 'glass', 'tea' and 'coffee'*are combined to form phrases: glaas finjdal 'glass' 'cup'(Arab-styte) chaay gdhwa 'tea' 'coffee'

'a piece' guT9a nftfa 'a bit,' Hdbba, 'a grain*

guT9at IdHam jiitfat xubuz Hdbbat 9aysh

'a piece of meat' 'a bit of bread' t 'a grain of rice*

glaas chaay 'a glass of tea' finjdal gdhwa 'a cupkpf coffee' Now memorize the following words: sandawiich 'sandwich' ddrzan 'dozen' nuSS ddrzan 'half-dozen kdylo 'kilo' nuSS kdylo 'half-kilo* buTil ibottle' burtugdal IdHam simich, Haliib bayD jlbin 'orange' 'meat'' '.fish' 'milk* 'eggs' 'cheese'

Words like bayD' 'eggs's arid -simich ''fish' -are called -'collective/ nouns: that is, they.denote 'eggs! or 'fish' in general. If we wish to talk about 'one egg' or 'a fish', we add the -a feminize endjng to form the so,-cal!ed 'unit noun': '* 3, bayD bdypa eggs; 'an eggj simich simicha 'fish' t 'a fish'" xubuz xubza 'bread' 'a loaf1.2 ORDERS AND REQUESTS *-

In Arabic, as in English, we camask people to do things'by giving them one-word orders. For example, when addressing male speakers, the following forms-are^used: 9aT jiib saww ruuH 9dTi jiibi sdwwi ruuHi 'give!' 'bring!' ''make!,' 'go!' <give(f.)!' 'bring(f.)!' l make(f.)!' *go(f.)!' i , ,

Exercise, 1.1 Translate the following phrases: 1 a half-kilo of meat 2 a bottle of milk 3 a dozen eggs 4 a kilo offish 5 half-a-dozen oranges 6 a cheese sandwich

If the person addressed-is female', an -i is added:


AK

In phrases of quantity of this type, no Arabic words for 'a* and 'of are needed. Note that when the first word of the phrase ends in a, for example guT9a 'piece, chunk', a final -/, is added to it before the second word. This -t is in fact a so-called 'feminine' ending, and most Arabic nouns ending in -a have this 'hidden' -t which shows up in 'quantity' phrases (and other types which we shall meet later). Such words are marked * in the vocabulary summaries. Some examples of phrases involving -/:

To say 'give me!', we add the"suffix*-ni ('me') directly to these command words, which become 9dTni and 9a7Yim*respectively*. Note that the feminine ending -(' is lengthened (and hence stressed) when -ni is suffixed to it. To say 'bring me!' ''make (for) W ! ' we need to add pot -ni but Hi (or liyyi) ('to, for me') to the command words'- Compare: 9dTnil9aTtini and sawwisdwwi Hi (or liyyi) 'make (for) me!' give me p

20 UNIT 1 1.3 'PLEASE' Orders of the kind shown above are made more polite by adding the Arabic equivalent of 'please': min fdDlik (or min fdDlak) to men, and minfdDlich (or min fdDlach) to women. Thus: ' saww Hifinjdalgdhwa min fdDlak (to a man) sdwwi Hi finjdal gdhwa minfdDlich (to a woman) ' Exercise 1.4

UNIT 1

21

The normal way of politely addressing a person by name, or calling his attention is to use the word yaa ('oh') followed by his/her name: yaa 9dli, jiib Hi nuSS kdylo simich-min fdDlak 'Ali, bring me half-a-kilo of fish please' yaa zdhra, 9aTlini nitfat xubuz min fdDlich 'Zahra, give me a' bit of bread please' ( The Arabic for 'thank you'<is shukran. Exercise 1.2 Read aloud and translate the following requests: yaa dHmad, saww liyyi glaas chaay min fdDlak. yaa Idyla, 9aTiini nitfat simich min fdDlach. yaa mHdmmad, ruuH jiib Hi guuTi jigdara min fdDlik. yaa 9abddllah, 9dTni finjdal gdhwa min fdDlik. yaa sdlwa, ruuHi jlibi Uyyi ddrzan burtugdal min fdDlich.

"

Imagine you are shopping and ask politely for the following items. Use the vocabulary summary for this UniJ to help. you. (female shopkeeper) (male shopkeeper) a bag of potatoes a box of matches a kilo of onions a packet of salt a packet of soap a bottle of cooking oil a quarter-kilo of sugar a bit of lettuce a kilo of dates a half-kilo of rice a piece of meat a packet of buttera quarter-kilo of tomatoes a glass of water VOCABULARY SUMMARY dalu 'potato (es)r bdSal 'onion(s)' bayD 'egg(s)' burtugdal 'orange(s)' bdTil 'bottle'' chaay 'tea* chibriit 'matches* chiis 'bag' ddrzan 'dozen' dihin 'cooking oil* mm fdDliklch 'please' finjdal '(small) coffee'cup' gdhwa 'coffee' glaas 'glass' guT9a* 'piece' guuTi 'box, packet, tin' Hdbba" 'grain' Haliib 'milk' jlbin 'cheese' jigdara* 'cigarette' jdb(i) 'bring!* kdyh 'kilo' IdHam 'meat' maay milH nltfa* nuSS raggi rub9 ruuH(i) sandawtich saww(i) simich Saabuun shdkkar shukran shwdyya* tdmar TamdaT uu or wi xast xtibuz yaa zibid 9aT(i) 9aysh 9inab 'water' 'salt' 'a bit' 'half 'water-melon 'quarter* 'go!' 'sandwich' 'make, do!' 'fish' 'soap' 'sugar' 'thank you' 'a little, a bit 'dates' 'tomato(es)' 'and' 'lettuce' 'bread' 'hey, oh' 'butter' 'give!' 'rice' 'grape(s)'

Exercise 1.3 Ask a man to do the following: to bring you half-a-kilo of meat; to give you a bit of cheese; to go and make you a cheese sandwich. Ask a woman to do the following: to make you a cup of coffee; to go and get you a glass of milk; to go and bring you a dozen eggs

UNIT

2 When, in Arabic, w<wish tojalk ab,out twp of a,thing (rather than three or more), we use.a special form of,the plural cajled the 'dual'* To form the dual pf^a noun, the suffix-c^n js}added to it. Thus we have rayydal 'a*man' rayyaaldyn ttwo^men', il-b,aab .the cjoor i7baabdyn 'the two,doors'.*If the noun ends in^a^the 'hidden' ~t which we noted in Unit Kin phrases like guTVatddHam 'a piece of meat', again"appears: -j

2.1 THE ARABIC EQUIVALENT OF 'THE' The Arabic for 'the' is //, and it is placed, as in English, beforp its J noun: gtaas, (a) glaas' il-glaas< the glass ingliizi (an) English(man) M-ingliizi the Englishman muhdndis (an) engineer , it-mukidndis* the engineer

shdrika 'a company*1 '* < " '"'* sharikatdyn 'two tompanies^ "* ' ' * * When it is placed before'some nouns, its / assimilates (that is, guT9at laHam 'a piece of meat' >J becomes the same sound asJ'W the first letter of that'nouir, e.g: I guT9atdyn IdHam 'two pieces'df ' '' " '! suujg 'market' is-'suug 'the market' (not*il-sudg). When fhis'fissim- I me,at' '*' t " y ilation occurs, it is important to hold the dojuble consonant for what is-sayydard '* Jthe car** - I i ' seems to an English ear an unnaturally longtime. Assimilation'of f is-sayyaaratdyn **tb'e two dars'1 * *> / occurs before nouns which'begin with: If the noun ends in (", e.g^ingllizi 'English', -yy- is inserted,between tthd'dhznsshS D T DH,n I the -i and the s'uffix-ayn: ' . * but does not'occur before nouns which begin with; * * 'the Englishman il-ingliizi 'the two il-ingliiziyydyn bpchjxHkggh9qmhwy Englishmen Thus we have* is-sayydard the gar, iT-Tayydara the-aeroplane'/but miSri 'an Egyptian' il-baab the door and il-Jariidcf the newspaper. miSriyydyn 'two Egyptians' '*,

> . Exercise 2.1 Make the following nouns definite, assimilating the / where necessary. Be careful about pronunciation, holding the doubled letters twice as long as single letters. * mudiir farrdash rayydal pooliis sikirtiir. boss servant man policemen secretary sammdach gaSSdab muddrris 9dam.il shdrika fisherman butcher "teacher worker company, firm'

Exercise 2.2

( ii Change the following nouns into the correct dual form. Remember that the stress must' fall on -ayn as it is the last long syllable* in each'word. 'a company' 'a dozen' 'a piece; 'a Bahraini* 'a packet' 'a cigarette' 'a glass' js-sikirttir il-muhdndis is-smkha il-mukdan il-finjdal il-mikdaniki il-bayt Uhe secretary' 'trje engineer' 'the fish' 'the place' .'the* cup' 'the mechanic' 'the house'

shdrika ddrzan guT9a baHrdyni guuTi jigdara glaas

24 UNIT 2 2.3 THE PLURAL In Arabic, nouns form their plurals (that is, more than two) in two basic ways: by adding a suffix, or by changing the vowel pattern" within the word. In English, most nouns form their plurals by the first method - we simply add -s or -es - and there are only a few nouns like 'mouse' and 'louse' which form their plural througn vowel'change. Arabic is unlike English in that a very large number of nouns - certainly the majority - form their plurals by vowel changes rather than suffixation. The nouns which pluralise by adsding a_ suffix can be divided into ..three groups-according to the suffix used, and examples are provided below,. r4ouns which pluralise by internal vowel change - the so-called 'broken' plurate - do so according to a variety of different patterns! The problem for the beginner is that you cannot predict by* looking at the singular of a noun which of the plural patterns applie to it: it is,best to learn what the plural of each noun is at the time you learn the singular. At first this may seem a daunting task, but in fact the number of plural patterns in common use is relatively small, and the problern will diminish as you progress. i Plurals by suffixation 1 The suffix -iin Many nouns denoting professions and occupations, particularly those which begin with the prefix mu-, form their plurals this way: The -(in suffix is only used with nouns denoting human beings. Examples: muddrris muhdndis muqdawil muHdssin mikdaniki shiirTi SdHafi 'teacher' 'engineer' 'contractor' 'barber* 'mechanic* 'policeman' 'journalist' mudarrisiin muhandisiin mitqaawiliin muHassiniin mikaanikiyyiin shurTiyyiin SaHafiyyiin 'teachers' 'engineers' 'contractors 'barbers' 'mechanics' 'policemen' 'journalists' !

UNIT 2 25 2 The suffix -aat This suffix is the feminine^equivalenrof -iin, and is used whefe-a wholly female group is being referred to. (-iin is used .where the group is mixed male and female). Thus? 'female mudarrisa 'female'teacher' mudarrjsaa' teachers' ^policewomen* shurTiyya 'policewoman' _ shurTiydat The same suffixes, are used for the plurals of nouns denoting nationality or origin:' kuw&yti 'Kuwaiti' kuwaytiyyiin ^ 'Kuwaitis' kuwaytiyya 'Kuwaiti woman' kuwaytiyydat 'Kuwaiti women'

rf ft

l!

3 The suffix -iyya, There are a few nouns, again denoting professions or occupations; which pluralise by adding the suffix-iyya. Most of them are borrowings from other languages, e.g. 'driver' draywiliyya 'drivers' draywil 'secretaries* sikirtiiriyya 'secretary' sikirtiir 'layabouts' loofarlyya Idofar 'layabout'

4 The suffix -aat with inanimate nouns In addition to the use of -aat noted above, it is also used to pluralise many inanimate nouns. Some of these have the feminine ending -a, while many others are foreign.borrowings. Examples: sayydara shdrika baaS sandawdch kdylo 'car* 'company' 'bus' 'sandwich' 'kilogram' sayyaardat sharikdat baaSdat sandawiichdat kaylowdat 'cars 'companies' 'buses' 'sandwiches' 'kilograms'

Notice that if the singular ends in -i, -yy- is inserted before the -iin suffix, just as it is before the -ayn 'dual' suffix.

*^v*mr.nwcxt^iMt&^.KE&TirW**rT?J'ft
26, UNIT 2* '

UNIT 2 . 27 ' Some common patterns which apply to many 'different Singular patterns: t * $ 3 The plural pattern aCCaaC wdtad lawtaad *bby* gdlam Idgldam 'pen' filim I afldam 'fifm' j qisim I a^sdam 'septidn,, det. suugj aswdag 'n\arket' ' kuub Jakwdab -'cup* ^

'Broken' plurals

'

A particularly striking feature of Arabic is its system'of/roots-anti -vowel patterns, which cdnstitute the- 'bricks and mortar,' \>f> the language. To the root k tfc,which-has4hetbasicmeaning*'writing", .different vowel patterns can be applied to form words which modify this basic meaning in (mostly) predictable ways. For example, we can derive: Pattern kitdab 'book; < CiCaaC =* Nouri J U" kdatib 'clerk, one, who writes' CaaCiC = Age"nt' NoUh mdktab 'office, place where maCCaC = Noun of Place , writing is done; maktuub 'written, letter' maCCuuC= Passive Participle Npte that the root consonants always remain-in the same order. To "rhak'e the plural of most nouns, a new vowel pattern is applied to the root consonants of the singular 'forim Thus kitdab has the "plural kutub, kdatib the plural kuttdab (note the doubling,of the middle consonant), mdktab has makdatib and* maktuub has maUaatiib. Some of the commoner plural patterns are exemplified below. 1 Singular CaCCaaC pi CaCaaCiiO 2 Singular CaaCiC pi. CujCCaaC These two patterns always denote jobs, professions, occupations: farrdash xabbdaz sammdach najjdar gaSSdab rayydal xdadim kdatib 9damil Hdakim tdajir zdari9 1 faradriish 1 xabaabiiz 1 samaamiick I najaajiir 1 gaSaaStib 1 rayaayiil ! / xuddddni 1 kuttdab1 9ummdql 1 Hukkdam 1 tujjdar I zurrda9 'servant' 'baker' tfisherman> 'carpenter' 'butcher' 'riian' ''servant' 'clerk* 'worker' 'ruler' 'merchant' 'farmer* \ ' ;

4 The plural pattern CuCuuC shayx I shuyuux 'sheikhl sayf I suyuuf 'swbrd'" fits I fuluus' 'money' "Sdff 7 Suf'uuf "'class-room, row' bdyt I buydut 'house'1 gdlb Iguluub &-**' 'Heart'

5 The plural pattern CaCaaCiC: ddrzan ddftar ddxtar mdSna9 mdblagh mdktab Exercise 2.3 I dardazin / iafdadr I daxdafir I maSdani9 4 rt}abdaligh ,'hmakdqtib </ dozen. 'notebook' 'physician' 'factory' 'sum of money' office; desk'

,a

Practise reading aloud-'the requests below, and translate them into English: } 1 jiib Hi d-ddftaA-2 ruuH il-mdktab min fdplakl * 3 sdwwi liyyi sanddwiichdyn jtbin min fdDlichX 4 9dTni gdlaml 5 xudh is-sayydara u ruuH\ 6 ruuH il-xabbdaz uu jiib Hi xubzdynll xudh il-fuluus\ 8 saww Hi finjdal gdhwa yaa dHmad\ 9,9dTni l-akwdabl 10 ruuH ilSaSSdab uu jiib'liyyi kaylowdyn IdHaml 11 ruuH il-baytl? 12 ruuH il-mudiir min fdDlak u jiib liil-kutub\ Note (nos 1, 9, 12) that when il follows a word ending in a vowel, its i is dropped. |

ESS^i^&greSTJgggd

28 UNIT 2 Exercise 2.4 Taking sentences 1, 7, and 11 in Exercise 2.3 as your model, tell someone male to: I Take tHe sugar! 2 Go to the barber! 3 Bring me a little water! 4 Take the sandwiches! 5 Go to the market, please! 6 Bring me the note6ooks! 7 Take two bottles of milk! 8 Go to the two Englishmen! Tell someone female to: 9 Bring the pens please! 10 Take two packets of cigarettes! II Go to the doctor! 12 Take a bit of rice! 13 Bring the cups! 14 Bring the two books please! 15 Go to the women teachers! VOCABULARY SUMMARY baabiabwdab 'door' baaS(aat) 'bus' baHrdyni(yyiin) 'Bahraini' bayt/buyuut 'house' ddftarldafdatir 'notebook' ddxtarldaxdatir 'doctor' drdywil(iyya) 'driver' farrdashlfaraartish 'servant, cleaner' filimlafldam 'film' filslfuldus 'money' gdlamlagldam pen' galblguluub 'heart' gaSSdabl 'butcher' gaSaaSiib Hdakiml 'ruler; referee Hukkdam ingliizi(yyiin) 'English (man) jariidaljardayid 'newspaper' kdatib/kuttdab 'clerk' kitdablkutub 'book' kuublakwdab 'cup' kuwdyti(yyiin) 'Kuwaiti' loofar (iyya) 'layabout* t 'mdblagh! 'sum of mabdaligh money' * mdktablmakdatib 'office; desk' maktuubl 'letter' makaatiib mdSna9lmaSdani9 'factorymikdaniki (yyin) 'mechanic' miSri (yyiin) 'Egyptian' muddrris'(iin) 'teacher' mudiir(iin)" 'boss, director muhdndis(iin) 'engineer' muHdssin(iin) 'barber' muqdawil(iin)" 'contractor' mukdan(aat) 'place, spot' najjdarlnajaajiir 'carpenter' pooliis(iyya) 'policeman' qisimlaqsdam 'department' rayydallrayaayiil 'man' sammdachl samaamiich sayf/suyuuf sayydara*! sayaaylir t sikirtiir(iyya) suuglaswdag SaffiSufuuf SdHafi(yyiin) shdrika* (aat) 'fisherman' 'sword; seashore' 'car' ' 'secretary* 'market' 'classroqm; row' 'journalist' 'company, firm'

UNIT 2 29 'sheikh' shayxlshuyuux 'policeman' shurTi(yyiin) 'merchant' tdajirltujjdar Tayydara* (aat) 'aeroplane' 'boy' wdlad/awldad 'xdadimlxudddani 'servant'* 'baker' xabbdazl xabaabtiz 'takeV ,t xudh(f. xudhi) 'farmer'" zdari9/zurrda9 9damill9ummdal "worker, ! i, labourer*

MDUMK& U N V T C V 31 it It 15 possible tb say mda hdst rayydal, md$ hdst gldas, using -the^ singular noun, but^ this would be'interpreted as '{hej-e'is not a single. . : (e,g.''there is not a single man^who can do that') or as1 a contradiction of \statement that there was a, man, glass in,some place' or other, e.g. s f hThereVft man inside (a foom)' A: hdst rayydal.;ddaxit v *'No there'isn't' " * * **' B: Id, mda hdst rayydal *** Exercise 3.1 Translate the following short exchanges .using maa hdstlfiil mish: 1 How many notebooks' are there? There' aren't a'ny* notebooks' at all. 2 How many policemen a;e there? There aren't any at all. '" 3 How much meat is there? There isn't any meat. 4 How many women are there? There are no.wpmen.- e * 5 How many bottles are there? There aren't any bottles at all. " * " < _ ,*

UNIT

3.1 'HOW MUCH)MANY>' f . "] cftomis the Gulf Arabic "word *for 'how much/many*, and it is used : with.singu/or nouns: * \ -1 chdm'Haliibl 'How much .milk^'i chdm rayydal! 'How many men?' cliam kdylo! 'How manykilos?' > > * The words Hast (used mainly in'Bahrain) and^u (used,elsewhere) .both mean''there is/are', and they are often 'used with cham in questions: chdm sayydara hdst! chdm qtsim hdstl chdm jibin fill 'How many cars are there?' 'How many departments are thfere?' 'How many workers are there?'

If the answer to such questions as these is that 'there isn't/aren't any', the negative word maa ('not') is used: maa hast, maa fii. There is also a third possibility, which is used only in negatives: maa mish. All three of these phrases may occur before or after the noun. Thus, in reply to; chdm ndas hdstl 'How many people are there?'

all of the following are possible negative replies: mda hdst ndas I ndas mda hdst mda fii ndas I ndas mda fii "There aren't any people' mda mish ndas I ndas mda mish Note that, although the noun which follows cham is in the singular (except for collective nouns like Haliib, jtbin and naas which have no singular), the noun which follows maa hastlfii/mish is in the plural: chdm rayydal fill rayaaytil mda fii host chdm gldas! mda hdst glaasdat 'How many men are there?' "There aren't any' 'How many glasses are there?' 'There aren't any' Exercise 3.2 Look'at the following exchange: fii IdHam! Id, mda fii il ydom or ay, fii Ts tnere any meat? 'No', there isn't any today'* 'Yes, there js*

Now translate the following exchanges,' (maa)fii, (maa) hast and maa mish. *

sra^^ZEEsssmi 32. UNIT 3 'l Js1 there any bread? Yes there is. 2 Are there any onions?' No, there aren't today. 3 Are there any people here? No, there aren't any here today. 4 Are there any teachers there? Yes, there are. 5 Are there any doctors here? No, there aren't. *i 3.2 PRICES When asking the price of something, use bi chdm ('for how much') rather than simple cham. Look at these examples: ,' il-xiibuz bi chdm! il-ldHam bi chdm il-kdylo! 'How much is bread? " (lit: 'the bread for how much?') 'How much is a kilo of meat?' (lit: 'the meat for how much the" kilo?') 'How much is a bottle of" milk?' 'How much is a sack of cement?'
1 v

UNIT. 3 33 3.3 NUMBERS 1-10 The numbers-1-10 have both a masculine >nd,feminine form m Gulf Arabic, as follows: Masc. wdaHid ithndyn thaldath drba.9 xams sitt sab9 thamdan tis9 9dshar Fern. wdHda thintdyn thaldathaft) drba9a(t) xdmsa(t) sitta(t) sdb9a(t) thamdanya(t) tis9a(t) t 9dshra(t) . < 'one** J 'two' 'three' 'four' 'five* 'six' 'seven' 'eight;, 'nine' 'ten'

<

il-Haliib bi chdm il-buTil! is-smlit bi chdm il-xdysha!

A peculiarity of Arabic is ihat feminine numbers are used to enumerate masculine nouns, and masculine numbers -to enumerate feminine nouns! Nouns can be feminine either by meaning) e.g. bint 'girl', uxt 'sister',, umm 'mother', or feminine by grammatical category, and ending ip -a, e.g. shdrika 'company', sayydara Icar' or, in a few cases which have to be "learnt by heart, by contention, e.g. riiH 'wind'. Some examples: xdms sayyaardat 'five cars' xdmsa rayaaylil 'five men' thaldath bandat 'three girls'1 9dshra kutub 'ten books' drba9 niswdan 'four women' sdb9a mudarrisdn ''seven teachers' If the plural of a masculine noun begins with a vowel, the 'hidden' ' (in brackets in the list above) is sounded for each pronunciation: sittat awldad (not sitta awldad) thamdanyat ayydam 'six boys' 'eight days' sdb9at dshhur, 'seven months'

Exercise 3.3 Translate: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 How much is a dozen eggs? How much is a bottle of cooking oil? How much is a kilo of oranges? How much is a packet of cigarettes? How much is a bag of potatoes? How much is a box of matches? How much is a sack of rice? How much is a bottle of Pepsi? How much is a glass of tea? How much is a kilo of prawns? *

thaldathat anfdar 'three persons'

The words for 'one' and 'two' are exceptional in two ways. Firstly, tr ey normally follow the noun they enumerate, and secondly, they are of the same gender as the noun they follow. Thus: wdlad wdaHid 'one boy' bint wdHda 'one girl'

.v,y.v*- 34 UNIT 3 I nzayn'. \ . uwfii^ummddl!1" ay ndfarn' k, cham yvdaHidfii! 9dshra " (i1 " A ,* Exercise 3.5 ! . *? Translate into Arabic:' How many boys are there m the class? J iT. '. i ... i. Nine. ( How many days are trtere in'the'Veek? * Seven. * " t How many,roonjsi are there m Jhe.,house? Five rooms' and two bathrooms. ' * How many engineers areHhere in the company? There aren't any. * ' * How much money is there irr the wallet? Seven dinars. n 3.4 GREETINGS Greeting somdone in Arabic cart be a somewhat'elaborate business, particularly"in'the Gulf. As in English, there" are standard formulas roughly equivalent to 'How d'ybu do?', 'How are you?', 'Pleased to meet you', etc. but in Arabic there are-a much larger nunibe'r f them, and they vary with tfae degree1 of formality bf the situation. We note here only the commonest and most usefiri expressions. At the most formal end of the scale, especially when greeting a number'of people,in a group/say on entering-a room or office), one says: is-saldam Paldykum to which the reply is; 9aldykum is-saldam 'And peace be 'hpbrf 'you' 'Peace be upon-you' UNIT*3 35

As. we saw in 2.2, we would normally translate* 'two bWs' and'two girls' by using the 'dual' form waladdyn, bintdyd.' Sometimes, however,*itkndyn and thintdyn are usecl with th^'normal plural,of these words. Thus: > s * ' waladdyn ) ,t , awldad ithndyn \ twohys' bintdyn '} , . , , '"* bandat thintdy]n \ * . P ' ^ ^

Numbers are often used in conversation with" the noun they, enumerate omitted: ' * cham rayydal hast! xdmsa (understood; rayaayiit) cham bint fii! '' thaldath (understood: bandat)" cham muddrrisa has't! thintdyn cham wdladfH% wdaHid 'How many'men are there?' 'Five.'' ' 'How many $rls are there?' 'Three.7 '' * 'How many women teachers l< ".are there1?' J s 'Two.*' t 'How many- boys are there?' 'One.' c -

The'phrase cham wdaHid! (lit. 'how many one?') js often used when asking about how many there ate of somethingYalready referred to: ' ' ' X fii kutub wdayid ihni 'There are a lot of books here' cham wdaHid fii! _ 'How many (exactly)?'

Exercise 3.4

*'

Read and translate the following dialogue. Practise reading it aloud, paying special attention to the stressed syllables: - hast cham kdatib fish-shdrika! - Hs9a kuttdab - uu cham sikirtiir! - hast sin sikirtiiriyya - nzdyn, hast faraariish bd9ad! - ay wdllah,fiifaraariish ihndyh -uu dray willyya . . . cham fii! - wdllah, maa mish draywiliyya ii-Hiin

UNIT 3 When taking leave of someone, one normally says:. . ft amdan illdah to which the reply is usually: ma9a s-saldama ) 'Welcome! Hello! Hi!'

UNIT 3 37
f

Less formally, especially with friends and acquaintances, one says: j


fdhlanl

'Welcome! Hello! Hi!'.

'In the safe-keeping of God' 'farewell\(Iit. 'with security,')

or dhlan wa sdhlanl to which the reply may be: dhlan biik/biichl dhlan marHdbal yaa hdlal

Exercise 3.6 Dialogue:*'At the butcher's': 9ind il-gaSSdab Read aloud the following" dialogue and 'translate it: r Customer: is-saldam 9aldykum Butcher: wa 9aldykum is-saldam C: il-yoom fii IdHam bdgar? B: ay nd9amfii. J C: il-kdylo bi cham!' r* B: dinaardyn uu nuSS. > C: nzdyn,'9dTni nuSS^kdylo min fdDlak. B: inshdallah. -. . . ufii.shay bd9ad! C: hast dajdaj! B: la, dajdaj il-yoom mda mish. bdachir inshdallah. C: nzdyn. fi amdan illdah^ B: md9a s-saldama. Exercise 5.7

*a

The last of these three has a particularly 'Gulf flavour.. ^ After the initial .exchange, jane asks abput the, person's health: \chayfil Haal! ) chayf Hdaliklich! > shloonaklach! ) 'Hotf are you?' ('How is the state?;) ('Howis*your state?') ('What is your colour?'}

%i<-

A number of replies are possible, which may be us'ed singly dr in combination: il Hdmdu lilldah bixayr i zayn ) dllah yisdtmjk/ich 'Praise be to God' 'Good' 'God save you!'

After replying to the-enquiry after one's health^.one then in turn asks after the enquirer's health. It is quite cpmmon for the greeting sequence to go on for some time, with the same questions about the other person's health being repeated in different forms! The following might be a typical informal sequence: dhlan, Uhlan yaa mHdmmadl yaa fidla, yaa jdasim! c&ayf Hdalak? il Hdmdu lilldah, zayn. shldonak! bi xayr. shldonak into.! dllah yisdlmik Hello, Muhammad!" Hello, Jasim! How are you? Praise be to God! Well! How are you? Well! How are you! God save you!

Using the dialogue above as a model; im'agine you are 9ind H bagdal - at the greengrocer's. Make questions along the following lines: (a) (b) (c) (d) 1 2 3 4 5 today? Are there any - are they? How much per Give me And do you have any ? onions (b) bag (c) a bag (d) potatoes apples (b) kilo (c) half a kilo (d) oranges* eggs (b) dozen (c) two dozen (d) grapes milk (b) bottle (c) three bottles (d)' cheese rice (b) sack (c) four bags (d) sugar

(a) (a) (a) (a) (a)

'"'i

AM""'i?iJiJtiiiriJlWiliiWir''Ji'ITTIITJ .._

II 'in

' 38 UNIT 3' VOCABULARY SUMMARY dhlan wa' sdhlan alldah amdan drba9 ay bdachir bdgar baggdall bagaagiil. bd9dd 'welcome* 'God' "security' ' 'four' 'yes' 'tomorrow' 'cows, cattle* 'greengrocer' Hljra*lHtjar 'ihni * inshdallah Into t 'room' 'he-re' 'God willing' 'you' (masc. sing.) ithndyn 'two- ' la , 'no" maa 'not' maa mish * 'there isn't/ ! aren't* mdra*lniswdan 'woman* mdrHaba' 'welcome* bil-mdrra* 'at all' s md9a 'with*mlHfaDHa*! 'wallet' maHdafiDH naas 'people' ndfarlanfdar 'person' '* nd9am 'yes' nzayn 'OK, right' riiH(i.)lriydaH 'wind' rubydan 'prawns* saldam ''peace, tranquillity' saldama*- " 'safety* sab9' 'seven' -. sitt 'six' smiit 'cement' subuu9l 'week' asaabli9 shdharldshur 'month' shloon 'how?' thaldath 'three* thamdan 'eight* tis9 'nine' v umml 'mother' ummahdat uxtlaxawdat wdaHid wdayid xams bi xayr 'sister' 'one' 'a lot, many' 'five' 'good, well' xdysha'J xiydash yoomlayydam il-ypom zayn(iin) '9dshdr (" UNIT 3 39 'sack' 'day* 'today' 'good' ''ten'' '

'more;-as well; still; yet' bintibandat 'girl' bdTil/bTdala 'bottle' chani 'how much, many?' bi chflm 'for how much?' chayf 'how?' "ddaxil 'inside' 'dajdaj J 'chicken* diinaarl 'dinar' danaaniir 'in, at' fi 'there is/are' fii ghdrsha*! 'bottle' aghrdash yaa hdla 'hello, welcome' hast 'there is/are' hundak 'over there' HaallaHwdal, 'condition, state' il-Hamd lilldah 'Praise be to God' Hammdam(aat) 'bathroom, toilet' il-Hiin 'now'

it

UNIT

shdrika, sayydara, Hijra! In the singular, such nouns behave exactly like mdra: ish-shdrika kabiira il-Hijra zdyna 'the company is big' 'the room is trice.' *

4.1 SIMPLE DESCRIPTIVE SENTENCES In Arabic, there is no equivalent of 'is' and 'are' in equational sentences of the type 'The office is big', 'The house is empty'; one J simply says: it-mdktab kabiir il-bayt xdali But where the noiin which the adjective describes is feminine, dual, or plural the adjective must agree with the'noun as in the following basic scheme: Singular Dual/Plural ir-rayydal zayn il-mdra zdyna ir-rayyaaldyn zayniin ir-rayaayiil zayniin il-maratdyn zayniin in-niswdan zayniin 'the man is good' "The woman is good/ "The two men are good*'The men are good' 'The two women are good' 'The women are good' |

But in the dual/plural, the adjective may either be plural or feminine singular. Thus: Dual Plural ish-sharikatdyn ish-sharikatdyn il-Hijar zdyna il-Hijar zayniin kabiira )'the two" companies are kibdar S big' i 'the rooms are nice' S

It is important to note that, in general in Gulf Arabic, noun duals and plurals like 'companies', 'roorns' -.that,is, inanimate-objects - may be considered grammatically plural or feminine singular, and may hence have adjectives and verbs which are either plural or feminine singular. This applies whatever the gender of the noun in the singular. Thus one may (not only) say ish-sharikatdyn kabiira/' kibdar, where shdrika is feminine in its singular form, but also il-aswdag kabiira/kibdar 'The markets are big', where the singular suug 'market' is'grammatically masculine singular.

It can be seen from these" examples that zayn, and other adjectives like it, add a final -a when they qualify a feminine noun, and the plural suffix -iin (which we saw in Unit 2) when they follow dual or plural nouns. As we saw earlier, many nouns have 'broken' plurals - and the same is true of many adjectives. Substituting the adjective kabiir pi. kibdar into the above examples, we get: Masc. sing. Fern. sing. Dual Plural ir-rayydal kabiir il-mdra kablira ir-rayyaaldyn kibdar in-niswdan kibdar 'The man is old' 'The woman is old* "The two men are old* "The women are old'

Exercise 4.1 Transl'ate the following into Arabic: t I The kettle is old 2 The chairs are new 3 The houses are large 4 The children are* happy 5 The rooms are small' 6 The two brothers are tall 7 The woman is fat 8 Th'e coffee is good 9 The milk is cheap 10 The buses are empty II The wallet is expensive 12 The two men are tired

kibdar not kabiinin is used in the dual/plural. Whether an adjective behaves in the plural like zayn or kabiir cannot be predicted from the form of the singular: as with the noun, it is wise to learn the plural form at the same time as the singular. Note that the feminine examples given so far have involved nouns which are feminine by meaning (3.3) What about those (mostly ending in -a) which are feminine by grammatical category, like

Exercise 4.2 In the following sentences, substitute the nouns supplied for the noun in the model sentence, making necessary adjustments to the adjective to make it agree with the new

42 UNIT 4 noun. Then translate into English the septences you have' formed. 1 il-bayt jadti'd 'The house is new' il-Hijra I il-buyuut-i il-mudarrisdat I il-farrdash 2' il-gdhwa ghdalya. 'The coffee is expensive' is-saayydara I il-kdtub / il-jibin I il-chaay 3 in-niswdan aghniyda 'The women are rich' il:mudtir I il-bintdyn 1 il-mdlikit I il-waladdyn ;* i. S Jilii i Exercise 4.3' > Readtaloud and translate into English:

UNIT 4, 43

1 il-awldad iT-Tiwdal 2 iT-Tayydara s-sarti9a 3 baaS xdali 4. ish-shams Hdarrat 5 buyuut 9atlija' 6 Jl-baadat ilkibdart 1 tujjdar agfyniyda 8 9dTni 1,-glaasdyn i!-kabiira min fdDla,k\ 9 mda hast ktitub raxiiSa ihni 10 fii xdmsat aqsdam jiddad fish-shdrika , *j

Exercise 4.4 4.2 NOUN-ADJECTIVE PHRASES. * In noun phrases like 'a^new palace'., .'a spacious room', 'good mep', the, adjective follows the noun rn.Ara.bic, agreeing in number and gender as described, described above. gdSir jadiid Hijra' wdasl9a rayaaydl zayniin *a new palace.' 'a spacious roorri' - , " 'good nien^^v^VV^^r

< *i

Translate into Arabic, and say aloud: 1 A good mechanic 2 The boss sis- late 3 To'day is'cold 4 The new office 5 The woman is rich 6 A cheap watch 7 The food is delicious & The old palace 9 A new secretary. 10 The big problem

4.3 S0MR^THER;TYPES OF ADJECTIVE

If these phrases are made definite, i-.e. 'the newvp^IaceV*te. ,~the definite article il is put before both the noun anq^t^adjectivg.-Thus the literal English translation of the Arabic for 'the newpalace' is 'the-palace-the-new': il-gdSir il-ja'diid il-Hljra l-wdasi9a ir-rayaayiil iz-zayniin 'the new palace' 'the spacious .room' 'the good men'

(a) Relative &(jectiyes These are formed by adding -iyy to certain nouns. In pause position (that is, at the end of a" phrase or sentence) -iyy is shortened.to i: ddaxil xdarij rdsam mtSir 'l-kwdyt 'inside' '* 'outside' 'formality' 'Egypt' 'Kuwait* ddaxiti(yy) xdariji(yy) rdsmi(yy) miSri(yy) kwdyd(yy) 'interior' 'exterior' 'formal, official' 'Egyptian' 'Kuwaiti' *

Note that where the noun ends in a vowel, as with feminine nouns like Hijra, the i of the following il is elided. The defined adjective can stand alone in much the same way as in English: * -fii noo9dyn, kabiir uu Saghfir. - nzayn, 9dTni l-kabiir 'There are two kinds, big and small' 'OK, give me the big one'

The feminine and dual/plural form of the relative adjective shows a and -tin added to the -iyy: if-wizdara d-daaxillyya ll -gamdarik il-miSriyya zuwwdar rasmiyytin "The Ministry of the Interior' 'The Egyptian Customs and Excise' 'Official visitors'

44 UNIT 4 (b) Colour adjectives Most adjectives which denote colours or 'physical defects' (blind, deaf, dumb, etc.) are formed according to the pattern below: masc. dHmar dxDar dbyaD d9ma fern. Hdmra XdDra bdyDa 9dmya pi. Humur of Humrdtan XdDur or XuDrdan biiD or biiDdan 9umy or 9umydan 'a red car' 'the white house' 'the blind (people)' 'red' 'green' 'white' 'blind'* (d) Adjectives which precede the noun

UNIT 4 45

There are very few. adjectives which precede the noun they qualify. The most important is xoosh 'nice, good' which is used in exclamatory phrases of the following kind, and takes no feminine or plural endings: xoosh wdlad\ xdosh drdywil intl xdosh shdyl 'Good boy!' 'What a good driver you are!' 'What a-nica thing!'

Examples: sayydara Hdmra il-bdyt il-dbyaD il-9umydan (c) Stative adjectives (

Exercise 4.5 Pronunciation practice: read aloud and translate, checking, unfamiliar words in the Vocabulary Summary of this unit where necessary. il-gdSir il-9atlij binydan 96od*wdayid. lih ('it has') baabdyn xaarijiyya'uu 9drba9a biibdan daaxiliyya. ilHHTdan mdalih ('belonging to it') btiD uu d-daraariish mdalih min jdam dSfar uu dzfag

There are a great many adjectives of this class which' denote temporary physical states/and are formed as below: masc. 9aTshdan yuu9dan ta9bdan barddan fern. 9aTshdana yuu9dana ta9bdana barddana pi. 9atshaaniin or 9aTdasha yuu9aantin or yuwda9a ta9baan(in or ta9daba bardaaniin or bardada 'Salma is very tired' 'The merf are thirsty' 'I'm feeling cold today' 'thirsty' 'hungry' 'tired' 'cold*

sdlma wdayid, ta9bdana ir-rayaayiil 9aTshaaniin' barddan il-yoom

Exercise 4.6 Pronunciation practice: read aloud the sentence below and translate it, then make appropriate substitutions using the cue words to make similar sentences. wdllah yaa 9dli, dna (T) wdayid 9aTshdan . . jiib Hi bdarid min fdDlak gldas chaay kdub rfiaay guuTi bdbsi shwdy yuu9dan. . . ruuti jibin sandawtich IdHam 9dysh uu simich

Note that barddan refers to how a person feels; the adjective bdarid, from the same root, is used to describe liquids, food or things which are cold, e.g. jiib Hi bdarid), il-yoom bdarid dkil bdarid 'Bring me a cold drink* (lit: 'a cold') 'Today is cold' 'cold food'

46 UNIT 4 Exercise 4.7 Read aloud and translate the following dialogue: ^ chayf Hdalik yaa dHmad! dllah yisdlmik. chayf Hdalik int! ana walldahi il-yoom ta9bdan. . . laysh! r " li'dnn fiishi^ghul rfdayid. , J j" VOCABULARY SUMMARY 'white I dbyaDfbiiD, v dHmartHumdr, *'red' 'food' \ *,* dkil(aat) 'black'v dswad/suud 'yellow'" dSfar/Sufur axlixwdan * 'brother' dxDarlxuDur 'green' 'blue* dzraglzdrug d9ma/9umydan 'blind' 'cold (weather, bdarid manner)' 'cold (feeling)' barddan(iin) baablbiibdan 'door' 'building' binyaan ddaxili 'internal, interior' 'window' dariisha*/ dardayish 'happy' farHdan(iin)t 'quarter (of a firiij/firgdan city)' 'palace' gdSir/guSuur gumrukl 'Customs' gamdarik ghdali 'expensive' ghdni/aghniyda 'rich' ghassdala*(aat) 'washing machine' ghuuri 'kettle, teapot' Haa'iTIHHTdan 'outer wall' Haarr 'hot' jaqm 'glass (sheet)' 'new' jadiid/jiddad juuti 'stioes' kabiirlkibdar 'big, old' kursilkardasi 'chair' 'delicious' ladhtidh t* ur ft laysh li'ann lopnlalwdan jriathn/'amtddn mit'dxxir t mushkila*! mashdakil' npo9lanwda9 qadiim

. UNH\4 *7
t

T j

'>hy?'^ . 'because' 'colour.' ,,* H\ 'late' 'problem' 'type, kind' 'old (of things)'" 'shirty 'official' 'cheap' 'watch' 'ambassador' 'roof 'fast, speedy' 'small, young' 'sun' 'thing' 'work, job' *
{

Now substitute in*the,dialogue forta9bdan andfiishughuh wdayid different adjectives and differentreasons: upset because the car's broken down TV's ' , fridge's washing-machine's i happy because'* there's no work today T there's hd school tb'day today is a holiday vthe weather's cool

* , , f l

Exercise 4.8, Translate into Arabic^ *1 I'm cold and hungry. . . Is there any food? a 2 Fatma and Ahmad are tired because there was a lot of work today* ' 3 The machine's broken down.-. . Is there a mechanic' v here? ' * " 4 Why is the boss angry? 5 The house is white hi colour and has a green roof. 6 Give me the red shirt and the white shoes. 7 The Ministry of the Interior is a big white building. 8 The British Embassy is in the old quarter. 9 The National Bank is a small building which has (lih) a large black door. 10 The Egyptian ambassador is a very nice man (use xoosh).

qamiiSI qumSdan rdsmi raxiiS sda9a*(aai) safiir(sufarda sagflsuguuf sarii9Isirda9 SaghiirlSighdar tShams (f) shay/ashyda shughul! asjighdal ta9bdan(ii) tilivizyuun(aat) Taqs

'tired' 'TV 'cljmate, weather' TawiillTiwdal 'tall, long' 'child' TifillaTfdal thalldaja* (dat) 'fridge' wdasi9 'roomy, spacious' wdllah > 'By God!' walldahi > ' wizdara* (aat) 'ministry' xdati 'empty' xdariji 'external, exterior'

48 UNIT 4 xarbdan xoosh yuu9danl yuwda9a zdayirlzuwwdar za9ldan(iin) 'broken down* 'nice, good' 'hungry' 'visitor' 'angry, upset' 9atiijl9itdqg 9aTshdan(iin) 9ood 9&Tla*l9uTal 'old, anciepj: (of things)' 'thirsty''big,'large" * 'holiday, day I "off UNIT 5 5.1 NUMBERS 11 TO 1,000,000 The numbers'from 11 to 20 are formed according to a pattern which, literally translated, means 'one-ten', 'two-ten', 'three-ten', etc. Beyond 20, me pattern is 'one-and-twenty', 'two^and-twenty*, 'seven-and-forty', etc. iHdd9shar ithnd9shar thalaathtd9shar arba9td9shar xamstd9shar sittd9shar saba9td9shar thamantd9shar tisa9td9shar 9ishriin wdaHid u 9ishriin ithndyn u 9ishriin thalaathiin arba9iin xamstin sitttin sab9iin thamaaniin tis9tin miya 'eleven' 'twelve' 'thirteen' 'fourteen' 'fifteen* 'sixteen' 'seventeen' 'eighteen' 'nineteen' 'twenty' "twenty-one' 'twenty-two', etc. 'thirty' 'forty' 'fifty' 'sixty' 'seventy* 'eighty' 'ninety' 'one hundred'

'4 , \

Unlike the numbers 110, those from 11 onwards do not show a gender distinction: they are indeclinable. Any noun which follows them is always grammatically singular, although its meaning is obviously plural. Examples: xdms u 9ishriin sdna 'twenty-five years' ithnd9shar bint 'twelve girls' WdaHid u sittiin diindar u nuSS 'sixty-one and a half dinars' I'

a^-ftWH I' 50 UNIT 5 Note that when a noun follows miya, the 'hidden-*' of the.femimne shows up, just as we had in Unit 1 ('expressions of quantity'), nitfat xubuz from nitfa, 'a bit', so we have miyat xubza and likewise mtyafmdrra miyat fils 'a hundred'times' 'a hundred fils' t a hundred loaves' * 'a bit of bread' UNIT5 51 Since, as,'we have seen aboye, numbers over 11* have the noun in the singular! so alf remains in, the singular if, the number in which it appears is ll,000,pr,m6re: 1 *r iHdd9shar dlfjindy istdrlin '11,000 Sterling' 9ishriin dlf mayl,* ^ '20,000 miles' Years are expressed as follows: * fi sdnat dlf u tis9'imyd u 'in 1981.' * wdatfid u thamaaniin t y 'One million' is milyoon, #and its plural is milaayiin. Exercise 5.1 Translate into Arabic: 1 50 kilos of p"otat6es' 2 46 bags'of cement 3 360 miles" * 4- 60,000 people .,. 5 200,000 dinars ,

Where mrya stands on. its'own, or is part of a componnd^ntimber, the / does not appear: '" - c/iam 9damil hdstfi sh- >" shdrika! c - miya " * ^ miya u wdaHid miya il ithndyn miya u ithnd9shar Hmtya il thaldath u 9ishriin 'How many workers are .there in the company?* 'A hundred' *'

Compound numerals from 100 to 200 are formed as "follows: 'a hundred 'a hundred 'a hundred 'a hundred etc. and and and and one' two', etc.* *, twelve' " twenty-three',

6V in" 1976" T in 1966 8 750 fils * 9 200 sacks of rice 10 39 years, ll^months >

'Two hundred' is miyatdyn (the'dual), but there is no plural fbrm for miya in '300', '400', etc. Thus: drba9 miya u xams u 9ishriin diindar miyatdyn u tis9 kdylo sttt imydt ndfar '425 dinars' '209 kilos' '600 persons'

Exercise 5.2 Read aloud and translate the following dialogue: - bi cham il-bayD il-ydom! - xams imydt fils id-ddrzan. Using-the same format, ask and answrer questions on the price of things in the market: 1 oranges - 100 fils a kilo 2 onions - 55 fils a kilo 3 fish - 350 fils a kilo 4 bananas - 175 fils a dozen 5 cabbage - 125 fils each ('the one*) 6 7 8 9 10 tea - 70 fils a quarter dates'- 900 fils a kilo tomatoes - 50 fils a bag potatoes -r 80 fils a sack radishes - 12 fils a bundle

Note in this last example that miya 'becomes Jimya where, it 'is preceded by a number ending in a double consonant:' this is" to avoid three consonants in a row, which is not normally allowed in Gulf Arabic. 'One thousand' is alf. 'Two thousand' is o course alfdyn, and the plural of "alf is aaldaf: sittat aaldaf sdna t(s9at aaldaf kitdab '6000 years' '9000 books'

52 UNIT 5 5.2 AGE The phrase for asking a person's age is chdm 9umriklch! (literally 'How much is your life?'). The answer is 9umri . . . sand 'I'm . . . years old' (lit. 'My life is'. . . years'). Since many older Gulf Arabs are not sure exactly "when they were born, one oftenhears exchanges of the following type: - yaa- 9dli, chdm 9umrik ilHiinl - wdllah 9umri Hawdali sitttin r sdna. 'How old arejou now Ali?' 'About sixty.' is-sda9a 9dshra ilia thilth is-sda9a tis9a ilia rub9 'Twenty to ten' 'Quarter to nine'

'UNIT 5 '53

'Five to/past.. .' and 'ten to/pa^t' are expressed using u and ilia, but the masculine form of the number is "used. The word for 'minutes', dagdayig (sing, dagiiga) is not usually used in colloquial speech: ,Five past five' is-sda9a xdmsa u'xdmS is-sda9a 9dshra ilia 9dshar 'Ten to ten' 'Twenty-five to/past. . .'*involves*the*use of nuSS: one says 'and a half and five'*for thirty-five minutes past the hour, and 'and a half except five' for twenty-five'minutes past the hour:

[ I

'5.3 TELLING THE TIME

'The word for 'a watch,; 'a clock' and 'an hour' is the same in Arabic - sda9a. 'What time is it?' is chdm is-sdaQa! The answer is is-sda9a. . . 'It's . . . Oj'clock'. The feminine form of the cardinal numbers is used: is-sda9a xdmsw is-sda9a thintdyn 'It's five o'clock' 'It's two o'clock'

is-sda9a drba9a u miSS u xams is-sda9a thamdanya u ndSS ilia xams

'Twenty-five to fiye' 'Twenty-five past eight'

For eleven and twelve, the indeclinable iHdd9shar and ithnd9shar are used. Times between full hours are expressed using . . . u rub9 . . . u nuSS . . . u thilth Examples: is-sda9a iHdd9shar u rub9 'Quarter past twelve' is-sda9a thaldatha u nuSS 'Half past three* is-sda9a sitta u thilth 'Twenty past six' 'Quarter to. ilia 'except': 'Twenty to. . .' are expressed by .the preposition t 'Quarter past. . . (Lit:' and a l quarter') 'Half past. r. (Lit:' and a half) 'Twenty past. . . (Lit: ' and a third')

When it needs to be specified which part of the day is being referred to one uses thes following expressions: iS-SubH (or SabdaHan) 'in the morning*,'bd9ad iDH-DHuhur^ 'in,the afternoon', il-masda (or masda'an)''in the evening', bil-layt'at nighty These expressions are used more or less as their English equivalents, 'the evening* beginning about 5.00 p.m., and 'the morning* beginning at sun-up. It is worth noting, however, that there are, other' modes of timekeeping in the Gulf region: the westerner is unlikely nowadays to meet anyone who sets his watch by Muslim Sun-time, according to which the day begins with sun-up and ends with sun-down, but he may well meet the words iDH-DHiHa 'the forenoon', il-gayiiuld noon-time' il-9dSir 'mid-afternoon', aifd il-mughdrb 'the even,n g'- These words refer to parts of the day which we do not normally distinguish, and are still in common use: iDH-DHiHa refers to the jate morning'from about 9.00 a.m. to noon, while iS-SubH is really e arly morning'; il-gayuula refers to the early part of the afternoon from noon to about 3.00 p.m, and the late afternoon is il-9dSir (3.00 to 5.00 p.m roughly)v.. il-mughdrb comes after il-9dSir and means the period from sun-down to when daylight has faded completely. The truly black part of the night is il-layl. These expressions We re a means of measuring the passage of time before patches w ere common, but are still often used.

ii P

iSii *&jS>J8KM-h-. il JU JJ? JBWWW

54 UNIT 5 Exercise 5.3 ,

<

UNIT 5 55 The forms given here are the* most/dfalectally''neutral', and-the learner is advised to use these. However, there is a' greatdeal of variation from" dialect 1:0 dialectand" many variants wjll.be encountered, ani 'is a*feminine fofmi^r 'I' used by' sqthe '(uneducated) women; ihtay 'you' (fem.sing) and inlaw (comm.pL)!may be heard as alternants to inti aijd^ intu; and ){rn is heard,in* the Lower, Gulf as a feminine form of hdnjma. There .are other less common variants besides these. '.,* * H Generally speaking, -as will become clear through the examples spread through the followirfg units; the 'independent'-personal pronouns listed* above are used for emphasis' only -'-in 'Arabic, sentences like 'I'go**, 'she sat down's consisfof'a yerb"only, which contains an ending signifying"1'!* ?ihd 'she'.'The independent personal pronouns are used- when one wishes for some reSson to emphasise riho was invblved in'ah-actibh', e.g. *I go (not hhfi)\ 'it was she who sat'dowh (ribt someone!else)'. i i i" * ' These independent personal pronouns are matched by a set of 'dependent'* personal pronouns \vhich perform a function in'Arabic equivalent to tffat otthe object pronouns and possessive a'djectives in English. Thus in Ara'bic *him/his", 'us/otlr', 'them/thesis trans* lated by the'same-word. In only one case o*oes Arabic make a distinction - between 'me' and 'my'. 'us/our' -i na my -ni 'me' -iklak 'you/your (m.s.)" 'you/your (pi.)' kum -ichlach 'you/your (f.s.)' -ah 'him/his7its (m. nouns)' _hum 'them/their (pi.)' -ha 'her/her/its (f. nouns)' As noted previously, -ikj-ak and -ichl-ach are freely variable. These suffixes are attached directly to verbs, nouns, and prepositions:
9

Translate (the following fihrases, which are responses to the. 'question: ' ^ s '"* * $ il-mdw9idfis"-sda9qchdm!' *At what tirrie is the appointment?' 1 fis-sda9d wdHda u nHSStbd9qd iDH-DHuhur 2 fis-sda9a ti9a ilia thilth SabdaHan$ H-9dSir is-sda9a drba9a 4*fis-sda9athamdanya u ndSS il-masda ' f, 5 iS-SubH is-sda9a sdb9a Wrub9 " < Exercise 5.4 '

'Someone asks you chdm is-sda9a! Refer to your watch and. answer: '

;(

5.4 PERSONAL PRONOUNS \ \ ' The most common.forms of the personal pronouns used in the Gulf are as below. Note tha( a sex distipction is made in the 2nd person singular. ana T iHna we' ihta 'you' "(rhasc. "sing) intu 'you' (comm.pl.) inti 'you' (fern, 'sing*) huwwa 'he* humme 'they' (comm.pl.) hiyya 'she'

T 'give(m.s.)! + ni kitdab 'book' + i 9ind 'with, at' + ik

'me' 9dTni -'give me!.' 'my' k'itddbi 'my book' *you(m.)' 9indik 'you'hive'(lit:. 'with you') ! i

56 UNIT 5 A number of points should be noted:' (i)As with other suffixes which begin with a vowel (such as the dual ending -ayn) the'hidden.' -t of feminine nouns ending in -a shows up when these suffixes are attached: sda9ati 'my watch' Hijrdthum 'their room', (ii) Where suffixes which begin with, a consonant are aUded to 9ind, which already ends with two consonants,^some speakers insert -a- to make the word more easily prdnotonceable: 9indahum 'they have', 9indana 'we have'. Yet others simply drop the -n-: 9tdhum, 9tdna.* Either of these types of form is acceptable. (iii) Two. nouns,, ab 'father' and ax 'brother' insert a -uu- .before suffixation: abuuk 'your father' axtiuh 'his brother'. The 'my' suffix with these two words is -yi rather than -i: qbuuyi,'my father'. * (iv) There are a few nouns which end in -a which do not have 'hidden' -t which lengthen and stress the final vowel when suffixed, e.g. ghdda 'lunch' ghaddach 'your (f.) lunch', 9dsha 'dinner' 9ashdahum 'their dinner'. In sentences of the type 'The colour of my car is red', it is quite common in Arabic to 'reverse the order' and say 'My car, its colour is red' (as in French 'ma voiture, elle est rouge'): sayydarti Idonha dHmar Similarly, dna ismi mHdmmad 'My name is Muhammad' ('(, my name. . .'), Sadiiqa bdytha fil-muHdrrag 'Sadiiqa's house is in Muharraq' ('Sadiiqa, her house. . .') Nouns which have a personal suffix attached to them are treated in Arabic like 'defined' nouns if- they are modified by an adjective. Just as we have (4.2). is-sda9a l-jadiida so we have sda9atik il-jadiida 'your new watch' 'the new watch*

UNIT 5 57 The omission of the definite article before the adjective in this example sda9atik jadiida changes the meaning to 'your watch is new'. 5.5 'WHO?' AND 'WHAT?' There are a number of words ifsed for 'what?' in interrogative sentences. The commonest are shinhu and waysh, which may both, be abbreviated to sh- and directly prefixed to nouns: waysh I shinhu shiighlik! shismich! minhu int! min ddaxil! 'What's your job?' 'What's your (f.) name?' 'Who are you?' 'Who's inside?' 11 Exercise 5.5 Read aloud and translate tr^e dialogue,Jjelow. iDH-DHuruuf ish-shaxSiyya: 'Personal circumstances' ismik il-kdamil min fdDlik! ismi Hsdyn mHdmmad Hasan. nzayn . . . wil-jinsiyya! baHrdyni. uu l-Hdala l-ijtimaa9iyya! mitzdwwaj. 9tndik yihdal! ay wdllah. bintdyn u sittat awldad. sittat awldad . . . wdayid! uu wayn sdakin! sdakin wdllah fi madiinat 9i'isa. fiay shdari9! ish-shdari9 sitt u arba9iin, il-bayt rdqam thaldath miya u iHdd9shar. ~ nzayn, u shinhu shiighlik il-Hdali! - 9damil fish-shdrika. I I i > n , 1' ' i\ i, ! ! 1

'

Parallel with shinhu we find mfnhu 'who?' or min for short:

i 1

58 UNIT 5 x-fly* shdrika! , , .. * * - shdrikat bdabko.t :j - u cham H-ma9dash!' - kill shdhar miya u tis9iin diindqr. .- rdatib zayn, wdllah. . .*.'u cha/n, 9umrik il-Hfin! - 9umri wdllah Hawdali xams uarba9tin sdna. - 9indak shahaadda{ Tdb9an.!' - ay nd9am. 9indi sh-shahdadq l-ibtidaa'tyya. * - b'as? thaqnawiyya maa mish! >tr la. Exercise 5.6 Look at the table below: f t ' * \ VOCABULARY SUMMARY^ \ ablubuhdat 'thousand' alftaaldaf T , )5 ana arba9td9shar,' 'fourteen' t[^ arba9iin, 'fPrty' t ,Zwhich?V ^ y . 'bachelor* , d9zab 'only, justj but' bos 'plumber' baybflita bd9ad 'minute r dagiiga*/ dagdayig ddraja* (aat) 'degree' 'forenoon', DHiHa 'noon' ^ DHuhur t 'circumstances' DHuruuf (Pi-)' filasTiini 'Palestinian' gayuula* , 'noon-day heat* ghdda 'lunch' s hiyya 'she' humma 'they* htiwwa 'he' Hdala*! 'condition, aHwdal state' Hdali 'preseqt, current' Hawdali 'approximately* il-HHn 'now' Ibtidda 'beginning' Ibtidda'i 'elementary, primary' lHdd9shar 'eleven' IHna 'we' 'jtimda9 'meeting; society' i Uimda9i 'social' ilia 'except* into. inti < { > intu isimlasdami "ithnd9shar jdami9a*(aat) jdami9i

UNIT 5 59

9dli HdafiDH Hsayn you name1: nationality: Bahraihi Palestinian Kuwaiti ? social status^: married divorced bachelor % ? ? children: 2 boys 3 b. 2 g. domicile: Manama Doha Salmiyya '? 45 age: 23 27 s S ? job: "plumber foreman engineer ?* salary per 210 B.D:* 2,600 Q.R. 1,200 K.D. ? month: ..* education: primary secondary univer. deg. ? 1 Practise asking 9dli, HdafiDH, etc. (yaa 9dli. . .) about the topics in the left-most column of trie chart, usihg'the question forms exemplified in the'dialogue you have read. *' 2 Imagine you are 9dli, etc and make your answers. 3 Answer the questions as they relate to you yourself. Here is some vocabulary to help you: divorced bachelor Manama Doha Salmi yya mTdllag d9zab il-mandama id-d6oHa is-saalmiyya plumber forerrfan Riyal university degree baypfiita tinddyl riydal ddraja jaami9iyya

'ypu'(m.s:) * 'you' (f.s:) 'you' (pi.) . 'name' 'twelve' ^university' 'university' (adj.-) " 'Pound jinaystdrlin Sterling' jinsiyya* laflt) 'nationality' 'complete') kaamil t 'all' kill taylilaydali 'night' . malfduf, 'cabbage' mar ra* (aat) 'time,.occasion' masda 'evening' masda'an 'in the evening* 'appointment,, mdw9idl, , mawda9id date' 'who?' jninhu mayllamydal 'mile' ma9dash(aat) 'salary' 'million' milydonl malaayiin mitzdwwaj 'married' 'hundred' miya* (aat) 'banana' mooz 'divorced' mTdllag 'evening, mughdrb sun-set' 'salary' rdatib/ rawdatib riydal(aat) 'Riyal' ruwdyd 'radish' sdakin 'living, domiciled'

* 1 A fl

rawnn

60 UNIT 5 sda9a*(aat) 'hour; watch, tlock' 'seventeen* 'seventy' 'year' ^ninety* 'naturally' 'secondary (school)' thalaathtd9shar 'thirteen' ' thalaathiin 'eighty' i thamantd9shar 'eighteen'' Jhilth/athlddth 'one-third' 'where?' wayn \bafsh 'what?' xamsiih' 'fifty' i xamstd9shar 'fifteen' ydahil/yihdal 'child' yuunfyya*/ 'sack' yawdani 9dshd 'dinner' 9dSir 'late afternoon. 9ind 'with*, at' (+ ' pron. 'to have*) ] -9ishrlins 'twenfy' ' 9umr/a9mdar 'life' (length of tis9iinTdb9an thdanawi REVIEW UNIT I Exercise LI Dialogue: polite requests Read aloud and translate the dialogue below: yaa 9dli, ta9dal\ nd9am. jiib Hi mday bdarid min fdDlik. ana wdayid'9aTshdan. inshdallah. ,1 i t Using the table below, make, as many similar polite requests as you can, in each case giving an appropriate"reason: jiib Hi sdww Hi bdnnid bdTTil chday dHmar sandawiich il-kandishan il-pdnka id-dariisha 9aTshdan barddan juu9dan Hdarr

saba9td9shar sab9iin sdna*l sanawdat (or siniin) 'sixteen' sittd9shark 'sixty' sittiin SabddHan 'in the morning' 'early morning' SubH 'bundle, bunch' Surra* {aat) 'street' shdhri9I shawdari9 shahdada* (aat) 'certificate, diploma' shaxS/ashx'daS 'person' * 'personal' shdxSi shinhu 'what?" 'foreman' tinddyl 'nineteen' tisa9td9shar

Exercise 1.2 Dialogue: business diary Read aloud and translate: Boss: 9indi mawda9id bdachir, yaa sdlwa! Sec: 9indik maw9iddyn iS-SubH1. . . . il-mdw9id ildwwal fis-sda9a tis9a wiyya zuwwdar rasmiyyiin min il-wizdara l-xaarijiyya with-thdani fis-sda9a iHdd9shar u nuSS wiyya l-muhdndis ir-ra'iisi min shdrikat Vdntar'. Boss: nzdyn, ufii shay bd9ad iDH-DHuhur! Sec: la mda mish . . . 9tndik fardagh. Boss: ufil-masda! Sec: 9indak mubdara tdnnis wiyya s-sdyyid Johnson fissda9a sitta u rub9. . . . i'! i t: t

F" 62 REV1E.W UNIT I Imagine now that you are the secretary.*Xpur'bpss asks yqy 9(ndi niawda9id il-ydom! and you refer to his business diary below''Give hirn a summary of what's in store for him! ' ., -, K -fi * 'f MONDAY 4 JANUARY J a.m. -, 9.00 9.30 Journalist from 'il-jumhurriya> (newspaper) io:oo " ' - * '' 10.15 Two students from the university ll.'OO The contractor Ahmad 'Abdullah Pm... . i*' 4.00 Tea-party, at the British Embassy 7.30 Dinnerparty at^hpme D Exercise 1.3 Diafogue: greetings Read aloud and translate: T e
v 4

REVfEWUNIT,! 63 Exercise I.'4 Text: a mother talks about Ver "family Read aloud and trarfsla"ter ana ismi fdaTma mHdmmad 9iisa. fnawtuuda 'filrrtdndama u sdakina HaaliyyanfifiriijHl-fdaDih 9indi drba9at yihdal<- bint wdHda isimha ntiurd'u thaldatHafc awldad aqaamiihum jdaiirh, mbdarakru baxdyt. bind nuura"9umurha sab9atd9shdr sdna 0hiyya Tdalibafiljaami9a. bint Hd)-ika,'wdllah! wjldi jdasim sfitighlah kdatib fi shdrikat '9dnta'r\- xdosh wdlad hu.nmbdarak shdghlah muqdawil. 9indahfluus^wdayiduisayydara Hdmra 96oda. wildt th-thdalith baxdyt. 9unjrdh il-Hiijx, Hawdali 9'ishrun sdna, bos mda 9inddh shdhaaddaj wa la shay "'wdlad zay&bas'maa $inddh muxx wdayid Exercise 1.5 Translation1: gbing shopping J Below is your shopping list'for the weekend*. First'ask the shop-keeper whether what you want is available, and, then ask,him for the quantity you want.

II

I 1 ' i

dhlan marHdba, yaa jdasim\t yaa hdla dHmadl shldonik'?'insHddlldh"z'dyn\ dllah yisdlm'ik! shldonik int! zayn walldh . . . tfdDDal chdayl ismdH li, 9indi shughul shwdy fil-bdyt. shinhu yd9ni! wdllah mushkila! sayydarti xarbdana. v4/, wdllah? ana shdghli taSliiH sayyaardatl Sidf! ay. nzdyn, ta9dal wiyydayl

3 hMS of milk 3 cm+vS of fepsi-Cofa fb&d Picket $atfi Wo lartb ?z. 4oz. &ra.nae 2. box /narfclaS S~Pa-cict^S. ctt ciaareJreS

Vrink

64 REVIEW UNIT 1 VOCABULARY SUMMARY 'first' 'close!' (imp.) 'open!'.(imp.) '.free time* 'quarter (of a city)' .gduTi/ 'packet, box, gawdaTi tin' Hdfla*(aat) 'party, celebration' Hdflat chaay 'tea-party' Hdluf. Hdlwa 'sweet, pretty, handsome' ismdH liil 'excuse me, sorry!' kandishan 'airconditioning' mawldud 'born' mubdara* (aat) 'match, contest' muxx 'brain, intelligence' pdnka(aat) 'fan' dwwal f. aula bdnnidl bdTTW. fardagh firiij/firgdan ra'iislru'asda- \ 'chief, bos?' (n.) 'chief, main, ra'usi principal' (adj.) sdyyidlsdada* 'Mr.' Sanduugl 'box, chest' Sanaadiig^ Sidj 'that's true!' tdnnis 'tennis' tqSliiH 'repair' tq9dal\ 'come (here)!' Tdalib/Tulldab 'student' 'third' (adj.) thdalith 'second' (adj.) thdani 'boyson* wild ' (often used instead of wdlad in phrases like 'j| wildi 'my son*, wildik 'your son') / UNIT 6

6.1 EXPRESSIONS OF PLACE In answer to the question word wdyn! 'where?*, some of the most common types of locational phrase are exemplified below: fi (or 60 'in, inside, e.g. fil-bdyl at' 9dla 'on' 9dlal-mdyz~ 'above, on, fdog il-drD up on' taHt 'under' tdHt il-kursi gidddam,. 'in front of gidddam ilbdab mgdabil 'opposite' mgdabil b,dyti wdra 'behind' wdral-mdl9ab ''in the house, at home* 'on the table-' 'above the ground* 'under the chair' 'in front of the door'

ydnbl 'next to, yamm beside' gariib min 'near to' ba9iid 9an 'far from*

'opposite my house' 'behind the (football) pitch' ydnb il-mdsyid 'next to the mosque* gardb min ilbdnk ba9iid 9an ilmadiina 'near the bank' 'far from the town'

Exercise 6.1 Look at the street map below and complete the sentences which follow; translate the sentences. it-bank H-\ _ | is-slinama il-matHaf w&Tani it-md!9ab il-bariid Q'id-daww&ar shdan'9 9abddllah madrdsat 1 dbu bakr P>' 2 c E shdrikat b&yti mdsyid "9antar." 1O ) *

(glQ^Qgi UNIT 6 1 wayn il-mdtHaf! 2 wayn il-bank H-wdTani! yamm ,shdari9 9abddllah. 3 wayn ? wara mqdrdsat dbu bakr. 4 wayn- bdytik! .-shdrikat '9dntarl, fi^ 5 il-bariid shdrikat *9dhtar'. "6 madrdsat dbu bakr il-bank il-wdTani. 7 wayn il-mdl9gb! it-bariidfi Now translate the following questions, and answer, them from-the street map: -\ 8. Excuse me; where's the^post-bffice? 9 Where's Abu Bakr school, please? " '* 10 Excuse rhe*, whefe's the'Antar Company?" 11 Excuse me, where's the(mqsqfie please? 12 Where's the cinema please?" ' \ J 'on me," against me' iliyyi'ot ilii 'to, toward me' wiyydayi or wiyyday 'with me* wdraayCxyx warday foehiritf me' 9aliyyf,or 9alii

ila 'to; wiy'ya^ W h' # .. wara 'behind!.

(ii) The other preposition + personal suffix forms are:^ fi: fiik,fiidh",fiih,%fiiha,"fiina,fiikum, fiihum bi: biik, biich, biih, biiha, biina, biikum, biihum 9dla: 9aldyk, 9aldych, 9aldyh, 9aldyha, 9aldyna, 1( 9aldykum,"9aldyhum r ila:- ildyk, ildych.Hldyh, ildy'ha, ildyna; ildykum, ildyhum wara: wardak, wardach,*wardah, wardaha,, wardana, wardakum, warddhum , wiyya: iviyydak:,*wiyydach, wiyydah, wiyydaha, wiyydanay wiyydakum,"wiyyddHum li: lik, l}ch, lih, liha, lina,,likum, lihum * s * 'l Many of these prepositions are used in set phrases or idioms: filbi: waysh biiklfjik! shbiiktfhfiik! 'What's -the matter with" 'you?' "(lit: 'What is in you?,') '

Exercise 6.2 Translate into Arabic: i

on the' table; under the' car^ up tKe ladder; in the cinema; in the car; under the sea; "on the roof; near my house; in front of the bank; above the house; in the water; next to the new palace; far from Kuwait; behind al-Malik"Street," on the wall; near the window; under the table Note-thatthe personal-pronoun suffixes (5.4) can be added-^irectly to any of these prepositions,, e.g. tdHtifc 'below you', mgdabilha 'opposite her'. A number df changes-occur when* the suffixes are added to prepositions ending in a,yowe!:( (i) The 1st person singular suffix is -i after prepositions ending in a consonant, e.g. gidddami 'in front^f-me\ buj note the following: after fi 'in, at' fiyyi or fiini f 'in me' bi 'in, with' biyyi oi~bii *in, with me' /(' 'to' liyyi or Hi 'to me'

bi: bil-lughaj-9drabiyya 'in Arabic' bil-9arabi 9dla: 9a!dyk il-Hagg . 9aldyk-dyuun ""You're in the wrong' (lit: 'The "right is against you') 'You!re in debt' (lit: 'Debts are against/on you') 'You're in the right'; you have the right' (lit! 'The right is to you') * 'He lives right -next to me' t j(lit: 'He is living under me') 'The best there is' (lit: 'There's not' above it an above')

H: likil-Hdgg

taHt: hu sdakin tdHti foog: mda fdogah fdog

68 UNIT'S fdog in-ndxal ^Fantastic, marvellous' (reply to 'How are you?') (lit: 'Above the palm-trees') 6.2 THE VERB: PAST TENSE * 6.2.1 Basic forms ' f

UNIT 69

'

foog and taHt are also used as adverbs meaning 'upstairs* and 'downstairs'. - waynjlHa! -foog '.Where's Jiha?' 'Upstairs'

Exercise 6.3 Translate the following sentence into Arabic} >The driver's in your office, and there's a maft with him-Now substitute into this sentence the following nouns', making appropriate changes in the pronoun: The servant/Your secretary (f.)/The foreman/My daughter/ The engineers/The journalist/The teacher (f.). Translate the following exchange into Arabic: What's the matter with you (m.)? - I'm tired, that's all! Now substitute, into this exchange the following pronouns" and adjectives: you (f.) him you (pi.) them 1 2 3 4 5 thirsty - upset - hungry - cold

In this Unit we have, our first encounter with the Arabic verb. For describing events which happened.at a definite time jn,the past that is, completed actions - and,for certain othef purposes which will be described later, the ',pa,st tense' verb is used. The basic form of the pas,t tense of-the first group of vdrbs we will consider (Theme I verbs^ consists of a consonant, skqletoq C-C-CT (where C = consonant) to which one of three vowel patterns is,applied: a-a, i-a, or u-a. Thus CaCaC, CiCaC and CuCaC are the possible Theme I basic forms. Typical examples of the three types are shdrab 'to drink' (sh-r-b), kitab 'to write' (k-t-b) and kubar 'to grow old, bigs (k-b-r). In fact, although verbs are always, by converftion/listed in vocabularies and dictionaries in this basic form, and translated into English as infinitives, they are in fact the 3rd person masculine singular form, and mean literally 'he drank', 'he wrote') arid 'he grew old'. There \i no infinitive in Arabic. Whether a verb has the a-a, i-a or u-a verb pattern has to be learnt - there is no reliable rule which predicts it, and there is a certain amount of variation in vowel patterns from area to area even within the Gulf region. The basic forms given in this book are the most common. To this basic form of the verb ,are added suffixes denoting gender and number. As you will notice below, the second vowel of the vowel pattern (a) is dropped in certain persons of the verb. The full paradigms of our model verbs are: shdrab 'to drink' kitab 'to write' shardbt shardbt shardbti shdrab shirbat shardbna s hardbtaw shirbaw kitdbt kitdbt kitdbti kitab kitbat kitdbna kitdbtaw kitbaw kdbar 'to grow old' kubdrt T 'you(m.)' kubdrt kubdrt you(f.)' kiibar 'he/it' kubrat 'sfie/if' 'we* kubdrna kubdrtaw *you(pl.)' kdbraw 'they'

i\<'

Translate into Arabic: My house*is right next to yours (pi.) 'Antar' cigarettes are the best there are! I'm in debt and I don't have any money. Flow are you? Fantastic! What's wrong with the fridge? It's broken down.

"70 UNIT 6 Note that: ' ""* *' < (i) The 3/d person feminine a^d plural are of the general form CvCCat and CvCCaw. The V is i except in Cu.CaC-type-verbs., when jt is always u. * (ii) In some/areas of the'Gulf, and especially'in the 'sp'eechtof older ., *or uneducated people, alternative forms for* CVCGat/w are often* ""heard. "These alternatives 'have "the general 'form '*- iCCvCat/w. Thus', instead o'f kitbai- SfSe wrote", 'one "hears "iktiBat, arid 'instead^ of shirbaw^ 'they drank' ishribaw / I t is as 'well to be 'aware of such forms,"(hough1 it might sounft o'dd if 1 you imitated them*"' "(V w f - r .Exercjge 6U ^ ,.
; >( % f

UNIT 6* 71" kitdbna + ha kitabndaha 'we wrote it(f.)'

2 If the pronoun suffix ^Ojbegins.witjh a vowel,.the final vpwel of the verb fornuis likewise,lengthened'but the initial vowe^ofthe suffix is dropped. Thus:' kitdbti + ah simd9Hai"+ ich kitabtiih sima9ndach <you(f.) wrote it(m.)' ' 'l 'weheard'you(f.)'

In the case of the 2nd and 3rd persons plural, the final -aw changesto oo on suffixation. sim9aw + ik simd9taw + ah sim96ol^ sima9tdoh -'they^eard.youfrn.)' t 'you(pl-) heard it/him' ;*

Study the followihg-verbs:' % ld9qb 'to.play' sima9 'to bear, gd9ad,,'to sit, tiros t 'tOjfiU' * ,. * listen to'v ' * -sjay.' wfigaft- 'to stop; ddxah 'to enter' Ddrab 'to Hit' jktsaf 'to break' Hdmal 'to carry'" u ( i n t ^ n S-) Now translate1 iiito English:* *
J

v The paradigms > below"*' sumriiarise1 the rule's for forming^ suffixed a forms which C ) involve verb-form + vowel-initial suffix, (b) involve verb-form + consonant-initial suffix: * (a) 'to hear' + ' simd9Hk simd9tah sima9tiih simd9ah sim9dtah sima9ndak sima9tooh sim96oh 'I-you(m.)' 'y6u(m.)-him' 'ydu(f.)-him* 'he-him' 'shd-him' * t 'we-jyou(m.),', 'you(pl.)-him' 'they-him' (b) 'to hear' 4^ simd9tkum 'simd9thum sima9tiihum simd9hum sim^dthum, simq9ndakum sima9toohum simVoohuni 'I-you(pJ.^ *you(m.)-them' *you(f.)-them' 'he-them'* 'she-them' Vwe-you(pL)' s 'ybu(pl.)-them' 'they-them'

il

"

5i"m9aiv; ga9ddt; Ia9dbtaw; kubrat; ttrsat; Dardbti; wugfawy 'daxdlna;' Hdmal; tirdsf; %isar? sim9at;4' wugdft; kisraw; Himlaw; kitbat; 'Dar'dbna;' shardbtaw; :Mbar\ r Ha9dbti; giViaw'; kubdrna w " 6.2.2. Suffixed forms When the 'personal pronoun suffixes (5.4)1 are added to the verb forms described so far, a number of changes occur: 1 If the verb form ends; in a vowel, this vowej is lengthened and becomes stressed. Thus: kitdbti kitdbti + ha kitdbna kitab'tiiha *you(f.) wrote' 'you(f.) wrote it(f.)' 'we wrote' '"'

\''

Exercise 6.5 Read aloud and translate:

'

sim96oh; tirdstqh; Hdmdlah; kisartiih; daxalndah; kisrdoh; Darabndah; kitbdtah; shirbooh; fiaxaltooh Using the suffix -ik, translate into yArabic: I heard you; she hit you; we carried, you; heyhit,you;,they heard you; he Heard you; she. carried you; we<heard you

72 UNIT 6 Read aloud and translate:


v

UNIT 6

73

Dardbni; sim96oni; Dirbdoni; Himlooni; 'Darabtdoni; Darabtiini; sim&dtni; Hamdlni; simd9ni; Himtdtni

Using the suffixes -kum or -hum translate into Arabic: < I heard them; they heard you; he hit them; you(pl.) broke them; you(f.) carried them; we hit you; I filled them; they hit "you 6.2.3 The negative (past tense) Past-tense verbs are made negative by prefixing maa to the verbfoffn. Thus: Dardbhum maa Dardbhum 6.2.4 Interrogatives' Past-tense verbs are made interrogative mainly by intonation. Wijh a falling intonation " * X J>ardbhum maa Dardbhum a simple statement of fact is indicated. A question is "indicated"by an intonation pattern which rises sharpiy on the final syllable: Dardbhum . 'Did he lut them?' maa Dardbhum 'Didn't he hit them?' C 'he hit them; 'he didn't hit them'

yda 9dli, kitdbt it-taqriir wdla la7 > mit'dssif, yaa sdyyid SmitH,,rmda\itdbtah. shldon mda kitdbtah! * > walldahi,' 9(n'di sh&ghul wdayift"U-bdarHd. ga9ddt fil-mdklab Hdtta s-sda9a'sitta, pas mda xalldStah. zdyn, mda 9aldyh.

mda simd9t il-xdbar! shinhu! sdlwa nijHat fil-imiiHdan\ yda saldamt ufdaTma! hi nijHat bd9ad, Idakin 9abddllah fishal. u into! nij'dHtl

?. When, one wishes to ask a more open-ended question,'the phrase wdla la ('or not?') is used: " * * i Dardbhum wdla la 'Did he hit them or npt?' Exercise 6.6 Short dialogues The following set of short dialogues is intended to give you practice in past-tense forms. Read them aloud, and, referring where necessary to the vocabulary summary for this unhytranslate them:

shl6p$ ghaddak^jl-yoonvyaa dHmad!' walldahi l-9aDHiim, ghdda mda foogah fdog . . 9dysh u IdHam u Saaluuna, u shardbna chaay AHmar. xtiojsh shdy! u ba9addyn! ga9p.dna shwdy'fil-mdylis u shardbna finjdal gdhwa. " rigddtaw wdla Id! t * dy\ rigddna shwdy il-9dSir.

alio? ihni dHmad. . . . ! shldonik dHmad inshdallah zdyn! dllah yisdlmik. il-awldad mawjuudiin! la, xirjaw is-sda9a 'iHdd9shar u ndSS u mda rij9aw lil-HUn. zdyn, sMkran, fi 'amdan illdah.

74

UNIT 6

UNIT 6 75 'By the" great* walldahi l'opposite. mgdabil KJ Ty ,(prep.) ' 9aDHiim God' (strong oath) mit'dssif(iin) 'sorry' 'palm-tree (sT wara 'behind' ndxal x -x nijaH * 'to succeed^ pass, A %Msix* **'"' 'dirty*' wdTan 'homeland', " 'to lie dowp, rigad 1 ' V ..sleep' wdTani 'national, , { , j. If 'iO.retufn^cqme belonging ; -t rija9 back' to one's homeland' slinama(aat) 'cinema^ fu * J sima9 ('to^jstenjol.healC V*$ak ,nt 'to stop, stand' 'to^rink; smoke , xdpdrlaxbdar 'pijsce of new^' shdrab t (^ Jjt^/aS Ito finish', v .(tobacco)' shway 'forV little while'' xdraj 'tp^go out' " yda saldam 'brayq!; 'stew, curry' Saaluuna" 'under, below; "yatib of yamm 'next to, taHt . ' \ beside' right next Jo' 'on, agaihst' taqrCirl 'written reporh'* *9dla 9drflSU9drab 'Arab, Arabic' taqaariir (pi.* means tiros 'to fill' x ? 'Arabs')1 thooblthiydab 'clothes /sing. means a' man'st 9aybl9uyuub 'shame; disgrace' long shirt) * " wila or Mia * 'or'*M* . \ 1 j 1 i i ;

- shfiich, yaa 'amiina ta&bdanalt- " 'f*U > < - ay, wdayid-ta9bdana? iS-SubHfghas.dltAth*-thiydab, u"ba9addyn ghdsdlt ihmawaa9iirfil-wdsxai Ui9aSir :laVdbt, wiyyd 1-yiHdal saa9atdymthaldath> ,> * * Ks

VOCABULARY SUMMARY

arD(t) 'earth, floor' jiddar/jidrdan 'wall (interior) 'il-bdarHa 'yesterday' rkisar 'to break' \ bdtiarlbiHdar 'sea' ktiab " ' J'to* write' i %anklbutiduk ''bank' kubar ^ ( ''to g;ow up, bariid 'post; post-office' "grow old' ^pa9qddyn 'afterwards' Hdakih '''but*' ba9tid 9an' 'far from' la9ab -r 'to, for' bi 'in, at, with' >li 'ddray(aat) 'la'rfgiiage' > 'steps,_ stairs, lugha*faatl ladder' maa 9aldyh' 'it doesn't dawwdar(aat) 'trafficmatter; OK, , roundabout J nonobjection ddxal 'to enter' * mda9uunt * 'dishes, tabledaynldyuun 'debt'> rhaWaa9fin ware' Ddrab 'to strike, hit' madiind*t 'town, city" fishal 'to fail' r mudun foog 'above, OjVer, on " madrds'dV 'school' y top of, on; maddaris upstairs' ,mdl9apl ;phch play-, gdriib min 'hear to' malda9il> ing-field' i gd9ad 'to sit, stay' mdsyidl Jmosque' 'in front of gidddam masdayid ghdsal 'to wash' mdtHafl 'museum' Hagg *right'(n.) ' mqtdaHif < HdmaT 'to carry' ' mawjtiud(iin) 'present, Hdtta 'until; even! existent' 'up till now' til-Hun ila mdylisl 'sitting-room' 'to, towards' imdHdan(aat) 'examination, test' maydalis (in an Arabstyle house) jdnTa*/ 'bag, case' janaTdat 'table' may z (aat)

i i . *\. i !: { ' ]-i i h * 11 i


II

n u Hi IA

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UNIT 7 77 UNIT 7 7.1 PAST-TENSE VERBS: VERBS BEGINNING WITH A GLOT- I TAL STOP We saw in Unit 6 that the" basic past-tense verb consists of a 1g three-consonant skeleton C-C-C on* to which one of three vowelpatterns'is superimposed. The first of a number of important subclasses 'of this kind of verb is that which has the glottal stop ' as lirst consonant. The two commonest verbs'in'this sub-class are 'dkal C'k-l) 'to eat' and* 'dxadh ('-x-dh) 'to take'. These verbs behave very much like regular verbs except that in the 3rd person fern, singular and 3rd person plural they have exceptional forms. Their paradigms are as follows: 'akdlt akdlt 'akdlti dkal 'dkalatlkdlat 'akdlna 'akdltaw 'dkalawl kdlaw 'I ate' *you(m.) ate* *you(f.) ate' 'he ate' 'she ate' 'we ate' 'you(ph) ate' 'they ate' 'axddht 'axddht 'axddhti 'dxadh 'dxadhatlxddhat 'axddhna 'axddhtaw 'dxadhawlxddhaw 'I took' *you(m.) took' J 'you(f.) took' 'he took* 'she took' 'we took' 'you(pl-) took' 'they took' ever, w is 'weak' when it occurs between a-a, and it drops out to give gaal. Similarly', the verb Soar 'to become, to happen' consists of a S-y-r skeleton and an a-a vowel pattern, which gives Sayar. But since y is weak, it drops out to give Saar. It is important to know whether the; missing consonant is 'hollow' verbs in w or y since this determines the vowel pattern of the imperfect tense in such verbs (see Unit 11). In the past tense, all 'hollow' verbs have the following characteristic paradigm: gilt gilt gild gaal gdatat gtlna giltaw gdalaw 'I said' 'you(m.) said' *you(f.) said' 'he said' 'she said' 'we said' 'you(pl.) said' 'they said'

i i j

So from the verb Saar* to happen, become*, we get Sir* 'I became', etc., and from the verb raaH 'to go;, we get riHt'l went!, etc. We can generalise by saying that whenever the suffix denoting persqn and gender begins with a consonant, the basic form CaaC (gaal, Saar, raaH) is shortened to CiC- (gil-. Sir-, riH-) and the suffix is added: gaal + t - gilt gaal + na -> gilna gaal + taw -> giltaw 'I, you(m.) said* 'we said' 'you(pl-) s a i d '

Note that we do not get a CvCCat/w-type form in the 3rd person (like shirbatlshirbaw 'she/they drank'): the -at/aw suffixes are simply added to the stem 'dkal, 'dxadh without vowel changes. Optionally, the initial syllable 'a may be dropped in these 3rd person forms. 7.2 PAST TENSE VERBS: 'HOLLOW' VERBS A second, and very important sub-class of past-tense verbs is the so-called 'hollow' verbs. The term 'hollow* refers to the fact that the middle consonant of the C-C-C skeleton is a 'weak* consonant - w or y - which fails to show up in the basic form of the verb. Thus the verb gaal 'to say' consists of the skeleton g-w-l on to which the vowel pattern a-a is superimposed, to give gawal. How-

But where the suffix begins with a vowel (or where there is, no suffix) the basic form is retained: t gaal + at - gaalat gaal + aw -> gaalaw ' 'she said' 'they said'

In a few 'hollow' verbs, the vowel in the 'shortened' form of-the s tem is u rather than i. Thus from gaam 'to rise, get up' we get Sumt 'I rose' rather than gimt, from baag 'to steal' bugt 'I stole*" rather than bigt.

78 UNIT.7

n Translate the following into English:

UNIT 7 79

In all other respects, 'houpw' verbs behave like regular verbs. Thus when dependent ^personal pronouns, are suffixed to them*, we !get suphformst.as*thefollowing: jd'abawH jaab'aw + ah jaaBooh (ibt > * * < jibt + * ah - jibtah "'they "brought' -" " "they'brought'it/him' 'I brought' 'I brought* it/him^ -

ndamaw'; "riHtaw; jibti; idarht; shift; bugt\ mitt; Sirna; xaaf; bi9taw; gdamat; gdalaw; Sidtaw; bi9na; jiiti; Sdarat; gumtfzirt; maat; jdabaw; shdafat;/limt; shdala% kint; silha; rdaHaw; idabdt; xufti;1 kdana't;}Saad. j

5. a " One* very ..important1 'hollow? ,verb* is- jaa 'to come'. ThisJ'yerb is conjugated as follows: ' r jiit 'I came' jiit 'you(m.) came"" jtiti Jyou^f.) came' faalfa 'he came' jaatljat 'she came' jiina *'we came' jiitaw 'you(pL) came' > t 'they came' jaw Note that the vowel of jaa and jaat mayjbe shortened to ja arid )at. Many Gulf Xrabs also substitute /'for y in tins and other common words like jdab-'thui one hears yi'iV'I came', etc., yibt 'I brought' (see Appendix A.2). '" ** ''

Exercise^.! Extended translation,'practice.'Read aloud and translate thefollowing short dialogues: 1 - shu Saar! r **> i * - bdagaw s-sayydara u*t>aa9,6oha\ '" t

4 J '!

2 - wdyn'riHtdw il-bdafHa? mad'shifhdakum. < " - wdllah, axddhna ftlansh u riHha- jaziira' Saghiira: Sidna sdmach wdayid u 'akalndah Hagg il-9asha\ " * " " - xoosh shay) * * 3 - laysh rdaHaw l-bayt! - maa gdalaw liyyi, wdllah. 4 - shu yibd min is-suug! - ashyda wdayid . . . IdHam bdgar zayn u mdy'wa u cham min yduniyyat 9aysh. " * " 5~ wayn jdasim? maa shiftah min zamdan. jdasim raaH landdn fiagg il-9uTja S-Sayfiyya. maHDHuuDH! chamfluus 'dxadh wiyydah! sin imydfdiindar. '

Exercise 7.1 Study the following 'holldw''verbs: gdam gaal baag shaal jaa Saar xaaf kaah 'to-get up/ rise1 * naam 'to say' baa9 'to steal' i maat 'to remove' jaab 'to come' raaH ''to become' Saad 'to fear' fi 'to be' "shaaf1 zaar

n - \ 'to sleep-'* ( 'to sell' < 'to die;a 'tp bring' 'to go' 'to hunt, catch' 'to see' } 'to visit'
7

>

A ,"

6 - wayn 'axddhtaw l-9dsha il-bdarHq! .. v - wdllah, 'axadhndqh fi mdT9aip lubndqni ismqh 'il'arz', kaan il-'dkil ladhiidh killish u shardbna cham, min ghdrshat^fydbsi. , -t

80 UNIT 7 7.3 'TO SAY THAT. . .' Reported speech is expressed in Arabic by using the particle inn 'that': ' gilt lih inn jdasim raaH il-bayt 'I told him (lit: 'said to him') that* Jaasim had gone home' gaal liyyi inn jdasim maa 9\ndah ixwdan 'He told rne that Jaasim, doesn't have any brothers' -The 'dependent' personal pronouns may be suffixed directly to inn if the subject of the noun clause following inn is a pronoun: gaal liyyi innik bi9t is-sayydara 'He' told me that you had sold the car' ^ | gdalaw innich jibti l-wdlad wiyydach 'they said that you(f.)-had brought the,boy with you* <i If the suffixed personal pronoun begins with a consonant, a is inserted after inn: gdalat tnnahum 9indqhum mdw9id ba9d iDH-DHuhur 'She s,aid they h^d a meeting in the afternoon' gaal Una innaha mdtat min zamdan Tie told us she'd died a long time ago' 7.5 LI'ANN 'BECAUSE,',

UNIT 7 81 I !l

We have already noted that Questions 'why?' are formed by using the word laysh: ' laysh maa gilt liyyi innik'bipt is-sayydara! 'Why didn't you tell me you'd sold the car?''
t

Such questions are answered by using the particle H'dnn 'because' which, like inn, may have dependent personal pronouns suffixed to it: li'innik maa sa'dltni 'because you didn't ask me' li'innik maa kint mawjuud 'because you weren't here' li'dnni maa shiftik 'because I didn't see you' li'dnni mda kaan 9indi waqt 'because I didn't have time' As with inn, an a is inserted after li'ann ifthe suffixed pronoun begins with a consonant: bf9tha H'dnnaha 9atiija 'I sold it because it was old' Exercise 7.3 In the following exercise, you have to change direct into reported speech. A statement is made about "a certain person(s) - you have to report that statement to the person(s) about whom it was made, making appropriate changes in the sentence. Examples: '9dli raaH baghddad.' gaal liyyi innik riHt baghddad. 'maa shifndah min zamdan.'' ' gaal Hyyi innahum maa shaafook min zamaan. 'jdasim 'dxadh ruxSa u raaH id-ddxtar li'dnnah mariiD.% gaal .-. 1 n
M8J

f t\

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7.4 'TO ASK WHETHER. . .'


t After

the verb sa'al 'to'ask', the'particle' law (variant: lo) 'if. whether' is used for reporting questions: sa'dlni law 9tndifidus kda.fi 'He asked me if I had enough money' sa'dlha law inta sdakin fil-mandama 'He asked her if you(m.) were living in Manama' Note that dependent personal pronouns are not suffixed to law.

82 UNIT"7 2 &al 3 'sdlwa bda9at il-bayt il-9attij li'dnnatia mad 9indaha fluus.' ' ',".> "muHdmmad jaab il-gMda wiyydah u 'dkalA minnah shway-' *' " *
r

UNIT 7 83 1 'stiift H-ahrdamT "* sa'dlni^ f....^.... .. .( ;; " <""1" l 2 s(m9aw il-xdbqr!' , sa'dlni {. 3 'rija9 min ish-jshughul!' ' sa'dlni :/.,....'...: .' ' 4 nijHaw fil-imtiHdanT < t sa'dlni .\ .' 5 'kisar H-jaamV * ^' sd'alni :..:*...\.J. 6 'bdagat il-jgnTaV \ sd'alni - ,,...,....... ; 9

, i

gaal >' ' , 'jaw min amriika Haag il-9uTla u jdabaw haa[day$ f J t 4 ^flg H-yihdal.' Saal , 5 'fitHaw l-mdxzan u shdalaw il-aaldat minnah? gaal .../...A.'.*........-.,... *\. ..*:... J i 7 'ana sdakin il-Hiin wara madrdsat dbu bakr1, gariib .min bdytik.' ' gaal i < i 8 'muHdmmad rija9 min ish-shdghul u naam min gaal waqt li'dnnah ta9bdan wdayid.' 9. 'flshlawfil-imdHaandatli'dnnahum kaslaanfin.' gaal 10 'gaam u gaal 'dhlan wa sdhlan.* gaab : ^ \...:...i 6 'maa shdafatah min'zamdan.' gaal .

7.6 EXPRESSIONS OF MANNER, Adverbial expressions of manner'are often expressed in Arabic by apreposition + noun-phrase. Learn'the follbwing common phrases: raaH bil-baaS biT-tayydara bis-sayydara bis'-sdykal 'He went by bus' by plane' by car by bicycle'
1

If

In these, and similar phrases which indicate mode of transport,^ is an alternative to bi. kitab quickly' slowly' with ease' with difficulty' , \ Note that in the above phrases, there is no definite article il. In stl -ll other cases, manner adverbs are rendered by a single word:. r aaH mdshi 'He went on foot* s hdalha zitdat 'He removed it quickly* bardbni chidhii 'He hit me tike'this* bi-sdr9a bi-buTu' bi-suhdula bi-Su9uuba 'He wrote

; i Change the following direct questions into indirect speech using sd'al law 'he asked if. . . .' Imagine you are reporting the question to the person about;, whom it was. asked. Example: i 'zdaraw H-qdahiraV sa'dlni law zfrtaw il-qdahira.

Exercise 7.4

84 UNIT 7 7.7 FURTHER EXPRESSIONS OF TIME *

UNIT 7 85 jaay and mdaDi (agreeing where necessary) are used for 'next/last Sunday', etc.: shifndahum il-dHad il-mdaDi 'We saw them last Sunday' zaardoha H-jdm9ia 1-mdaDya 'They visited her last Friday' Note that when saying what day it is, the phrase is* il~yoom yoom il-xamiis or il-yoom il-xamiis 'Today is Thursday'

In addition to the time expressions learnt in* the* units immediately preceding this, .the following are highly useful!1 . . . * il-yoom todayfin-nahdar 'in the day-time' il-yoom is used to site a particular event'at a'particular trine, e.g. riHt ish-shdghul il-yoom _ * 'I went to work today' fin-nahdar (like bil-tayt 'at night-time') indicates activity over a particular period of time (the part when there is daylight): 9indi shiighul fin-nahdar 'I have work during the day-time' 'Day-shift' in Arabic is in facfzaam in-nahdar. Note also ams 'yesterday' and dwwal'dms ftHe day'-befbre yesterday*, Expressions for 'next/last week/month', etc.are formed using the adjectives jaay 'coming' and mdaDi 'past*, which agree with the nouns they follow in the normal way: is-subtiu9 il-jaaylil'mdaDi ish-shdhar U-jaaylil-mdaDi is-sdna 1-jdayall-mdaDya 'next/last week' 'next/last month' 'next/last year'

Exercise 7.5 Read, aloud and "translate the following,'into English: riHla Ha l-kuwdyt - yaa hdla yaa hdla dbu xaliil! il-Hdmdu "lilldah 9ala\ saldamtikl - dllah yisdlmik yaa Hdssan. - chayf 'kdanat ir-rfHla! HHt biT-Tayydara, la! - ay nd9am. killish zdyna kdanat. wuSdlt'il-kuwdyt fissda9a thaldatha il-9dSir u riHt siida'min il-maTdar ila s-saalmiyya. ~ hdlik saakniin hundak! ~ ay. fi ayydam iz-zamdan kaan 9indahum bayt 9atiij fissuug bos baa96bh u 'dxadhaw bayt jadiid bil-'ajdar issdna 1-mdaDya. bayt tidlu wdllah lih Hoosh ddaxili fiih shdjar u fiih Hoosh barrdani killaH zuhiiur. ~ zayn. u riHt mukdan ghayr fil-kuwdyt! ~ riHna t-Haddayiq wil-aswdagfin-nahdarwilmaTda9im bil-layl ~ shloon hdlik! ~ il-Hdmdu lilldah bi xayr. wild 9dmmi wdllah maa shiftafi min zamdan u Saar killish 9ood il-Hiin rayydal ya9ni. u huwa shdaTir b&9ad - Tdla9 ildwwalfil-imtiHaandatith-thaanawiyya.
f

II

The days of the week are' as'follows: yoom yoom yoom yoom yoo/n yoom yoom il-dHad il-ithndyn ith-thaldatha it-drba9a il-xamiis il-jum9a is-sabt 'Sunday' 'Monday'' 'Tuesday' 'Wednesday' 'Thursday' 'Friday' 'Saturday'

t 3 ! 1

Very frequently, yoom is omitted: 9indana mdw9id il-drbq9afis-sda9asitta u nuSS 'We've got an appointment on Wednesday at 6.30'

{ 14

86 UNIT 7 ' Exercise'7.6 ' **. ,***' *


?

'Egypt' miSir Hoosh!' _ 'ccuirtyard'. 'happy, t mistdanis(iin\ aHwdash content' ... Translate into Arabic: 'that'(con j.) t inp 1 'to sleep' naam isldami * 'Islam' A trip to London - * * * ' A Vi 'day-time' nahdar^ isldami 'Islamic* i,bin-nisba,ila 'in relation 0, 'Monday' -Hello, hello, Hassan! How was your" trip? il-ithndynw in comparisdh- Great! We got to Lbndon at four'iri the afternoon 'and' 'to corne'" f Jl Jaa went straight from the"airport to the hotel." Oyr room 'to bring' *t's X J' jaab r .* ^ 'Cairo' i' was \ery*big with a beautiful view from the window. 'coming, next' il-qdahira* | jaay 'to ^go' - Where ilk you go in London? jaw 'weather' 'tfaaH 'trip, outing' - We visited the museums, the palaces and the restaurants" $ jaziira^ljizir 'island' riHla(aat) 'permission(to 'Friday' ruxSa during the day and the theatres and cinemas at night. V il-jum9a* leave)' Food is very expensive in comparison tq,'Kuwait, but the / kdafi 'enough' t people are friendly and4he'weather's-cool'i kaan 'to.be' is-saalmiyya* 'Salmiya' 'Saturday' - How much did you spend?" *r ' * < \ 'lazy' is-sabt kasldan(iin) 1 'to* ask' - A lotl.Bu never mind! We, were happy jn London! s killish 'completely' <sd'al 'bicycle' sdykal " ' *< law 'whether' 'straightaway; siida 'Lebanon' , .i # lubndan straight on' 'Lebanese' lubndani VOCABULARY SUMMARY^ * "'ease' suhiiula*' maat 'to die' i 'speed' sur9a*" 'tool' bpghddad 'Baghdad' 'data* (aat) mdaDi 'past' rra 1 'to look' 'family' , fi& ' "V 'oujside' (adv. ) maHDHuuDH 'lucky shqaf t tahl (or hal) 'to remove' 'the Pyrafnids' oarrdani" 'orifer* (adj.) Jl-ahrdam (iin) styaal 'Sunday' buTu' ' 'sknvhess' shdaTir(iiny 'clever, smart' .il-dHad il-tnandama 'Manama' "trees'(coll.) 'on a lease, for chidhii' 'like'this' shdjar bil-'ajdar nxdnDHarl 'view' s 'police' lt t0 e shurTa* mandaDHir rent' f P^,t ... " ,' B Y 'to hunt, catch' Saad 'dkal 'to eat' fiinduql 'hotel' mariiDI 'sick, ill' 'to become, Saar amriika 'America' fahdadiq^ mdraDa K happen' gaal" ' ''to'say' mdshi 'on foot' *amriiki (yy'dn) 'American' 'yesterday' J gaam "'to getup, rise SadiiqlaSdiqda 'friend' ams maTdar(aat) 'airport' 'to pay' dwwal ams 'the day before ghayr ^ 'other ftan' mdT9am! 'restaurant' Sdraf 'summer'(n.) Sayf yesterday' ' hddiyal ' 'present, gift' maTda9im m 'summer'(adj.) il-'drba9a 'Wednesday' hdddayd dxzanl 'storeSdyfi 'difficulty' 'arz 'cedar-tree' Hadiiqal 'park, garden' cupboard, Su9uuba* maxdazin 'dxadh 'to take' Haddayiq storage-place' ith-thaldatha* 'Tuesday' 'to go out, baag 'to steal' Hagg ^ " 'f&r, to' tndywa* Tdla9 'fruit' come out of 'thief* Il-Hdmdu " 'Welcome min bdayigl 'from, of m 'pleasant, good lilldah 9afd "'back!' iskiin Tdyyib(iin) bawdyga 'poor, (of manner)' baa9 'to sell' saldmtikl wretched' >,.lv" 1 *

1 1 ,| jf \s fi v?

UNIT 7 37

UNIT 7 'time* waqt 'early' min waqt 'to arrive' wdSal 'to fear' xaaf 'Thursday' U-xamfis 'shiftfof work)* zaam(aat) 'to visit* zaar zdhra*lzuhdur 'flower' min zamaan ayydam izzamdari zitdat 9ajiib 9amm 'for a long time'- (up to the present) 'the old'days' 'quickly'- * * 'strange, bizar 'paternal uncle'
l

UNIT 8

8.1 NOUN-PHRASES In Unit 1, we saw that expressions of quantity like 'a kilo of rice', 'a bag of cement' were expressed in Arabic by the simple juxtaposition of the two nouns concerned: kdylo 9aysh chiis smiit 'a kilo, of rjce' 'a bag of cement' (lit: 'kilo rice*) (lit. 'bag cement')

In non-quantitative noun-phrases, a similar principle applies. Look at the following examples: miftdaH bayt yad rayydal wajh mdra l(9bat yihdal 'a house-key' 'a man's hand' 'a woman's face' 'a children's game* (lit. (lit. (lit. (lit. 'key house') 'hand man') 'face woman') 'game children*)

(Note that the hidden / of t*he feminine noun H9ba 'game' shows up in the last example, just as' it does in quantitative expressions' like guT9at IdHam 'a piece of meat*.) When such noun-phrases are made definite ('the house-key', 'the piece of meat*, etc.), the article il is prefixed to the second element of the phrase only: guTQat il-ldHam MiftdaH il-bayt U9bat H-yihdal w ajh il-mdra 'the piece of meat' :the house-key* 'the children's game' -'the woman's face*

an adjective modifies the first element in such a phrase, e.g. 'the delicious piece of meat*, 'the big house-key', this adjective is none . ' e s s placed after the complete phrase, and agrees grammatically *itn the noun it modifies. Thus: SuT9at il-ldHam il-ladhlidha 'the delicious piece of meat' n ere ladhiidha is feminine since it modifies gdT9a }h il-mdra l-jamlil 'the woman's beautiful face'

90 UNIT 8

' and instead of UVbat il-yihdal we may say U-H9ba mdalat il-yihdal *'

UNIT 8 91 'the children's game' > ,

where jamtil, which is masculine, agrees with wajh although it : follows the feminine noun mora. If one wishes to say 'the piecebr \ delicious meat*, or 'the face of the beautiful woman', the adjective is,placed in the same position, but agrees with the second element' in the noun-phrase: r\ guT9at il-ldHam il-ladhtidh wajh il-mdra l-jamiila 'the piece of.'delicioas meat'3 'the face of-the' beautiful woman'^

In noun-phrases where more than two nouns are involved, the . article il must always precede-the final noun, if the phrase- is J definite: * ! indef: lobn wajh mdra def: loon wajh il-mdra Exercise 8.1* "' -'''the' colour^of a*worriah!s face' ,* 'the colour of the woman's'face -f-

Where noun-phrase's of more than fwo elements are concerned, the position of maaltyi\\\ depend, on the precise, meaning one wishes to convey. Thus instead of loon wajh il-mdra we may say il-loon maal wajh il-mdra or loon il-wajh maal il-mdra il-bayt mdali H'byuut mdald il-bddla z-zdrga mdaltah 'the wbmanss face colour* 'my house' 'my houses' 'his blue suit* Possessive pronouns may also be suffixed to maallmaala: 'the colour of the woman's face* 'the colour of the woman's face' i

Translate i(he following noun-phrases into Arabic: the famous company boss; the Egyptian, headmaster (='manager of the school'); the outside door of the house; the fish market; the main accounts, office; the big,bpys' school; the Prime Minister (='head of the ministers'); the high prices of materials Translate'into English: > wizdarat id-difda9; ddwlat il-kuwdyt;finjdalii-gdhwa; kutub il-mdktaba 1-waTaniyy'a; laytdat ish-shawdari9; ' wdlad mudiir ish-shdrika; bint mudiirat madrdsa; '' dardayish bdyti l-9atlij An alternative, and extremely commonly used way of linking nouns together into a-noun-phrase is the particle maal'(fern.-maala(t)) which means 'belonging to': maal is usually used in definite nonquantitative phrases. Thus, instead of saying miftdaH il-bayt we may say il-miftdaH maal il-bayt 'the house-key'

Note that bayt mdali, bddla zdrga mdaltah would mean 'a house f mine', 'a blue suit of his', meaning that "'I* or 'he' had more than ne. maal is not normally used in quantitative expressions: chiis u-smiit means 'the bag of cement*, 'but U-chiis maal is-smiU would normally be understood as meaning 'the bag in which cement is PW, 'the cement-bag*. Exercise 8.2 Change the following noun-phrases irito noun^phrases using ^aal which have the same meaning, and translate them into English:
m

hi ill I ,V *:

adrdsat il-bandat; mdktab ir-ra'iis; zaam in-nahdar; qamiiSi 1-dHmar, dardayish il-Hijra l-96oda; jdnTadch "-kabiira; jidrdan il-gdSir id-daaxiliyya; maTdabix m aT9am il-'arz; SuHuf il-kitdab;firtijil-bagaaglii

92 UNIT 8 8.2 THE ELATTVE ADJECTIVE The elative adjective, Which is used in Arabic in roughly the same way as the comparative and superlative forms of the adjective in English ('bigger', 'biggest'), is formed according to the pattern aGCsaCa, where each ' C represents a root consonant of the word. Thus, in words where there are no 'weak' consonants in C3 position: kabiir jamiil zayn 'big' 'beautiful' 'good' dkba% djmal azyan 'bigger' 'more beautiful' 'better* jdasim ta9bdan dkthar min 9dli 'Jaasim is more tired than Ali' fdaTma za9ldana dkthar min dHmad 'Faatima is more upset than Ahmad' ir-rayaayfil farHaaniin dkthar min in-niswdan 'The men are happier than the women' il-bdHar dzrag dkthar min is-sima 'The sea is bluer than the sky' bddlatik zdrga dkthar min bddlati ana 'Your suit is bluer than mine'

UNIT 8 93

4 rt

In words where C3 is 'weak' (iv or y, which in Ca position are respectively spelt u and i), the pattern is as follows: ghdni Hdlu 'rich'" 'sweet, nice' dghna dHla 'richer* 'sweeter, nicer'

In order to express the 'superlative', il is prefixed to the elative: sdlwa il-dHla 'Salwa is the prettiest' jdasim ta9bdan il-dkthar 'Jaasim is the tiredest' mdT9am il-'arz il-mdT9am il-dHsanfil-imqardat'The Cedars restaurant is4the best restaurant in the .Emirates' ish-shdrika l-akbarfil-baHrdynshdrikdt in-nafT ilbaHrayniyya 'The biggest company in Bahrain is the Bahrain Oil Company' d-wdlad il-kasldan il-dkthar mHdmmad "The laziest "boy is Muhammad' The superlative may also be expressed by other turns of phrase involving the elative. Note the following: (0 with a following singular noun: 9ali dHsan 9damil fil-qisim Ali is the best worker in the section' salwa dshTar bintfiS-Saff Salwa is the cleverest girl in the class' 00 with a following definite plural noun: %'dHsan il~9ummdal fil-qisim Au is the best wqrker in the section' s tta dshTar il-bandat fiS-Saff Sa *wa is the cleverest girl in the class' i, '

Where. C2,and C3 are the same, the elative is typically of the form * aCaCC: > galtil xafiif 'little, few' 'light (weight) agdll axdff Mess, fewer' 'lighter'

When two things are compared, the preposition min 'than, from' is used: sdlwa djmal min fdaTma 'Salwa is prettier than Faatima* il-kuwaytiyyiin dghna min il-baHrayniyyiin The Kuwaitis are richer than the Bahrainis' It can be seen from these two examples, in which feminine and plural nouns are being compared, that the elative adjective does not agree with the noun it modifies in number or gender. There are a few classes of adjectives whose elative adjective cannot be formed 'according to the above pattern. The elative in these 'cases is made by using the elative of kathiir 'many, a lot' - that is, dkthar 'more* - together with the ordinary form of the adjective. Adjectives of the CaCCaan pattern (e.g. ta9bdan 'tired*) and colour adjectives (e.g. aHmar 'red') form their elatiyes in this wayNote that in cases like these dkthar is not declined, but ta9bdan, dHmar, etc. is:

ii

A:

it 94 UNIT 8. (iii) with a following noun: , 8.3 WORD ORDER In sentences which contain a verb, the norhial word order ih Arabic is verb-subject-obje'ct/cornplement: fishal 9dli fil-imtiHdan 'AH failed in the exam* Ddrab dHmad axuuh bi shidda 'Ahmed hit his brother hard' In subordinate clauses after inn, however, the order is subject-verb gaal 9dli'inn dHmad rdaHJl-bayt .f -i , 'Ali said that Ahmad had gone Softie'> gdalat il-mdra inn dHmad maa 9indahfluus wdayid 'The woman said that Ahmad-hadn't got a lot of money*- -. In sentences which do.qot contain verbs - that is sentences which consist simply of a Subject and* non-verbal Complement - the subject comes first:' ty ' axduyi rayydal zayn 'My brother is a good man' huwa mudiir ish-shdrika He's the boss of the company' Sometimes, however, for reasons of emphasis, this order is reversed: rayydal zayn, axtiuyil My brother's a realty good man1.' (and not a no-good) mudiir ish-shdrika, hiiwal He s the company bossV (rather than an ordinary worker Hns reversal of normal order is. extremely common when, an assertion is being contradicted. Sometimes, however, it is used without any deliberate emphasis. For example, the Gulf Arabic quivalent of 'My friend's job is bricklaying' may be either:
s u 0r r

UNIT 8 95

kill il-bandat'fiS-Saff shaaTrlin Idakin sdlwa dshfarhum 'All the girls in the class are clever, 'But'Salwa isthe cleverest' kdanaw xams txwdan, u 9ali dkbarhum' 'They were five brothers, arid Ali was the eldest (of them)' Mote that if a pronoun is suffixed to an elative which" has^a weak final consonant, e.g. ag'hna 'richer,', aglxla 'dearer, moresexpensive', the final -a is lengthened, to -aa. Such elative. fo,rm as aghna really have a 'hidden' final -aa, but this only shows.*up in suffixed y forms: shift xams sayyaardat, aghldahum {t-tuyuuta 'I saw five cars, the dearest of them was the Toyota' (iv) with a following wdaHid (fern. wdHda): , -< kilhum shaaTriin Idakin sdlwa dshTar wdHda 'All of them are clever, but Salwa is the cleverest one' il-bayt mdqli dkbar wdaHid fish-sHdari9 'My house is' the biggest one in the street' Exercise 8.3 Look at the following example: sd9ar-il-9ays'h wdayid ghdaH 'The price, of rice is very high' (IdHam) -* ay, Idakin sd9ar il-ldHam dghla bd9ad\ 'Yes, but the price of meat is even higher!' Transform the following sentences in the same.way, using the cue words in brackets. Translate the sentences. sdVar il-ldHam ghdali 'dkil il-mdT9am zayn bandat miSir Halwlin sayydarat il-mudiir kabiira sikirtlirat il-muHdasib kasldana dukkdan U-xabbdaz wdsix rdatib il-9damil galiit sdmach U-kuwdyt ladhtidh (sdmach) (bayt) - (lubndan) (axduk) * (ra'tis) -+ (baggdal) (farrdash) (baHrdyn)

^ Shul Sadiiqi bannday (lit. 'work my friend builder') Sadiiqi shughlah Bannday (lit- 'my friend his work builder')

96 UNIT 8 Similarly: jinsiyyat abuuyi sa9uua\tyya or abuuyi jinsiyyatah sa9uudiyya 'My father's nationality "is Saudi Arabian'

UNIT 8 97 Exercise 8.5 A * Pronunciation and comprehension practice Read aloud the following passage,and then answer the comprehension questions on it. Consult the vocabulary summary where necessary.. il-baHrdyh ddwlat U-baHrdyn\jaziirat Saghiirafil-xaliijil-9drabi. kaan isimhafi qadiim iz-zamdan dilmuun' u Saar isimha [il-baHrdyn' 96gubmaafitHoohail-9drab fil-qarn is-sdabi9 bd9ad il-miildqd, ya9ni 96gub il-hijrq bi shwdy. sammdoha 'il-baHrdyn' li'ann-fiiha noo9dyn maay - maay Hdlwa u maay bdHar. kdanat fi ayydam iz-zamdan il-mukddda, 1-waHlida mdalat il-baHrayniyyiin H-ghooS. . . . ya9ni il-ghooS Hagg il-lu'lu'. Idakinfil-arba9iin$atwil-xamsiindat Saar is-suug mdalah Da9Hf shway utirkaw il-ghawaawiiS dktharhum il-ghooS u rdaHaw shdrikat in-nafT - ya9ni bdapko. 9ddad is-sukkdan maal il-baHrd^ jfaaltyyan Hawdali thaldath Jmyat alf dktharhum Tdb9anjins(yyathum baHrayntyya. il-baHrdyn bdlad faqiir bin-nisbfl ila bulddan thdjaniyafil-xaliij~ mdthalan il-kuwdyt u gCTar ~ U'ann maa fiih zayt yydayid taHt 'drDha. Idakin il-, baHrdyn fi rd'yi dna djmal u dHsan minhum alf mdrra. laysh? li'dnnaha bdladi Tdb9an! la shakk innaha dHsan bdlad fil-xaliij! Now answer the following questions in English: 1 When did the Arabs conquer Bahrain? 2 Why did they name it Bahrain? 3 What happened to the pearl-trade in the forties and fifties? 4 Where did the ex-divers find work? 5 What is the population of Bahrain? Why is Bahrain a relatively poor country by Gulf standards? 7 How does the speaker feel about Bahrain in relation to Kuwait and Qatar? Why?

Exercise 8.4 In this exercise, an assertion is made followed by the 'tagquestion' muu chidhii! 'Is that noj'so?' Contradict the assertion in the riianner exemplified', and' translate into English: * * ixit zdojtik, rdaHat miSir, muu chidhii! (ldndan)'Ha, zdojtj ixitha rdaHat ldndan\ 'Y6ur wife's sister went to Egypt, didn't she?' 'No, my wife's sister went to London!' (mumdrriDa) (ghdbi) il-bayt maal hdlikfirfiriijil-mukhdarga, muu chidhii! (firiij it-Hammdam) jarlimat sdlwa innaha b'dagat sitt Imyat diindar (gltlat zdojha) .-. ,.- il-yoomlyya mdalat il-xdadim xdmsat danaaniir (sittat danaaniir) .' s iT-Tdabiq ith-thdani maal il-bankfiih' kandishan (maa fiih) : s bu9d il-baHrdyn 9an glTar xamslin mayl (thalaathiin) shughul amiina kdatiba, muu chidhii! ., wild 9dli l-dkbar killish shdaTir, muu chidhii!

: *<

Ml

'hi

UNITS'

99

98 UNIT 8 .VOCABULARY SUMMARY 'better' ^dHsaji 'the (19)4ts' afba9iindat baablbiibdan 'door' 3 s suit of clothes' bddla*'(dat) 'Bahrain* il-baHrdyn l bdlad 'country; town' bannday! 'builder' bandani ' bul4dan & "cduntries" -'distance1' \bu9d ddwlalduwal 'nation-state' difda9 'defence* .dukkdanh 'shbp' dajcaaktin\ -'weak' pa9iif(inn)'faqiirlfflgdaya 'poor' 'to'op^n; to ,,J fitaH conquer' >Saliil(iiti) *' 'few, small* in* number" 'to kill* "gital 'gdwi/agwtydd 'strdng' fehdbi/aghbiyda 'stupid' 'ghawdasl1 '* 'pearl-diver' ghawaawiiS ghooS pearl-diving' il-hijra* 'The Prophet's flight from Mecca to' Medina' 'at the Haaltyyan moment' '(financial) Hisdab(aat) account' imdara*(aat) 'emirate^ 'sister' ixitlxawdat 'beautiful' jamiil(iin) 'crime' jariima*/ jarda'im j r kathiir(iin) 'many, /'numerous } S fayt(aatp 'light'"(e.g. of a 'street, -car) Wba*\ahtj "'game'"" lu'lu'Ila'dali 'pearl' mdaddd*) .'material, * mawdadd*' substance' maal ' 'belo'nging to' mashhuur 'famous' tndTbax-^ -1 'kitchen*" * * maTdabix mdthalan 'for example' ] miftdaHl' 'key; i^pener' i mafaatfiJJ 'miildad "birth' muHdasib(iin) 'accountant' \ muk'ddda** 'job*1*way of 'earning money' 'nurse' mumdrfiDa* '{aat) mut9ib 'tiring' muu chidhii! 'isn't that so? ndadilnawdadi *club, society' nafT 'petroleum' qadiin} iz-, 'ancient times' zamdan qarhlquruun 'century' rd'ylarda 'opinion* sdabi9 "'seventh' sdmma 'to* name' sd9arlas9dar 'cost, price' sa9uudi(yyiin) 1 Saudi Arabian' sima 'sky' sdakin!sukkdan 'inhabitant' SaHUfa*! 'page (of a SuHuf book)' SaHrda 'desert' shakklshkuuk ' 'doubt't shtdda* "strength, intensity*" 'by a small bi shwdy "amount tdrak '' 'to leav^j r t Tdabiql \& t 'storeyj Tawdabiq * * , , ! thagiillthigdal. ^ 'hgav^' ustdadhl ' 'J,eacher' j < asdatidha ^ -, waHHd 'sipgle,;sol&%. wajhlwujduh 'face' c wqziirlwuzdrd% Jminister^ xafiiflxifdaf .'light- iin .* weight 'The (A^atjianj 'Gulf * 'the'(19)50s' xamsiihdat '>yqd}pr!aydadi 'hand' rf yoontiyya(aat) "day's wages'' , H-< i zayt,., '"i* 'oi^ . - zirdaba*^,,' 'agriculture'.! 'zoojlaz'\bdaj 'husbapdj * z6oja*faat) ^'jwife' < -'number' (i.e. 4i pddqd t* t .total) , ^frorn, away n >&#anf ,from' , c 96gub >, 'after' Xprep,-) 96gubpiaa i 'after' (conj.) il-xaliij

"53 ! I.'l f.j,1

y i n

.1

it

UNIT 9 101 'UNIT 9 9.1 PAST-TENSE VERBS: 'DOUBLED' VERBS


1 1

.il

The first of two further sub-categories of the verb is the so-called 'doubled' verb. In 'doubled' verbs, the consonants in second and third position in the consonant skeleton are the same. Thus,1 we i have the root 'd-sh-sh with-the basic meaning 'to enter*. By normal rules, the basic form of the verb from this root-would be dashash; this, however, is an inadmissible form in Arabic, and wefinddashsh 'to enter' instead. In the same way, wefindgaTT 'to throw' instead of gaTaT from the root g-T-T. The basic form of the past tense of 'doubled' verbs is always CaCC (where C = consonant), and they are all conjugated according'to the following pattern: shaggdyt shaggdyt shaggdyti shagg shdggat shaggdyna shaggdytaw shdggaw 'I tore' 'you(m.) tore* 'you(f.) tore' 'he tore* 'she tore* 'we tore' 'you(pl-) tore' 'they tore'

mishdyt mishdyt mishdyti misha mlshat mishdyna mishdytaw mfshaw

'I walked' *you(m.) walked' 'you (f.) walked' 'he walked' 'she walked' 'we walked' 'you(pl.) walked' 'they walked'

gardyt gardyt gardyd gdra gdrat gardyna gardytaw^ gdraw

*'I read' 'you(m.) read' 'you(f.) read' 'he read' 'she read' 'we read* <'you(pl.)'read' 'they read'

9.3 TIME CONJUNCTIONS Sequences of past actions can be expressed irnArabic using^a variety of conjunctions: (1) yoom 'at the time when' Examples: yoom dashshdyt il-bayt, shardbt glaas maay ''When I entered the house, I drank a glass of water' Sdaratza9ldana yoom shdafat H-ghdlaT 'She got angry when she saw the mistake' yoom is normally used to link past actions which are'raore or less simultaneous. (if) 96gubmaa, xdlfmaat bd9admaa 'after'

'v cr u :r

The main difference between the 'doubled' verb conjugation and that of the regular strong verb is that an -ay- infix is inserted after the root before consonant-initial endings, i.e. before -t, -ti. -taw, na.

! r

9.2 PAST-TENSE VERBS: 'WEAK' VERBS 'Weak' verbs in Gulf Arabic are those which have y as final root consonant. This y only shows up in those parts of the verb where the ending for person/gender begins with a consonant (cf. the remarks above on 'doubled' verbs). The basic form of the 'weak' 'verb is CvCa, e.g. misha 'to walk , liga 'to find, meet', gdra 'to read', ddra 'to know (something)'. The conjugation of these verbs is very similar to that of 'doubled' verbs:

Examples: gubmaa SaaDdohum, Dirbdohum bi shtdda After they caught them, they beat them severely* (daw sh-shughul mdrra thdanya xdlfmaa gdamaw min ilghdda 7ey began work again after they got up from (their) lunch' 69admaa raaH 9dnni, nisdyt ismah A fter he went from me, I forgot his name'
9

102 gNir9 tin) gdbil tikof gdbttmaa i'before' Examples:v * ,


t, t

UNIT'9' toy -(Read triE'mbVning $ape'r. Left the'housei. v * Got to'the office.'Wprit straight to'{heV factory. , ^ , ,v l' (after) >'=- Inspected, tjieprpduct^. Talked to'the* H foreman*. * (as soon as) - 'Returned to'.the office". F.arrash brought me tea. (before) - Telephoned rny*wife. Werit tS!the\bahk. (wherif * Finished business at the bank.'*Walk|ed.by the sea-shore and had lunch. lfJ (before), (when)

ft frifla darayt'bih gdbil la Hichdytwiyydak" ;i didn'^'know about him (what he^was'Tik'e'5 before IjSpdketo ^yOU* _ ^,i I V n j > >i saickdytil-baab gdbtfmaa wuSla\y v 'I shutthe;door before they arrived'^ " " * ?* (iv) layn 'until; as soon as' ~* <* ' ' . * Examples: . 4 dazzdpt iT{Taffdaya layn TaaHat min^ihmayzx^ it . (, 'You(m.) pushed the ash-traV'wnft7 it fell, ciff the table' /flyn wuSdtt-il-maTdari.riHt'U-mdktab'maal ra'tis'shdrikat ' > > r Tayardan il-xaltij 'As soon as I got to the airport, I went to the office of the head of the'Gulf Airways Company' ,., >. ^

*, * A ., 9.4 ORDINAL-NUMBERS: k 1 / 11 The ordinal ^nurnoers from\\6 10, have "masculine, and femjnine ! forms, as foUpws: ^ '* * , (f. * * masc. dwwal thdam' thdalith rdabi9 xdamis sdadis sdqbi9 thdamin tdasi9 9dashir feminine fiula (t r thdanyat \thdaltha ' rd'ab9a -xdamsa sd'adsa ' * r sdab9fl thdamna tdas9a 9dashr& 'first! ''secorib*' 'third'^ 'fourth' ^fifth',. . 'sixth' 'seventh' 'eighth' 'ninth 'tenth'

Exercise 9.1 A day in the life In this exercise,'you have to'translate and connect, using an appropriate conjunction; sets of sequenced events from an imaginary diary. > * Example: (as soon as) -* Saw the accident. Telephoned" the police* layn shift il-Hdadtha, Ddrabt tilifdun Hsh-shurTa .First of all, translate the djary entries into Arabic using the 1st person singular; then, go through the exercise again using the 3rd person 'he'. Tuesday, April 6 (as soon as) > Got up. Drank a glass of tea and had breakfast, (after) > Finished breakfast. Played with the kids.

pi

Unlike other declinable adjectives, the ordinal numbers 1-10, njay occur before the noun they niodify, in which case they are not inflected for'gender: ' > "' ihdalith yoom dwwal wdlad thdani bint sdadis ziydara 'the third day' 'the first boy' 'the second girl' 'the sixth visit'

104, UNITA This adjective-noun.construction is alsojused, to render theiEnglish 'the first .one, the,second one', etc.:, i * ay wdaHid Habbdyt dkthqr! ' 'WhicK one did you like "the most]?' -, dwwal wdaHid. j, 'The first one.* - ay "sayyddra shardyt!" * 'Which car did you* buy?' - thdani wdHda. 'The second one.' This ordinal number-noun construction is thus grammatically similar to the elative adjective-noun construction we saw in Unit 8 dHsan rayydal, though it'contains no definite "article, rrfearis'7ne best man'. Howpver, the ordinal, numbers can also, hp placed after the noun they nibdify, in which case they agree witrnij: in gender, and the definite article il must be used: il-yoom ith-thdalith il-wdlad il-dwwal il-bint il-uula iz-ziydara l-xdqmsa 'the third day' 'the first boy' 'the first girl' 'the fifth^visit'

UNIT 9 105 dwwal and daxif are also used in the" plural form awdayil and awdaxir in certain time phrases: '* Hhe first (few days)i of the awdayil ish-shdhar month' ( Ithe last (few days) in awdaxir ramaDdanRamadan' The ordinal nurhbers from'41 onwards present few problems'/ They are the sairie in,form as their corrqsponding.cardinals, they do not decline, anq\they always,follow their-nouri: ish-shdhar U-ithnd9sHar il-mdrra th-thalaathtd9sha^ idh-dhikra l-xamsiin 'the^tweltri'month' 'the, thirteenth time' 'the fiftieth anniversary' ji. Exercise 9.2 , It Translate the following phrases and sentences'into "English: 1 is-safiina l-uula 2 id-dars il-dwwalfi$hdalith il-kutub 3 iS-SaHufa l-9ishribimin it-taqriir il-daxjrsA daxir ishshdhar ir-rdabi9.5 il-bayt issittd9shar 9qla l-yamiin 6 xdamis shdari9 9dla t-yasdar 7 dwwal shay, il-fluus maa 9indi u thdahi shay maa mish waqt kdafi 8 dwwal mdrra riHt is-sa9uudiyya Maa Hdbbdytha; thadhi mdrra, 9ijbdtni dkthar > K 9.5 MONTHS The western calendar is in general use in the Gulf, but there are alternative names for each month. The-sefe which is borrowed from European languages is becoming commoner,kbut -it'is well,to be able at least to recognise the local names: < , Europeans yanaayir fabrdayir maars abriil Local kaanuun ith-thdani' ''January' 'February' shubdaT aadhdar 'March* 'April' hiisdan

1 \

'' \

If*the thing, being'referred to-is 'feminine by gender:

* Xi

When ordinal numbers function grammatically as nouns rather than adjectives, i.e._ in noun-phrases of the"kind described in 8.1. e.g. 'the fourth of his books', 'the second of the boys', they do agree in gender with the noun they refer to: thdani l-awldad xdamsat il-Hdjar thdalith kutubah sdadsdt in-niswdan 'the second of the boys' 'the fifth of the rooms' 'the third of his books' 'the sixth of the women'

Two exceptions to this are dwwal 'first' and %daxir 'last' which, when used as nouns, do not decline: dwwal il-bandat dwwal is-sdna daxir il-Hichdaya 'the first of the girls' '.the first (part) of the year' 'the end (part) of the story'

106 UNIT 9 jndayo ,, yiiunyo ydulyo avfghusios \sibtdmbar uktuubar' nufdmb'ar disdmbar ! < ayydan Haziirdan , tpmm&uz * * * ' flflft * ayluul tisHriin il-dwwal tishrtin, ith-thdani kaqhuundl-dwwql ** ^ 'May' * * ,'June' 'July' 'August' 'September' 'October"" 'Nqvember' ''December'*

UNIT 9 107 processions which reach their culmination on the ninth and tenth of that month. The'proce'ssiohs-cQmmemorate the martyrdom of Hussain, son of,'Ali, the Prophet's cousin, auhe battle of Kerbela^ Iraq, on 10th muHdrram AD 680. The tenth day of muHdrram* which is particularly holy to all Shi'is, is called 9aashuura. '

Exercise 9.3

*
,J

D,ates are expressed by prefixing the" riiastiiline'form (where there is one) of the cardinal numbers'to'the'mbhthi'Nd preposition is required to express th,p Engfish 'on*, but, sometimes^ is used: wuSdlt il-kuwdyt (fi) yva'aHid Haziirdan miri-iSf-sdna'l-mdaDyq 'I arrived in Kuwait ori the 1st: of June last year' tirkaw s-sa9uudiyya (fi) sdba9 disdmbar il-mdaDi 'They Iqft Saudj Arabia on^the 7th of last December' The first of, January, New Year's Day; is called, raas is-sdna '(lit. 'head of the year'),; It is a" goodTidea 'for the 'western resident to be aware o) s&me of the principal events in the Islamic year. Since the'Islamic calendar as lunar, the festivals*describ6d_ below occur fen days earlier each year. ""ramaDdan^ is the fasting tnonth, when1 Muslims may not eat or 'drink between sun-up arid sun-down. The end o the daily, fast is signalled by a shot from a cannon (midfa9) in all large Gulf cities. At the end of ramaDdan, when the new moon is sighted, there is feasting for two or three days at the' 9iid il-fi.Tr 'Festival"of the Fast-breaking'. The most important 9iid (plural avydad) occurs "during the pilgrimage "month, called dhu l-Hijja. On'the tenth day of this month, every Muslim family slaughters a sheep or a goat (or a larger animal if they can afford it) and eats it. This 9iid is called 9iid il-dD-Ha or 'Festival of the Sacrifice.' In some Gulf states*, most notably Bahrain, the first month of the Muslim calendar, called muHdrram, is marked by Shi'i religious
i

Reading coriiprehensiort*

Read aloud the following dialpgue, and consulting the vocabulary summary, and notes wheret necessary-answer the comprehension questions;iThen translate the dialogue. il-imaardatfil-q'adlimwil-Hiin Interviewer: Saar Hk mudda Tawtilafil-xaliij,yaa sdyyid Johnson, muu chidhii! Johnson,: ay wdllah, Hawdali saba9td9shar sdna. ana ilHiin sitt sanawdatfidubfly, idakin tammdyt iHd49shar sdnafil-baHrdynmin gdb\il. I:, shinhu sMghlakfil-baHrdyn,1yd9/ii! J: shughli ya9ni muHdasib ra'iisifi sh&rikfit tijdqra. I: 9dyal laysh jiit il-bnaardat? maa 9ijbadk il-baHrdyn! J: bdla, bdla, 9ijbdtni wdayidrildakin iHdd9shar sdna mudda T,awiita . . . yoom min il-ayydam, gdalat liyyi zdojti innaha mdllatwin il-bi\dad. gilt Itha inm~ malldyt min ish-shughutfishdrikat it-tijdaraudna bd9ad . . . nzayn, Tarrdsht risdala lil-mudiir pxaal shdrikat is-smiitfi dubay, wTaldbt fiiha waDhi'tfa jadiida. layn ligdyt il-jawdap faraHt li'dnnahum qibldoni Hdalan u 9aT6oni rdatib dkthar min maa 9aT6onifish-shdrika1-baHrayniyya. I: shrd'yik fil-imaardat! -: dwwal maa jiit il-imaardat, ya9ni min Hawdali 9ishriin sdna, maa kaan fiiha shay - la maay wa la dkil zayn. bi SardaHa, ya9ni il-baHrdyn dHsan mtnha 9ishtiin mdrra Idakin^shway^ shway taghdyyarat (changed) ildshya, Hdtta yoom rijd9t, shiftha killish ghayr ildwwal.

108 UNIT 9
% J I: shloon ghayr, ya9ni! J: fi kill mukdanfii mabdani Ddxma. buntiuk, 9imaardat, guSiiur, maTda9im. kill shay mawjuud, maa fii shay nddgiS. I: nzdyn, wil-imaardat maal il-Hiin 9tjbatik dkthar miA il bdlad (Hi (which) 9ardftah fil-xamsiindat, law bil-9aks! J: su'dal Sd9ab. fil-qadiim, in-naas fagdara, SaHUH, Idakin gldubhum zdyna. il-Hiin la. Sdaraw dghna min ' ' dwwal - 9indahum byuut mafruushq b\ kill shay, u sayyaardat amr'dkiyya Ddxma . . . Idakin fi rd'yi dna, Sdarat il-andasa aqdll min mad kdandt. I: ya9ni, fi rd'yik zdadat il-fiuus Idakin qdllat il-andasa! J: Sidj . . . u zdadat U-amrddD 6d9ad\

UNIT 9 109 4 shloon HdSSal (got) shughul jadiid fi dubdy! 5 shloon il-imaardatfil-xamsiindat.bin-nisba ila lbaHrdyn! 6 shloon kaanat Haal sukkdan il-imaardat fil-xamsiindat! 7 fi ra'y is-sdyyid Johnson, ay wdHda dHsan, il-imaardat maal il-qadlim law maal il-Hiin? laysh!

VOCABULARY SUMMARY aab aadhdar daxir abriil andasa awdaxir awdayil % awghustos dwwal 'August' 'Marchl 'last, latest' 'April' 'enjoyment, companionship* *nd parts' 'beginning parts* 'August' 'first, previous(adj .) ;old times(n.); first of all' 'when first* (conj.) 'September' 'May' 'yes, on the contrary' 'after'fconj.) 'to begin' 'country' 'to know (something)' 'lesson' 'to enter' dazz disdmbar Ddrab tilifuun Ddxim dhikra 'to push' 'December' 'to telephone' 'large, enormous' 'memory (of something); commemoration' 'twelfth month of the Islamic calendar' 'February' 'to be happy, joyful' 'before'fconj.) 'before'(adv.) 'to read' 'to throw (esp. 'away')' 'to sit; to get up (in the morning)' 'mistake' 'to change' (trans.)

1 1

.* ear tr

S Notes, Line 1 Saar lik. . . this phrase is commonly used to express the idea of'have been here for'. Saar is always masculine in form, even wheri, as here, its subject mudda 'period' is fefninine. 8 9dyal'we\\ then, so' 9djab 'to please sorrieone' 9 bdla is normally used like the French 'si*, i.e. td deny a negative assertion. 12 dna bd9ad 'me too'. 16 min maa 'than what*, mad means 'what' in this sense as well as 'not'. 18 shrd'yik = sh + ray + ik 'what - view - your' = 'What's your opinion?' 19 min 9ishr(in sdna 'twenty years ago' min * cardinal number + sdna means 'X years ago'. 30 bil-9aks 'on the contrary, vice-versa, the other way round'. Questions 1 Saar lis-sdyyid Johnson cham sdna fil-baHrdyn! 2 shinhu kaan shughlah hundak! 3 laysh ghdyyar (changed) shughlah!

dhu l-Htjja fabrdayir fdraH gdbil la ) gdbilmaa i min gdbil gdra gaTT gd9ad ghdlaTI aghldaT ghdyyar

Hi

dwwal maa ayluul ayydar bdla


b

&9admaa bida b Hdad! bulddan terafai)


d ars!druus d

ashsh

110 UNIT 9 Hdadtha*/ Hawdadith Hdalan Habb Haziirdan HdSSdJ Hicha Htchdaya* kaanuun ildwwal kaamiun iththdani kishaf (9dla) layn 'accident' 'on the spot' -'to love, like' 'June' 'to get, obtain' 'to talk' 'story' 'December*' 'January' 'to inspect1' 'as sbon-as, until' 'to meet, find' 'March' 'May' 'Building' 'tb be little, ' ii ** "few; become1 ' few' >dabi9 'fourth' raaslruus 'head' \ i ramaDdap, 'the Muslim month of fasting' rayiiug 'breakfast' sdadis 'sixth' saftina*!sufun /ship' sakk 'to shut' ,sibtdmbar ''September'1 siif * 'sea-shore'1 SaHtiH 'true, correct' bi SardqHa* 'frankly' Sd9ab 'difficult' shagg 'to tear' shubdaT ''February" shway shway 'slowly, little * by little' tdasi9 'ninth' taghdyyar 'to change' (in trans.) tamm 'To stay, continue* lammuuz 'July' tijdara* '* "trade, commerce' tishriin il'October' 1 dwwal tishriin 'ith- 'November' thdani TaaH 'to fall' Taffdaya* 'ashtray* (aat) Tdlab 'to ask for, demand' Tdrrash 'to send* qall Tayardan thdamin uktuubar uula waDMifa*! waDHdayif xdamis > xdlfmaa yamiin yandayir f yasdar yoom yoom min ilayydam yuulyo yimnyo zaad 9dashir 'aviation' 'eighth' 'October' 'first'(f.) 'duty, job, post' 'fifth' *' 'after' (conj.) 'righthand side', '/January' ,t 'lefthand'side' \vhen'"(conj.) 'pne day" 'July' 'June*' 'to* increase' 'tenth' 9aashuura

UNIT 9 111 -'10th muHarram* 'to please 9djab (someqne)! 'on the bil-9aks contrary' 'to know 9drdf (something or someone)' 9dTa 'to give,' 'well then, so' 9dyal 9iid/a9ydad 'festival' 'Festival of the 9ifd U-fiTr Fast-breaking' 9iid ii-dD-Ha 'Festival of the Sacrifice' 9imdara* (aat) 'apartment block' I

tiga *'*" * maars mdayomdbnal mabdani * mafruush 'furnished*' 'to get fed up mall (min) with' manttiuj(aat) 'product' 'illness' mdraDi amrdaD midfa9i maddafi.9 misha mudda* muHdrram 'cannon

h $i

ndagiS niisdan nfsa nufdmbar qibal

'to walk' 'period of time' '1st month of the Muslim. calendar' 'lacking' 'April' 'to forget''November' 'to accept'

I'

UNIT 10 113 UNIT 10 'the girl whom I saw in the'shop' ir-rayydal (Hi gilt lik 9dnnah x : t 'The man whom I told you about' in-naas illi sa'dltik 9dnhum t J 'The people whom I asked you about' il-jartida~lli 9aT6ytik iyydaha t ' J 'The newspaper which I gav6 you' The literal meaning of these phrases is 'The man whom I saw him. . .' 'The girt whom I,saw her. . .', 'The people whom I asked you about them\ 'The newspaper which I gaveVou,'',' I n Arabic, the antecedent noun, if it is the direct or indirect object of the verb, is 'echoed' by a pronoun which agrees with it in gender and number. This rule applies regardless of whether the antecedent is definite or indefinite: rayydal shiftah t J fish-shdari9 '

10.1 RELATIVE CLAUSES The relative pronoun as subject of the verb In the sentence 'I saw the man who brok'e his leg*, the'relative pronoun 'who' refers back to the definite noun 'the man', and functions as the subject of the verb 'broke' in' the relative clause 'who brake his leg*. This sentence in Arabic is shift ir-rayydfll (Hi kisar r(i(ah(Hi, 'who, which' is used in Arabic relative clauses to refer back to -an antecedent noun, whether animate or inanimate, if that noun is definite. It is definite either (as in the above example) by virtue of the definite article i7 or by any pronoun suffix, e.g. shift axuuyi UU kisar riilah 'I saw my brother who broke his leg' If the noun which is referred back to (the 'antecedent') is indefinite, tlti is not used: shift rayydal kisar riilah 'I saw a man who broke his leg' Wherever an antecedent noun is definite, (Hi is used to refer back to it in relative clauses; if it is indefinite, (Hi is not used.

ii

"ft cr

fi

*A man whom I saw ih the street' jariida 9aTdytik iyydaha A newspaper which I gave you* 'Verbless' relative clauses In equational sentences like ir-rayydal muddrris wil-riiu"rii mUddrrisa-'Tht man is a teacher and the woman is a teacher' Ttare is no need for afl Arabic equivalent of the English verb 'to be '- When such equatorial sentences are made into relative clauses in Arabic - 'The man/woman who is a teacher. . .' - the following type of construction is used: 'r-rayydal (Hi huwa muddrris. . . t i 5 i 11

The relative pronoun as object of the verb UU also functions as the equivalent of 'whom': ir-rayydal UU shiftah fish-shdari9 t f 'The man whom I saw in the street' il-bint UU shlftha ftd-dukkdan t I

114 UNIT 10 'The man who is a teacher. . .* * il-mdr'alli hfya muddrrisa. . . X t "The woman who is a teacher. . .'< ,, in-ndas (Hi hum fagdara. . . v-f * t 1 'The people who are poor. . .' \ ' v Thus we see that where the subject of a' 'relativised' equational sentence is" definite, an independent pronoun which refers back to it is inserted: it is as if one said The man wHo'he is a teacher. . . ',
J

UNIT 10

115

The relative'pronoun as subject of the" main clause

Illi often stands for an unspecified person or thing in the ^iain clause of a sentence, equivalent to the English 'That which. . .', 'He who. . . * * ,*. illi raaH raaH 'What's gone is'gone" (f.e. "'Don't cry over spilt milk') illi gilt liyyi 9dnha maa ligdyt 'I didn't meeVthe" woman you told me about' " (lit. ''She whom^ou'told me about her,' I didn't nieet')

etc. The Arabic equivalent of 'whose' presents ,np particular problem: ir-rayydal illi'shughlah muddrris The'rhan whose job'is tea'ching. . .' (lit. The man who^iis^o'b teacher. . .') it-bint illi shd9arha dswad 'The girl whose hair is black. . .' (lit. 'the girl who her hair black. .*.') in-naas illi awldadhum kaslaantin. . . 'The people whose sons are lazy. . i' (lit. 'the people who their sons lazy.-. .') '
v

Exercise 10.1 Make as many Arabic sentences as you can from the table below:

' r*

* /' \
(

If the antecedent is indefinite, (MJLS omitted; bint shd9arha dswad 'A girl whose hair is black', 'A black-haired girl', etc. Verbless relative clauses expressing possession (using 9ind) are constructed according to the patterns already illustrated, e.g. definite antecedent noun: U-misk(in (Hi maa 9(ndahfluus. . . The unfortunate who hasn't any money. . / il-aghniydalli 9(ndhum likuuk. . . 'The rich who've got*tens of thousands. . .' indefinite antecedent noun: misklin maa 9(ndah fluus. . . 'An unfortunate who hasn't any money. . .', etc. i *

is the chief accountant is' a big contractor P*saw yesterday is a friend of the ruler I wrote a letter to is an important personality1 The man I sent my report to is the deputy director I told you about is a famous journalist I spoke with is the deputy Prime Minister '\ , is the chief engineer

HI

m Ml * * * IJI J

Exercise 10.2 Make as many sensible Arabic sentences as .you can from this table: The party I went to The holiday I spent in London The places I visited The hotels I stayed in The buildings I saw The university I went to _ _ , famous nice expensive very P r e t t y .cheap large spacious v

tt\

was were

116 UNIT 10 Exercise 10.3 Make as many questions as you can from this table: ticket letter report newspaper file f 00( j telegram pen book parcel I ordered half an hour ago?" I received yesterday? I gave ypu? 'I wrote? ' I asked for a week ago? I bought this morning? I put here 5 minutes ago? haadhayjdyn 9ummdal shaghaaghiil 'These; (ones here) are hard-working labourers' dhayldyn samaamiich 'These (men here) are fishermen* haadhayldak kaslaandn 'Those (people) are lazy1 dhayldak maa ftihum fdyda 'Those (people, things) are useless' (lit. 'Those not in them use')

UNIT 10 117

Where's the

Often in Gulf Argpic.thedemonstrative pronounTfollowsthe noun to which it refers. When this-happens, the ao-element of the form is usually missed,off, except in the case of hdadha, which always retains it. Thus 'the sentences above could alternatively be expressed as below, with no change in meaning: zayn, hdadha bayt 9at(ij, hdadha rayydal shaghghdal, dhaak ftkra zdyna, dhi bint shdaTra, dhiich, etc. Note the following type of construction where the person or object referred to by the demonstrative pronoun is definite: hdadha hdwa r-rayydal 'This is the man:' hdadhi hfya l-bint illi nijHat fil-iJntiHdan This is the girl who passed the exam' dhayldyn hum il-kaslaaniin Illi maa rdaHaw sh-shughul These are the lazy Xpeople) who didn't go to work' dhooldak hum illi mda ftihum fdyda Those are the ones who are useless' A. personal pronoun 'he', 'she' ('it'), or 'them' must be inserted between the demonstrative pronoun and its referent in equational sentences of the 'This is the X. . .' type. *03 DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES m order to say 'this man', 'that girl', 'those houses', etc., we prefix

Ijfr. ::i hi ':\ *1ci !?,'

10.2 DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS The forms are tabulated below, the bracketed elements being optional. As in English, 'this' and 'these' are used to refer to people and objects which are relatively nearer to the speaker in space or time. 'this* 'that' 'these' 'those' Examples: hdadha zayn This is nice' (or 'This man/boy, etc. is nice') hdadha bayt 9atiij 'This is an old house' haadhdak rayydal shaghghdal "That (one over there) is a hard-working man' hdadhi flkra zdyna 'This is a good idea' haadhiich bint shdaTra "That (one there) is a clever girl' masculine feminine hdadha hdadhi haadhdak haadhi'ichlhaadhiik (haa)dhayldyn (haa)dhayldakf(haa)dhooldak

J :

118 XINITilO, the'demonstrative pronoun" forms .which* we have'just"Weft to the defined fQrm of the noun: it isvas if we say 'this, the man*/ 'that the girl',, 'those the'houses'. The forms of the demonstratives whfchare used in this adjectival function are. slightly different: 'this! these* ha(adha) r-rayydal singular { m. This man' ha(adhi) l-mdra I *f. 'This woman' ' har-rayadyiih These men' han-mswaan 'These women'
L

UNIT 10 119 An important point to note is that, inall 'of these examples, omission of the definite*!/ would change,the sense to This is a gpod man'. 'These, are high prices', etc. -i.e. the demonstratiye'wou|d function as a'pronoun (10.2. above)*. Frequently^ as^withthe demonstrative pronoun,.the denionstrative adjective is placed after'thetyhb'le'noun-phrase'<to which if refers. When this happens, theJiaa-element of,the form tends to be. missed' off, except fof haadha, which is never shortened: ir-rayydal hdadha zayn ... '. * " 'This fnan, is 'good' il-as9dar dhi ghdalya" lhese prices are high > < v v[ i il-faraariish dhayldak "min zaam in-nahdar' 'Those cleaners are from the day shift' ^ Examples with longer noun-phrases:* v* hdadha l-bayt il-9atiij il-bayt it-9atiij hdadha 'This old house' \ * '' * "X X '' " * ' * '" , " " * ' The shortened forms oi'this'^an'd 'these" in har-rayydal,'hal-mdra are never postposed: one does NOT say ir-rayydal ha, il-mdra ha. * t, v the demonstrative adjective is postposed,- it must be placed after1 ne complete rioup-phrase^it re'fer's to. If one wants to say,T for* example, 'this company director' or 'that Prime Minister'*, one has to say:
(

'thatlthg$e\ (haa)dhaak ir-rayydal 'That man' ^ (haa/dhiifh il-mdra That'woman* V> i 'if (hqa)dhayldak ir-rayaayiiit Those, men tt> (haa')dhayldak ih-niswdan "Those women' ^

plural

^ "'

.i> ' , ,.

iit=i i i fc*i *

Once again,'the bracketed eleirients are optional. It can be seen that the demonstrative phrases like 'this X;'and 'these Xs' tends to be sirnply a shortened form of the haa- + definite noun, whereas 'that.X' and 'those Xs' tend to be the second * element bf the demonstrative, the part'which begins'with dh-, + definite fioun. Examples: \ Ij hdadha r-rayydal zayn* har-rayydal zayn 'This man is good' A hdadhi l-as9dar-ghdalya hal-as9dar ghdaly'a 'These prices are high'

dhayldak iz-zuwwdar U-miSHyyUr) iz-zuwwdar il-miSriyytin dhayldak 'Those Egyptian visitors' " * *

r1

haadhiich il-ldyla riHha s-sunama dhiich il-ldyla riHna s-siinama 'That night we went to the cineriia' haadhayldak il-faraariish min zaam in-nahdar dhayldak il-faraariish min zaam in-nahdar Those cleaners are from "the day shift'

Kudtir ish-shdrika hdddha ra 'iis il-wuzarda dhaak mudiir ish-shdrika and ra'iis il-wuzarda are the entities which, are being referred to^ not simply mudiir and ra'iis, hence the emonstrative follows the corriplete phrase. Note also'that it agrees^

120' UNIT 10. withthe head-noun mudiir and ra'iis, not shdrika)(f.) or wuzarda (pi?); if we, were to-say * , mudiir ish-shdrika hdadhi ra'iis il-wuzarda dhayldak this would "be-understood as 'the director of this company', 'the head of these ministers', because hdadhi can only refer, to a feminine noun and dhayldak to a plural one. In an example hke miftdaH il-bayt hdadha , the meaning is ambiguous between 'this house-key' and, 'the key of this house' because both miftdaH and bayt are masculine nouns. In such cases, the context usually makes the meaning ^clear; however there is a tendency to'say miftdaH hdadha l-bayt when one means 'the key of this house' and miftdaH il-bayt hdadha for 'this (particular) house-key Exercise 10.4 Look at the example below: (bayt) 50,000 30,000 - hal-bay) dghla min dhaak > or hdadha l-bayt dghla min haadhdak -* or il-bayt hdadha dghla min dhaak, etc. (ghdalil * Exercise 10.5 Translate into Arabic: ' v6 (kutub) 7 (xiydash) 8 (shiqqa) 9 (jdnTa) 10 (shayx) pub. 1902 100 lb ' 500 per '' month 1 * 5 lb 10 million

UNIT-10 121 -pub. 1930 (qadiim) 15 lb " '(thagiit) 700 per month (raxiiS) 20 1b 7 million (xafdfi (ghdni)

Now switch the focus tothe second of the things being compared: instead of hat-bay( dghla min dhaak, etc. we could say haadhdak il-bayt drxaS min hdadha, etc. using the opposite of ghdali 'expensive', which is raxiiS 'cheap'. Do the same for 1-10 above, selecting' an appropriate adjective. '

Now using the data below, make similar sentences using these patterns. Try to make several sentences, as illustrated, for each e'xample: 1 (ydahit) 2 3 4 5 (sayydara) (Hijra) (shayb) (wdlad) 90% correct 5,000 60 sq. ft. 80 years old 5ft 60% correct answers 4,500 50 sq. ft. 70 years old 4 ft 6 in. (shdaTir) (ghdali) (wdasi9) (kabdr) (Tawdt)

I This is the clerk who sent the letter 2 That's the woman who came to your office 3 These are the unfortunate (people) who have no money 4 These are the photos I told you about 5 That is the old man I bumped into yesterday 6 That is the shop in which I bought these shoes 7 That's the restaurant I ate in yesterday 8 This is the suit I bought last week 9 This is the money I found in the street 10 These are the labourers who asked for more money II Those are the young men I drank tea with 12 This,is the hotel I stayed in last time I came to Kuwait 10.4 THE NEGATIVE IN EQUATIONAL SENTENCES We have noted in previous units that map 'not' is used to negate v erbs and 'pseudo-verbs' like 9ind and Jii, e.g. maa baag 9ali fluusik Ali didn't steal your money' >1

r
122 UNIT 10 UNIT io 1'23
! hdadha rayydal maa shiftah min gdbil , 'That's a rnan I've never seen before' fmaa fii afidam,zdyfiafis-siinamahal-ayydam i,;('There aren't any good films on the cinema these days' maa 9(ndi shay t , 'I don't -have anything'

Exercise 10.6 Translate into Arabic: 1 The man I saw wasn't you 2 When I came back from 1he office51> found no one at home 3 'There's someone outside 4 This isn't what she wanted 5 They didn't see anybody and heard nothing 6 I didn't like the hotel - it wasn't clean and there* was a lot of noise 7 Nd one came to the airport when I arrived 8 This milk which I bought1 from you this morning isn't fresh 9 These spare parts I bought from you aren't any use, 10 -Nobody told me you were here

In equational sentences - that is, sentences,which do,not have a verb or pseudo-verb - muu or mub is used as the negative particle. Examples: hdadha mub zayn 'This-is no good' il-dkil Ihni mub, raxiiS 'The food here isn't cheap' * ana mub za9ldan 9aldyk ''I'm not angry with you' dHmad muu mawjuud 'Ahmed isn't here' il-kitdab muu 9ala l-mayz 'The book isn't on the table' abuuyilmuu sammdach l .'My father isn't a fisherman' baghdyt 9ali, mub inta 'I wanted Ali, not you.'

i * > -r

'i Exercise 10.7 Read aloud and translate the following dialogue: yaa hdla jdasim! shldonik! dhlan dhlan abu xaltil. wdllah, ana mub zayn il-yoom. laysh? shfiik, ta9bdan! ay, 9(ndi zukdam shway . . . rdasi dday'ir. maariHtid-ddxtar! bdla riHt, bos maa 9aTdani ddwa iayn. wdllah, iddaxdatir dhayldak maa fiihum fdyda. . . - shgaal lik id-ddxtar 9dyat! - xaraabiiT yd9ni. gaal liyyi bos 'xudh had-ddwa marratdyn kill yoom u xudh rdaHtik fil-bayt' - u had-ddwa (Hi 9aTdak iyydah, shinhu ya9ni! - Hbdub bdyDa Saghiira bas. layn rija9t il-bayt akdlt wdHda minha Idakin idh-dhoog mdalha muu zayn kariih, ya9ni. maa akdlt m(nha bd9ad - gaTTdyt ilbdagi. - ana 9indiflkra z&ynaX - guull - hast ddwa dHsan min had-ddwa Hi 9aTdak iyydah . . had-ddwa mawj&udfith-thalldajamdaltil ~ shinhu, ya9ni! - ghdrshat bdbsi killish bdarid1.

,| , '

10.5 'SOMEBODY' AND 'NOBODY' 'Somebody' and 'nobody' are respectively dHad and mdHHad: kaan mdHHadfit-bayt ' or maa kaan dHad fil-bayt 'There was nobody in the house' llgdyt mdHHad fish-sHdari9 or maa ligdyt dHad fish-shdari9 T didn't meet anybody in the street'

HiSSBsr
l

124 'UNIT 10 VOCABULARY SUMMARY 'no one' mdHHad 'someone' mildffa* (aat) 'file'', dossier' 'remainder, 'not' i muulmub rest' 'deputy' nda'ibl 'to want' bdgha nuwwdab , 'barqiyya*(aat) 'telegram' 'clean' nfDHiif bindaya*(aat) 'building' 'to stay'(in 1 nizal 'going -round\ ddayir, a hotel); 'jnedicine' ddwa!adwiya> go down' 'noise, Ddjja* 'spare part' guT9a*!guXa9 clamour' * ghiydar 'taste; flavour' dhoog 'rest' rdaHa* 'usefulness' fdyda* 'leg' riil/ryuul fikra*iafkdar 'idea, thought' 'letter' risdala*! 'to spend gdDa rasda'il (time)' 'picture, photo' SuuralSuwar 'pen' gdlamlgldama 'youth, shdabbl 'this' hdadhaldhi juvenile' shubba'an 'that' haadhdak! 'hard-working' shaghghdal! dhiich shaghaaghiil 'these' haadhayldyn 'personality' shaxSiyyat(aat) haadhayldak 'those' shayblshiydab 'old man' 'important' haamm .'hair (head)' shd9ar HabblHbuub 'pill' 'appartment' shiqqa*(aat) 'to put (on, in)' Halt 'ticket' tddhkira*! 'pair of shoes' juutiljawdati tadhdakir 'horrible' kariih 'fresh' Tdazij 'carton' kartuunl 'parcel' TardlTruud kawaartiin 'rubbish, xdrbuTa*! '100,000 rupees lakkllikuuk nonsense' xaraabiiT (= 10,000 'head-cold' zukdam Dinars)' dHad bdagi

REVIEW UNIT

II

Exercise II. 1 Look at the following short dialogue: - cham Tdabi9 shirdyt! - sitta. - gilt Hk sitttin, mub sittal 1 money . . . lake? 40 Dinars " 4 not 40! 2 cartons of cigarettes . . . buy? 12 cartons* 2 not 12! 3 days, holiday . . . take? 15 days 5 not 15! 4 bags of rice . . . buy? ^ 16 6 not 16! 5 spoonfuls of medicine . . . take? 2 spoonfuls 4 not 2!
!

"' to Cl:' tt.i

Construct similar dialogues, using.the cue words below:

i.

5P*

Exercise II.2 Example dialogue: - limdan Tarrdsht it-taqriir! ~ Ul-muHdasib ir-ra'iisi. - gilt lik il-muhdndis ir-ra'iisi, mub il-muHdasib\ Construct similar dialogues, using the cue words

II

126. REVIEW UNIT II 1 give the money to"? ^ the farraash the clerk, nojtfie farraash! 2 sell the fridge to?' the Egyptian woman the Lebanese, nqt-thfe Egyptian! ^ 3 give the news to? * , the deputy director' the director, not his deputy! 4 send the telegram to? j r your brotherin America 'my brother'in, England? not the one in Afnerica! 5 send the invitation to? the head of the trading company > the head pi the travel agency, not the*trading, company! ,t, " * *
>v F

REVIEW-UNIT II Exercise II.4 < < *' '

til

Look at the dialogue below: - hdadhi Hadiiqa jamiila t_ - ay, Idakin hasttijmalmin-hdadhi pmad(inqt^9iisa - wdllah?<9umri'maaishiftha\ Make similar" dialogue's:* '' 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ' * * ,<

big school T in the city dentre poor quarter - near'the bridge beautiful mosque - opposite the old palace old building -, near the post.office dirty restaurant.- next to the *Antar cinema, beautiful beach - five miles from5here, tall minaret>-'hear the Arab Bank * modern airport -'in Sharja

Exercise II.5 Exercise II.3 Look at the following dialogue: - shirdyt lih jdnTa min jild. - hdadhi mub il-hddiya~lli baghdaha, -Tdlab miHfaDHa jadiida. - bos huwa maa gaal liyyi chidhu\ Reconstruct the dialogue using the cue words below: presents for him 1 a shirt - a tie 2 a watch - a suit 3 a book - a record 4 a tape-recorder - a radio 5 a jacket - a pair of trousers presents for her 1 a dress - a pair of shoes 2 a skirt - a blouse 3 a camera - a ring 4 a typewriter - a bicycle 5 a calculator - a pen Read the following dialogue aloud and'answer the questions on it, then translate it. At the restaurant mbaarak : gaarsoon : zayn, shinhu 9indakum zayn, yd9ni? mub wdayid yuwda9d iHna. kill shay 9indana. fii mdthalan diyday mdshwi, ufii 9aysh u simich. . . . fii 9indana ldHam*xaruuf bi rooba, ufii bd9ad shuwdrma **' la la yaa sdyyidi, iT-Tabxdat dhi killahq maal il-xaluj. shway thagiilaya9ni. maa fii 9indakum HdmmuS bi TaHiina'u '' baylinjdan mdHshi u mujdddara. . . . akldat xafiifa lubnaaniyya yd9ni? mub yuwda9a li hal-gadd, ydVni. bdlafiipkil lubndani 9ala kdyfikl

jaasim

gaarsoon :

1 It Jii '111 | n || 11, III n i I 1 1i I'll ] 1 ill' H j" n i , Ii

\ 128 REVIEW UNIT II mbaarak : . gaarsoon: jaasim : mbaarak-: gaarsoon : jaasim : nzayn, jiib Una sdHnat mujdddara kabiira u HummuS u. . . . mdzza kdamla, yd9ni. inshdallah. wayn, il-gaarsdon! kdhii yaay\ zayn, hdadhi SaHnaidyn diyday u hdadha hu l-9aysh u s-simich HHJ'alabtdoh. la la hdadha xdTa' yaa~xtiuyi. hal-dkil mub Hdggna~Hna! Hagg naas ghayr, Idazim. iHna Taldbna mdzta kdamla, mub hal-dshyalli jibthal la la hdadha Hi jibtah 9diil! Talabdatkum maktduba 9ala hal-wdraga! shuufu! 'SaHnatdyn diyday. . .*. iT-Tdwla hdadhi'shu'r-rdqam'mdalah! i sittd9shar. nzayn, shu r-rdqam illi kitdbtah 9ala hatwdraga! maktdub 'sitta'. ohoo, 9dfwan yaa jimda9a, dna ghalTdan, hal-dkil muu mdalkum, SaHiiH; maal dhayldak is-sa9uudiyyiin ilgaa9idiin minndak! wil-mdzza mdalkum 9aTdythum iyydahaX baylinjaan bluus(aat) buga bughsha* (aat)1 dd9wa*(aat) fariiqifdruq 'aubergine' 'blouse' 'to, remain' 'envelope' 'invitation' 'team; group (of musicians)' ''waiter' gaarsoon 'sitting' gda9id 'extent' gadd 'spoon' gafsha*(aat) 'to overcome, ghdlab "beat' ghalTdan(iin) 'mistaken' Hadiith 'modern' HdmmuS bi 'chick-peas TaHiina with sesame oil (Leb.)' jakdyt(aat) 'jacket' jild 'leather, skin' jimda9a*(aat) 'community, group of people' foir/jusuur 'bridge, causeway' ka + indep. 'Here's. . .!' pron. j kdhrab 'electricity' 9 ala kayf + 'as . . . like(s), dep. pron. as . . . want(s)' killah wdaHid 'it's all the same, never mind' kr aafdat(aat) 'neck-tie* m&Hshi 'stuffed' mdktab il'post-office' bariid REVIEW UNIT II 129 'who' 'delegate' 'roast' '(Lebanese) meal of small dishes of different vegetables, meats and pasties' mindara* (dat) 'minaret' mujdddara* 'dish of lentils' nafnuuf! 'dress' nafaariiif rdqamlarqdam 'number' raSiid 'receipt' 'radio' rdydo(waat) 'yoghourt' rdoba* sdaHil! 'shore' sawdaHil SdaHi 'sober, awake' Sddir 'chest(anat.)' SdHan(a*)l 'plate' SuHuun shikil maa 'like, just as (conj.)' 'to buy' shira 'look!' snu/!(sing.) '("doner") shuwdrma kebab' tannuura* (aat) 'skirt' H9ab 'to get tired' 'postage stamp' Tdabi9l Tawdabi9 Tdabi9a*(aat) 'typewriter' Tdbxa*(aat) 'cooked dish' Tdwla*(aat) 'table' TuullaTwdal 'length; along (prep.)' man mandilub(iin) mdshwi mdzza*

gaarsoon : mbaarak : gaarsoon : mbaarak : gaarsoon :

C F '

tfcCi CO1 r;i

Questions 1 shinhu T-Tabxdat illi Tilbooha jdasim'u mbdarakfilmdJVam! 2 laysh Tilbaw akil xafiif! '' 3 shinhu jaab lihum U-gaarsoon! 4 limdn 9dTa il-mdzza mdaihum! VOCABULARY SUMMARY data* (aat) Hdasiba dalat*(aat) taSwiir 'calculator' 'camera' "bantaldon il-bariid iljdwwi 'pair of trousers 'airmail'

Ft

130 REVIEW UNIT II usT^iwqana* (aat, 'record, disc' xaru uflxirfdan 'lamb, mutton w sheep' wakaald\*(aat) Agency' wakdalat is'travel agency' xdTa'laxTda* ''mistake' 'ordinary' safariyydat 9dadi wdraga*!a\vrdag'piece of Mdil * < '* 'correct, just' paper' 9dfwan; 'sorry, pardon wasTlatisdaT 'centre", 9iimri, + Kmaa + '-I've never past tense verb . . . in my middle' wdja9!awjda9 'pain' life' t xdataml 'ring (finger)'' * xawdatim-

11.1 THE IMPERFECT VERB:BASIC FORMS The'verb-formsf-'wchave encountered thus far, 'like shdrab-, 'gaal, buga, are used, to describe completed actions which took place in the past - hence the conventional translations 'he drank', 'he said', 'he remained'.^We-come nowtotiie 'imperfect', verb, which is used to describe incomplete, actions taking place at the moment of speech ('he is eating'),.to desgribe habitual,'df 'tenseless"actipns ('he eats breakfast at 7.00 a.m. every dayV'he gats a lot'), and, to* "describe future actions or intentions'to act ('he'll eat with us tonight'). For all these*variqus English tense^orms* Arabic uses the imperfect verb. The full imperfect'conjugajiorfs of the strong verbs shdrab 'to drink' and kitftb 'to"write' are given rbelow;1 dktib tdktib taktibiin ydktib tdktib, ndktjb taktibiiun yaktibiiun 'I am writing/write/ 'will write' 'you(m;)*/ 'you(f.). . 'he/it. . .' 'she/it. . . 'we. . i' 'youfjpl.),. 'they. . .' dshrabTarn drinking// drink/will drink' 'you(m.). .,.' ttshrab 'ypu(f.'): . .' tishrabiin 'he. yishrab tishrab, 'she. . .' 'we. . .' nishrab tishrabtiun, 'you(pl-). . .' yishrabuun. 'they. .,.'

4! a SI 1?

"I

h can be seen from.this that the consonant skeletons, sh-r-b and, k-t-b, remain, unchanged,*" as they- do in the perfect tense. The1 'mperfect verb, however, basically* consists of a stem to* Which' prefixes aiKfr suffixes are 'added* In strong verbs like shdrab and kitab, this stem is. of the -CCvC- form: -shrab- and -ktib-. The, v wel in the imperfect stem of strong -verbs* can be a, i,'or (more> rarely) u: thus from ddxdl 'to enter' the stem is -dxal-, from tiras to fill' -tris- and irom'Ddrab 'to hit' -Drub-. Make a point, of' learning the stenrvowel of each verb as'you meet it, since there1 are no general rules which allow you to predict what it will be. The stem vowels given in this book are, like the rest of the grammatical forms given, ,those which"appear,to be in the widest circulatipn among educated speakers in all Gulf states, but there is none the

132 UNIT 11 less considerable local variation. The imperfect stems of all verbs so far encountered in the text are given for practice in 11.3 below. I Turning now to the prefixes,,we see that a- is used for T,t- for all forms of 'you' and 'she', n- for 'we' and y- for 'he' and 'they'. The vowej of the prefix in Gulf dialects is determined by the following rule of thumb: if the stern vowel is a the prefix vowel is i ifthe'stem vowel is i or u the prefix,vowel is a This rule of 'vowel dissimulation', as it is called, is a noticeable feature of speech in most areas of the Gulf. As far as the imperfect suffixes are concerned, it can be seen that -iin denotes feminine in the 2nd person (e.g. tdDrub 'you(m.) hit' taDrubiin 'you(f.) hit'), while -uun den&tes plurality (e.g. yisma9 'he hears' yisma9dun 'they hear'). i The dependent personal pronouns are suffixed directly to the imperfect verb as they are to the past-tense verb: yaDrubni asmd9ha yis'aluunich 'he hits me' 'I hear her' 'they're asking you(f.)'

UNIT 11 133 11.2 THE IMPERFECT VERB: DIFFERENT STEM TYPES We noted such different types as 'hollow', 'weak' and other kinds of verb when considering the past tense. Corresponding distinctions are also made in the imperfect tense, which we now consider: 1 'Hollow' verbs These are verbs in which the middle consonant of the consonant skeleton is w or y, and*consequently fails to show up in the pasttense verb, e.g. gaal me said' (<gawaf), shaal 'he removed* (<shayal). The imperfect stem of hollow verbs is always of theCvvC- type, to which the normal prefixes and suffixes are added. The long vowel of the stem may be uu, ii or (more rarely) aa. The correct stem vowelling for hollow verbs, as in the case of strong verbs, has to be leamt by heart. The prefix vowel is always i. Conjugations for gaal 'to say', shaal 'to remove' and naam 'to sleep' are given below. As already noted, there is a strong tendency for the unstressed i of the prefix vowel to be dropped. agdul ttgtiul tiguullin yiguul tigiiut niguul tiguuluun yiguuluun ashlil tishdl tishiiliin yishlil tishiil nishiil tishiiluun yishiiluun andam tindam tinaamdn ytndam tindam nindam tinaamuun yinaarhdun 'I. . .' *you(m.) *you(f.). 'he. . .' 'she. . .' 'we. . .' 'youfpl.) 'they. . .

.if

mfl

r -t

However, in verb-forms like taktibiin, taktibdun, yishrabuun, etc., (whether suffixed or not) in which a long stressed syllable is preceded by a short unstressed one, there is a strong tendency in Gulf Arabic, especially in.uneducated or casual speech, to 'rearrange,' the syllables to give alternatives like takitblin,-takitbdun, yishirbiiun, yisi'luunich, eta When this happens, the vowel of the prefix is often also very much weakened, or dropped altogether: one hears tkitbiin, yshirbuun, etc. Exactly the same process of syllable rearrangement takes place when dependent personal pronouns beginning with a vowel are suffixed to forms of the verb which do not have a final long syllable. Thus one often hears: yishirbah or yshirbah instead of ylshrabah (yfshrab + ah) 'he drinks it', tiDirbich ,or tDirbich instead of tdDrubich (tdDrub H ich) 'she hits you(f.)'. When this 'syllable rearrangement* occurs, the stem vowel in the resulting form is almost always 1 " .

x: I iSl

2 'Weak' verbs 'Weak' verbs have w or y as final consonant in their skeletons. One ver b, ja (often ya) 'to come*, is 'doubly weak', having y as both 2nd and 3rd consonant. In its past-tense form it behaves like a hollow verb, but in its imperfect more like a weak verb. There are two types of,weak imperfect stem: -CCa- and -CCi-. In both cases the vowel of the stem is dropped, when the -iin and -uun suffixes a re attached. The prefix vowel is i. Examples are misha 'to walk' and liga 'to find, receive, meet'.

T34

UNIT 11

UNIT n alga tttga tilgiin ytlga tilga nil'ga tilguun yilgtiun dakil tdakit taakliin ydakil tdakil ndakil taakluun yaakluun

135

dmsht timshi * timshiin yimshi timshi nimshi timshtiun yimshuun

When dependent personal pronouns are suffixed to forms ending in -a or -i, this vowel is lengthened and becomes stressed: a9T(ik dbghi/dbbi yigra tinsa 'I give' 'I want' i 'he reads' 'you forget' a9Tiik abghiihuml' abbdhum' yigrdaha tinsdana '\ give you' 'I want them'

Just as the unstressed "i is elided when followed by -iin or -uun, so it is when .vowel-initial dependent personal 'pronouns are suffixed to dakil, tdakil, etc.: daklah 'I eat it', ydaklah 'he eats it'. 5 Verbs with a 'guttural' consonant as G

'he reads it' 'you forget us'

3 'Doubled' verbs 'Doubled' verbs are those in which the 2nd and 3rd consonants of the skeleton are the same. The imperfect stem is always of the CvCC- type. The stem vowel is usually i or u. The prefix vowel is always /. Examples are the verbs Habb 'to like, love' and DHann 'to think'. aHibb , tiHibb tiHibbiin yiHibb tiHibb niHibb tiHibbuun yiHibbuun 4 Verbs with a glottal stop as G The most important verbs in this group are 'dkal 'to eat' and 'dxadh 'to take'. In the imperfect, the initial ' is dropped and the prefix vowel is lengthened. The,imperfect of 'dkal is thus: aDHunn dDHunn tiDHunnun yiDHunn HDHiinn niDHunn tiDHunnuun yiDHunnuun

'Guttural' consonants are those^ pronounced from the back of the throat, viz*. xtgh 9>H and n.'Verbs' which have one of these consonants in.Ct position may be conjugated with a normal 'strong' imperfect stem (-CCv'C-) but often, in Gulf dialects, they have a CaCiC- or -CaCC- stem. The*verb ghdsal, for example, which means 'to wash', may have either a -ghsit- or -ghasil- stem; 9draf 'to know' may have a -9ruf- or (much more commonly) a -9arfstem. Compare: dghsil or taghsil taghsiltin ydghsil tighsil ndghsil 'aghsiluun yaghsiliiun aghdsil tghdsil tghasliin yghdsil tghdsil nghdsil tghdsluun yghasliiun dVruf or td9ruf ta9ruf(in yd9ruf td9ruf nd9ruf ta9rufdun ya9rufdun a9drf t9drf t9drfiin y9drf t9drf n9drf t9arfdun" y9arfuun

i=

; i

I* 3 >\ ft

Unstressed i is elided where a vowel-initial dependent pronoun is suffixed: yghdsil 'he-washes', yghdslah 'he washes it'.
6

Verbs with w as G

There are a number of common verbs such as wdgaf 'to stop, stand', wuSal 'to reach, arrive' which typically have an -oo- element

ll

T 136 UNIT 11 in the prefix (cf. the -aa of yqakil). Instead of dwSil 'I arrive', we get doSil - aw becoming.oo as it does often in Gulf Arabic. The full paradigm is: doSil tooSil tooSliin ydoSil tooSil nooSil tooSluun^ yooSluun , stem -ooCvC-, base form yooCvC (w as G) stem vowel i: wuSal stem vowel u: wugaf i
t,

UNIT 11 "137

*i,i

Hollow verbs: stem -CvvC-, bas^form yiCwCstem vowel aa: stem vowel ii: stem vowel uu: naam xaaf baa9 jaab shaal^Saad SqarTaaH zaad baag gaal gaam kaan maat raaH shaaf zaar

KK'1

11.3 REVIEW OF VERB-FORMS Listed below, according to imperfect stem "type and stem vowel, are, all the verbs which we have met in this book so-far. Try conjugating a few verbs from each category aloud, according to the models given in this Unit. Check that you remember the meaning of every verb listed. Strong verbs: stem -CCvC-, base form yvCCvC stem vowel a: ddxal gd9ad^ kubar nijaH rija.9 s(ma9 fitaH sCal shdrab Tdla9 fdraH qibal ti9ab stem vowel i: fishal kisar kitab rigad sikar tiros gital tdrak kishaf.nizal stem vowel : ul 'III,, I F Ddrab Sdraf Tdlab stem -CCvC- or -CaCiC, base form yaCCvC or yCaCiC ('gutturals') ghdsal Hdmal xdraj 9djab 9draf ghdlab stem -aaCiC-, base form yaaCiC (' as G) 'dkal 'dxadh

Weak verbs: stem -CCv-)(base form yiCCv stem vowel a: stem vowel i: tiga bida gdra nisa ja misha ddra Hlcha 9dTa bdgha gdDa shira t, "I \ "i

Doubled verbs: stem -CvCC-, base form yiCvCC stem vowel i: stem vowel u: dashsh dazz Habb sakk shaggjamm gaTT HaTT DHann 3

From this point on, new verbs listed in the vocabulary summary will be given with their imperfect base form. H.4 THE USES OF THE IMPERFECT 1 Habitual action The imperfect is typically used to describe what usually-happens, i.e. is used like the present simple in English. The following examples are taken from a description of Gulf marriage customs: yirtiuH Hagg abuuha, yiguul lih dna^dbghi bindk. ... 'He goes to her father and says to him "I want your daughter". . .'

7 "
138 UNIT n UNIT II 139

yidfa9"mahdrha gqdd maa ydTlub abuuha. . . . 'He pays her dowry according "to what her father demands. . . iji wiyya zdojtah, <yidaxluimfiHijra u ysikkdun 9aldyhum ilbaab 'He comes with his wife, they'enter a room and they shut the door.on them' Further.examples: fi waqt il-fardagh n(l9ab kuura Tda'ira 'In (our) free time we play volley-ball' tdskin fi firiij il-Huura, muu chidhii! 'You live in al'-Houra quarter, don't you?' maa yisma9 Hdchi n-naas 'He never listens to people's gossip'

guut liyyi wayn ligdythum. hdadh~dna~~guul lik, la\ 'Tell me where you-found them.' 'I'm just telling you that, 'aren't I!' 4 Future action/Intention The future particle b- is prefixed to the irnperfect verb to give it a future meaning, or to express an intention to do something: baruuH tdndan' u bddris dwwal sdna 9dla~-Hsdabi i 'I'll go to London and study for the first year at my own expense' baguul lik shay wdaHid. . . 'I'll tell you one thing. . .' maa ba9Tiik il-fluus 'I'm not going to give you the money' gdbil la nrduH bina9T(ikumtyunwdannal-jadiid 'Before we go, we'll give you our new address' bittg9ad to bitimshi! 'Do you intend staying or going?' Note that b- becomes bi- before verb-forms which begin with n- or

fcfc ,ear IX. s* 1 4 * 1 " 1

2 Ability The imperfect is used in Arabic in many cases where English uses 'can/can't' of 'know how to*: dsma9 shyguul Idakin maa dfhamah 'I can hear what he's saying but I can't understand him'' maasuug sayydara 'I can't drive a car' jnaa y9drf il-lugha l-faarslyya ' 'He doesn't know Persian' v.. ti 3 Contemporary action Actions (or states) which are taking place (existing) at the moment when the speaker is speaking are expressed by the use 'of the imperfect: ntbni bayt jadfid hal-Hdzza 'we're building a new house at the moment' yifraH li-dnnah nijaH fil-imtiHdan 'He's happy because he passed the exam'

'Used to' si

If the relevant person of the past tense of kaan 'to be' is used with a n imperfect verb, the meaning is of habitual actiori in the past 'used to': ' yom ana Saghiir, kint dl9abfil-firiijwiyya l-awldad "hen I was small I used to play in the quarter with the boys' ayydam iz-zamdan kdanaw ybu9uun it-tdmar bil-jilla In the old days they used to sell dates in 561b baskets' maa kinna niHtbb il-mddrasa li'dnn il-mudtir kaan yaDrubna w e usedn't to like school because the headmaster used to beat us' naa kaan yisikk baab il-Hamdam bd9ad maa Tdla9 minnah "e never used to close the bathroom door after he came out of it*

140 UNIT 11 Drills Below are eight substitution drills to help you manipulate present-tense verb-forms. A model dialogue is given, and against each number which follows is written a word(s). Repeat the dialogue, substituting the Arabic equivalent of the word(s) given in the appropriate place in the dialogue. This 'new' dialogue is then changed by the next substitution to a'slightly different dialogue, and'so on. Exercise H.l \\\ 1 2 3 4 cham rdatib ta9T(ih! a9Tiih xamsdn diindar kill shdhar 'How much salary do you give him?' T give him 50 dinars a month' J them sixty her week 5 6 7 8 us me seventy five fortnight 1 going to Egypt to see the pyramids 2 going to Syria to study Arabic 3 you(pl.)

UNIT 11 141 4 they 5 -going to sea to fish 6 he 7 going to the mountains to take his rest

Exercise 11.4 1 2 3 4 sda9a cham bityuun! binyti sda9a sitta u nuSS 'What time are you coming?' 'We'll come at 6.30.' 3.30. they he 4.45 5 6 7 8 you(f.) 12.00 she 3.20

Ctt' rr 'iV, - '}

Exercise 11.5 Exercise 11.2 i shu-l-dkil illi tiHibb il-dkthar! aHtbb il-mdzza l-lubnaantyya 'What food d'you like most? 'I like Lebanese mazza' 5 6 7 8 you(f.) roast clncken they stuffed aubergines 1 2 3 4 tishrab bdbsi! la, mda~shrab. 'Do you drink Pepsi?' 'No, I don't.' tea coffee you(pl.) he 5 6 7 8 cold drink fruit juice you(f.) they 'a

1 he likes 2 rice and fish 3 you(pl.) tike 4 English food Exercise 11.3 -

Exercise 11.6 ~ shirdytaw bayt jadiid! la, maa shirdyna bd9ad. bintshri ish-shdhar il-jaay. 'Have you bought a new house?' 'No, we haven't yet. We'll buy next month.'

wayn bitrduH fiS-Sayf? bartiuH Idndan azuur hdli. 'Where're you going in the summer?' 'I'm going to London to visit my family.*

142 UNIT 11

UNIT 11 143 5 ,next week 6 she 7 fridge , 8 you(f.); hdadha shwdy wdsix, ydbbi lih tanDHiif, Idakin muu hdadhq-s^sdbab,.,. .^wdllah, mushkila t hdadha..,. .! mi{o yd9ni,daxir,mdrra HaTTayt fiiha zayt! > , maa~drr biDJi-=DHabT. %. gdbil iji shahrdyn, s , thaldatha. . . . oho! mub zayr) hdadha yaa~xuuyil Idazim tiHuTT kill shdharfi HaT-Taqs il-HdarrH nshuuf ii-mustdwa, mdalah . . . shuuf! mustawddh killish ndaSi! nifdat ilia shyvAyya! baHuT$lik 9u1batdyn d bitshuuf sayydartak, timshi 9ddif . . . Idakin la, 'Hdtta 9ulbatdyn muu kdafya' . .,( nziid 9ulba bd9ad, . ., hdadfya zayn chidhii'. . . xdldaS.'.hai diinaardyn u nuSS min fdDlik.* haiftuusik,. . . u shukran. laysh mda tdaxidh 9ulba bd9ad? yumkin yifiidikfiTTariigl Sidj . . . 9dTni 9ulba 96oda bqHuTJha'fiS-Sanduug. I

1 car 2 they % #> 3 you(m.) 4, piece pfjand


Exercise J1.7

- maa td9jibich U-kuwdyt, miiu chidhii! - la, muu maa ta9jibni l-kuwdyt! ta9jibni wdayidl '" --'You don't like Kuwait, isn't that so?' H - 'No, it isn'f that I d o n ' t like Kuwait! 1 certainlyjd,o like it! ; ' 1 2 3 4 Bahrain you(pl.) Saudi Arabia, he
B5

the &uwai'tis" 6 she 7 the Saudis 8 you(f.)

Exercise 11.8 kint dl9ab kuurat il-qddam yoom ana^Saghiir 't used to play football when I was small* 1 2 3 4 lii !. volley ball marbles she they 5 stay at hofhe* 6, old 7 go fishing 8 he Exercise 11.10 ila l-liqda - See you spon\ Read the following telephonetconversatibnvand, as you are reading'it, try to answer the following questions: *' 1 Who answers the phone? 2 What time does the plane leave Kuwait? 3 What time does it arrive? 4 Who is going to 'meet Ahmad at the' airport? 5 Why can't Jaasim meet him? 6 How will Jaasim's father know Ahmad? - alio! - alto? t ~ alld? jdasim! ~~ la, hdadha dbu jdasim. minhu yiHchi! ~ dna dHmad mbdarak, Sadiig wildik.

Exercise 11.9fil-garaaj- AHhe garage Read aloud and translate the following dialogue:

- is-saldam 9aldykum. - u 9aldyk is-saldam . . . HdaDir. - sayydarati hdadhi maa timshi zayn. maadri \faysh fiiha . . . yiimkinfiih shayfil-blaagdatlp,fil~ karbrdytir. . . . - zayn, shiil il-bdnid nshuuf ddaxil shwdy . . . la, ilblaagdat maa fiiha shay . . . nshuuf U-plqatiin . . ,

144 UNIT 11 - ha! dllah yisdlmik, yaa dHmad! gaal liyyi jdasim innik bit'doSil il-yoom, muu chidhii! - ay nd9am. bitruuH iT-Tayydara min'il-kuwdyt is sda9a ithnd9shar u rub9. idhan booSil is-sda9a thintdyn taqriib . . . inshdallah Maa bykuuh fii ta'xiir. - inshdallah,- zayn, ana bashuufik is-sda9a thintdyn filmaTdar. - shloon? jdasim maa biyd! - 9dfwan, 'nisdyi aguul lik inn jdasim mdfiiD shway . . . rt9aj min ish-shughul ta9bdan ams,'u gaal UH id-ddxtar'yitimm yoomdyn fil-bayt layn'yishfi . . . mub shay xaTiir wila shay, bas yibghi lih shway rdaHa . . . ana bayiikfilmaTdar. * - hdadha min Tiibik! 9dsa jdasim yishfi bi sdr9a. - wila yihimmik! Idakin chayf ba9drfik fil-maTdar? sh-bitilbas! - bdlbas bddta- Sdfra u qamiiS dzrag. - zayn! nshuufik is-sda9a thintdyn, inshdallah. - inshdallah. fi amdan illdh. - fi amdan il-kariim, u ila l-liqdal karbrdytir kuura* kuurat ilqddam kuura Tda'ira laazim 'carburettor* 'ball' 'football' shifalyishfi ta'xiir tanDHiif tdla 'TariiglTurug Tiib xatdaS xaTiir zaalfyizdal maa zaal 9dsa + noun! pron 9aSiir 9unwdanl 9anaawlin 9dla killin

UNIT 11 145 'to recover (from illness)' 'delay' 'cleaning' 'marbles (game)' 'road' -goodness' 'finished, over' 'grave, dangerous' 'to cease' 'to still be. . .' 'hopefully.'. .' 'pressed fruitjuice' 'address' 'anyway, however that may be,' i \

'volley-ball' 'incumbent, necessary' libasltilbas' 'to dress, wear' 'see yoh soon!' ila l-liqda 'bride price' mahar mustdwa(yaat) 'level, standard' ndaSi 'low' nifadlyinfad 'to run out' plaatiin 'breaker points > (car)' rikablydrkub 'to get on, in (vehicle)' saagtyisuug 'to drive' sdbablasbdab 'reason, caus^' 'to live (in a sikanlydskin p\ace)' Sanduug 'boot (car)'

$: J& ' 5 *T' mm k fc"3 f. 1 f> . 5" J

VOCABULARY SUMMARY |i*'i " bdnid 'bonnet (car)' binalyibni 'to build' blaag(aat) 'sparking plug' ddraslyddris 'to study' biDH-DHabT 'exactly' DHannl 'to think' yiDHunn faadlyifiid 'to be of use' fdarsi 'Persian' fdhamlyifham 'to understand' hammlyihimm 'to concern, be important (to someone)' 'wila yihimmikl 'Don't worry 'about it!' HdaDir 'at your service' Hdchil 'talk, gossip' Hachdawi Hdzza* 'moment, time 9ala Hsdab + 'on pron. (someone's) account' 'so, therefore' idhan iji (or iyi) 'approximately jilta*(aat) '56 lb basket of dates'

UNIT 12 147 maa baghdaha, tit9ab .. , 1 J 'He didn't'want hereto geyifed' * bdgha is also used in an idiornatic .sense with following U + pronoun + noun to mean 'to need': iz-zawdaj ydbghi lih fluus 'Marriage requires^ money' (lit. 'The marriage wants for itself money;) < has-sayydara tdbbi liha tanDHiif 'This car needs' pleaning' (lit. 'wants for itself'. .".')" hal-wdsix ydbghi lih shayaldan 'This dirt needs' removing'

UNIT

12

12,1 VERB STRINGS


tA tan

>

verb string is two or more verbs which follow each other without intervening particle such as 'inn 'that'. For^example.'an English expression like 'he wants to go' is translated into Arabic by a verb string which rneans literally 'he'wants ticgpe^'; 'he couldn't do it' is literally 'he couldn't he does it*.. The first verb in such strings is usually called-an-auxiliary'verb. In/this unit we wiiriook at some of the more^ important verbal strjngs involving the imperfect tense. I v bdgha + verb: 'to want 16 do something' bdgha may.be in the past or imperfect tense, but the verb following *in the verb string is imperfect. dHmad ydbbi yishuufik Bdachir 'Ahmad wants to see you tomorrow' f " maa'dbghi a9Tiik hal-gadd fluus ' ' 'I don't want to give you that mu&i money' baghdyt amurr 9aldyk il-bdarHa, Idakin mad gidqrt 'I wanted to call in on you yesterday, but I couldn't' With a suffixed pronoun, bdgha + verb is used to mean 'to want someone to do something'. In this case, the pronoun and the following verb must agree with each other (i.e. the sentence immediately below means literally 'You want me I come with you?') t tabghiini ayd wiyydak! t t__r 'Do you want me to come with you?' abbdchtiguuliin liyyi bi Sardaha. . . t I 'I want you to tell me frankly. . .' T

Exercise 12.1 Translate: He wantedarrie to go home; I want you(m.) to tell me something; She1 wants him to wash the car; We want you(pl.) to eat this food-with us; Do you(f.) want me to tell you the truth?; They panted to study in Cairo; Youff.) wanted to buy those shoes, didn't you? This room needs cleaning; That doors needs repairing; She needs money. >J

(f

ii

gidar + verb: 'to be able to do something' The construction is similar to that of bdgha + verb. Examples: maa dgdar aguul lik cham ydbbi 'I can't tell you how much he,wants' maa g(dar yishiil il-janaTdat ith-ihagiila 'He couldn't lift'the heavy cases' tigdar tdrkuD dsra9 min hal-wdlad! 'Can you run faster than this boy?' maa gidraw yiHilluun il-mushkila They couldn't solve the problem'

148 UNIT 12 gaam + verb: 'to begin to do something' gaam has the literal meaning 'to get up, stand upVWhen used as the first element in a verb string it means 'to begin to do something' - similar to the English expression 'to up and do something': layn sima9 il-xdbar, gaam yibchi 'When he heard the news, he began to weep' gumt a9(dd il-asdami fis-sijill 'I began to count the names on the register' gaam + verb can also denote the beginning*of a habitual action: Ik 'III layn wuSlat tdndan, gdamattilbasazyda gharbiyya 'As soon as she got to London, she started wearing western fashions' bd9ad maa hadd shughlahfish-shdrika,gaam yiSiid sdmach kill yoom 'After he gave up his work at the company, he took to going fishing every day' DHallltamm + verb: 'to keep on doing something' Both the verbs DHalt and tamm mean 't,o stay, continue' and can be used as verbs on their own: DHalldytfil-jayshsanatdyn 'I stayed in the army for two years' il-hdwa tamm rdTib 'The weather continued humid* When followed by an imperfect verb, they mean 'to continue doing something' or 'to do something constantly': fishlaw fil-imtiHdan, Idakin DHdllaw ydirsdun fi maa bd9ad 'They failed in the exam, but they kept on studying afterwards' DHdllat tdbghi tztiur fardnsa 'She continued to want to visit France' tdmmaw yaakluun athnda I-muHdaDra 'They continued eating during the lecture' tamm yiguul lihum 'la' min Tilbaw minnah shay 'He kept on saying no when(ever) they asked him for anything' \ Exercise 12.2 Translate: maa zaal + verb: 'to still do something'

UNIT 12 149

The verb zaal is not much used in its positive form (meaning 'to come to an end'), but with maa it is commonly used in the sense of 'not cease to do/be something', 'to still do/be something*, when followed by an imperfect verb, zaal is a hollow verb conjugated like gaal. maa zilt aHibb dhiich il-bint T still love that girl' (lit. 'I have not ceased I love that girl') ydddad wdayid 96oda, Idakin maa zdalat tddhkir U-qlSaS maal awwal 'My grandmother is very old, but she still remembers stories from the old days' Like tamm, maa zaal can also be used with a following adjective or noun, as well as an imperfect verb, e.g. maa zilt Tdalib 'I'm still a student' maa zdalaw za9laan(in 'They're still upset' l

or. r t v \\\

!;,. H :

J 'i a

I couldn't close the door; They can't reach here before nine o'clock; Were you able to read his writing? When he saw the mistake, he began to laugh; When I was twenty I started to smoke; After an hour, the aeroplane began to descend; I continued to live in Riyaad for two more years; She kept on walking for three hours; They continued to telephone me every day; You still live near the post-office, don't you? He still drives a Ford; I still remember that day.

Saa9id + verb: 'to be in the process of doing something' 8aa9id (fem. gda9da, pi. gaa9diin) is the present participle of the verb gd9ad 'to sit', but is used with a following imperfect verb to

'150 UNIT/12 describe actions which are, going-on continuously at the time of speaking. It has, when used in this way, no overtones of the original meaning 'sitting'; ' t " * X, -- wayn jdasim! % ^ .* * - gda9id yi!9ab bdrra.wiyya l-awldad., r( - t h e r e ' s Jaasim?' - 'He's outside playing with the bd^s.' , yoom yiit, kinnagaa9diin nitbaxnl-ghddd > 'When you came, we.were>in the middle of cooking dinner' laazim maa yitimm fi hash-sf\ughul 'He mustn't continue,in this job'' laazim mda tishrab had-ddwa J( 'She mustn't take this medicine' , t

UNIT 12 151

In contrast to the above usage of laazim with the^imperfect.verbj it is worth noting that when used with "a following past tense, it means 'must have', e.g. laazim rdaHat 'She must have gone' > l&azim nisdytah fil-fiinduq 'You must have left it in the hotel'

* pel f

'laazim +'verb: 'to have t'o^do,something'

n |

Like gda9id, laazim is a present participle,,but, unlike it,.it does not agree in gender/number with the" imperfect yerb which follows it. It signifies obligation to do something: tdazim truuH il-mustdshfa 'You must go to the hospital' laazim yitimm fi hash-shughul *'He"has to continue fh this job' laazim tishrab had-ddwa 'She must take this medicine' ,\ '*

yiimkin + verb: 'to be possible *to do something!that something happens' f yumkin means literally 'it is possible, it may be', and.is used with a following imperfect to, denote a" possible future happening: ydmkin daxidh mdw9id'wiyydah, 'Maybe Pll make" an appointment with him' ydmkin ya9Tuunkum iyydaha ba\dash 'Perhaps they'll give you it* free of charge'* yumkin kitab hdadha, maa~dri wdllah 'Maybe'he wrote this, I don't knqw'

Sentences containing tdazim used like this can be negated in two ways, which carry different -meanings. If tdazim itself is negated (using muu or mw6),*the sentence expresses lack of obligation: "mub laazim truuH il-mustdshfa 'You don't.havejo go to the hospital' mub tdazim tishrab had-ddwa 'She's not obliged to take this medicine' or 'It's not necessary for her to take this medicine' But if the verb following laazim is negated (using maa), the sentence denotes negative obligation] tdazim maa truuH il-mustdshfa 'You .mustn't go to the hospital'

Exercise 12.3 Translate: I'm in the middle of writing a letter; Amina's in the middle f reading a*magazine; She's just this1 minute sweeping the floor; You mustn't read this rubbish; He doesn't have to return tomorrow, does he? You mustn't be afraid of that m an; You don't have to go immediately, Maybe he wants to go; Maybe they can't read;_ Maybe he'll be happy when n e sees it, I don't know.

t '(. I

i.,.

152 UNIT 12 gaal + verb: 'to tell someone to do something' We saw in Unit 7 that gaal + 'inn means 'to say that. . . .' When gaal is used without 'inn, and with a following imperfect verb, the sense is 'to tell someone to do something': gaal Uhum iyiibiiun U-mUaffdat t I 'He told them to bring the files' gilt liha tdrgid Hdalan t j 'I told her to go bed immediately/ gdalaw liyyi a9T(ihum il-ftuus x i 'They told me to give them the money' Note (as indicated by the arrows) that the dependent pronoun and the following verb agree: it is as if one says 'He said to-them they bring the files', 'I said to her she. . .' etc. raaH + verb: 'to go and do something' Examples: muu tdazim yiruuH yishuufha 'He doesn't have to go and see her' riHt dsbaH fil-bdHar ' ' 'I went for a swim in the sea' (lit. 'I went I swim in the sea') jaa + verb: 'to come and do something!come doing something' There are two types of sentence in which an imperfect verb is used with jaa. The first specifies the rnode of coming, e.g. jdana ylrkuD 'He came running to us' yaw yimshuun (or yaw mdshi) 'They came on foot' (lit. 'they came walking") The second usage is similar to raaH + verb: t * , Exercise 12.4 Look a't the following dialogue:

UNIT 12 153 kill sdna iyuuh il-yihdal yiTilbiiun baxshiish Hagg il-9iid 'Every year the children come and ask for a gratuity for the Eid' yf tis'dlni 9an il-mashrdf49 il-jadlid, muu chidhii? 'You've come to ask me about the new plan, haven't you?'

Drills Below are a number of drills aimed at giving you practice in manipulating the verb strings introduced in this Unit.

- yoom hu 9umrah sittd9shar sdna, kaan yil9ab kuura. - Sidj, u maa zaal y(l9ab\ - 'When he was sixteen, he used to play football* - "That's true, and he still doesV Using this dialogue as a model, make appropriate substitutions in those parts of the translated dialogue which are italicised: 1 he 2 3 4 5 she 6 7 8 age 10 \5 20 21 ' 12 19 6 14 activity play volley-ball love that girl go to the cinema twice a day drive a Cadillac cook well wear western fashions read for two hours every day write stories

i $ i

Exercise 12.5 Make appropriate substitutions in the following dialogue as indicated:

154 UNIT 12 shyiguul il-mudtir^ yabghiik trduH mdktab il-bariid. 'What does the boss say?' 'He wants .you to go to the post-office.

UNIT 12 155 - ldazim"tiTla9jl-Hiin\ "" - la, mub Iddzlm il-Hiin. .*. ndTla9<bd9ad shway. r- 'You must go but now!' - 'No, I don't have to now. . . I'll go out in a little while.' 1 go to the bank 2 go to the..market 3 wash thfe dishes 4 read this book 5 cook lunch 6 take' this medicine 7 write that reply 8 go and ge,t the stamps 9 give him a. call* 10 call in on her Now use the. feminine'form of 'you' in the same dialogue; then go through it again using "the plural form of 'you': Exercise 12.8 t ,X P fit 1

1 bring him a coffee 2 wash his car 3 go tq the market 4 remove the rubbish from this room 5 coirie tomorrow at 4.00 p.m. Now substitute in the drill mudiira (female boss, *, headmistress) and use the feminine singular form of 'you': 1 play with her children 2 bring her a glass of water 3 telephone, the police 4 shut the outside door 5 call in at the bank and give a letter to the manager " Exercise i2.6 .Make appropriate substitutions: layn raaH landan gaam yilbas'malda'bis gharbiyya ^ 'When he went to London, he began wearing western clothes' 1 went to Kuwait - wear a dishdasha 2 read the article laugh 3 got in the bus - talk in a loud voice'4 saw the mistake - weep \ Instead of 'he*, use T : ; I 5 arrived in the Gulf - drink a lot of coffee 6 was in Oman - walk in the mountains 7 bought a television - stay at home a lot 8 went to Cairo - go.out to parties a lot Exercise 12.7 Make appropriate substitutions:

Make appropriate suB'stitutibns: mit'dssif li'dnni maa giddrt aylik is-subuu9 ilmdaDi. maa 9alayh.. . . haadh~inta yiit.il-Hiin\ 'Sorry that I couldn't come and see you last week. 'Never mind . . . you've come now!' 1 give him the letter last week 2 give you the news yesterday 3 .invite you to the party before 4 give him the contract last month 5 read the article before '6 give you your salary yesterday 7read he^r report before Exercise 12.9 Make appropriate substitutions: gilt lih yiguum min in-noom Idakin tamm yindam 'I told him* to get up" but he went on sleeping* 1 sit down - standing 2 read the book - listening to the

* i

156 .UNIT 12 i' l! radio 3 "^ear a, dishdasha - wearing trousers 4 keep quiet talking loudly 5 stay in bed - getting up 6' eat lunch playing in the street 7 listen to irie - reading his newspaper 8 stop - driving 9 run - walking slowly 10 take a rest,studying , Exercise 12.1(1 Make appropriate substitutions:

UNIT'12' 157 The final'-i and -u of the feminrile and plural forms are lengthened when a vowel-initial dependent pronoun is added (as we have'seen in other cases of verb, noun and particle forms which end with a vowel). For example if -ah 'him, if* is suffixed 'to the imperatives of shdrab and kitab, we get mas. ishrabah iktibah fern. shirbiih kitbtih Ph. shirbuuh kitbduh *Drink,it! 'Write it!

guul IL jdasim iyii (hni-Hdalan\ ** maa ytgdar. hu gda9id yitbax it-ghdda. 'Tell Jaasim to come here immediately!' 'He can't. He's in the middle of cooking the lunch.'

The masculine forms (shrab and '(ktib obviously do not end in a vowel, but the suffixing of -an'gives rise to a form-(shrabah, Iktibah - which is liable to undergo syllabic rearrangement in the way we have already described: just as yishrabah tends to become yshirbah, so (shrabah tends to become shirbah, iktibah becomes ktibah, etc. When a consonant-initial pronoun is'Wffixed, we" typically get the following forms in the strong'verb: mas. khrabha * iktibha fern. shirbiiha kitbiiha Pi-. 'shirbuuhd kitbduha 'Drink it! 'Write it!

rx

s.

1 wash the car - talking with the boss 2 come and look at this - taking photographs 3 sweep the*floor- painting the door 4 go to the bank - writing an important report 5 go to the post office - studying for the examinations

I'i1

12.2 THE IMPERATIVE: STRONG" VERBS" The imperative form of the verb consists of the imperfect stem of the verb to which suffixes denoting person are addeM The strong verbs shdrab 'to drink* (imperfect stem -shrab-) and kitab 'to write' (stem -ktib-) have'the following imperative forms:

1 2 . 3 THE IMPERATIVE: OTHER TYPES OF VERB The imperative of other types of verb is formed in the same way as in the strong verb - by adding -/ and -u to the stem to form the feminine and plural forms. Note, however, that the feminine form > n Weak verbs normally ends in -ay rather than '-i. Sample forms: masc. guul naam shut Doubled verbs sikk We k verbs (gra tbni Initial' (kit l mtiai w ooguf Hollow verbs fern. giiuli ndami shdli sikki (gray ibnay ikii oogfi pi guulu ndamu shtilu s(kku (gru (bnu (klu oogfu 'say!' 'sleep!* 'remove 'shut!' 'read!' 'build!' 'eat!' 'stop!'

I* i

masculine (shrab (ktib

feminine (shrabi iktibi

plural ishrabu iktibu

'Drink!' .'Write!'

We saw that in the imperfect, forms like tishrabah 'you(m.) drink it' (< tishrab + ah) tend to undergo a rearrangement of syllables to become tishirbah; the. same thing tends tor happen with the feminine and plural of the imperative. Thus (shrabi (< ishrab + i) is often heard as shirbi-, and ishrabu (< ishrab + u) as shirbuOne also hears kitbi instead of iktibi, etc.

158 UNIT 12 The/ final yowejte of formsq which epd with a vowel are lengthened when pronominal" forms are,suffixed, in the, way we .fiave already exemplified. It should be "noted that the imperative forms of the yerb 9aTa 'to give* are as below: 9at 9dTi 9dTu 'give! The verb jaa 'to come' does not have imperative forms which are derived from its stem. l"ntead,'the following forms are universally employed: ,f u , ,. .,.',. if. >''come!' Ua9dalu ' *' ta9daU ta9dal "L 12.4 THE NEGATIVE IMPERATIVE 'f The negating word in negative commands'is-always la. The verb forms are the same,as the imperatives,except that the appropriate prefix, ta-, ti- (often simply t-) or taa--must be used. Examples of different verbtypes: negative imperative imperative 'don't go!'(m.) 'go!'(m.) la trtiuffl. ruuW. nisten!'(iri.), la t(sma9\ t 'don't listen!'(m-) isma9\ 'don't write!'(f.) 'write!'(f.') ' la tdktibil iktibil ,tatik(tbi\ kitbi\ or don't walkl'(pl) la timshul 'walk!'(pl.j imshul la tdakil\ 'don't eat!'(m.) 'eat!'(m.) ikitl la tshirbuuhl 'don't drink shirbuuh] 'drink it!'(pl.) it!'(pl.) 'don't stop la tdoguf doguf ihni\ 'stop here!'(m.) ihnil nere!'(m.) The negative imperative of jaa is formed regularly: ta9dal\ ta9dali\ ta9dalu\ 'come!' (m.) la tyd\ la tyii\ la tyuu\ 'don't come !'(m.) (*) (Pi-) Exercise 12. IF

UNIT 12 159

Translate into English ttye short imperative sentences below. Go through the sentences three times,practising (a) the masculine form (b) the feminine form (c) the plural. Don't stop! Go home! Don't tell me that! Take this away! Give it(m.) to me! Shut #ie door! Go outside! Come here! Don't drink! Don't forget her! Eat theinall! Stop near the bank! Don't put,itff.) thereLBring them to .me! Say something! Have aVest! Don't fall! Turn left here! Don't tum right! Sit down next to me! Write it(f.) quickly! Throw them away!

Exercise 12.12
s

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Read aloud and translate the dialogrie "below: fit-tdksi 'In a Taxi' - dbbi aruuH il-bank il-9drabi. cham tdqxidh!- nuSS diindar. - la, yda~xuuyi, nuSS diindar maa tyiSlir. xudh thaldath imyaifilsl - drba9 imya.. - zayn. - U-bank il-9drabifi wayn yd9ni biDH-Dhabt! - fi shdari9 shaykh 'salmdan. . . Tuuf id-dawwdar hdadha. . . zayn. . . u xudh dwwal shdari9 ila lyamtin-. . . tiff yasdar 9ind mdT9am il-kaazlino. . . u ruuH siida - la! la! gilt lik dliff yasdar mub yamiin! shfiik! - 9dfwan. haadhdna asdug tdksi thaldathat ayydam bos. la tiz9al\ - maayihimm.'. . doguf ihni min fdDlak. . . haay fiuusik . . ..shukran.

(Pi-)

160 UNIT 12 / Now translate the parallel dialogue below into Arabic:' '; - I want to go to the Foreign Ministry. - Where is that? - Don't you know? In Maghrib Street, near'the'Kuwait Bank. " '' - One dinar. -'Take 750 fils. -~OK. -t/ , - Go'round the island. . . OK . ! . now^ turn left . . . take the second street on your'right ( . .'no!'. .. . don't go 'straight on! f said* to take the second ori the right! - Sorry, I don't know this area.

UNIT 12 161 4 Cufflip the chicken into-small pieces'and brown it. 5 Add i&little flour and stir for two minutes. 6 Pour .not water onto the chicken pieces and stir with a. spoon ch,til ithoils. 7 Cover th6 pot and reduce (xdfDi) the heat. 8 When th^ rice is ready, take it off the- heat and sieve it. Do not let the rice boil-for more, than 15 minutes. U * Note A number of verbs used in these dialpgues (e;g. xdffaD, Hdmmar, xdlla, gdSgaS) are of a type not y'et, introduced, and have been translated'in the text. These will be dealt'with in the next and subsequent Units. VOCABULARY SUMMARY

Exercise 12.13 Read and translate the set of instructions belowi 111 i:i Tabx iS-Saaluuna 'Cooking a stew' 1 dwwal shay, xudhi shwdyyat 9aysh u Stibbi 9aldyh maay. 2 HuTTi l-jidir 9~dla D-Daw u la t(nsayydDHiifi nitfat milH. 3 gdSgiSi ('cut up') il-ldHam Sighdar bi sichchiin Hdadd^ u Hamriiha ('brown if) bi shwdyyat dihin. 4 DHiifi l-bhaardal 9ala kdyfich wiyya nitfat TiHiin. 5 Subbi 9ala 1-ldHam maay Haarr u xuuriiha 9ata D-Daw layn yighli. 6 ghdTTi ('cover') l-jidir u xalliih ('leave it') yighli 9ishr(in dagiiga layn ydbriz. 7 shiili l-9aysh-min iD-Daw layn.yinDHaj u shaxliih Hdtta yiybas. Now translate the parallel set of instructions below into Arabic: 1 Take a little rice'and wash it in cold water. 2 Cover it with cold water and put the pot onto the heat.

aDhdaflyiDhiif arDiyya* athnda batdash bdrazfydbriz baxshiish fi maa bd9ad bhdar(aat) bicha/yibchi DdHaklyiDHak Daw d h(kar!yddhkir

'to add1' 'floor* 'during' 'free of charge' 'to be ready' 'gratuity, tip' 'afterwards' 'spices' 'to weep' 'to laugh'

ghdla/yighfi

'fire; light' 'to remember, mention' D Hall!yiDHill 'to remain' fardash(aat) 'bed' fardnsa 'France' gdQ9id (+ verb) 'to be in the middle of SaSgaS/ 'to chop up yigdSgiS into bits' tfdarlyigdar 'to be able'

gharb , ghdrbi ghdTTal yighdTTi haay (short for 'this' haadha) 'to leave, haddlyihidd abandon' 'weather, air' hdwa Haadd 'sharp' HalllyiHtll 'to solve' Hdmmar! 'to brown, yiHdmmir roast' jadd (or yadd) 'grandfather' jddda* (or 'grandmother' yddda*) jaysh/juydush 'army* kinaslydknis 'to sweep' lafflyiliff 'to turn*

'to boil (intrans.)' 'west' 'western* 'to cover'

J;;

462 UNIT 12 'article(newsSootlaSwgat ' .*voffle, noise' paper)' sh'dxallyishxal ' 'trAieve* marrlyimurritrf calMtfion, ^ shdyaldart ^ "'removal' . 9ala tdcsi(yaat). .&xi' someone'' mashruu9! * TqafiyiTiuif / & " go round 'plan, project' mashaar(i9 * "?/*, Something' pxinTaqa*! * '''area'"" " TibaxlyiTbax^ Cfio cook' mandaTiq s, ' , r TiHiin ft 'flour' muHdhDrd* (aat) 'lecture' xaarlyixuur $J n t o stir' mujdlla*(aat) 'magazine' xdffaDlyixdffiD^ 'to decrease, tmustdshfa(yaat) , Ipwer niDhajl *to.ripen, be ,t ^something' ^yfnDHaj ready' xdllalyixdlli 'to'let, allow' qiSSd*lqiSaS "story' ' xaTT $'hand writing' rdTib 'humid' yibaslyiybas 'to become 'f, rikaDlydrkuD ''to run' i dry* h * * sibaHiyisbaH 'to swim' 'maybe' yumkin sichchiin) '\rihV **'* 'majriage' zawddjsacha'dchiin 'fashion' zayylazyda sijill(aat) * 'register1' z(9ailyiz9al 'to get'ripset' sikatlydskit 'to be quiet' 9dali * J "high, loud' SabbtyiSdbb 'to pour 9dddiyi9tddi 'td "count; ' % t (intraris.)' enumerate' SibaghlyiSbagh 'to paint' 9azdm!yi9dzim to invite' Sidq 'truth' maqdal(aat) A UISflT 13 13.1 THE PRESENT* PARTICIPLE In addition" to the past-tense yerb-whicn, we have "seen, is used to describe completed past action, and'the imperfect tense, which has a variety of'present and future uses,, Arabic'has'another tense which is roughly analogous, with the E/igljsh perfect tense. This kind of meaning-is expressed in Arabic .by what is grammatically a kind.of adjective called, the present participle. As with the English perfect tense in sentences.like.'I'.ve broken my leg', the use*of the present participle;jp Arabic often implies that <an event which took place in trie past (my breaking'myleg),is still having consequences at the time of speaking (I can't play football this afternoon). Just as, in English, 'I broke my leg' (no particular implication for"what's happening ndw) contrasts with 'I've broken my leg', so kisdrt Hill 'I broke my leg' contrasts with (present participle) ^ kdasir riili' 'I've broken my leg' Thus kdasir riili might be,given in a telephone conversation'as an excuse in reply to an invitation to play football, go climbing or go to a discotheque, without further explanation, kisdrt riili simply states that the unfortunate accident happened in the past - maybe five or ten yearsv ago - and has no implications for one's ability to Play football, etc. at the tiifae of speaking. Look at the example sentences below. In each case there is an rnphcation which is unstated. What, this implication is depends on the context: minhu shdayil il-awrdag! Who's taken away the papers?' (implied - they aren't here now) . (past? tense) * * '
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P i n I'll! 1 1 "in v,\ ill l

164 UNIT 13 wayn HaaTT id-dabbdasa! 'Where have you put the stapler?' (implied - I can't see/find it) The same sentences with a past verb: minhu shaal il-awrdag! wayn- HaTTdyt id-dabbdasa! are simply questions" about something which happened in the past; in'the first case the speaker might be conducting an enquiry into who took away some papers which are.now,back'on-his desk, or which he knows" the exact whereabouts of at the time of speaking; in the second, case, someone may have put away the stapler in a place*where it could not be found by anyone else.'and'the person who put it away is now observed to be using it ->the enquiry is into the matter of its.past (and temporary) disappearance; Further examples: ' il-ydahil mdakil ghaddah 'The child has eaten his lunch* (implied - he doesn't want/need the food you're offering now) minhu Idabis thiydabi! 'Who's been wearing my clothes?' (implied - they look crumpled or dirty) shinhu Tdabix lil-9dsha! 'What've you cooked for dinner?' (implied - what's ready?) In some cases, particularly* with verbs of motion arid durative verbs like 'to stand'; 'to sleep', the Arabic rjresent participle is more accurately translated into English by a present tense: wayn rdayiH! 'Where are you going?' inta jaay lil~muHdaDra'il-yoom! 'Are you coming to the lecture" today?' il-ydahil ndayim foog 'The child is sleeping (asleep) upstairs' laysh wdagif 9ind il-baab! 'Why are you standing at the door?'

UNIT 13 165 From the grammatical point of view, present participles behave partly like adjectives and partly like verbs. Like adjectives, they have the -a and -iin endings when their subject is feminine and plural respectively; like adjectives, they are negated by muu or mub. However, they are like "verbs in that dependent object pronouns can be suffixed to them. The basic-form of the,present participle.in the simple strong verb-isXiaaCiiO, where the numbers represent the three consonants in the verb skeleton. The feminine form is CaaCiCa and the plural CaaCiCiin (often CaaCCa and CaaCCiin through the loss of unstressed i). Sample forms: shirab 'to drink' shda'riblshdarb'alshaarbiin^ 'dkal 'to eat' mdakillmdaklalmaakliin wdgaf'Xo stand, stop' wdagif! wdagfa! waagftin HaTT 'to put' HaaTT! HdaTTalHaaTTdn gaal 'to say' gdayillgdaylalgaayltin nisa 'to forget' ndasilndasyalnaasydn having drunk, drinking' 'having eaten, eating' 'having stood; standing' 'having put, putting' 'having said, saying' 'having forgotten, forgetting'

ijll'ii

Note that: (i) The present participle in verbs beginning with ' (mainly 'dkal and 'dxadh) is normally mdakil, mdaxidh, etc. rather than 'dakil, 'daxidh, though the latter forms are sometimes encountered, (ii) Doubled verbs like Wa7Thave CaaCC rather than CaaCiC in the masculine form, (iii) Hollow verbs always have y as their 'missing' middle consonant. When used as an adjective, the meaning of the present participle depends on the type of verb it is used with, and the context of use. F or example,

'hdahil il-mdakil ghaddah Oit. 'the child the eater(of) his lunch')

166 UNIT lS" m may* mean 'the'child who is eating hisiunch' or 'the-child who has ! paten-his lunch'; -it it if-rukkdab ir-raayHdn il-kuwdyt '(lit. 'the passengers the goers(to) Kuwait') may indicate 'the'passengers who are going td'Kuwait (and'haven't yet 'left)' .-or/the passengers Jwho have set outtfor KUwait*.(and haven't yet'a'rrived)'..Only the physical context can indicate exactly What is intended'. K> t ' In other cases* with verbs describing'habits of states^Qf being, no particular time is or can be indicated. In these c^ses, the present participle functioWexactly like an adjective: % rftyydal ckdadhib (horn chldhab ho lie,,cheat'5 v 'a dishonest man' (lit. 'a*man lie-teller') > han-nisydan-iS-Saadgiin (from Sddqg '.to telf the^truth') 'these honesf women' (lit. 'these women the truth-tellers'-) % maay jdari (from jdra 'to run') ' * * 'running water' * Tabxdat bdarda (from bdrad 'to be cold') 'cold dishes! * >

/'

UNIT 13 167

The present-participle mayi like a verb, 'have dependent object pronouns suffixed directly4o it. Study the following examples, in which both vowel-initial (-ah, -ik), and-consonant-initial (-hd^-hdf pronouns are suffixed to the present participle forms- of -Darab 'to hit': Ddarib + + + + + + + +. +. 4. + + 'having,hit; hitting hirn' " * ti t "" you(m.)' f " her' V ' " 1 !' " us' . him' ah * Daarbdttah . ' " you(m.)' ik * Daarbdttik ha Daarbdtha I J) " her' ? ' " " US.'1 "( . na - t Uaarbdtna " * him' ah > Daarbiinah' ' *r Y " * you(mf)' ik Daarbiinik s ; *hd* Daarblihha . 1 1 " her' 'na Daarbiinna 1 " " us' ah Ddarbah \k > Qdarbik ha -^'.Daaribha na -* Daaribna

Ddarba

3" K

Daarbiin *'

The present participle is negated by muu or mub, like other adjectives: muu sdami9 il-xdbar! 'Haven't you heard* the news?' dhayldak mub'maakliin shay 'Those people haven't eaten anything' inti mub yd'aya wiyydana! 'Aren't you(i),coming with us?'

The feminine form Ddarba contains, the 'hidden' final't which .we have noted in other feminine adjective, and nourriorms, and which only appears on suffixation. However, it, is a characteristic feature of Gulf Arabic that when a vowel-initial pronoun such as -ah or ik is suffixed to feminine forms such as Ddarba, the 'hidden' t is doubled. It is worth mentioning'also that in some parts of the Gulf region (notably, the villages of Bahrain, parts of the UAE and* Oman) alternative forms' for the suffixed masculine and feminine present participle formg.are^ound. These alternatives involve the, insertion of an -in-or -inn- element between trie participle and the suffixed pronouri. Thus instead'of Ddarbah Daarbdttah Daaribha Daarbdtha one" hears* Daarbinhah Daarbatinnah Daarbinha Daarbatinha

In definite noun-phrases involving a negative adjective, illi 'which' .is used'rather than il. Thus one says il-ydahil illi muu mdakil ghaddah "The child who hasn't, eaten his lunch' and
NOT:-

1 i

il-ydahil it-muu mdakil ghaddah

Such forms are widely regarded as 'uneducated', though extensively used none the less. It is as well to be able to recognise them (though not imitate them).

T 168 UNIT 13 Two common constructions in which thef present participle is often used'involve the use'qf bd9ad + "pronoun and taw(w) H pronoun. bd9ad + pron. is^used with a following negative verb (very often the present*participle) to signify 'not to have done something' or 'to still not have done something': bd9adni-muu rdayiH landan T haven't/been to London yet' bd9adhum muu naajHiin 'They haven't 'succeeded yet' bd9adha mub gaarydttah 'She hasn't read it yet' Exercise 13.1 Translate the following dialogues intq English: 12~ 3wayn iD-DdabiT il-kdatib hat-taqriir!. mda~dri, muu shdayfah il-yoom.^ inta rdayiH miSir!. la, bd9adni. baruuH is-sdna I-jaayq inshdallah. ( igra dwwal fdqara fiS-SdjHa l-xdamsa min FdDlik. ismdH lii, ustaadh',;'rifiiji l-ghdayib rridaxidh kitdab i\ t ^ 4 - dur bdalik minnah, hdadha rayydal chdadhib lin, nihdayal - muu bos chdadhib,bdayig ba9ad! miHfdDHti baayighal 5 - la tiz9al yaa HqbtibV. ~ shloon maa dz9al? Daarbdnni, bi*9dSa dhayldak illoofariyal UNIT 13 169

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The same meaning can be rendered by* using the independent prohouns=,and placing bd9dd at the end of the sentence, i.e. dna muu rdayiH landan bd9ad hum,muu naajHtin bd9aU hiya mub gaarydttah bd9ad
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However, the first type of sentence with bd9ad + dependent pronoun is Very typical of Gulf speech. tawfwfon the other hand, can only be used with suffixed pronouns. It means 'to have just done something': tdwni yaay il-xaliij 'I've just (recently) come to the,Gulf il-yihdal tdwhum naaymiin 'The kids have just gone to bed' tdwwah rdasim Har-rdsim 'He's just drawn this picture' taw is often used by itself in answer to questions: - (nta gda9id ihni mudda Tawiila, muu chidhii! - la, tdwni. 'You've been sitting here a long time, haven't you?' 'No, I've.just arrived.'

Exercise 13.2 Translate the following dialogyes into Arabic: 1 2345Where have you put my notebook? I can't find it. In the right-hand drawer bf the desk. Where's your new suit? I haven't picked it up from the tailor's yet. Give them a glass of tea! No, they don't want any. They've Already drunk two* cups each. Where has that man come from? I bumped into him in the. street. How come you haven't taken away that table? I can't lift it, it's too heavy.

mm 170 UNIT 13 UNfT 13 171 Make similar appropriate responses to each cue, and then translate: ' 1 - 9abdali shirdyt hal~bddld min zamdan. i"",", " , " 2 - 9abdati rij9at arftiina min suuriya dwwal ams. i,,,,i i v 3 - 9abdali ddshshawT-Hljra gdbil thaldath sqa9dat. 4 - 9abdali raaH id-ddxtar g"dbil yoomdyn. 5 - 9abda!i shift il-ghdlaT gdbli. 6 - 9abdali hishraw l-kitdab is-sdna 1-mdaDya. 7 - 9abdali 'akdltaw l-9dsha bd9ad Yujuu9kum bi shway. 8 - 9abdali ghislat H-mawaa9iin gdbil la Ttl9dt. J

Exercise 13.3 Look at the following dialogue:


i(

shdayif il-filim il-jadiid Id b&9ad! - la, muu shdayfah bd9ad. "'Have you seen the new film yet or not?* 'No, I haven't'seen-it*yet.' Make similar answers, arid translate the,dialogues^

1 - mdaxidh ish-shahdada th-thaanawiyya to bd9ad! 2 - fdahim it-ldgha l-9arab(yya lo bd9ad! 3 - mdaxidh ir-rayuug lo bd9ad! M 4 - gdari il-fdqara dhdth" lo bd9ad! 5 - wdaSil nihdayat U-qiSSa lo bd9ad! "6 J- laagydn il-fiuus illi faqadtdoh lo bd9ad! 7 - Saaytd(in it-bdayig'lo bd9ad! 8 - jaaybdn iT-Ta9dam illLTilabtdoh lo bd9ad! 9 - raaj9iin min ir-riHla.lo bft9ad! 10 - raayHiin il-mdsyid lo bd9qd!

13.2 THE PASSIVE PARTICIPLE The Arabic passive participle corresporids roughly in meaning,to the English past participle, e.g. 'broken', 'chosen', 'beaten', 'eaten', et c In Arabic the passive participle mainly functions as an adjectlv e, and when it does "so it agrees with the noun to'which it refers ln accordance with the principles described earlier. The passive participle is of the basic form hiaCCuuC, feminine maCCuuCa, P'ural maCCuuCiin. It only occurs in transitive verbs. Examples: Equational sentences d-baab maftduH Jhe door is open(ed)' rf-dardsha maskuuka The window is closed' 'r-rayaayiil mashghuuliin The mdn are" busy' (from fitaH 'to open') (from sakk 'to close') (from shdghal 'to busy, occupy')

Exercise 13.4 Look at the dialogue below: - 9abdali yiit il-baHrdyn gdbil xams sanawdat. - la, la, tdwni yaayl 'I thought you came to Bahrain five years ago. 'No, no, I've only just come!'

172 UNIT 13 Noun-adjective phrases il-ydahil il-mad9uum 'The knocked-down child' il-ghdrsha l-matruusa 'The full(filled) bottle'' ill-ashyda l-mabyuuga 'The stolen things' iD-DubbdaT il-majruuHiin 'The wounded officers' , from dd9am 'to knock down (car)') (from ttras 'to fill') (from baag 'to steal') (from jdrqH |to wound')

UNIT 13 173 but a pronoun referring back to it, agreeing with it in gender and number, is suffixed, to the prepositional part of the verb: il-bint il-masmuuH liha . . . t t 'The girl allowed to. . .' ir-rayaayiit il-maHkuum 9aldyhum. . . 1 ^ ^ : 'The men sentenced to. . .' Whenever complex verb-phrases like slmaH li + noun, Hdkam 9dla + noun are passivized, the passive participle remains in the simple (masculine singular) form, whatever the gender/number of the referent. Further examples: il-mujrimtin H-mdgDi 9dldyhum bit-moot t ! r 'The criminals sentenced to death' < gdDaw 9dla l-mujrim(in bil-moot il-mashdakil il-mddri biha t J 'The kndwn problems' < ddraw bil-mashdakil The passive participle may refer not only to an action which has already affected its referent, but to an action which may potentially affect it. In trie phrases ktitub manshuura fi urubba 'books published in Europe' H-9aaddat il-majyuuba min il-xdarij 'customs imported from outside' the passive participles refer to books which may not yet have been Published, and customs which may not yet have been actually imported, as is clear from the sentences Vindi mashruu9 ayiib ktitub manshuurafi urubba ' r have a plan to bring in books published in Europe'

A summary of forms for the different verb types encountered so far is given below: tiros 'to fill* matruus/matruusalmatruusiin wdjad 'to find' mawjuudlmawjuudalmawjuudtin 'dkal 'to eat' ma'kduUma'kuuiaima'kuuitin gaTT 'to throw away' magTuuTlmag TuuTalmagTuuTiin shaal 'to remove, lift' mashyuullmashyiiula/mashyuultin nisa 'to forget* mdnsilmansiyaJmansiytin 'filled' 'found, existent' 'eaten' 'thrown away* 'removed, lifted' 'forgotten'

& #

Som.e Arabic, verbs like stmaH li 'to excuse (someone)', Hdkant 9dla 'to sentence (someone to a punishment)' gpvern their object by means of a preposition, e.g. the sentences slmaH lil-bint trduH il-bayt 'He allowed the girl to go home' (lit. 'He allowed to the girl she goes home*) Htkmaw 9dla r-rayaayiil bi sanatdyn sijin 'They sentenced the men to" two years jail' (lit. 'They sentenced on the men with two years jail') When the objects in such sentences are made into passivized subjects ('the girl allowed to go home', 'the men sentenced to two years jail'), the passive participle does not agree with its referent.

T J-74 UNMM3, UNIT 13 175 1 hdadhi bint ma9ruufa fil-firiij- kill wdaHid yixdaf minha U'dnnahq_ majnuunq% if< 2 muu mdaxdjiqijt-(annuura min il-xayydaT li'dnn ilHdashya maqiqtha mashguuga. * 3 il-mdghsala'dhiimatruusa bi mqay li'dnn il-buuri mdalha masduudr bi qwsdax. ( ^ .( 4 sjidayif hal-achyqas il-hlqastiik U-magTuuTaf9qla ssd'aHil? idazim^fishtliha l-Hukuuma.> 5 baghdyt dHchi wiyydak ams>bit-tilifuun,>.ldakinjlxaTTkaanklllah mashghuul: 6 ligdyt il-fluus il-mafquuda? la, mub laaguha bd9ad. 1 shtdbbi tdakil?tdbbt wdllah bayD mdghli wiyya nitfat IdHam mdshwi\ 8 minhu mas'uul 9an h'at'-xdrBuTaVd'ddhi?,mub (Hha, yaa ustdadU, a%aylhak hum-il-mas'uulun\ 9 yoom kinrfq. Sighdar, l(9bat it-tiila xwdayid maHbuuba 9indana. 10 sdami9 il-xdbar? waziir id-difda.9 magtuul\ 11 il-marHuum ish-shayx salmdan k'Aart Hdqkim, mashhuur. 12 il-bulddp.nil-9arabiyytq maftquHaJi kiU^wdaHid - kill in-naas masmuuH lihum id-duxuul. gdalaw innahum mda byigbaluun ii-9aaddat il-majyuuba min I il-xdarij \ ' ,,. ' ' ^ . ^ ; ''They said that^hey won t accept customs imported -from outside' The passive participle is neyer used in Gulf Arabic with an agent. To translate 'agentless' sentences like 'Thebag" was stolen'phe may say iUjdnTa mabydugq , * . >s " * " *

or one may turn''the sentence into "an active brie witha*B ifnspecified subject: 'They stole the' bag': t, tfr bdagaty 1-jdnTa or * il-jdnTa Saagoohd
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f

, \ , 1t ,
3

But if orfd wishes to say/The.bag.was stolen J^that rnan\ only the sentence types with active verbs aref permissible: ir-rayydal dhaak baag il-j$nT$ "or il-jdnTa bd'agha dhaak ir-rayydal
, 0

* *

The passive participle may also, by extension, function as a noun. For example, from the verbs: % sd'al kitab fdham HdSal nddab ii -r* mas'uui <tone who isasked' = Responsible person' t f to write' maktuub 'something,written' = 'letter' 'to understand' * mafhdum 'something understood' -= 'concept'* 'to get] ,-^maHSuul"isomethmg, got* = 'crop;-pr6fit' 'to entrust' > manddub 'one entrusted' * ' = 'delegate' 'to ask'

Exercise 13.6

Throughout the Arab world, jokes are told about a mythical Arab called juHa. These jokes.are*"extremely popular, and most Arabs can usually produce several. Read the following joke, and see if you can understand it: a translation is provided in the Answer-Key. juHa yoom wdaHid ndashir thoobah foog is-sdTaH. nfzal ba9addyn, mixalliih yinshaf foog. gaam juHa * yiSHH. yisma9ahjdarah u yiTla9 bdrra. ilia yiguul lih' 'shfiik juHa?' yiguul lih 'thoobi TdaH min foog issdTaH Ul-arD!' yiguul lih-jdarah 'shu Saar?1 ilia yiguul hh Jdha 'lo dna fith-thoobtchaan mittV

Exercise 13.5 Translate the following sentences, into English:

u 176 UNIT i3 Notes: , , gdDa 9dla UNIT 13 177 nisharlydnshir 'to publish' { 'to sentence, rdakib/rukkdab 'passenger' condemn' rdsimlrusuum 'drawing, giballyigbal 'to accept' painting' * ghaablyighiib 'to be absent' 'to draw, paint' Haashya*(aat) 'hem'risamlydrsim 'friend' 'dear, darling' Habiib rifiijirifgdan 'return' 'to se'ntence' Hdkam 9dla tujuu9 ' 'to' block' Hukuuma*(aat), 'government' <saddlyisidd 'neighbour' k' sdTaHlsuTuuH "f odf jaarljiirdan 'prison-' 'to run,"flow'' sijihlsujuun jdraJydjri 'to allow' 'to Wound; simaH U> jaraHlyijraH someone' injure' 'Syria' suuriy'd' 'always' killah 'to cry out, SaaHlyiSiiH 'concept'? mafhuum! shout' mafaahiim V 'to tell the 'sink' mdghsala*/ SddaglydSdig truth' maghdasil i 'to busy, shdghall 'crop, profit maHSuul occupy' yishghal 'mad, crazy' majnuun! 'to have just taw + pron. majaantin done' 'late (i.e. marHuum 'via, by way of 9an Tariig^ dead)' 'food' Ta9dam " 'responsible' mas'uul 'Europe' urubba mashghuul(iin) 'busy, engaged' 'to find' wujadlydjid 'known (fact)! ma9luum 'outside' xdarij moot/amwdat 'death' 'telephone-line' xaTTlxuTuuT 'criminal' ^ mujrim(iin) 'tailor' xayydaT('tin) 'end, mhdaya* 'custom, 9dada(aat) .conclusion' tradition' 'extremely' Hn-nihdaya T thought. . .' 9abdal-+ pron. 'to become mshaftyinshaf 'stick' 9dSa / dry'

line 1: nishar (here) 'to spread''.jd7a/r'robf line 2: mixalliih 'having left it' nish'af'tcf dry' SaaH 'to"cry out' "* line 3: ilia particle used to lend immediacy to a narrative: ilia yiguul lih 'and so he*says to him. . .' line 5: shu'Saar (lit. 'what happened?') 'So what?' * line 6: lo 'if chaan particle'introducing hypothetical *event: 'would Have' '' Proverbs " *

9aT il-xabbdaz. xubziklo baag nuSSah "Give the baker your bre,ad-even if he steals half of it' i.e. If you want a job doing well give'it"to an expert even if it costs a lot '* lo yddri 9ammddr shagg jdybah ''If Ammaar knew, he'd rend the front of his shirt' i.e. What the eye doesn't see tbVheart does'n't grieve ove*r midd riilik 9ala gadd UHdafik 'Stretch out your leg according to the size of your sheet' i.e. Don't be over ambitious, make do with what you have

i? J it i

VOCABULARY SUMMARY blaastiik 'plastic' buuriibawdari 'pipe' chdadhib 'dishonest' chidhab! 'to lie, cheat' ydchdhib diir bdalikl 'Be careful!' dabbdasa* (aat) 'stapler' "dara bi 'to know about' dd9amly(d9am 'to cqllide (car)' durjladrdaj 'drawer' duxdul 'entry' DdabiT! 'officer' DubbdaT fdqadlydfqid 'to, lose' fdqara*(aat) 'paragraph' gdbil + noun '. . .-ago'

UNIT 14 179 Ill" UNIT 14 (i.e. have>C3 - y) behave" exactly like simple weak verbs (c.f. nisdyt, ligdyt, etc.) (ii) In the irhpetfect, the Stem vowel pattern is. -CaCCiG-. The vowel'bf the prefix is always' 1. (iii) Wheriever-arifendingbeginning with a vowel is suffixed to the stem (e.g. -iin, -uun, or -i, -u, in the imperative) the / of the stem is dropped-and the doubled" consonant is made single (except in weak verbs): '.yixalSdun yixdlliS + uun 'they finish* 'he finishes' 'pi.' " tixalSiin tixdlUS + iin" 'you(f) finish' 'you finish' '%' xdlSi xdlliS +i 'finish(f.)!s' 'finish!' 'V The same process of i-dropping and consonant reduction occurs when object; pronbuns winch begin with a vowel are suffixed-to'the stem: yixdlSah + ah yixdlliS *'he finishes it' 'if 'he finishes' Weak CaCCac verbs behaye, in this context, just like simple weafc verbs, lengthening their final vowel whether the suffix begins with a vowel or not: nisawwiih + dh nisdwwit 'we do if 'it' 'we do' yighanntiha + ha yighdnni 'he sings if 'if 'he sings' The imperative of CaCCaC verbs is typically: pjural fern. masc. bdTlu\ bdTTill bdTlil Weak verbs: sawwl sdwwi\' sdwwul

11,']

14.1 THE DERIVED THEMES OF THE VERB: CaCCaC, CaaCaC, tiCaCCaC, t|C'aaCaC As we have" seen, the simple Arabici,yerb consists of a-threeconsonant, skeleton O-C2-C3 on to which varipus vowel patterns are superimposed to denote .tense, person antigender. In-this unit, we begin Jhe study of verbs- which are derived from this simple skeleton by the addition, of various consonants, or by ^he-lengthening of vowels. These verbs are called 'derived themes'. CaCCaC: verbs in which C2 is doubled (and hence pronounced twice as long as the single consonant). Examples: root h K x-l-S b-n-d b-T-l ch-y-k H-w-l s-w-y gh-n-y past xdllaS 6dnnad bdTTal chdyyak Hdww.al sdwwa ghdnna imperfect 'yixdlliS yibdnnid yibdTTil yichdyyik yiHd\vwil yisdwwi yighdnni 'to finish'(something)' 'to close (something)' 'to open (something)' 'to check, verify' 'to get down, off, but of ^to do, make' 'to sing*

These-verbs are conjugated as follows: hollow 'weak strong chayydkt achdyyik - sawwdyr "asdwwi xatldSt-' axdlUS chayydkt tichdyyik sawwdyt tisdwwi xalldSt -tixdlUS xalldSti tixalStin chayydkti tichaykiin Gawwdyti tisawwl^ yichdyyik sdwwa yisdwwi xdllaS yixdlliS chdyyak chdyyakat tichdyyik 'sdwwat tisdwwi xdllaSat tixdlUS xalldSna nixdlliS chayydkna nichdyyik sawwdyna nisdwM xalldStaw tixalSuun chayydktaw tichaykuun sawwdytaw tisawv/W j xdllaSaw yixalSuun chdyyakaw yichaykuun sdwwaw yisaww^" j Note that: (i) From the point of view of form, CaCCaC verbs in the past tense behave exactly like the simple verbs we have already studied: both strong and.hollow verbs simply add the endings for person and gender, while CaCCaC verbs which are weak

'Open' 'Do!'

!n the negative imperative, the masculine of weak verbs exceptional 'y preserves the final -i of the imperfect: masc. fern. plural la tisdwwi] la tisdwwil la tisdwwu\ 'Don't do!'

180 UNIT 14 ; CaCCaC vetbs in general often have a. causative or, factitive meaning, i.e. they denote making someone or something be or do something. For example, the simple verb 9dlam%(root 9-l-m) is one of the verbs-meaning 'to know'; 9dllam means 'to make;someone know, to teach, instruct'; the hollow simple verb Dqq9 (r.oot D-y% 9) means 'to get or be lost, go missing', while its corresponding CaCCaC verb, Ddyya9 means 'to waste,, squander': jdnTati Dda9at 'My bag's disappeared' la tiDdyyi9 fluusikl 'Don't waste your money!' The word ghayr means 'different, other than': 9aaddatkum ghayr 9aaddatna 'Your customs are different from ours' The corresponding CaCCaC verb ghdyyar means 'to alter, make different': ghayydrt il-barndamaj 'I changed the programme' ghdyyaraw afkdarhum 'They changed their minds' Not every CaCCaC verb has causative or factitive meaning, however, and some verbs which have a causative meaning are sometimes used as intransitive verbs. An exarriple of the first type is Hdwwal 'to get down, off, out of and'of the second bdnnad 'to close (something)', which can also be used like this: id-dukkdan yibdnnid is-sda9a sdb9a' 'The shop closes at seven o'clock' The extremely common CaCCaC verb xdlla 'to let, leave' is used with a suffixed pronoun and following verb to mean 'to alio* someone to do something': xalldytah yisuug sayydarti t J 'I allowed him to drive my car' xalldani ayii mubdkkir^ ,L_J 'He allowed me to come early'

UNIT 14 181

maa biyxalliich taaxdhiin hal'-gadd yoom 9uTla t 1 'He won't let you(f.) take that many days' holiday' CaaCaC: verbs in which the first yowel_is lengthened to twice the length of a short vowel: root past imperfect s-9-d sda9ad yisda9id help' 'to agree on something' w-f-g wafag yiwdafig yigdabil 'to meet someone (by g-b-l gdabal appointment' yijdawib 'to answer' j-w-b jdawab yisdawim 'to bargain,..haggle'1 s-w-m sdawam yildagi 'to meet someone (by chance) l-g.y Idaga Conjugations as follows: hollow strong jaawdbt ajdawib saa9ddt asda9id jaawdbt tijdawib saa9ddt tisda9id saa9ddti tisaa9d(in jaawdbti tijaawbiin yijdawib jdawab sda9ad yisda9id jdawabat tijdawib sda9adat tisda9id saa9ddna nisda9id jaawdbna nijdawib saa9ddtaw tisaa9ddun jaawdbtaw tijaawbuun s &a9adaw yisaa9duunjdawabaw yijaawbuun Imperatives: ma sc s aa9id\ }dawib\ /a g!
11

weak laagdyt laagdyt laagdyti Idaga Idagat laagdyna laagdytaw idagaw

aldagi tildagi dlaagiin yildagi tildagi nildagi tilaaguun yilaaguun

fern. sda9di\ jdawbil Idagil

pi. sda9du\ jdawbul tdagul

'Help!' 'Answer!' 'Meet!'

can be clearly seen from this that CaaCaC verbs behave in all Aspects like CaCCaC verbs (e.g. in the dropping of the i in the st em -CaaCiC- when certain suffixes are added, in the masculine "Operative of the weak verb).

182 UNIT 14 CaaCaC verbs usually, denote actions taking place between two parties, often on a reciprocal basis (e.g. 'to agree on*, 'to haggle'). Sqme examples of use: ' wdafagaw 9ala daf9 iUmdblaghjl-maTldub "They agreed to pay the sum demanded' (lit. 'They agreed on the paying of the sum demanded'.) la tsdawim wiyydah! yiDdyyi9 wdqtik\ 'Dbn't bargain with him! He'll waste your time!' i xaabardoni bit-tilifuun inn'tk yiitl 'Triey informed -me by telephone that you had come' \ laagayndahum biS-Sudfa fis-suug 'We met them by chance in the" market'' Exercise 14.1
l

UNIT 14 183 Translate into English: J t

Using the CaCCaC and CaaCaC verbs introduced so far, and also' those listed below, translate"the following^ commands: l' Don't send that boy! 2 Repair the fridge! 3 Don't stop the car! 4 Take me home please! 5 Think before you do anything! 6 Put it(f.) in the post! 7 Show me your(pl.) photos! 8 Lend me 50 dinars please' 9 Don't speak to them! 10 Don't try to go! *. CaCCaC:

11 ja rdkkab ir-fdsim d9waj Idakin 9dddalah ba9addyn. 12 la trdkkib it-tayr dhaak -fiih pdnchar. 13,ndDHDHif il-jaamdat min-fdDlik uSdlliH il-baab iTTdayiH: 14 9dTni t-taqrtir u bafdkkir,fil-mawDuu9. 15 wadddoni l-mddrqsa yoom ana 9dm'ri xams siniin. 16 sdafaraw l-h'ind'u bugaw hindak mudda Tawiila. 17 la tiHaachiini bil-ldhja dhi! xdffiD s6oTik\ 18 layn fanhashdoh min shughlah"fish-shdrika, gaam yiSdlUH"sayyaardatxqjbdana. 19 bd9admaq rawwdytah il-hddiya~lli 9aT6oni iyydaha, DHall yifdkkir Sdamit. 20 bamurr 9aldych bdachir awdSlich bayt 9dmmicht 21 maa asim9ik! 9all Sootikl w 22 xaffdDna l-as9dar bijcams u,9ishriin bil-m(ya. 23 darrdst sanatdynfimddrasalHukuum(yya. 24 la twdddi s-saamdan minndak! wdddah minW. Two more derived themes are formed by'prefixing ti- (or ta-) to1 CaCCaC and CaaCaC verbs. The first of these, tiCaCCaC, often indicates a reflexive or sometimes passive sense1 of the corresponding CaCCaC verb: root CaCCaC gh-y-r ghdyyar tiCaCCaC' { 'to charige ' tighdyyar 'to be changed, to change (something)* (intrans.)* 'to be closed, tibdnnad 'to close close(intrans.)' (something)' 'to be closable' tizdwwaj 'to get married' 'to marry (someone to someone)* ti9dllam 'to learn' 'to teach' tidhdkkar 'to remember'* 'to remind' 'to give lunch tighddda- 'to eat lunch' (to someone) ! !

II

ill,

L1 ft

rdkkab 9dddal SdllaH Tdrrash sdllaf wdggaf fdkkar ddrras

'to fix, insert, attach' fdnhash 'to adjUst, put right' wdSSal *to repair' 'to send' xdffaD 'to lend* 'to stop (something)* 9dlla 'to think' wddda 'to teach* rdwwa

'to fire, sack' 'to take someone to somewhere' 'to lower, decrease' to raise, increase* 'to put, send' 'to show'

b-n-d bdnnad z-w-j zdwwaj

CaaCaC: sdafar 'to travel' someone' Hddwal 'to try' Hdacha 'to address

9-l-m 9dllam dh-k-r dhdkkar gh-d-y ghddda

m v 184 UNIT 14 uu 9-w-d 9dwwad 'to accustom (someone to something)' U9dwwad 'to get used to' feminine masculine la titghdddal la,titghdddi\ > \ tiCaaCaC plural la tjtghdddul UNIT 14 185 'don't eat lunch!'

tiCaaCaC -verbs indicate, more, clearly than CaaCaGWerbs, the reciprocal nature of an activity, and are often equivalent to English verbs involving the use of 'each other' or 'one another': root w-f-g \ g-b-l CaaCaC wdafag a gdabaiI .'to agree' HiCaaCaC tiwdafag " 'to-agree with each other' . 'to meet' tigdabal 'to meet one another' 'to help' tisda9ad 'to help each other' 'to address tiHdacha 'to talk to each someone' dther, converse'

s-9-d sda9ad H-ch-y Hdacha

weak strong and hollow tiHaachdyt atHdacha atsda9ad Hsaa9ddt liHaachdyt dtHdacha titsda9ad tisaa9ddt tiHaachdyti dtHaachiin titsaa9adtin* tisaa9ddti tiHdacha" yitHdacha yitsda9ad tisda9ad ' UHdacHat titHdacha titsda9ad^ * tisda9adat tiHaachdyn'd nitHdacha nitsda9ad tisaa9ddna tiHaachdytaw titHaachuun tisaa9ddtaw titsaa9aduun tiHdachaw yitHaachuun yitsaa9aduun iisaa9adaw Imperative forms: masculine tisda9ad\ tiHdachl feminine tisda9adi\ ' tiHdachV. plural tisda9adu\ dHaachu 'Help each other!' 'Talk to each other!'

Examples of these verbs'arejCon jugated as below. tiCaCCaC ' strong ahd hollow H9alldmt at9dllam ti9alldmt tit9dllam H9alldmti tit9a!lamiin ti9dllam yit9dllam H9dllamat ti&dllam ti9alldmna nit9dllam ti9alldmtaw tit9allamuun ti9dllamaw yit9allamuun Imperative forms: masculine ti9dllam\ tighdddl feminine ti9dllami\ tighdddi] plural ti9dllamu\ tighdddul 'Learn!' 'Have lunch! weak tighadddyt atghddda tighadddyt titghddda tighadddyti titghaddiin tighddda yitghddda. t'tghdddat titghddda tighadddyna nitghddda tighadddytaw titghadddun tighdddaw yitghadduun

Obviously, the notion of reciprocity which is contained in many tiCaaCaC verbs makes it highly unlikely that any singular imperative forms will be'encountered". The only tiCaaCaC imperative, in common use in the'singular, for example, is one which does not have a 'reciprocafmeaning: ta9dal\ 'Come!' The vowelling of the prefixes of tiCaCCaC and tiCaaCaC verbs is ne of the many points of variability in the sub-dialects which go to make up what we have been calling 'Gulf Arabic'. Some of these sub-dialects have a ta- and some a ti- prefix in the past tense of these verbs, and some a yit- type and some a yd- type prefix in the imperfect. A certain amount of variability in these and other forms has been deliberately introduced into this book in order to accustom you to the non-standardization of Gulf speech (another example is '' and Uyyi 'to me'). The differences are usually relatively slight, but it is as well to be aware of common variants which have the s ame meaning.

Thus the perfect stem is tiCaCCaC- and the imperfect stem-tCaCCaC (weak verbs tiCaCCa- and -tCaCC-). As previously noted for CaCCaC and CaaCaC verbs, the negative imperative of weak verbs has a final vowel in the masculine.form, which, in this case is -a, not -i: .!?

186 UNIT 14 Some examples of the use x>f tiCaCCaC and'ljGaa'CaC verbs are given "below. Notice'thaf the meaning'of the imperfect of these verbs ca"n express the potentiality to do" something: yitbdTTal may mean 'omens', 'is"opened' or 'can be opened'.
v il-kuwdyt tighdyyarat ^ v f 'Kuwait" has changed' t < Hal-makaatiib tiTdrrashat min zamdan >. i Those letters were sent a long time ago' tiwdafagaw 9ala (nnahumjnaa yitHaarabiiun bd9ad They agreed not to fight each other any more' hdadha mawDuu.9 taHqachdyhafiihmudda Tawiila "This is a subject we discussed for a long-time' hdadhfl S-Sqnduug maa yitbdnnad 'This box won't close' hai-guuTi maa yitbdTTal 'This can can't be opened' yitrdawa liyyi innik Jdazirn titxdllaS min dhaak ir-rayydal 'It seems to me that you ought to get'rid, of that man' laysh rr\aa titsaa9aduunr\ r 'Why don't you help each other?' kdanaw yisiknuun fi firiij il-jdami9, 9ala maa~tdhdkkar 'They used to,live<in the quarter where the main mosque, is, as far as I remember' * il-jaw maal ii-xaliij maatit9dwwad9aldyhbi sfir9a., '.You can't get "used to the Gulf climate' qmckly'^ Y

UNIT 14 187 tiwdddd 'to be^seht, delivered, deposited' tirdkkab 'to be fixdd, inserted** taSdllaH"to be repaired', translate the following: 6* This tyre qan't be fitted on this car. 7 The.store-roorn door won't open.*8 Letters'are always delivered by hand. 9 This market ..never closes!* 10 The broken plate can't be repaired. * The construction $all (let!)f+ pronoun + verb means ^Let us/them". . !' , ^ e.g. xdllna mtsdawam\ 'Let's bargain!' Using the verbs* taHdacha '.to-talk, to one another' tifdqham 'to.understand each other', tisda9ad 'to help each other',Aigdabal 'to meet each other', tiSdalaH 'to make peace' translate: 11 Let's talk a little about this problem! 12 Let's understand each other on this point! 13 Let them help each other in this matter! 14 "Let's meet again the day after tomorrow! 15 Let them make peace with each othersUsing the,verbs taHdchcha-'Xo talk*, 4izdwwaj 'to get married', ta9dllam 'to learn', ta9dwwad 'to get used to', tiwdafag 'to agree with each other' and tisda9ad 'to help each other' translate: 16 Why don't they talk? 17 'Why doesn't he get married? 18 Why don't you learn English? 19 Why don't we agree with edch other on this? 20 Why don't you(pl.) help each other more? 21 Why can't you(f.) get*ised to the food? rhe present and passive participles of the verb types we have studied in this Unit are all formed with a mi- prefix. They are all ormed according to simple >and regular principles which are outiln ed below.
Ca Pf

Exercise 14.2 *< * ' v Using the* verbs tirdyyag 'to have breakfast', taghadda1 'to have lunch'; and ta9dshsha 'tojiave dinner', translate the following: 1 'She has breakfast every day at six. 2 I "often have lunch in this restaurant. 3 What time* are we dining tonight? 4, Why don't ybu(pl.)*have lunch with us tomorrow? 5 Have bre'akfast with me tomorrow! Using the verbs tibdnnad 'to close' tibdTTal 'to open' t:

CCaC and CaafZaC verbs

esent participle of the form miCaCCiC and miCaaCiC

li ] 188 UNIT 14 i. lii Pi ["" 1 Pil Pi 1 11 , II %j ii 1 "i 'Examples: mirdkkib mi9daqib 'fixing, having fixed'* (rdkkab) 'punishing, having (9daqab) punished' 'naming ^ having (sdmma) named' 'taking care of, (adara) Having taken care of UNIT 14 189 Weak verbs, as-usual, have -ya and -yiin, e.g. misdmmya, misammyiin ^'naming'. However, the* feminine form of the passive participle of weak verbs is the same as the masculine form. When object pronouns'aresuffixed to the present participle'of weak verbs, the -i is lengthened and stressed, and-all feminine present participles have the 'hidden t' which shows up onrsuffixation. Thus we find the masculine form rriisdmmi 'naming' becoming -misammtih when ah% 'it' is sufficed, and the feminine form misdmmya becoming, misdmmyatah\ when the feminine pronoun -ha is suffixed, the corresponding forms, as would be expected from- our study of simple verb, participles (13.1), are misammiiha and misammydtta, the h of the -ha suffix being assimilated to the t of the participle. Some examples of participial usage: in-naas dhayldak iHria msanimiinhum 'bastakiya' h 'We call those people "Bastafeis" ' u had-diira msdmtha bdni-jdmra f 'This village is called Bani-Jamra' dna tdwni mitghdddi, maa "dBbi dakil'baVad 'I've just had lunch, I don't want to eat any more' il-qaraardat illi mitwaafgiin 9aldyha maa titghdyyar 'The decisions which have been'mutually agreed on cannot be changed'_ ir-rayydal illi'niHdachyat'ah abuuha 'The man who she's talking to is her father' ii-dghniyalli mghanndha muB'Hdlwa*** 'The song'he's singing isn t nice' ^ * har-rusuum illi msawwydtta wdayid 9aajbdtni These designs she's done have really impressed me' Note from the above examples that the i of the mi- prefix is, as an unstressed vowel, frequently dropped, especially if mi- is preceded hy a word ending in a vowel.

(weak verbs) misdmmi middari

'Passivei participle pf.the form miCaCCaCandtmiCaaCaC Examples: mirakkab' mi9daqab misdmma .miii&ard 'fixed, having be'en fixed' 'punished, having been punished' " 'nanied, having been * ' named' 'taken care of, having been taken care of * Xtighdyyar) (tisda9ad) (ta9dshsha) (dldaga) t

tiCaCCaCkind tiCaaCaC verbs Examples: mitghdyyir mitsda9id (weak verbs) mit9dshshi mitldagi

Present participle of the form fnitCaCCiC and mitCaaCiC* 'changing, having changed' 'helping each other, having helped each other' 'dining, having dined' 'meeting each,other, having met each other')

Passive participles are of the form riiitCaCGaC and mitCaaCac, but occur very rarely because tiCaCCaC and tiCaaCaC are normally intransitive in meaning. The feminine and plural forms (used with animate nouns) are obtained in the normal way, viz. by suffixing -a and -iin respectively-

Exercise 14.3 Look at the following two-line dialogue: - xalldst ish-shughul H-bdarHa, muu chidhii! - la, mubsmixdlSah bd9ad\

190 UNIT 14 - You finished the work yesterday, didn't you? - No, I haven't finished it yet! Now translate the following similar dialogues into Arabic 1 - You spoke to the boss yesterday, didn't-you? .No I haven't ^pofcen to him yet!''" 2 - You repaired the machine yesterday, didn't you? No J haven't repaired it yet! -3- You cleaned the bedroom this* morning, didn't you? No I haven't cleaned it yet! * ' 4 - You you? serit the letter the day before yesterday, didn't No I ii 5 - You haven't sent it yet!, No I agreed to the plan JastTmonth, didn't you? 6 - You haven't agreed to it yet! No I inspected the factory last week, didn't you? 7 - You haven't inspected it.yet! you? tested out that new restaurant,yesterday, didn't N p l haven't tested it out yet! 8 - You sacked those workers last w,eek, didn't you? No J haven't sacked them,yet! 9 - You checked the oil-level half-an-hour( ago,,didn't you? No I haven't checked.it yet! You 10 changed the tyres last week didn't you? No I haven't changed them yet! Now translate these dialogues again using first the'you(f.) form, and then the you(pl.) form (replying using 'we'). r

UNIT 14 191 brlij il-maay u Tdlla9afj.>tamm yighdrtni '9aTshdan yaa, HabiibU' radd HdTTah fil-maay u Tdlla9ah. . . . il-Hiin bri byishdghlah maa ishtdghal. gaal Uh''m(ntaJl:HUn tishtdghil? yoom (nta 9aTsfidan 9aTdytik, u l-Hiin wugdft!' briij 'pot for water' ishtdghallyishtdghil 'to work' (We wjll meet this type of verb-form in Unit 16). Proverbs and sayings maa yiswa fils fi waqt il-ghila 'He isn't worth a fils (even) at a time of high prices' i.e. He is a completely worthless person tays baw\vdal 'A pissing he-goat' Said of an extremely, uncouth; man UU maa y9drf iS-Sdgar yishwiih 'He who does not know what a falcon is will roast if Said of a person who. is ignorant of the true value of what he possesses, and misuses it. VOCABULARY SUMMARY dwwal il-lay'l 'afternoon (shift)' a 9waj f. 96ja 'crooked, bent' bdddall 'to change (e.g. clothes, yibdddil tyres)' bdnnad! 'to close' yibdnnid 'programme' barndamaj! bardamij bdTTal! 'to open' yibdTTil briijlburgdan chdyyak! yichdyyik ddaralyiddari 'water pot' 'to check'

f I I.

Exercise 14.4 In the last unit we met juHa. Here is another juHa joke which will give you practice with CaCCaC verbs. Try to translate it. juHa raaH ir-rdydo mdalah u shdghghalah. illi yighdnni yiguul '9aTshdan yaa HabiibU' gaam juHa u HdTTah ft

'to take car of daf9 'payment' ddrraslyiddrris 'to> teach' Daa9!yiDdyyi9 'to waste, squander' dhdkkarl 'to remind' yidhdkkir fdkkarlyifdkkir 'to think'

192 UNIT 14 fdnnashl yifdnnish fdttashi yifdttish gdabali yigdabil i ghdnnaJ yighdnni Hdachal yiHdachi Hdawall yiHdawil Hdwwall yiHdwwil Hukdumi ishtdghal! yishtdghil jdami9 'to sack, fire' 'to inspect' 'to meet, be opposite to, across from' ,f 'to sing' 'to address (someone)' 'to try, attempt' 'to get down", out of 'governmental' 'to work' 'main (Friday) mosque' 'to'answer' rdkkabi yirdkkib' rdwwal yirdwwi sdafarlyisdafir' Sdamit sdawaml yisdqwim t sda9ad! yisda9id sdllafiyisdllif saamdan sdwwa! yisdw'wi ,s(wa!yiswa 'to attach, install'* 'to show' 'to travel' 'silent(ly)' 'to bargain' 'to help' 'to lend' 'stuff, gear' 'to make, do' 'to.be worth, equal to' 'to repair, correct' 'by chance' 'to operate (a machine, etc.) 'to fight each other' 'to talk' tigdabal! yitgdabal tighdddal yitghddda tiHdacha! yitHdacha tirdkkab! yitrdkkab iirdyyagl yitrdyyag tisda9ad! ' yitsda9ad tiSdalaHf yitSdalaH tiTdrrashf yiTTdrrash tiwdafag! yitwdafag tizdwwajl yitzdwwaj milaml yit9dllam H9dwwad! yit9dwwad 9dla TdayiH 'to meet each otherA 'to have lunch* 'to converse' 'to be fixed, installed' 'to breakfast' 'to help each other' 'to make peace, call a truce' 'to be sent' 'to mutually agree' 'to get married' 'to learn' 'to get used to' 'broken, dilapidated'

UNIT 14 193 Tdlla9lyiTdlU9 'to take (something) out of (something)* 'to send' Tdrfash! yiTTdrrish wdafagl 'to agree to yiwdqfig 9dta (something)' 'to put, send' wdddal yiwdddi wdggafl 'to stop yiwdggif (something)' wdSSal'to take yiwdSSil (someone somewhere), give a lift to (someone)' 'to inform xdabarl (someone yixdabir about something)' 'broken down, xardab useless' 'to punish' 9daqab! yi9daqib 'to straighten, 9dddaU yi9dddil put right' 9dllalyi9dlli 'to raise' 9dllarnli 'to teach, yi9dllim instruct'

jdawab! yijdawib jdrrablyijdrrib 'to test out, try' Idagalyildagi 'to meet (by chance)' idhja*(aat) 'tone of voice, accent, dialect' mawDuu91 'subject, topic' mawaaDU9 mithil 'for example' mubdkkir 'early' ndDHDHaf! 'to clean* yindDHDHif ntiqTa*lnuqaT 'point at issue' pdnchar(aat) 'puncture' radd + verb 'to do something again'

SdllaHl yiSdlUH biS-SUdfa shdghghatl yishdghghii taHdarab! yitHdarab taHdchchal yitHdchcha v taxdllaSI 'to get,rid of, yitxdllaS min be free of tayr(aat) 'tyre' ta9dshshal 'to dine' yit9dshsha tibdnnad! 'to close yitbdnnad (intrans:) be closeable' tibdTTall 'to open, be yitbdTTal openable' 'to remember' tidhdkkaryitdhdkkar 'to understand tifdahaml each other' yitfdaham

" UNIT 15

UNIT 15 195

15.1 THE VERBAL NOUN Verbal nouns in English are formed by the addition of -ing to the verb stem, e.g. Jdoing', .'acting', 'dying*, by other types of suffix, e.g. -ion 'action', or by changes in vowelling,*e.g. 'deed', 'death'. In Gulf Arabic there are a number of fixed patterns used to form the verbal noun in simple verbs, and a single pattern, for each of the derived themes. There are five common patterns used in the simple verb, and the particular pattern which any given verb takes is more 6r lessfixed,..As with 'broken'- plurals,'it is a good idea to learn the fo^m of the verbal noun of each verb as you meet it, and frpm this point on, the verbal noun of each, new simple verb will be listed as it occurs in the vocabulary summary. By .far the commonest simple verbal noun pattern is CvCC, which becomes CooC or CayC where hollow .verbs are concerned, and CaCi for weak verbs. Examples: strong hollow wiak doubled Tabx 'cooking' gool 'saying' mdshi 'walking' Hall 'solution' dhikr 'remem- TayH 'falling' Hdchi 'talk' Hubb 'love' bering' In many'cases, it is possible to add the feminine ending -a (with 'hidden*"/) to these verbal nouns in order to form an 'instance' noun: for example, Tdbxa means 'a dish' (i.e. an instance of cooking), Ddrba means 'a blow' (cf. Darb 'beating'), Tdyha means 'a fall*. In some cases, the verbal noun with -a signifies the way of doing something, e.g. mdashi 'walking', mdshya 'gait'. The next most common pattern is CvCaaC(a): Haddag 'fishing* Tawdaf 'going round' sagday 'irrigating kitdaba 'writing' girdaya 'reading ziydara 'visit' gaTdaT 'throwing away' fardara 'fleeing'

Other patterns are CuCuuC, which occurs only in strong and dou? bled verbs, e.g. rujuu9 'return' (fromr r(ja9) qnd murdur (from man) which literally means 'passing', but has acquired the meaning 'traffic' or 'traffic.police' (short for shdrTat il-muruur); CaCaC, which is similarly only'found in,strong and doubled verb stems (fdraH 'happiness', mdlal 'boredom'); and CiCCaan/CaCaCaan which occur mainly with weak,, and hollow verbs, (e.g. -nisydan 'forgetting' from nisa, shayaldam 'removal from shaal, xawardan 'stirring' from *aar). The verbal, nouns of the derived themes are almost wholly predictable.'CaCCaC verbs have, the verbal noun pattern taCCiiC (taCCiya for weak verbs): SdllaH xdTTaT 9dyyan rdbba 'to repair' 'to plan* 'to appoint' 'to bring up' taSlliH taxTUT ta9yiin -i tdrbiya 'repair'1 'planning' (e.g. in mzdarat it-taxTHT) 'appointment' 'upbringing'

A very small number of weak verbs, some of them important, have the pattern tiCCaa (with 'hidden' f): sdwwa bddda Hdlla 'to do, make' 'to begin' 'to decorate' tiswda tibd&a tiHlda 'doing, deed' 'beginning' 'decoration'

CaaCaC verbs have the verbal noun pattern. muCaaCaCa (with 'hidden* r): sda9ad Hdajaj Hdawal Idaga 'to 'to 'to 'to help' argue' try' meet' musda9ada muHdajaja muHdawala muldaga 'help' 'argument' 'attempt' 'meeting (by chance)

There are odd instances of an alternative form of verbal noun, CiCaaC, but this tends to occur only in set phrases, usually borrowed from Literary Arabic, e.g. sibdaq U-khayl 'horse-racing', w izdarat id-difda9 'Ministry of Defence' (from sdabaq 'to race, compete', ddafa9 'to defend').

196 UNIT 15 tiCaCCaC verbs have tiCaCCuC verbal nouns:' surprise, amazement' tax'dSSaS 'to specialise' taxdSSuS 'specialism' taHdchcha 'to talk' taHdchchi 'talk' In, some cases, like taHdchcha, the .verbal noun taHdchchi is not much used, the verbal noun of the simple verb Hdchi being used instead. Another example is taHdmmal bi 'to take care of (someone)', where the pimple verbal noun Hamdala is used rather than taHdmmul. t tiCaaCaC verbs have tiCaaCuC verbal nouns:1 'to mutually tiwdafug agree'ta9dawan 'to co-operate' ta9dawun taHdacha 'toxonverse' taHdachi tiwdafag 'mutual agreement' 'co-operation' ^conversation" ta9djjab 'to be surprised! ta99djub

r UNIT 15 197 wdafag 9dla 'an yldfa9 il-mdblagh il-rr\aXldub 'He agreed to pay the sum demanded' ('an 'that' functions in a similar way to 'inn) dhikr maa gaal Hi yizd99Uni 'The remembrance of what he said to me upsets riie' layn ddhkur maa gaal Hi, dz9at 'When I remember what he said to me, I get upset' mujdrrad shdofatah tixdwwifni "The mere sight of him Tfrighteps me' mujdrrad ashuufah, axdaf 'I only have to'see him and I'm afraid' * taSUiH sayyaardat, hdadha shdghli 'Repairing cars, that's my job' aSdlliH sayyaardat, hdadha shdghli T repair cars,, that's my job' Verbal nouns canjn some cases denote what is (or'needs to be) done: hal-jaamdat tdbbi liha tanDHlif 'These window panes need cleaning/to be cleaned' hal-chaay ydbbi lih xawardan 'This tea needs stirring/to be stirred' Some other typical uses of the verbal noun are given below. One which strikes the English speaker as somewhat strange is the use of the Verbal* noun as a kind of 'echo' of 'the verb from which it is derived. It is", however, quite common in casual speech: firHaw li daxir fdraH 'They were really happy' (lit. 'They were happy to the last happiness') taHammdlt bih Hamdalatin zdyna I took really good care of him' (lit. 'I took care of him a good taking-care-of)' (The -in suffix on Hamdala is a' feature of relaxed or uneducated speech.) The two following examples involve the verbal nouns of intransitive Ve rbs in noun-phrases: maa ydDrub iz-zar9 min glllat il-mdTar 'The crops don't take because of the lack of rain'

The verbal noun has a number of'uses in Arabic, most of which are paralleled in English. Verbal nouns can denote an activity in general: il-Haddag mamndu9 Ihni 'Fishing is prohibited here' it-tilmiidh dhaak wdayid Da9(if fil-girdaya 'That pupil is very poor at reading' When used in sentences of this type, Arabic unlike English requires the definite article i7. Verbal nouns can denote the doing of something to something else, and* in such cases the verbal noun often replaces a clause. In the examples below, the pairs of sentences are parallel in meaning: Ml" tiswdatik muu zdyna I'Your deed was not good' I I7/I sawwdytah muu zayn 'What you did was not good' wdafag 9dla daf9 il-mdblagh d-maTluub i 'He agreed payment of the sum demanded'

f "198 UNIT 15 zood il-Harr mut9ibni wddyid 'The increased heat has tifed fne af lot.1 " > * * c" '{' (lit. 'The increase oflhe heat. . :') *' -J

UNIT 15 199' needs to be, confirmed 13 Checking these accounts is a tiring business ,14 Don't .pay any attention to what people, say! 15 We're buying less than before because* of the increased prices 16 What's ydur speciality?'Teaching languages ( Si/ 15.2 CO-ORDINATED NEGATIVES , > v , The Arabic equivalent of 'only' in sentences like 'He gave me' only two dinars', *I said only, acvfew words' is mqa . . .'illq 'not . . . except', similar in usage to the French 'ne*. . . que': maa 9aTdant ilia diinaardyn 'He gave me only two dinars' maa gilt ilia cham min^kalimdat " s 'I said only a-few words'' ' maa mish ilia hdadha X 'This is all thdre is' (lit. 'there-ish't"except this'1') > Below we look,at some other examples of 'co-ordinated negatives': i maa . . . waja. . > This construction is used ior negating two verbs with the same subject, and is like'the English'neither. . . nor': maa shiftah, wa la Hqqchdyiah 'I neither saw him,nor sp'pke to,him' ,t "-mislimtin maa yaakldun IdHam xanziirwa la yishrabuun xdmar 'Muslims neither eat pork nor drink alcohol' With 'pseudo-Verbs' hdst!fii!mish arid 9inU-: m aa fii dkil wa la maay 'here s neither food nor water' maa 9ind il-mudiir mdani9 wa la 9indi bdVad The boss has no objection and nor do I' The construction can also be used where maa negates the verb and ' a noun: maa y9drf il-girdaya wa la l-kitdaba 'He can't read or write' (lit: 'he doesn't know readirig. . .)
t

f*

'J<fote'also the useful .phrases 9dla gooldthum or'&/a goolat i/-(! gdayil which are equivalent to the English 'as th,ey say': _ , haayAays bawwdal,9ala g6olat"il-gdayii * < ' 'He's'a very uncouth man, as they say'; * * > (lit. 'This is a pissing he-goat,'as the'sayeV says')* * 1 ' i' " v s . * " In more educated speech, in which matters of more'thap irnmediate interest are discussed, phrasesyiinvoIving verbal .nouns borrowed from Literary Arabic may occur, e.g. if ltl wizdarat id-difda9. 'Ministry of Defence' 1 it-taxTHT '*'"r *Pla"rinirig' ( , it-tdrbiya wit,-tq9liim > t s ..d < upti on ', il-9_dmal Labour' it-taTwiir il-iqtiSdadi, etc. Economic Development'

Exercise 15.1 -V Translate the following sentences into -English,..and then change them "into, sentences which have the same meaning but in which you use a verbal noun. The parts of the sentences which can be replaced by a verbal noun are boxed. 1. maa wdafag 9dla 'an yisda9id\in-ndadi 2 mqmnuu9 \tiddxxin\fi ghurfat in-noom\3 illi sawwdoh\maa byifiidna dbadan 4 minhu simaH lich tidxaliin ? 5 mujdrrad ashduf\il-wijh mdqlah dz9al 6 M-mufdttish 'dmarAsh-" shurTi bi\an yiwdggif il-baaS 7 ylibii9 u yishrj shiqqdat, haay shughlah 8 kdssar il-jaam biduun\maa ydqSud 'Translate the following sentences intd Arabic;, using verbal nouns where possible:9 These books need to be* thrown away 10 *No car-parking here! 11 He doesn't know how to swim 12 What he said

200 UNIT 15t UNIT 15 201 la . . . la * This construction is usually used in negating nouns, pronounsand adjectives i f not usually* verbs): la 9ayb wa la Hardam 'Neither a disgrace nor a shame!* la inta wa la dna dgdar asdwwi hdddha' f. s 'Neither you nor I can do that' (Hi gumt bih la zayn wa la'shayn. 'What you undertook was neither good nor bad' ('numerous of wealth') qaliil'il-'ddab 'rude' ('little of manners'). Some of the adjectives formed in this way have meanings rather difficult to guess at from their component parts, e.g. Tawiil illisdan *impudenf ('long of tongue'), xafiif 'id-damm 'charming' ('light of blood')*, thagiil id-damm 'bdring, dull' ('heavy of blood'). These adjectives behave .in the same, way as,the adjectives we have met so far, agreeing with the nouns they describe in gender/ number. When annexed to a definite noun, the adjectival element of the compound becomes definite too: rayydal kathdr il-maal 'a rich man' ir-rayydal il-kathiir il-maal 'the rich man' The feminine form shows its 'hidden' f, hal-bint xafiifat id-damm 'This girl is charming' Plural forms may be either 'broken' (where they exist) or 'strong': hal-bandat il-xifdaf id-damm 'These charming girls' iskitu yaa qaliiliin il-'ddab\ 'Be quiet, you rude people!' 15.4 'SELF' In the sense of 'by my- his- its- etc. self, the Gulf expression fc bruuH + pronoun (ruuH means 'soul, spirit, self): sawwdyt hdadha bruuHi 'I did this by myself Saar il-ydahil yimshi brduHah 'The child has started to walk by himself il-makiina wdagfa brduHha, mdHHad waggdfha The machine stopped by itself, nobody stopped it'
Dr

Where statements are being strongly-contradicted, la . . . la may be used with verbs: rdaHaw l-mddrasa u ta9dllamaw l-kitdaba. la rdaHaw mukdan wa la ta9allamaw shayl 'They went to school and learnt to write.' 'They didn't go anywhere and they didn't learn anything!' Exercise 15.2 Translate into Arabic, using co-ordinated negatives: 1 He only heard a little of what was said 2 Neither the carlights nor the battery has been repaired 3 He gave us no encouragement and no help 4 You can't cook and you don't want to learn: I'm going to sack you! 5 You'll improve by frequent practice 6 I don't like bargaining, either in the market or with taxi-drivers 7 She couldn't eat or sleep because of her worries 8 They've got neither manners nor morals! 9 We haven't received or sent any letters this week 10 Neither you nor anyone else can help me in this 11 I looked, but couldn't find apples or oranges 12 He's a good man: he doesn't come to work late or leave early 15.3 COMPOUND ADJECTIVES One of the more colourful ways Arabic forms adjectives is through adjective + definite noun constructions, e.g. kathdr il-maal 'rich'

uuH is often idiomatically used to mean 'separately':

zard9t il-bdSal mlnni brduHah, wiT-TamdaT minni bruuHah I planted the onions and tomatoes separately: onions oyer here and tomatoes over here'

202 UNIT-35 In the* reflexive" sense* 'self is often ^not overtly, expressed, but is oarfcof the-meaning of certain tiCaCCaC verbs, e.'g. * iH-dariisha iibdnnad^t 'The'window closed'itselfVe.g. the^wihd blew it shut) il-q'iyldad^ tizabbaraw Hagg il-9iid "' 'The boys spruced themselves up for the'Eid' 'V ^ Ifowevef rduH + pronourris comriionly used as the reflexive object pronoun: i > * ** jdraH rduHah 9an qaSd tr % t ( 'He wounded himself deliberately' .* /rf//ar ruuHah min*foog is-sdTaH * ,i 'He threw himself.off the roof ni9dTliku ni9dTTil riiuHna 'We're stopping you working and ourselves'An alternative to ruuH in its reflexive sense is nafs, which is used in exactly the same way: yiDfiyyij ndfsah dkthar min maa yiDdyyijni 'He's annoying himself more than he's^annoying.me' However, nafs is also commonly used to riiean 'the (very) same. . .' e.g. nafs ish-shay 'the same-thing'. hdadhi nafs il-ghurfa~lti nizdltfiih gdbil iHdd9shar sdnal 'This is the same room I stayed in( eleven years agoj' mushkilti nafs /nushklltik 'My problem is the same as yours' % L At Exercise 15.3 Translate into Arabic: ' ' Exercise 15.5 Another Juha joke for .translation! juHa yiruuH id-ddxtar

UNIT 15 203 didn't- open,the window * itjopened by'itself 8 This is the exact same house the pld'wd'man<w'ent into9 The stolen' wallet is the same as this" one 10 You mustri'tgo to that area by yourselves'^ it's;very dangerous V <

Exercise 15.4

H*"

In the passage below, avGuIf'Arab describes* whafhe sees as the usefulness,of fasting - fay dot iS-Soom. During the mon^h of,Ramadan, Mu^slinis of all nations are not supposed to eat or drink from sun-up, to sun-down.. Translate the passage jnto English, You will see tha^ a large number of.verbal noilns occur: fry and'specify which' verbs they erJrne-frorri. * fdydat iS-Soom iS-Soom, fdydatah'dwwal shay wdllah min-jihat iljisim. . . il-jisim ya9ni mithil il-dala maal sayydara. idha fi kill sittat dshfaur aw kill sdna'maa twaddiiha Hagg ilxidma, ,Hagg it-tachyiik, Hagg it-tanDHlif Hagg it-ta9diil, Hatta lo tikuun sittiin, alf aw xamsiin alf, fi xildal sanatdyn thaldath,sanawdattiVdam<?aldykfftwis-sayydqra bil*-9aks alf djindar (dha fi kill sittat shuhiiur tichdyyikha* wil-mikaaniik yifHaS 9aldyha u yishuufha idha hi zdyna, SaalHa, maa tdtlif^vil-jisim shlkil is-sayydara ydbghi lih rdaHa wi taPdiil aHydanan. fil-wqqtil-HdaDir zdadat H-amrdaD. . .'laysh? min il-dki\ iz zdayid. . . .

1 Do it by yourself, I'm not going to help you! 2 They didn't want to travel by themselves 3 He won't help you; help yourselfl 4 She asked me the same Question - I gave Tier the sarrie answer 5 Your business is the same as mine 6 I didn't put the stuff, all injhe same place: I put the nails separately in a box and the hooks separately in a bag 7 I

yoom min il-ayydam, juHa raaH id-ddxtar. 9aTdah ddwafi ghdrsha. gaal lih id-ddxtar 'layn bitishrab hadddwa, xuDD il-ghdrsha.' il-Hiin juHa raaH il-bdyt u

UNIT 15 205 204 UNIT 15 shdrab'id-ddwa'biduun maa yixuDDah^yoom tidhdkkar maa gaal lih'id-ddxtar, ilia yiguul 'ohoo!' u gaam yitrdmmaz chidhii. gaaldo lih il-yiirdan 'waysh fiik juHa?' ilia yiguul 'nisdyt axuDDAl-ghdrsha gdbil la dshrab id-ddwa - hdadhana axuDDahfi bdTniY Proverbs and sayings xdshmak minnak wa lo kaan d9waj 'Your nose is part of you even if it's crooked' i.e. Your family is your family, however badly-behaved''members of it may be. t 'shdofat il-aHibbqa xayr min alfjulfius "'The sight of loved ones is worth more than a thousand social gatherings' (lit. '. . . better than a thousand sittings') illi faat maat 'What's past is dead'1 i.e. Let bygones be bygones VOCABULARY SUMMARY 'ddabl'aaddab 'manners' 'occasionally' aHydanqn 'dmarlyd'mur! 'to order 'amr sompone to v do something' axldaq(pl.) 'morals' 'to begin' bddda (v.n. tibdda*) 'piddun maa + 'without' verb bitri(yaat) 'battery' bruuH + pron. 'by . . . self 'hook' chilldabl chalaaliib ddafa9 (9an) 'to defend' damm 'blood'
1

Habiibl aHibbaa Hddagt yiHddig! l Haddag Holla (v.n. tiHlda*) Hdqqaq

'darling loved one' 'to fish' 'to decorate'

muruur*

\ > 'to smoke' ddxxan DdrablyiDrub 'to hit; to take (crops)'* Ddyyaj 'to irritate, annoy' faatlyifuutifoot 'to inspect' fdllat 'to fling, throw' farrlyifirrl 'to flee' fardara 'to undertake' gaam(bi)! yiguuml gooma gilla* 'lack, scarcity' hamml humtiumScares, worries 'to argue with Hdajaj (someone)'

'to confirm, verify^ .'prohibited' (by Hardam Islam) 'heat' Harr 'economy' iqtiSdad 'economic(al)' iqtiSdadi jdlsa*ljuluus- 'sitting; session, social gathering' 'from'the point min jihat + of view of.'. .' noun kdlima*(aat) 'word, utterance' 'to smash' kdssar 'abundance, kdthra* large amount' lisdanlalsina* 'tongue, language' 'to practise (a mdaras skill)' malllyimilll 'to get bored' mdlal 'prohibited* mamnuu9 'gait, style of mdshya* walking' 'rain' mdTarl amTdar 'nail' mismdarl masaamiir 'the mere. . .' mujdrrad + noun/verb

nafs +"noun/ pron,' qdSadlydqSudt 'to intend' qaSd'to bring, up, rdbba raise v (children,. > animals, etc.)' 'driver' sdayigl suwwdqg 'swimming' sibdaHa* 'race (sport)' 'sibdaq 'proper, valid, SdaliH in good order' SdamlyiSuuml 'to fastSoom 'to encourage shdjja9' (someone) to (9dla) do something' 'bad, evil* shayn 'taHdmmal(bi) 'to take care of, look after' (v.n. Hamdala) 'taxi' tdksiltakdasi taxdSSaS (fi) 'to specialise (in)' 'to co-operate' ta9dawan 'to be ta9djjab surprised, amazed' 'development taTwiir (economic, etc.)' 'to spoil, go tilaflydtlifi bad' tdlaf 'to jump up drdmmaz and down'

'traffic; traffic police' 'the sarhe. . .'

206 UNIT 15 'to 'dres.s, up smartly'" tuffdaH v 'apples' il-waqt il'the present HdaDir, .time' xaDDl'yixdDD! 'to shake xaDD, (something)' xdmar 'alcohol' xanziiri t 'Pig' sxqnaaziir' xdshim 'nose' xdTaflqxTdar 'danger' ,, XdTTqT 'to draw-hpes; make plans' xdwwaf 'to frighten' xayl(pl) 'Horses^ ' xayr(mih) 'better (than)' xldma*(aat) 'service' fi xildal 'in the space of (time)' tizdbbar zdra9yjzrq9! t ' zar9' zd99al\.^ 'to plant, sow' 'to annoy,upset' 'old woman' R E V I E W U N I T III

u,

9ajuuzl 9ajdayjzx 9dmalla9maal 'work, job, employment" 9dTTal it 'to put -out of action, make redundant, stop someone (from working)' 9ayb!9uyuiib 'shame, disgrace' 'to appoint 9dyyan(someone)' t ' i ^ 9idamlyd9dim! 'to be ruined, i9ddam spoilt'

** Exercise III.l

Read aloud.and translate the .telephone dialogue below: i ' ' . t'j Telephonist: alld! * Enqujrer: alld, 'SabdaH'ul-iayrl Tf SabdaH'in-nuur* . v>, *E:j haay shdrikat il-xaliij UT-TayardanF\(ay "f: nd9am~. ** E* mumkin aHdachi Umudiir il-9aam min p "'- fdDlich? dna ismi Johnson, ana [mudiir \, ** \wakdalat is-safariyydat '9dalam jadiid'\(b) t.1:,HdHDHaMl-xaTT mdalah mashghuui: . . (pause)". . . mit, dssifd, ya sdyyid Johnson, sikirdirtah tiguul innah muu mawjuud ilHiin. TdaU9 gdbil xams dagdayig dgudl. ,. . , E: \mitd byirja9j yd9ni! (c) ,f t: IdHDHa, ds'Jil sikirtlirtah,. . . tiguul maa tqdri. . ."> * E: dgdar dHuTTUh xdbar 9ihdaha! T: tafdDDal. " ' ' ,E:. abbiihatiguullih'ihnana n\wqafgiin fin 9alaj : binr_ \ sh-shurupT illi wadddaha 9aldyna nisba lit-9aqd\(dj T: hzayn,,ba9T(iha i-xdbar u hiya,bitxdabrah layn y(rja9.e E: mashkdur T;T il~9dfu.

ExerciseIII.-2 In the dialogue above there ate four boxed sections. In (a) the enquirer enquires whether he has been connected with

208 REVIEW UNIT III the organisation he wanted; in (b) he announces who he \s; in (c) he asks for further information; in (d) he leaves a message. In the following exercise, you have to substitute alternative sentences at points (a) to (d) using the words supplied. (a) Note that the structure of the phrase sharikat il-xaldj UT-Tayaraan (lit. 'company of the Gulf for aviation') is Noun + Noun + Preposition + Noim where the first two nouns are linked together in the kind of relationship we saw in 8.1, and.the preposition ^f Noun phrase which follows tfiis Noun + Noun phrase merely adds some further information - tharthe company is concerned with aviation rather.thah, say, exports. Make similar phrases from the words'below, substituting them in the sentence,haay? . .&? as in the dialogue; Noun shdrika Noun xallij Npun. nafT (oil) smiit (cement) binda (construction) taTwiir iqtiSdadi (economic development) mantuujdqt ziraa9iyyq (agricultural products) Noun Noun

REVIEW, UNIT III 209 JVoun taSdtir in-nafT (export of oil) taSdiir il-asmdak (export of, fish) _ taswiiq il-ldHam (marketing of meat) 'taSliiH is-sufun*(repair of ships) an9 il-aaldat iS-Sinaa9iyya (manufacture of industrial tools)

mu'dssasa

wdTqni

(b) In (b),*where the caller announces his identity; ana mudiir wakdalat is-safariy'ydat '9dalam "jddtid' The structure is Noun + Noun + Noun + Proper name

Make similar phrases frorn the words below, substituting them in the sentence beginning ana. . . . Noun mudiir wakdala Noun shdrika Noun smiit binda anbda 9dmal Proper name' '9dntar* 'ziydad' 'ay bii sW 'fayruuzf

Now try other substitutions:' mu'dssasa*'establishment, foundation' for shdrika,-and kdwdyts baHrdyn, etc. for xaliij. Another common structure for complex noun-phrases is exemplified by is-shdrika l-kuwaytiyya lil-binda where the l structure is Noun.+ Adjective + Preposition + Noun As in the previous example, the Preposition + Noun phrase defines the function of the Noun + Adjective phrase. Make phrases of this type using the words below, and fit them into the question haay* . . !

(c) mita byirja9! is a request for further information. Here are some others for translation into Arabic: 1 Where's he gone? 2 Has he any appointments this afternoon? 3 Is he free tomorrow? 4 Is he busy all day? 5 Can he meet me later? 6 Has he read my report? 7 Has he talked to my colleague? 8 Has he written to us yet? ^ Has he signed the contract or not? 10 Has he received' my letter? (d) In (d) the speaker leaves a message. Using the 'ntroduction abbdha tiguul lih innana. . . , leave the following messages: < .1 I

210 REVIEW UNITJII1 We've thought about his offer and will give our*answer next week 2 We"ve thought abdiit his offer but have rejected th^e conditions he.'s imposing on us 3 JVe db not agree to his offer in its present form 4 We do not agree to t^e changes-he's demanding 5 We've accepted his conditions and will reply officially in a few days

REVIEW UNIT* III 211 7agg<'beating',"meaning here a kind,pf hand-clapping.yidhibHuun dhibdaH'.thty slaughtered a>slaughtering', meaning an anim,al was, killed in celebration. This use of the verbal noun as the object of the verb from which it is derivecKs very'common. "Other examples', Taggdytdh Tagg' (T hitvhifti'a hitting') = 'I gave hirn a gopd beating' firHawJi daxir fdraH ('They were happy to the last happiness') = 'They were realiy happy' (See Unit 15.1). zuuliyya 'rug', prides wer^e traditionally wrapped in these before^being presentedto their husbands.

Exercise III.3' Here is a short account of marriage customs as they were pnly a few.yea'rs agd'in the Grilf, as told by*an old woman: Read^loud and translate, using the notes^below where necessary: iz-zawdaj 'il-qadiim abu l-wdlad yitqdddam"Hagg abu l-bint u yixTubha. idha yd9hitiwdafagdw,Hvadddynd hal-hdddaya mdalat il-' dwwal with-thiydab, u wadddyna 'lihum bayzdat u maldchna 9ind ish-shayx. Saar 9aad Idylat il-Jidnna.^ yiTabldun Tubuul, u yisawwuunTagg u aghdani, u yiHannuunhq, u ba9addyn yidhibHuun p\hibdaH u yiTabxuun. 96gub, yaaxdhuunha, il-9ardus ya9ni, u yiHuTTuunhafi zuuliyya, uyidizzuunha 9ala rdyilha. Notes: maal(at) il-dwwal 'belonging to the old times, old fashioned'., bayzdat 'money\ Thisword^ of Indian origin ('Pies') is u,sed throughout the Gulf-instead of the more international fluus. shayx refers hereto a<religious elder, not to the ruljng family. 9aad 'then, so*. This word is frequently untranslatable. It is used with imperatives to increase itheif force: is kit 9aad\ 'Do be quiet! hdnna 'henna'. Idylat il-hdnna was the night before the wedding when the bride's body was decorated with henna.

VOCABULARY SUMMARY alio bayzdat binda dhibaHf yldhbaHl dhibdaH Hdnna(n.) Hdnna(v) 'hello' (telephone) 'money' 'constructipn' 'to slaughter (animal)' rdyil (or rdjil)! 'man, husband' (alternative to rijdal rayydal! rayaayiil) safariyya* (aat) 'journey, travel' sdmak/asmdak 'fish' (more formal equivalent of simich) 'fnorning' SabdaH SabdaH il-xayr 'good morning' SabdaH in-nuur 'good morning' (reply) Sdna9lyiSna9l 'to manufacture' Sart9 'industrial' Sinda9i shdkillashkdal 'form, shape, type' sharT/shuruuT 'condition, stipulation' 'marketing' " 'taswtiq 'exporting' taSdtir 'to get, receive' tildgga

'henna' 'to paint with henna' 'if idha jawdablajwiba* 'answer, reply' ldHDHa*(aat) 'moment' 'to betrothe' mdlachl ydmlichtmllchd 'thanks; mashkuur grateful' mu'dssasa* (aat)'establishment' 'possible, mumkin maybe' n &ba'!anbda 'piece of news' qaadim 'next' r afaD!ydrfuD! 'to refuse, rafD reject'

212 REVIEW UNIT III, 'to proceed present oneself Tdbbal f. 'to drum' TdbU!Tubdul(n) 'drum' TaggiyiTigg! 'to beUt, hit Tagg wdqqa9* 'to" sign' xdTablyixTubt 'to betrbthe xuTba zamiillzumdlda 'colleague' zirda9i 'agricultural' zuuliyya*! -'rug' zawdaii tiqaddqm 9aad 9dalam aam(adj.) 9dfu 'so, then' 'world' 'generalreply to 'thanks': 'don't mention it!' 'con tract* 'offer, proposal' 'bride' UNIT 16

16.1 THE DERIVED, THEMES OF, THE,.VERB:,^CCaC, inCaCaC, iCtaCaC ANDJstaCCaC In this unit we complete our^surveyof the three-consonant Arabic verb. aCCaC verbs t j These verbs, which are relatively rare in spoken Gulf Arabic, form their past tdnse*'by the prefixing* of a-to the root consonants: * * root type. strong doubled weak hollow example d9lan aSdrr dlgha addar 'to announce' 'tojnsist' /t 'to cancel' 'to manage, run (e.g. a business)' {9-l-n) (S-r-r) (l-gh-w) (d-w-r)

9&qdl9uqdud 9arD!9uruuD 9ar'uus(i.)! 9ardayis

In the past tense, aCCaC verbs are conjugated like sintple strong, doubled, weak and hollow verbs, viz: ft 'I u9ldnt aSarrdyt alghdyt adirt 'I 'I 'I 'I announced' insisted' cancelled' managed' cfr shardbt. .shaggdyt ligdyt^ gilt 'I T 'I 'I drank' tore' found' said' i

In the imperfect,.they are conjugated with an i stem vowel, which is long in hollow verbs. Note that the 1st person prefix is u-, not a-. 69lin Cdghi udiir uSirr min djghi tidiir tiSirr tiWiniin tilghiin tidiirdn tiSirriin ymin <y(lghi yidlir i titghi t(9lin yiSirr tidiir nilghi tiSirr nidiir n(9lin li9 dlghuun niSlrr tidiirdun linuun yilghuun tiSirruun yidiiruun yiWinuun yiSirrtiun

*214 UNfT 16 Imperatives are formed in the normal way: (9linljlu\ Sirrliiu! ilghi(m .11 )lu\ diirlilul The present-and pa^siye^participjes are formed Recording to the same principles- described for the other derived tliernes (see Unit 14X' except that'-the prefix^ in aCCaC 'participles is usually nutrajhe'r than mi\. Thus,one-finds .; mu9lihi 'announcing,'an announcer' mu9lan "'announced", something announced' mulghi 'cancelling,,someone/something which cancels' mulgha, 'cancelled', etc. . . -i * m " Many common noilns are, in fact participles of this-kind, e.g..mudiir 'manager' is derived from addar 'to manage, run'. The* verbal noun of aCCaC verbs is formed according to the pattern iCCaaC: i9ldqn "announcement' iSrdar 'insistence' ilghda 'cancellation'. Hollow verVs add a final -a: iddara 'management, administration'. Some examples of aCCat verbs in use: ' ii-Hukuuma d91andt innaha tiSirr 9ala daf9 il-mdblagh ilmaTluub il-Hukuuma dVlanat iSrdarhq,9ala daf9 il-mdblagh U-maTluub 'The "government has announced that it is insisting on the ,: payment of the sum demanded.* minhu l-mas'uul 9an il-idddrafi dhiich ish-shdrika! 'Who'is responsible for'administration'in that cbmpany?' Tdrrashaw Una i9ldan ilghda kill il-9uquud il-mitwdafag 9aldyha 'They sent" us an announcement of the" cancellation "of all the contracts agreed on.' inCaCaC verbs inCaCaC verbs are very commonly used arid may be freely formed from* simple' transitive verbs by the prefixing of in-. This prefix passivises the meaning of the*simple verb: root type strong example in9draf 'to be-known, knowable' i (9draf 'to know') , doubled weak hollow ihHdll ingdra tpshdal 'to-ibe solved, solvable' s. 'to be read, legible' 'to be removed, removable'

UNIT 16 215 (Hall 'to solve') (gdra 'to read') (shaal 'tp remove')'

The past tense of these verbs is conjugated according to the patterns for simple strong,doubled,' etc. verbs (in9ar&ft 'I was known', in9irfat 'shes-was known' (cf/ 9ardft/ll knew', 9irfat. 'she knew'), inshilt/l was^taken awajC inshdalaw 'they we're taken away' (cf. shilt 'I took away', shdaldw*'they took-away')). Imperfects are J formed as below: * ' an9irif tin9lrif tin9irfiin yin9irif' etc.-' anHdlj iinkdll tinHalliin yinHdll etc. angdra tingdra dngariin yi'pgdra. etc. anshdal tinshdal t tinshaalih yinshdal etc.

It can be seen frorn this that, except for the strong verb,, the sterp vowelling in the imperfect is the same as in the past. In the strong verb, it is usually id in the,imperfect (though some Gulf dialects f J have i-a or "a,td). The imperative is rarely used in, inCaCaCf verbs, for ohvious reasons. Where it occurs, it follows the normal pattern, e.g. the v etb inchdbb 'to go'away, leave (vulgar)' which is the passive of chabb 'to knock over, spill' is inchdbb!i/u\ 'Go away!' Participial forms of inCaCaC are'rare. It is' normal to use the Passive participle of the simple verb rather than that of the inCaCaC Ve rb e.g. mafrduf 'known' (not min9draf), maHluul 'solved' (not minHdll), mashyuul 'removed' (not minshdal). The verbal noun of inCaCaC verbs is of the pattern inCiCaac, though this is relatively rare*in*eyery-day speech, being restricted to words and phrases, borrowed from Literary Arabic, e.g. insiHdab il-jaysh 'the withdrawal of the army* inqildab il-hukuuma the overthrow of the government'. The verbal noun of the simple Ve rb is routinely used instead of inCiCaaC, thus:, shayaldan ila *>sdax 'the removing/removal of the rubbish' (not inshiydal. . .),

If

2\6 UNIT," 16 Hall il-mushkila 'the solving of/solution to the. problem' (not inHildal. . .). Some examples of the use of inCaCaC verbs: > t

UNIT 16 217 yiHtdaj yishtdki yishtdghil 's yihtdmm etc. etc. etc. etc. The imperfect stem vowel pattern is thus a-i in strong and weak roots, while doubled^nd hollow roots behave like inCaCaC verbs, retaining a or aa: compare yihtdmmlyinHdll, yiHtdajtyinshdql. Imperatives: ishtdghil/ilul 'Work!' ^ ishtdklilu! 'Complain!' ihtdmm!J.lu\ 'Be interested!' iHtdajli!u\ 'Need!' Note the lack of a final vowel in the masculine imperative of weak verbs which we also noted for alLother derived themes (see Unit 14). Participles: present: , mishtdghil passive: mishtdghal mihtdmm mihtdmm mishtdkimishtdka miHtdqj miHtdaj

il-xaTT mdalah maa yingdra 'His hand-writing \s illegible' K dhayldyn yin9irif dSilfyum bi mpjdrrad lahjdthum 'Their origin is obyious simply fr^qrn their accent* , (lit. 'Them js-knpwn their origin by.merely their accent') haqy mtishkila maa bftinHdll bi suhuula * 'This is a problem which will not be solved easily' maa tinghilib intal % 'You can't be bested, you!' (said of someone wily 'or skilful, e.g. in haggling) inDammdytfin'-ndadigdbil sitt siniin 'I joined the club six years ago' , \* iCtaCdC verbs
f

'

Verbal noun on the pattern iCtiCaaC: iHtiydaj ishtighdal ihtimdam ishtikha Again, the verbal noun of the corresponding simple verb is often used instead of iCtiCaaC, e.g. shughl''v/ork' shdkwa 'complaint' Hdaja 'need'. There are a few special cases of iCtaCaC verbs - those which have w , y or ' initial root consonant. Tne initial root consonant in these yerbs is assimilated to the -t- infix, thus ittdjah 'to go, dirept oneself instead of iwtdjah (root w-j-fi), ittdxadh 'take for oneself instead f i'tdxadh (root' -x-dh). Another small group pf verbs, those which have an 'emphatic' consonant (S, T, D, DH) in G position, cause the alteration of Jhe mfix -t- to -T-. Thus one finds iDTdrr 'to be forced, obliged' (root D-r-r) instead of iDtdrr In all other ways, these two special groups 01 iCtaCaC verbs behavfe normally: Examples of the use of iCtaCaC verbs: "" shinhu shughlik! ~ ashtdghil drdywil fi shdrikat taSdiir in-nafT.

These occur vejy commonly in,Gulf/Arabic. Qenqrally speaking, they are intransitive or passive in meaning (like tiCaCCaC verbs). root type strong doubled }veak hollow ishtdghal ihtdmm ishtdka iHtdaj' 'to work' ' 'to be interested; concerned (in something)' 'to complain' 'to need' (shrgh-V) fh-m-m) (sh-k-w) (H-w-j)

t ! 'i

" 1

Past tenses are formed,as per the usual pattern, e.g. ishtaghdlt, ishtdghalat 'I/she worked'; ihtammdyti, ihtdmmaw 'You(f.)/they were interested'; ishtakdytaw, ishtdkaw 'You(pI.)/they complained'; iHtijt, iHtdajat 'I/she needed'. Forms on the pattern iHiaajdyt 'I needed' -are also heard, but these are considered' very colloquial. Imperative patterns are detailed below: ashtdghil tishidghil tishtaghliin ahtdmm tihtdmm tihtammiin ashtdki tishtdki , tishtakiin aHtdaj, tiHtdaj* tiHtaajiin

1 I <l. iJ 1! il 1 lik

w 218 UNIT 16 - 'What's your job?' - 'Iwork as a driver for the Oil-exporting Company.' maa 9indi ihtimdam bi hal-dshya 'I've no-interest in these things' ir-rayydal illiHh'a miHtaajiin lih muu'mawjuud 'The man we need isn't here' hdadhi hiya l-mishtdka^ 9aldyhd 'This is the woman who's been complained about' xudh iT-Tartig il-mittijih min il-jinuub ila\sh-shimdal 'Take the road'which leads from south to north' iDTa'rrdyt dqbal muqtaraHdatah 'I was obliged to accept his suggestions' istaCCaC verbs These verbs, in which ah ista- prefix is added to the rdot consonants are of frequent occurrence in Gulf Arabic. Examples: root type strong doubled weak hollow ista9mdlt/istd9malat istaHaqqdyrf istaHdqqat 'istaghndytlistdghnat istafddt!istafdadat 'I/she used' 'I/she deserved' 'I/she did without' 'I/she benefited' t astafiid tistafiid tistafiidiin yistafiid etc. (9-m-l) (H-q-q) (gh-n-y) (f-y-d) passive: Imperatives: mistd9mal mistaHdqq mistdghna 'Use!! 'Deserve!' 'Do without!' 'Benefit!' * istd9miliilu\ istaHtqqliluV istdghni(m. and f.)/! istafiid/ilu\ 'UNOM6 219 mistafdad

The verbal noun is of the form istiCCaaC (istiCaaCa for hollow verbs, cf. the final -a of the verbal noun of hollow aCCaC verbs): isti9mdal istiHqdaq istighnda istifdada

Some" examples bf use: kinna na9Tiihum bayzdat yistafiidiiun minha 'We used to give them mpney wfiich they found useful' fii dshya niHtdaj liha maa nigdar nistdghni 9dnha 'There arekthings we-need which we can't do without' Exercise 16.1 Look at the two examples below, in which active verbs are passivised in different ways: through the use of the ti- prefix if they are CaCCaC verbs, and through the use of the-ihprefix if they are simple CvCaG verbs: i igfalli'maktuub 9dla hal-wdraga\ -* - i//i maktuub maa yingdra\ 'Read what's written on this^paper!' - 'What's written is illegible!* baTTdlt id-dariisha% -* - la, had-dariisha maa yitbdTTal1. 'Have you opened the window?* - 'No, this window can't be opened!' Make similar replies to the commands and questions in the exercise below, choosing the correct passive form. Translate the seritences. 1 t kisdrt il-glaasdat, muu,chidhii! -+ la '. ' 2 rakkdbt it-tayrdat il-jadiida! - la> :

An alternative to istafddt is istafaaddyt. Imperfect forms: astdVmib astaHiq'q tistd9mil tistaHiqq tista9mil(in tistaHiqqiin yistd9mil yistaHiqq etc. etc. astdghni tistdghhi tistaghniin yistdghni etc.

Note that the strong and weak root types form their imperfects in exactly the same way as iCtaCaC verbs, viz. with an a-i stem vowel pattern. The doubled and hollow verbs behave in the same way as aCCaC verbs - they have an i or ii stem yowel. Participial forms: present: mistd9mil mistaHiqq mistdghni mistafiid

220 UNIT 16 3 shiil dhiich il-Hijaardatl A' wadddyt it-taqriirfihal-bughshds muuxchidhti! -> la, H 5 xdfDu as9darkum shway, arjuukuml -r> la, j....... v ... 6 shrd'yik fil-dkil V-ingliiz$ -"* *." 7 bdndi l-baab minfdDlichl " 8 haay maay shurb, rnuu chidhii! - la ,....> . 9 giddrt tismd9hum min ba9tid1 - la, j;... 10 ghqyyaraw 9aaddathum 9dla mda*a z-zamdan, muuchidhii! -+ la, , 4 i//i iqtdraH muu ma9guul fi rd'yi dna

UNIT 16 221

5 laazim tichdyyik il-makiina gdbil la tirdfckib il-blqagdat Now translate the sentences into.English. Exercise 16.3 In the example below; direct,speech has been put into its reported form": 'ta9qlldmt il-Hisdab min kint fH-mgdrasa' , - gdalat 'innaha tq9dlldmat if-Hisdab'minjzdanat fiimddrasa 'I learnt arithmetic when I was at school' -> She said that she learnt afithmeticwhen she was at school Put the following statements into reported form, and translate them:
A

Exercise 16,2 In the example below, a verb phrase (underlined) has been replaced by an equivalent expression which uses a verbal noun: dardyt bi'dnnahum ihtdmmaw bil-lughdat ' > dardyt bihtimdamhum bil-lughdat 'I knew that they were interested in* languages'* -* 'I knew about their interest in languages' In the sentences below, transform^the verb.phrases underlined into verbal nouns, making any other changes in the sentences which may be necessary: 1 aSdrr 9dla 'an yiqdabil il-waziir shaxSiyyan
l6

1 'istafddt wdayid min had-doora* ~* gaal v ... 2 'iHtijna ila musd'a9ada dzyad Idakin maa HaSSalndaha' - gdalaw 3 'maa dgdar astdghni 9an hdadha l-kitdab' ~- gdalat i.<> ; a 4 'yoom iHna Sghdar, ihtamnidyna* wdayid bi jam9 iT-Tawdabi9* * ~ gdalaw , j >..i 5 'tdmmdyt a9(ish hash-shdkiLTuul Haydati* ~* gaal -2 CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

2 yiHlbb yilqi 1-muHaaDrdat bil-lugha l-9arabiyya * '. 3 maa simHaw Id astd9mil il-aaldat maaldthum' ] 'Il 1

Possible' conditions
Qf

Possible'* conditions are those where there is some real possibility the stated condition being met, either in the present or future.

222 UNif' 16 The conditional clause may be introduced'by'any-<5f the particles idha, lo,- in chaan, or ila ('if'), and the.verbs in*both the conditional and resultative clauses are' put>.in the appropriate tense: 'idha ydbbi iyii wiyydana, guul lih yixdabirni mm gdbil 'if he wants to come withAis,'tell-him tb infdrm me beforehand' in chaaft'yihadchiini bil-ldgha i-tngliiziyya, mda dfham '^ tsh~yiguur tJ ^ 'If he speaks to me in English,-I don't understand -what*he' says' ila yooSit gdbil is-sda9a s(tta) ^aruuH dlaaglih fil-maTdar 'If he arrives before six o'clock,,I'll go and meet .him at the, * a i r P r t ' *' N . n . * , v T lo mTdrsha 1-xaTT, la tiguul hhdl-xdbdr 'If she has sent the letter, don't tell her the pews' , ila timtini9 min it-tadxiin shway, bitshuuf Sihhatik4itHdssah, Tf you give up" smoking for a bit, you'll *se"e your health will. improve 'Hypothetical' conditions What is meant here is the kind of condition in English sentences of the type 'If I were in~yoiirlposition (but'Vm not), I'd. . .', i.e. conditions' which could be fulfilled, but are unlikely to be.,In the Arabic equivalent o( seritences',of this type, past-tense verbs are used in both the conditional and resultative clauses*: lo shdafat maa sawwdyti zi9lat 'If she savy whatjou've done, she'd-be angr,y' idhq 9indi xdmsat, aaldaf dooldar, ishtardyt sayyddra jadiida 'If I had 5,000 dollars, I'd buy a new car' in chaan Haachdani bi hdl-ldhja, Taggdytah Tagg 'If he spoke to'me in'that tone,of voice, I'd give him a beating' 'Hypothetical' conditions in the past We are dealing here with the Arabic equivalent" of the English 'tf I had seen him, I would have. . .', that is, conditions which it is truly impossible to fulfil because they refer to a former state of affairs. In Gulf Arabic, past tenses are again used, but the particle chaan is inserted before the resultative clause: lo kdanat 9(ndi 1-furSa, chaan. . . If I'd had the chance, I'd've. . .

UNIT 16 223 idha yiit fU-\vdqt)l-min'dasib, chaan shift shay yi9ijbik 'If you'd come at the appropriate time, you'd'have seen something which-would've*pl eased you' (Note in ..this example thaRbnly the* main verb of ,the resultatiVet clause is in the past tertse, while the ve^b in the relative clause stays in the imperfect.) ^ to kdanat 9nHi'fikrd*bi hdl-mawDuu9, chaan gilt Uch 'If I'd hd'ah"fdea,about that topic, I'd have told you (f.)' f in chaan ishtdkaw 9dldyhi9ih'd'ish-shurT'a, chaarrdibDaw 9aldyh ., ( y T( 'If they'd complained abotit'him to',the police, they'd*hayes ; arrested him' ila giddrt doSil gdblik, chaan HaDDdrt lu\ Hdflq 'If I'd been able to arrive before you, I'dVave prepared a party r for you' ' Unless' . f t - ; The Arabic equivalent is,/7/a idhq ('except if): batimm ashtdghil ilia idha tifanmshni 'I'll carry on working unless you sack me' 'Even if The phrase Hdtta lo is used: Hdtta lo tifannishni, batimm ashtdghil, 'Even if you sack me, I'll carry^ on working' Exercise 16.4
1

'

Translate into''Arabic the 'resultative clause in the following copditibnal sentences: visited Cairo learnt to drive worked as a teacher bought a restaurant got married at 20 learnt tb swim

224 -UNIT 16 would you tell him, the truth? lend him what he ^sked.for? teach him to read / Arabic?: introduce him to the boss? give him a job? help him in his ^ studies? -

UNIT 16 225 yi9ijbich il~md9hqd ihn\! wdllah kint dbbi aruuH il-jdami9a ddris Huquuq. . . laysh^ maa riHti! kdanat iDH-DHuruuf ,Sd9ba shwdyya dwwal. . . iDTarrdyt ashtdghil, u ishtaghdltfi mustdshfa lirsaqliyya l-amriik(yyq.,. . ishtaghdlt wdllah sanatdyn> bas. . . - ishtaghdlti shinhu! - kdatiba . . . ishtaghdlt ihndak sanatdyn^ u maadri kaan ii-taym iS-SubH u bd9ad iDH-DHuhur, fa gdalat ummi yd9ni zdHma tyii iS-SubH u>bd9ad iDHDHuhur, fa addwwir Hi shdghla thdanya. bas hi aSdrrat 9dla 'an ddxal il-md9had Hdtta.aSiir muddrrisa. , i Notes: ifsaaliyya 'mission* is derived from the verbal noun irsdal of'the aCCaC verb arsal 'to send* taym (English 'time') means 'office hours' Proverbs'and sayings * '*

idha yaak il-Hiin. . .* If he came td'you now. .

Translate into Arabic the conditional clause in these sentences': If you ask him for it. . . inform him now. . . use it correctly. . . accept his conditions. ' send him the money. give up smoking. . .

ya9Tiik iyydah he'll give it to you

Exercise 16.5 Translate the two short conversations below, in which two young women describe their jobs: * - kind tishtaghliin dwwal fil-maTdar! - ay. Saar li ya9ni sdna kdamla fil-maTdar . . . ufil-bank sdna u cham min shdhar. 9aad kint dwwal ashtdghil maashdn obrdydr u ba9addyn taghayydrt Hagg ilkambytiutar, u bd9ad il-kambyuutar Hagg il-kawnts* tdHat. . . yd9ni Hagg dhayldyn illi yifatHuun Hisaabdat u~//i yidaxluun chaykdatfiHsaabdathum . . . hal-loon, hdadhi shughlati dna. Notes: Technical English words like 'computer', 'machine operator', 'accounts' are,freely borrowed"into everyday Gulf speech.

H-qirdft9ayn ummah ghazfial 'The monkey is a gazelle in the eye of his mother' i.e. Beauty is in*the eye of the beholder wild it-chalb chalb mithlah 'The son of* a dog is a dog5 like him' le - Like father like sQn H-fluus tyiib il-9aruTts' 'Money brings the bride' 'e. Money talks

VOCABULARY SUMMARY addar


al 6[

'

8ha qa muHdaDra*

'to run, manage' 'to cancel' 'to give (a lecture)'

arjuu + pron. aSdrr dSilluSuul d9lan

'I ask" beg. . 'to insist' 'origin, principle' 'to announce

1 1 Illi'11 t i IJl 1 I It I c I I 11 llllill ,n| [IIQ1] j j j j J I , IIV 11 I 1 1\ I ' ![ 1 { I II i, R \ "\f |" 1 ' I IL 1 1 i J' |J1 "' IL i l ' 11 t || -' 1 | J, I !'f i n j i[ | ' J .j] .(j n i I 11 j j| ]l I 1 ill 1 , 1| 11 ,, :1 I I1 i n II 1 '''1 jr. 1 | l 1 ll 1 i i| , | ! 1 1 ( 1 | j E l 1| f " Si 1 ijlti ,,'] I i if I L

'226 UNIT 16 'dog' 'to look for' *study'(v.n.) 'Dollar' t "' 'bourse' (e'.g: of training)* a 'then, so' f furSa*(aat) 'opportunity' ghazdal 'gazelle' Mdaja*(aat) 'need' fHdDDar *'to make" ready' '(something) HaqqIHuquuq 'right, law' Hayrfa* W , Hijdara*(aai) 'stone' ii( 'to be'obliged, , Dra ' "' forced' ihtdmm 'to be interested in (biy 'to need ((la)' <<V \mtdna9 "to abstain from (min)" inchdbb 'to go away (vulg.)' inDdmm 'to join, be joined to {(la)[ iqtdraH 'to suggest' trsaaUyya* 'mission* ton/Aw/ 'to benefit from (mm)' istdghna 'to do without (9an)> istaHdqq 'to deserve' istaqdam 'to live on (9dla)' (e.g. a type of food) chalblchildab ddwwar dirdasa* (aat) dooldar(aat) ddora'(aat) 'to* use' 'to complain' 'Vo buy' * 'to direct oneself ittdxddk 'to take for oneself jima9ly(jma9l 'to collect' jam9 jinuub "'south' Jcaldam 'speech, talk' mdda in 9dla 4 'with the mdda zpassage of zamdan time' 'machine, rmqktinaTI makdayin engine' 'reasonable' Jma9guul -md9had! 'institute, ' ma9dahid college* mindasib 'appropriate, convenient' mhia9lyimna9i 'to "prevent' man9 t 'muqtdraH(aat) 'suggestion' qdbddlylqbaD! -to arrest, gd qabD" hold of 'monkey' qirdlquruud siydaqa* * 'driving* SiHHa* 'health' -" complaint' shdkwal shakdawi shimdal 'north' 'northern; left shimdali (side)' taym 'office, shift hours' tiHdssan 'to improve' wdjablydjibl 'to be wujdub incumbent' istd9m'dl ish'tdkd" ishtdra ittdjah kamda ydjib zdHma* 9aashlyi9iishl 9aysh, ii I? V 1 } < f "' * * /\ I' f * s ... 1 1
!

UNIT 16 227 'as it must be' Jchaos, bother, trouble' 'to live' 9drraf 'to acquaint' someone with (9dla) someone, ; introduce someone > t to 'someone' 9ayn(i.)!9uyuun 'eye' } "

1 * " * s i 1 'U / * !.

'

t /

L i i l l

UNIT 17 229 U N I T 4 7 17.1 QUADRIL1TERAL VERBS


A

produced by the action rather than the action 'itself, verbal-noun plurals are possible, usually on the pattern CaCaaCiG>or CaCaa-" CiiC: tardajim^ "translations' xaraabiiT "botch-ups'- fanaadus, 'clumps, large,handfuls'.> * As in the ordinary CaCCaG vefb; *hollow and' weak verb stems occur. Hollow verbs have iv'or y as" second consonant, e.g. sdyTar 'tq control, dominate', soolaf 'to chaf .(note that, in this last example, oo is written instead of aw since oo reflects .more nearly the usual pronunciation). An example of a weak quadriliteral is gdhwa 'to give someone coffee', as in: gahwdona u 9aT6ona gaddu9 zayn They.gave us coffee and a^ nice-morning snack' yaa 9dli, xudh haadhooldak u gahwiihum\_ ' 'Ali, take, those people and give them coffee!'

'Cjuadriliteral' means quite simply 'having four (as opposed to three) root consonants', and with these ve'rbs we bring to a close our study of the. Arabic verb system. Quadriliteral verbs are of the CaCCaC pattern, but are different from the CaCCaC verbs we studied in Unit 14 by virtue of the fact the middle two consonants are not identical. Typical 'strong' quadriliterals are tdrjam 'to translate', xdrbaT 'to mix up, disarrange', ghdrbal 'to*confuse (someone)', fdndas 'to grab a" handful of (something)'. From the point of yiew of the patterning of vowels and consonants, these verbs are exactly the same - CaCCaC - as verbs like rdkkab 'to fix', chdyyak 'to check' in which there is a doubled.consonant in the middle of the verb. Quadriliterals in fact behave exactly like rdkkab, chdyyak, etc. in all respects: Past tense tarjdmt tarjdmt tarjdmti etc. 'I translated' 'You translated' *You(f.) translated' Imperfict atdrjim titdrjim titarjimtin 'I translate' 'You translate 'You(f.)' translate'

'

One other kind of quadriliteral verb is the so-called reduplicative; in which the two syllables In the CaCCaC pattern are the same*/ e.g. gdSgaS 'to chop up'into bits','gdmgdm 'to^nibbTe'. All of these verbs are conjugated in, tlje sam$ way as their equivalent 'ordinary' CaCCaC verbs. Quadriliterals may be passivised or reflexivised by the prefixing of ti-, as for othef'CaCCaC verbs: xdrbaT 'to rnix up', Uxdrb'aT 'to get mixed up',, gdhwat^to give someone coffee', tigdhwa 'to take coffee (oneself)'. Some simple sentences illustrating (quadriliterals in use are given below: tdrjamaw il-mqqdal min 9drab{ ila ingliizi K 'They translated the article^from Arabic into English' tarjdmtah muhiib SaHiiHa 'His translation^isincorrect' (or'The translation df it is incorrect') gharbdlna ghirbdal ams 'He really got on our nerves yesterday' iatixalliihyisht4ghil bruuHahfil-wdrsha- akiid byitxdrbaT 'Don't let him work on his own in the workshop - he'll really get himself into a mess' mtgdhwa kill yoom bd9ad maa yindhi sh-shdghul We' have coffee every day after work is over'

etc. Imperatives and participles are also foYmed as for 'ordinary' CaCCaC verbs, e.g. tdrjimlilu! mutdrjim 'Translate t' 'translator' mutdrjam 'translated'

Compare these forms with those from the 'ordinary' CaCCaC verb wdllad 'to generate' muwdllid 'generator' muwdllad 'generated' Verbal noun patterns, however, are a little more varied in the quadriliteral verb than in ordinary CaCCaC verbs. They are usually of the type CaCCvCa, e.g. tdrjama 'translation', xdrbuTa 'mixup, confusion', but other types occur, e.g. ghirbdal 'confusion', finduus 'grabbing'. Where the verbal noun denotes the object

w 230 UNIT IT '' f ... ' * tammdyna nisoolif ila nuSSJl-layl > -Jv'e'carriecr-ori'chattrhg'tintil'midnight'5 "'" *' < * * j giTd9tah li mudd'at drbd9 sin(inau istdwat'PindtHdrHasha "T gav6 it up (smoking) for four years,-and I g6t a hoarse cough' (from HfirHashMo cough hoarsely'),, iJ 4ia9TtihHil-Hayaawiin yig&mgimuunfiih""J*' p * !We gve ifr\hay^to(the animals forthern to nibble, oh'' ial-ldHam maa yitgdSgaS . "* '!i\ J t iTnis meat'cah't be chopped into' smalt "pieces' v UNIT 17' 23T* Exercise 17.2' ^ y "V!

took at the sentence below:

} ,. - ' * idha,tisoolifw'iyydahyistdanis IMnnah yiHibb issa\vdalif 'If you chat with him he'll jbe happy because M e " likes , chatting^ (sawdalif is .$e plural of the verbal noun-sdalfa t frqm*.s#b7a/i\to phiaf ) 'Substitute in this sentence appropriate verbs and verbal nouns using the following* cues: 4 t

/ Exercise*17.1 '* % . *^>


s.

Model,, Arabic, sentences are given below. A^? 1 each, cue words are given which are-tp, be (substituted in the,, j-apprppriatetplaces in the.^sentence," and* which require, other * "changes;tp,>be.iniade.rLgok, at, the example: -, .atgdhwa kilt yoom'gdbil la aruuH ish-shufehul 'I have coffee every day before I go'tcrfyprk' cue: you(m.)_ ' *' -. J "' titgdhwa.kiUypom gdbil la truuH'ish'-shughul *4 she 2" we* 3 'All 4 they 5 you(pl.) 6 the.labourers^the f boss* 8 my'mother idha tixalliihyisdwwi hdadha bruuHah, byitghdrbal 'If you let him do this1 by himself, he'll get confused' 9 them~ 10 her 11 faaTma 12 thedriver43' your secretary(f) 14 .the mechanic 15 these children 16 us Hdtta lo 9aTdani qaamuus, chaan maa giddrt atdrjim hal-maqdal J 'Even-if he had given me a dictionary, I wouldn't have been- able to translate this article'' * * 17 you(f.) 18 us 19 the students 20 you(pI.)_21 the girl 22 my colleague 23 the clerk"24 you(m.)

i play - playing 5 Stalk -lalk'ifig," * ' 2 joke - joking (ndkkat 'to 6 gamble -* gambling joke') * * * * \qqamar "to gamble') 3 stroll - strolling *v * 7 sing - singing 4 fish - fishing 17.2 'Tp WISH/WANT-AND''TO PREFER' We have seen tnatthe verb Bdgha/to want' can $e*used to translate the'English*'I ..want"W*. *' as well as Twant you/him/her, .etc. to. . .' There a/e a number of other ways of expressing wishes and i wants: v "* ' * ' Habb + virb This construction is similar to the one-involving 6dgfta -K.verb:" aHibb aruuH is-siinamaA - x ^ _ 'I like going to the cinema' or 'I would lik^e to go to the cinema' With object pronoun: t aHibbik truuH is-siinamd 'I would like you to go to the cinema' 9djab + pronoun + verb Here, the verb 9djab 'to please' is used as an impersonal verb to form phrases meaningjiterally 'It pleases me/you/him, etc. to. . .'

232 UNIT J 7 yi9jibni ar&uH is-siinama 'I like going to the cinetria' or 'I would like. . .' yi9jibni trduH is-stinama 'I would like you to go to the cinema' widd + possessive adj. + verb In this third type'ofconstruction, widd, which is a noun meaning 'wish,'desire' has a*possessive adjective suffixed tb it: 'my/your/his, etc. desire (is). .*.,' widdi aruuH is-siinama 'I would like to go, to the cinema' widdik aruuH is-siinama! A 'Would you*like me to. . . ?' (lit. 'Is it your wish I go. . ., ?*) The construction involving widd is always interpreted as a' specific statement of desire rather than a general statement of like - it means'I/you, etc. would like to. . .'rather than'I/you, etc. like. . .* in contrast to the constructions involving Habb She! <9djdb which can mean either, depending on context. Preference^can be conveyed by any of these expressions when used with dHsan 'better* l or dkthar 'more': \ j aHibb artiuH is-siinama dHsan min il-mubdara 'I'd rather go to the cinema than the match' mad tiHtbbah yiruuH is-siinama dHsan min il-mubdara! 'Wouldn't you rather he went to the cinema than to the match?' widdik ysaafruun dHsan min yitimmuun fil-bayt! 'Would you prefer them to travel than to stay at home?' yi9jlbni dfbax dkthar min andDHDHif il-bayt T prefer cooking to cleaning the house' Another way of expressing preference involves the use of the verb fdDDal. . . min: afdDDil dTbax min 'an andDHDHif il-bayt T prefer cooking to cleaning the house' or afdDDil iT-Tabx min tanDHlif il-bayt ' .

UNIT 17 233 It is also possible to use this construction with>6bject pronouns:' nifdDDllkum tyiibdun janaTdatkum ihni min tixalluunha filfiinduq 'We prefer you-to bring your bags here than4eave them in the hotel' * * '! * Exercise 17.3 '

Taking the sentence dna widdi aruuH il-jdami9a u ddris Huqduq 'I'd like to go to university and study law' substitute the cue words below into the sentence making any necessary changes. This is a 'progressive" substitution' drill: use the sentence which results from the first substitution as the input to the second, and so on, so prpgressively changing the sentence. Be careful,- in this exercise the cue words are sometimes nouns, sometimes verbs, sometimes'pronouns! I hiya 2 hum 3 iHnaA Habb 5 huwa 6 hdndisa 7 riyaaDiydat 8 U-lugha l-9arabiyya 9 9djab 10 into. The next case involves a dialogue: - y'Mjbik tishtdghilfil-9irdaq! - la, maa yi9jibni. afdDDil ashtdghil fil-kuwdyt. - 'Would you like to work in Iraq?' - 'No, I wouldn't. I'd rather w.ork in IjCuwait.' Make appropriate substitutibns^nd changes in this dialogue: J II he 12 you(pl.) 13 they 14 she 15 your father Now, for 'work in Iraq - work in Kuwait' substitute: 16 work as a driver - work as a messenger 17 visit the Emirates - stay at home 18 eat in a restaurant - do without food 19 get up early - get up late 20 learn to ride a bike learn to drive a car

i:

234

UNIT'I?

*UNIT17 "235 ,( K Substitute and change as necessary: "*


l

I7.3*VERBS>ITH ROUBLE OBJEGTS


(The

English sentences 'ti gave me if/ You showed it-him' contain two-object pronouns: 'me' and 'it' in the first case, 'it' and 'him' in the second. In tjoth"sentences 'if js' the direct<object pf the verb it refers ^o the thing which undergoes the action of the verb.. The pronounS'me' arid**himl.in ttiese sentences, on the other hand, are the so-called 'indirect or4Jects'vLe. the beneficiaries of the'action.In ! Ar.abic there are6 a number of verbs which can have both direct and {indirect objects. The pommqnest of the'se, which we have already *met, is 9dTa 'to give'. Study the examples below;/' * '*
l "9dTni iyydahal t ""' ''Give it to meV *9aT6och,jyydap}im j.-* ''Theyigave them,tp you(f.)'

, * j> fa

'* *
f

1 Is this the^book ...,...:..v4...'. i ..'.". *.. 2 .......*...i( :}:....they ...>...'...,... v.;..t '3 '.tape f ...*j'... v ...( v -....>..'; 4 ,ii...:*...,..y...gdyeher .<..>.....^.. .....;.... 5, *.\ -,*.. >,...%.. made'her listen to 6 (.. \-v\v yuv -r;i';; -V 7 ,..p-A-**-,-stole from'her\ f .'...-. s .y......: ; '.,..cofl(.'. v....r. , : 9 Are these'th'e shoes , f! ; 10 .A.,.,^...''.....t...^...'...;ti.i.yt.ruinted for her .*..... ?

*
f

^ j Exercise. 17,5 1 3 5 7 Don't Don't Don't Don't -* >. * " -' *' *' Translate*into Arabic:

'Notice that-in Arabic .it is the iridifed ,o6ject pronoun which is ;suffixed to the verb, while the direct object pronoun is suffixed to a 'carrier' preposition Jyya-", wn6se"sole:fun'ction 1W0, 'carry' that pronoun. Quite aiafge' pumber of verbs can beused in constructions of this type. Some examples: rhdadha hu s-saanfdan illi tfaagdoni iyydah t ' * .'This is the* stuff they'stole from fne' * haay hjtm iS-Suwar illi rawwdytich iyydahum min gdbil 'These are the pictures which I showed you(f.)abefore' Ho ish-shartiTa mq9day sammd9tik iyydafca ''If I had the tape "with" me I'd let you hear it' waysh sawwdytfi has-sayydara? xhrrdbtha Jyydanal 'What have"yon done to this car? You've ruined it for us!' iT'Tirdaz^ hdadhq, kdanaw yilabsuunhum, iyydah fil-qadiim 'This type of dress here, they used to dress them in it in the old * days' Exercise 17.4 t hdadhi hi S-Suura\~lli rawvgdytha iyydana js,-sqbuu9 il,mdadi! < j , 'Is this the picture which you showed us last week?

stealnt(m-) from' Kimf-fi' Don'tgive^f*) tdher! showIhenTto us! 4 Don't rum*it(m.) for me! let her hear her! 6 Don't give themeto him! show me it(m.)! 8 Don't steal-them from u"s!. ye,."*

Exercise 17.6 The effect of TV on children J/. Below is a short dialogue on the effects of watching TV on children. Translate, and then answer the comprehension questions in Arabic. . * "' A: yiguuluun ydahil fdllat ruuHah min is-sdTaH lil-qrD yiqdllid rayydal gtiwi shdafah-fit-tiUfizyuun. B: ay, muqdllid istiifi hu. A: laysh yisawwuun chidhii l-yihdal! -f B: iT-Ttfil maa yifham. maa tshuufiSbay (ila yitdabi9 halmusdlsal. ba9ad hu yi9tdbir ndfsah sdif u yinuTT minibayt li bayt u yiTUH. . . .

236 UNIT 17 A:*sh~dHsqn barndamij bi nisba lich il-HUn\ * B: a'dyyid il-bardamij il-9ilmiyya mdthalan. il-Hiin yixalltiun kil subuu9 'is-sdna l-dula if Haydat iTTifiP hdadha yd9ni killish zayn: misfofiid ya9nt. A: tiTaal9iin afldam fit-tilivyun! B; la. fiih afldamfit-tilifizyuurifiihamandaDHir xallda9a'maa"tiSlaHi bint bas fiiha Sadriyya u haaf ya9ni -shay Hardam fii isldam. thdani'shay idhaish-shabdab shaaf hash-shay yd9hv laazim hu byisdwwbmunkar. Notes 4 2 3 4 ? _ * stiif: the reference is to SteVe Austin, the 'Bionic^Man* Sdarat Hdaditha axiiran. shinhu Saar! shinhu sdbab hal-Hdaditha! shloon il-bardamij (Hi ti'dyyidha H-muHddditha B.! shloon ti'dthth\r mandaDHir xallda9aftsh-shabaab, jf ra'y Jl-muHddditha B.! '
!J(

UNIT 17 237 jinduus! ' farlaadiis gaddu9" gdhwa(*/.) 'handful' ' * i 'mutdrjim(iin) muwdllid % ndkkdt naTT/yihUTT qdamar gaamuus! qawaamiis qaDd'a qdllqd riDalyirDal riDa ' riyaaDiydat sdalfa*! sawdalif sdmma.9 sdyTar sdyTara* sdolaf SdaHib/ aSHdab Sadriyya* Sbay(aan) SilaHIyiSlaH shabdab shariiTa*! sharda'iT shijda9a* tdaba9 tdrjam tar jama* I tardajim 'translator' 'generator (electric)' 'to joke' 'to jump' 'to gamble' 'dictionary' 'execution, termination' 'to imitate, cbpy' 'to agree, consent' 'mathematics* 'conversation, chat'' 'to make (someone) hear' 'to dominate, control' (9ala) 'control, domination* 'to chaf 'owner, possessor' 'bra* 'lad, boy' 'to be proper, right' 'youth (in general)' 'taperecording' 'bravery' 'to follow' 'to translate' 'translation'

Trahslatet thedialogue into English'. f Proverbs and-sayings 'I

it

mdrratin Hdlwa mdrratin murr 'One time* sweet, one time bitter' i.e. You have to take the rough with the smooth SdaHib il-Hdaja d9mdla yiriid ilia qaDdaha * ; ... 'He who needs something is blind to all efse until he has his.need fulfilled' Self-explanatory, -, i t VOCABULARY SUMMARY aamin akiid ardadlyiriid 'dththar axiiran 'safe, secure' 'certain, sure' 'to want' 'to have an effect' 01 !on') 'recently' 'dyyad dalllyidilll 'daldal .fdDDal ' fdndas 'to support, favour' 'to indicate, show' 'to prefer' 'to grab a handful'

'morning shack' 'to give ' '* someone1 coffee-* 'to nibble' j gdmgam 'to confuse, ghdrbal! " upset7 ghirbdal 'shorts' haaf 'engineering; h&ndisa* geometry' 'to fight, make Hdarab war' HajjIyiHijjtHajj'to go on the* pilgrimage' 'animal' Hayawdan! Hayaawiin* 'to cough HdrHash hoarsely' 'power, Hukum judgement' 'to come to an intdha end' 'to be happy, istandhs contenl' 'to surrender'^ istdslam 'to happen, istdwa become' 'to consider' i9tdbar 'coward' jabb'ddnl jubanda 'to dress Idbbas (someone)' maallamwdal 'goods, money' munkar(aat) 'atrocity, bad act* 'serial (TV, musdlsal radio, etc.)'

23a UNITltf . tigdhwa dghdrbal i. timashsha, tindazaU > tiwdffa_ tixdrbaT Tdala9 'to have coffee' ' 'to get , confused, mixed up; 'to stroll* ^ 'to abdicate, ' relinquish control' 'to pass away, die' 'to get mixed ' up'' 'to watch, look at* Tirdai wdrsha*(aat) widd -fe.poss. adj.xdan/yixdun! xiydana* xallda,9 xdrbaT >> xdrrab 9dadil 9ilmi. 'type, style, fashion' 'workshop* 'to want' 'to betray' 'shameless, depraved' 'to confuse, mix up (something)' 'to ruin' 'just, fair' .('scientific' UNIT 18 '

18.1 uIMINimVES

The word for 'a ddg''in Arabic \% chalb; 'a little dog' is chuldyb. This example illustrates that diminutives in Arab'ic are often formed not by adding an adjective meaning 'small', as in'English, but by changing the internal vowej pattern of the'.word. The, ba^ic pattern of vowels and consonants for most diminutives is, CuCayCa). Thus: (w-l-dy wuldyd Mittle boy' "\k-w-t) -k&Wdyl 'little'fort; '! * Kuwait' ' gdl9a 'castle' (g-l-9) guldy9a -'little castle' ' .- , " j , Nouns and,adjectives havipg a long vowel in their basic form^ e.g. Saghiir 'small', jdasim 'Jasim* (name), kitdab 'book' and also nouns having a m prefix have a CuCdyyiC or CuCayCiC diminutive form: jdasim , JJa.sim' fj-s-m) ,j'uwdisim ,'litte Jasjm', zdayid 'Zayd' (z-y-d) zuwdyyid 'littje Zayd' Sagh(irt 'small' (S-gh-r) ., Sughdyyir 'yery small' kitdab, 'bpok' (Jc-t-b) kutdyyib. 'booklet' f mdrgad 'bedj Xr~8'd) '" rnurdygid, 'litjle bed' i, Note that with CaaCiC'-'b'asic forms, w is the second'consonant in *he CuCayCiC diminutive. Plurals of all these diminutive forms are formed by suffixing -aat, e.g. wulayddat 'little boys', kutaybdat 'booklets'. 5 18.2 USES OF ABU AND UMM dbu 'father' and umm 'mother' are used in Gulf'Arabic to denote (fie possession of a special quality or characteristic. Thus one can describe a man with a beard as dbu KHya 'father of a beard' or, "ore idiomatically in English 'beardy'. A two-door (as opposed to a four-door) car can.be called sayydara dbu daxlatdyn 'father of two entrances'. Phrases with'ii&u are useful in distinguishing similar People or things: wdlad ' 'boy'1' kuuo 'forf

i. jt"

240 .UNIT48 UNIT* 18 241 - minhu td9ni, mrayydal dhi! , ' - la, haadhdak, dbu gdshma. - 'Who d'you mean, this^man?' - 'No, that one, wearing glasses.' (lit. 'father of spectacles') umm is used in a similar way: >mus$jjila umm mikrufdun thdabd ',A stape-recorder with a-fixedmicrophone,' * > i 18.3 'I|OW BIG!' ETC. The Arabic equivalent pf exclamations like 'How big!' 'How niceP, is formed by a prefix meaning 'what' - sh- or waysh - and the appropriate noun 'bigness', 'beauty^ eJc.tSuch phrases are. also an idiomatic wayt of saying 'areally" big/nice/. . .* Examples:,, bint sh-Haldawattial^ * ' < * 'What'a pretty girl!' or ^a re'ally prettyJgirl' " * maa yaakluun ilia wajba'wdHdd'u kiT'wdaHid Udbbatdh waysh' kuburh'a? 'They only"eat one meal a'day and each" ohe has got a* really bigf belly!' " ' 's shuuf il-awdadim sh--kithirhum yaw) fl 'Loo)c at now many-people'have come!' ' ( 1 < F t M 18.4 'SO-AND-SO^ * <, ' The Arabic for-'a certain person', 'Mr/Mrs SVand-so' is flaan(a): dbu and umm are also widely used in the Gulf to form names which are alternative rnodes of address" to given names. A man who has'a'son called 9dli may be called 'dbu 9dti, and his mother umm 9dli: However, conventional -nicknames forhied with dbu are commonly' used to denote anyone (whether dr not he has children) with V certainriame*"Theuse*of the nickname indicates a fairly,inforrnal,.,friendly style of address. Some of the commonest nicknames: given name mHdmmad 9iisa ytiusif 9dli Hasan i Husdyn > l ibraahiim Malawi dHmad 9dbdurraHmdan conventional nick-name dbu jdasim dbu 9abddllah -dbu'ya9qtiub '' *" dbu.Husdyn dbw 9dli * * dbu xaliil dbu h&ashipt dbu ydusif dbu rdashid, etc. yitHachchdun^aldyna: 'flaan sdwwa chidhii ufidana sdwwat chidhdak' 'They're gossiping about us: "Mr So-and-so did this and Mrs Soand-so did that".' The phrase flaan dadmi (dadmit'human') is similarly used: idha iyiik flaan dadmi u yiguul lik. . . 'If some'fellow comes up to.you and says. . .' 18.5 FORMS OF PERSONAL ADDRESS Gulf Arabic is'Very rich in address forms which show the speaker's status vis-a-vis the person addressed. These forms are freely used m everyday conversation, and it is as, well for the learner to be at least aware, of their(' social'rineaning, even if it would be inappropriate for him to use them himself. The system described below is l hat used in Bahrain. The same or a similar one is used in all Gulf st ates. t "hen addressing a-person whom he judges to be of equal age and ,

It Is a5 stf'ange fact-of gramma^ that dbu is normally used where the noun which 'follows'\t is grammatically feminine, and umm where it.is masculine, without-regard for, whether the possessor is masculine,pr feminine. For example, -some years ago there was a Kuwaiti pop-song entitled dbu 9uydun fattdana 'the 'one with the seductive-eyes', regardless of the fact that the possessor of the eyes, to judge from the rest of the song, 'was clearly feminine! The reason for the use'of dbu rather than umm is' that 9ayn 'eye' is grammatically feminine'.

242 UNIJUS, social'rank, a. speaker may frequently insert the >hras,e yaaxuuy 'O my brother' (to a'man) and yaa~xti 'O my sister' (to a woman) into whaVhe ^ays.'ThisJ^ familiar'witnouibeing' disrespectful. When addressing"*'his immediate family, * * * a speaker 'will use yaabuuy^d) my father', yaamml O my'n\bth6r",'y'qaVammi'0 my "(paternal/uncle', etc. ^and will^get the rerjly yqq wj{di ' 0 my son', yaa bind 'O my daughter^, etc. However; there j$;,a. common convention -of address w,hichMs ^&P usea " instead of the above, which strikes the Westerner as strange. A man addressing an equal will bften say to him, yaqxuuk 'O your,brptiier' or\yaa~xwdyyik 'O your little brother', to which the equal will reply'with the s^ame form of address; a woman will say'to another^ ofjthe same age yddxtich 'O your sister' 0%^yaa-rxyvdytich'"O .your -little sisterS These forms cannot be 'translated literally - they are simply a convention of address* Note that, the pronoun suffix always reflects the'sex of the addressee, and the noun reflects 'the' relationship (literal or metaphpric^of the speaker.to. him/her. Thijs: kamdalgilt,lik,m{n gdbil, yaayxwdyyik, dna mubtmwdafig t9dla hdadha 'As'I told ypu before, I don't ^agree^to this' (male to male.of equal age/status) laysh sawwdyti chidhii, yaa~xiiuch! 'Why have you do'rfe this?' (male to female" of equal'age/status) A father or mother addressing a child will use'the' following fornw: yaabuuk yda~mmik yaa~buuch (father to daughter) (mother to son)'* ^da-^htmich '(mother to s daughter) (father to son)

UNIT 18 243 to some extent yda'buuk, ydammik, etc.'aroused by extensionas a'means of address by any olderto a'younger person,.especially when cajoling or'pulling rank':,' . , * 9aad lajsdwwi/:hidhii} yubba). *<t ,*' 'Now don'f,dd that, will you!^(male.to*junior .male) 9aTiini~JUft.yddich,yqa 9dmmich\* * , 'Give me what's iniyQur'hand, now.!'.(male to-junior female). i i >M

When a large group of people need to b,P greeted (for example.on' entering a room which is filled), the word jimda9a ledmmunity, y group'* is used:, a > *' H * >< ' B
s is-saldam 9aldykum yaa"jimda9a\ 'Hello, everyone!' yaa jimda9a, dna ismi. . . i 'My name,?evefyone, }%'. ' (from thcbeginning pf a-radio play)

18.6 EXHORTATIONS'

*H

Normal Arabic cdnversation is liberally laced with exhbrtatiohs of various kinds', which sound slightly odd when literally translated into English. These usages reflect a part of the cultural and religious framework within which the language exfttsyand^with which it is essential to be at least passively'familiar. Many set phrases involve invocations of dllah', and are often part of a conventional exhortation-response formula. Some examples: - guwyyal (said to -someone engaged in a hard physieal/mental, " effort) ~ dllah yigawwtikl 'Strength!' < 'God give you strength!' ~ H-Hdmdu lilldah 9ala saldamtikl (said to one returning from a voyage) ~ dllah yisdlmik\ 'Thanks be to God for your safety!' 'God save youV ~~ na9iiman\ (said to someone who has just had a bath, hair cut, etc.)

Alternatively, the'Ya'ther may simply use" the abbreviated form yubba, 'and1 the mother yummd to children of Either sex. The reply from the'child is yda~buuy 'O'my father', ydd~mmi 'O my mother'. j't Similar forms to the yaabuuk-type exist for other kinds of relationship, e.g. yaa 9dmmik 'O your uncle' (uncle to nephew), yaa 9dmmicli (uncle to niece), yubba, ydmma and yaa 95mmik, and

244 UNIT'18 - dllah yin9dm 9aldyk\ 'May it be cornfortable!'' 'God bestow his cbmfort'on youl* t * "

UNIT 18 245 The oath walldhiJ-9aDH(iml 'By the great God!' is also commonly used in conversation. Some other useful phrases which do not involve the use'of dltdh'ate given.below. lt * . n'kraml ,j. ,fc 'Be honoured!/ (used1 in the same circumstances as kdrram qllah wajh issdami9) 9umrik dbqal^ 'May your life be longer!' (said after mention of someone's death', e.g\ " hdadha min sdna twdffat zdyiidb - 9dmrik dbqal * > 'That was the year Zaynab died - may your life be longer!') , Taal 9umrik\ ., _, 'May your life be a long one!' (a general conversation-filler, often used, when hesitating during the telling of a story, e.g. dnafi dhaak iz-zdman, Taal^umrik, yiimkin asdwwi sab9 sniin i 'At that time I'd be about -,er - maybe seven years old') dl9an abuuh ha . . . (noun)! \ ha . , . (noun) dl9an~abuuh\) ' 'I curse the father of this. . . !' (a phrase of exasperation, e.g. hash-shughul, dl9an abtiuh mad niHdSSil min wdrdah fdyda).' 'We get no bloody benefit from this job!' (lit. 'this work, I curse its father, we get "ho'benefit from behind it!')) During the 9iid 'feast' which follows the1 end of Ramadan - 9iid il-fi Tr - and that which follows the end of the rites of the pilgrimage ~ 9iid H-dD'Ha - Arabs -greet "edch other with the phrase 9iid mubdarakl "'Blessed feast!' 'to which the reply' is kill 9aam w "-(ntum bi xayr\ 'May you-'be well with every passing year!' On any occasion of success, e.^g. 'the parsing of an examination, the "uying of a new house or greeting to the' lucky person is mdbruuk). 'May it be blessed', to which the reply is dllah yibdarik fdk\

There are many other phrases used on differenfoccasions Which are not part,of formulaic;exhortatioh-response routines;'some of which are exemplified here. Note that the>ver6"may be aTpast or imperfect-verb, but the riieahihg is always a future wishs jaazdak dltah xayfrl f 'May God reward you!' > (said to someone who has done**one a'favour, or any-'good works') aghndak dllahl r < 'May God make you rich!' ' (said to someone engaged in' any venture intended to increase his material prosperity) dllah hadddakldllah yihaddtikl 'May God guide you!' / \ i * (said to. someone \yho_ is doing or thinking something the speaker thinks is misguided) dllah ylHfaDHikl 'May God preserve you!' * (said* as a general greeting to'anyone, especially if nof seen for some timejdllah yighdrbiiik] 'May God confuse.you!'> (a mild curse) < kdrram dllah wajh is-sdami9\ 'May God honour the listener's face!' (said after the mention of anything considered 9ayb 'shame' or Hardam 'prohibited*, e.g. drinking alcohol, eating pork, loose morals, certain parts of the body) bdyyaD dllah wdjhikl 'May God brighten your face!' (said to4he bringer of good'news) ''*

246

UNIT:is

UNHV18 247' * rubBiydat u juuti - tikram - dbyaD maal HydaDa u haaf dzragfiih shatT dbyaD, ya9Ttina.
M Notes;/1 " ' ' dllah yd9lam 'God knows' ixwdanna 'our brothers'/Here, as elsewhere, ..the speaker refers to himself in the.plural la 9(ndL . . . 'I had nothing else in the world' maa shift lUa abuuy. .-. . 't hardly knew what had happened before my father. . . .' mu9dllim is a Koranic,school teacher. An ordinary teacher is a, muddrris ' ittdkal 'to put one's trust in' (root w-k-l, verb type iCtaCaC) , ^ iyydahum is an alternative to wiyydahum ba9D 'some of (see Unit 19) raaH 9dla bdali 'It's gone out of my mind'

Exercfse 1*8.1 "

Below is an extract from thevbeginning of a,radip programme in the series 9dla Tariiq il-fann Tn the way of ,arf, in which thfe comedian 5asim il-Khalaf tells the story of his early life. He is talking to an interviewer (whom he addresse's yaaxWayyik) biit* addressing "his radio audience 'through him. lleaci aloud and translate. A Bahrdini Childhood wdllah, biddyt Haydati dna, yaa~xwdyyik,fil-* arba9iindat. kintt Tffil Saghiir u 9umri 9dla s maa~tdhdkkar xams awsitt isniin,, dllah,yd9lam. wallah, u kint mistdanis u'dl9abfil-fariigwfyya l-wulayddat, w(yya~~xwdanna yd9ni, mistdanis u la 9indi bid-dinya bd9ad. >maa shift yoom wdaHid illdbuuy axddhni u wddddani l-mu9dllim. il-mu9dllim illi wddddani yisammuunah bin Humdud. wa~ttakdlt 9dl~dllah u riHt il-mu9dllim\ . . . wdllah, tammdyt m8a~dri, sdna u nuSS lo^anatdyri. wdllah xatdmt U-qur'dan yd9ni. kaan ,9indi aSdidda wdajid - tiaas rdaHaw, n'aas maa a9drfhum il-Hiin yd9ni. wdllah, istaandstftl-mu9dllimiji sanatdyn hdadhi; u tdali gaam abuuy, u goal, binyvaddiik il-mddrasa. -. . . u shaaldoni min il-mu9dllim (i wqdddoni l-mddrasa, il-mddrasa l-ghqrblyya, Haaliyyan hiya mddrasat dbu bakr. u ga9ddtfil-mddrasa-'Hattdoni dwwal shay fi dwwal Had(iqa.yr . ay, wdllah. ,< . . bd9ad mudda tdmmaw ysawwuun riwaaydatu masratiiyydatfil-mddrasa,wdllah . . . u ba9D ilasdatidha yixalluunna yd9nifit-tamthiiliyya.. . . wdllah u Sirna iyydahu'm. u 9dla tnaatdhdkkar ydHDur irriwaaydat il-marHdum ish-shayx A.fbin'L, waztir ilrma9da"rif. . . . u ydHDur U-ustdadh A. U-9. hdadhi rriwaaydat. wi nimdththil adwdar zdynq, \vil-ustdadfcA. il-9., 9ogub maanxdlUSs ya9Tiina haddqya.,. . . atdhdkkar min ba9D il-haddaya ya9Ttina aghrdash burtugdal, u ya9Tlina, hdadha maal hdndisa . . . mda~dri, .nisdyt, raaH 9ala bdali, maa d9ruf waysh ., ismah u dafdatir maal rdsim uu bughsha fiiha 9dshra

.1

Exercise J8i2

i i See if you can understand (and"translate) tjiejjoke below. Note that the phrase fiik duud 'You've a worm in you', is used to describe people who can't keep still, who are forever running around. *'* kaan fii wdaHid bdayig raaH yd9ni u gaam 'rikab foog jiddarydbghi yinuTT ddaxil.bas hu- TaaH min foog ila tdHat u kdssar killish jismdh. wadddoh il-mustdshfa. kishdf 9alayh id-ddxtar u kitab lih Hubuub bas, yd9ni maa-HaTT lih ddwa Hagg rydulah. nzayn; gdalaw lih bas 'ruuH iS-Saydaliyya u xudh had-ddwa.' 9aad raaH 'iSSaydaliyya u 9aT6oh bas Hubuub. gaal lihum 'waysh maktdub? hal-Hubuub maal shinhu?' gdalaw lih 'maal duud!' gaal lihum 'hdadhi Hubuub maal duud! chayf Hubdub-maal duud?' gdalaw lih 'waysh darrdana? ruuH is'al id-ddxtar.' gaam raaH iT-Tabiib yiguul lih 'il-Hiih jismi mitjdrraH u ta9TUni Habb maal duud! maal bdTin?' gaam id-ddxtar yiguul lih 'ay wdllah! lo maa fiik duud chaan maa rikabt foogV

i* *.

,,?,,

248 UNIT-18 Notes: ryuul (or rjtiul) pi. of riil (or rijt) ifoof, Jeg't Like all parts of the body which come in pairs, riil is feminine gender. rajdayil is an alternative plural waysh darrdana! 'How should we know,?' (lit. 'What has made us know?*) ., Tabiib is the more 'formal'^word for"doctor' instead of the dialectal ddxtar Proverbs and sayings hddda biT-Tiib wila bil-ghdSub\ 'By kindness or by force!' i.e. 'By hook or by crook!' 9drrha u guuLmdrHala). 'Put a handle on it and call it a basket' (said disparagingly of a slipshod piece of work. mdrHala is-a kind of large1 basket with handles made of palm branches. The verb 9drra is derived from 9urwa '^handle') HdDarl ydHDur! HuDuur Hadiiqa* Haldawa* HifaDHI yiHfaDH! HafdaDH ittdkal }daza iisimlajsdam kdrram kiihir ' ktibur kuut id9anly(l9an! Ia9n , h'HyaVKHa mabruuk mdrgadl mardagid fattdan flaan(a), < gdl9a*(aat) gdshma*(aqt) gdwwa 'seductive, mischievous' 'So-and-so', 'castle, fort' 'spectacles* 'to give, (someone) strength' 'strength' 'compulsion, coercidn* 'to give (someone) guidance' 'to attend, be present' 'kindergarten' 'sweetness, prettiness' 'to keep, preserve' 'to put one's .trust (in 9dla)' 'to reward' 'body' 'to honour' 'number, amount' 'size, age' 'fort, castle' 'to curse' 'beard* 'blessed* 'bed, sleeping place' mdrHala*/ mardaHil

UNIT 18 249 'type of basket; phase (e.g. of a plan)' masraHiyya* (aatfxAzy' mdththal 'to act, represent' mikrufuun(aat) 'microphone' 'blessed' mubdarqk musdjjila* (aat) 'tape-recorder' mu9dllim(iin) 'Koran teacher' 'greeting for na9dman someone who has just had a bath, haircut, etc' 'The Koran' il-qur'dan riwdaya* (aat) 'drama' 'sport* riydaDa* rubbiyya* (aat) 'Ruppee' (old or rabdabi currency = 100 fils) Saydallyya*(aat) 'chemist's' shaxTlshuxuuT 'stripe' tdali 'next, then, after' tamthiiliyya* (aat) 'play, drama' 'to be hurt, tijdrraH injured' 'to be long' TaaUyiTuult Tuul Tabiib! aTibbda 'medical doctor' 'fixed, thdabit immovable' 'meal, repast' wdjba*(aat) xdtamlydxtiml 'to read the Koran from xatm cover to cover'

guwwa ghdSub

VOCABULARY SUMMARY 'someone; a human being; (pi.) people' 'to make dghna (someone) rich* 'to bestow dn9am favours (on 9dla)' bdarak 'to bless' bdTinlbuTuun, 'stomach, guts.* 'to, brighten, bdyyaD lighten' ba9D 'some of dadmi! awdadim.1 'chidhdak ddbbq*.(aat) ddrra ddxla*(aat) d(nya doorladwdar duud fannlfundun farHg/firgdan, 'like that' 'belly' "to make (someone) know* 'opening, entrance' 'the world (and its works)' 'role, turn' 'worms' 'art*, 'quarter (of a town)'

*250 UNIT'18 'If ydbba' >* yumma zdman > n 'address'form: father td child' 'address form: mother to child' "period, point in time' 'great, enormous' 9dlamlyd9laml 'to know' 9i7m 9ammla9mdam ''paternal uncle' 9drra'to put a >) ^handle on something' 9aDHdm <U N I T 19 '

19.1 VERB STRINGS INVOLVING KAANlYIKUVN In this section^we look at,the Arabic equivalent of certain of the English 'compound' and'ottidr non-simple Jenses. They all involve use of the past or imperfect of the verb kaan 'to be, become'. kaan + imperfecta'used to do' The past te^ise* of kaan, ,and Jhe imperfect tense of a verb (both verbs in the appropriate person) expresses the sense of the English 'used to* - that is, habitual action in the past; kint drsim tamdam yoom kint fil-madrdsa 'I used to draw excellently when I was at school' kaan yishtdghit naaTdur dwwal 'He used to work'as a watchmanbefore' \ \ i i

t "y

''

kaan + present participle: 'haddonelbeen doing' t Typically,, this .construction links together two past actions (or states), one of which had already begun/(or even been completed) when the second interrupted it: H-mubdara kdanat bdadya min wuSdlna The match had begun when wejarrived,' min xaabdrtha kdanat mitghdddiya 'When I phoned her she had,(already) had lunch" (i-e. she was,in the state of having had lunch) sim&9t kint mimdshshi sayydartah *I heard you'd been driving his car' With certain so-called 'durative' verbs - that is, verbs-denoting non-episodic actions or states (e.g. 'to hold', 'to carry', 'to think', 'to believe', etc.) -i the sense is often similar tp the English 'was d oing , . . when. . .': kaan mijdwwid jdnTa jild dHmar layn shifndah 'He was holding a- red leather case when we saw him'

; ill

ji;

252 UNIT 19 kaan is also used with Idazim 'necessary' to express a number of past-tense senses involving need and obligation. We noted in Unit 12 that Idazim yirituH^'He must/ought to go' can be negated in two ways: , * ! , - > * ' mub Idazim yiriiuH 'He needn't go' (lit. 'It's not necessary he goes') or i "
r

UNIT 19 253 yikuun + present participle!past tense: 'will have done' yikiiun followed by either a present participle or a past-tense verb has the sense of anticipating the completion of action in the future: (HaSSdlt 1 min tishdufni s-sdna l-jdqya, akduny > 9a\a sh-shahdada ImiHdSSil j 'When you.see me next year, I will have, got,the diploma' Note that in all the constructions above'involving it', yikuun agrees in gender/number with'the following verb or participle.

H ^ F I i JI i i e * w* il " |

Mi

Idazim maa yirtiuH 'He mustn't/oughtn't to go* (lit. 'It's necessary he" doeshVgo') All of these sentences, Can be put into the past tense by prefixing them with kaan: i i kaan Idazim yiruuH 'He had to go/ought to have gone' kaan mub Idazim yiruuH 'He needn't have gone/didn't have to go' kaan Idazim maa yiruuH 'He- oughtn't to have gone' An important point here is that, unlike the other constructions involving kaan + present participle (for that is "what Idazim is, grammatically speaking), neither kaan nor Idazim agree in gender/ number with the subject of the main-clause when used iri the sense of 'It's necessary'. kaan Idazim maa truuHlin 'You (f.) shouldn't have gone' ('It was necessary. . .') kaan Idazim tishtdri liha hddiya 'You(m.) ought to have bought her a present'* yikiiun + imperfect: 'will be doing' The imperfect of kaan is used with a following imperfect in a predictive sense: la timtirr 9aldyhum il-Hiin, yikuundun yit9asfishiiun 'Don't call in on them now, they'll be having dinner' (ktib Kha risdala, tikuun d'dmmilik nisdytha 'Write her a letter, she'll be thinking you've forgotten her'

Exercise 19.1 Translate into Arabic: min t(rja9 'By the time you come back.,, 1,1 will have got a driving licence 2 'got married 3 repaired your car 4 passed, the exam 5 gone to Saudi Arabia 6 washed up 7 got a new job 8 had lunch

Look at the following exchange: ~ dagg il-mismdar fil-HdayiT. kaan Idazim yidiggah fil-baab\ 'He knocked the nail into the wall.' 'He ought to have knocked it into the door!' \k

its

r r 254 UNfr19, Now translatet'the parallel exchange^ below:-..., w UNIT 19 25 - Hqw long did-you ,stay aj your parents'? 4,Nr'Only*two'days/<We had'to meet^yoir. - You needn't have been in sucn a hurry! 26 - Where's(the foreman? . - He must have gone to the warehouse. - He shouldn't have left these-men on their own! 1 % r , r< 19.2 MORE CONJUNCTIONS In Unit 9 we'met.time conjunction's like 'before', 'after', 'as soon1 as'. We now look at-soriie other words^which link clauses together,. The first group - exemplified below, perform functions "similar to, those of English, conjunctions ending in '-ever'-, like 'whoever', 'whatever*5, etc. killminy/'whoever', 'everyone who.,. :.\, killmin iyi,'/nagbuul 'Whoever comes will be accepted' killmin' raaH il-Harb ingltal v 'Everyone who went to the war was killed' klllmaa: 'whenever'*; 'whatever'
x

9 - , He took the number 15 bus. , t - He ought to haye taken,.,the number 50! lS,* t 10 -* He gave me the large hammer. - He ought to have''given you the(small one! '" v n r -\They did, 2 hours' overtime yesterday.A - They ought'to(have done 3! 1 2 - 1 hired a,two-door car. -- iYou* ought 3tq. have hired a, pick-up tfuck! ,13 - I'told the foreman,to be here,ajt 8.30., , - You ought to haye'toldjiim to be here a7.j!)Q! Inthe following sentences, practise the use'of die compound tenses. Translate: ,.t 14 By the time we got there,.the film had-started * 15 'We saw they had,'finished removing the furniture" '' 16 She had been wearing a green skirt when,she got,on the, plane 17 When I got in touch with him, he had changed his mind 18 When the "Minister's car arrived, the police had gained control of the situation 19 -J used, to be interested in cameras and take'lots of photos 20 I used to work as a carpenter when I first came to the *dulf 21 What used Kuwaitis to eat in the old days? The following dialogues give practice in the use of Idazim in expressing probabilities, needs and obligationsTranslate: 22 - Where's Ali? - Not here. He must have gone home. - He should have stayed two hours more! 23 - Can you lend me 10 dinars? - Sorry, I've spent all my salary. - You shouldn't have spent it all1. 24 - Where are the dirty dishes? - I've just washed them up.- You needn't have done-that!

*"

.;

kdlmaa taHdchcha 9an wlldah il-mdyyit, gaam yibchi l B 'Whenever he spoke about his dead son, he began to cry' killmaa miHtdaja lih, Tilbatah min 9ind abuuha 'Whatever she needed, she asked for it from her father' (Note that this sentence is ambiguous; it, could be understood: 'Whenever she needed, if, she' asked for it from her fa'ther*^ chdyfmaa: 'however', 'in whatever way'
c

hdyfmaa Saar, Idazim ddxal u baag is-saamdan 'However it happened, he" must have got in and stolen the stuff wdynmaa: 'wherever, in whatever place'

256 UNIT 19 wdynmaa ddwwar, maa liga lih dHad'ylgdar yiHill mushklltah 'Wherever he looked, he couldn't find anyone who could solve his problem.' shkithirmaa and shgdddmda: 'however much' shkithirmaa t(dfa9, maa tiHdSSil 9Ua maa tdbbi 'However much you pay, you won't get what you want* shwdqtma: 'at whatever time' '" maaddam rdlik ti9dwrikJa tigtium min U-fardash 'As Ibng as your leg hurts don't get out of bed'
t

UNIT 19 -257

Exercise 19.2 Translate into Arabic: 1- Whatever you want we can get 2' Whenever you need anything, call in on me 3 As long as I'm here, I'll keep trying to get in touch with him 4 As you know, I shall have sent the letter by the time he returns 5 -Wherever you go, don't forget to leave your address with me 6 Everyone who enters the museum has to pay 250 fils 7 However hungry you were,"you shouldn't have eaten that 8 However much you spend, don't waste your money on worthless things

shwdqtmaa tdbbi tiHaachdni, ittdSU fiini bit-tilifuun 'Whenever you want to talk'to me, contact me by phone* I 1 shwdqtmaa is an alternative to klllmaa in sentences-of this type only. We look now at a number of other commonly used conjunctions: mithilmaa: 'as', 'just as', 'in the same way as' < -

mlthilmaa tddri, (Hi ydbbi yiSiir muqdawil* maa yigdum ndoba wdHda 'As you know, someone who wants to be a contractor doesn't become one overnight' (lit. '. . . does not rise up in one go*) maa Sdarat il-muqdabla mithilmaa tiwaqqd9na 'The meeting didn't happen as, we expected it would' i dwwalmaa: 'the first time that. . .' dwwalmaa bdyyan, 9irfat (nnah rayydal k'artim 'From the moment he appeared, she knew "he was a generous man' ydommaa: 'as soon as' ydommaa jdwwad it-tufga, Saar mlthil mayndun 'As soon as he got hold of the gun', he became like a madman' maaddam: 'as long as. . .'

19.3 'AS IF' The conjunction chinn-, to which pronouns are suffixed, means 'as if, 'like'. It can also introduce a sentence with the sense 'It's as if. . .' wdjhik chinnah guuTi muxdffaS t J Your face is like a crushed can!' ('Your face as if it. . .') bdSal shkdbrah chinnah tuffdaW. 1 t I 'An onion so big it's like an apple!* chinnak maa tirDa yitzdwwaj t 1 'It's as if you don't want him to get married. . . .' gdamaw yifatshdun 9dla z-zar9 chinnhum xubarda t I 'They began inspecting the crops as if they were experts'

\* 258 UNIT 19 I.I 19.4 EXPRESSIONS MEANINGS THINK' We have already met the expression^ ra'yi 'in my opinion'. Several other expressions are also in common use which perform" the same modifying .function. 9dla bdali (or 9abdali) 'to mymind', 'as I thought', is'iised When one wishes to say what one (often mistakenly),thought to be the case: " * > ' i ' -"cham'Saarlik fit-bank! ' % / v ^ - sanatdyn. "' | - wdllah? 9abdali dkthar min'hdadha. u - 'How long have you been at the bank?' ' - 'Two yeajs.' ., " - 'Really? I thought it was more than that.' baat,can of course have'other pronouns suffixed to it: 9abddlik bint Hdlwa, muu chidhii! f'You think (or t thou|ht) she's a pretty girl, don't you?' . f ' jThe expression -dla DHdnniipr 9aDHdnni) is usebMn an'exactly similar way: QaDHdnnhum mub Idazim yikamluun dirdasathum has-^dna 'They think they don't have to complete their studies mis year' - il-Hdfla chayf kdanat! * - paDhdnni mub shay. - 'How was the party?' - 'Not much good, I thought.* 19.5 'SOME' AND 'EACH OTHER' The word ba9D, which basically means 'some of, has a number of important uses in Gulf Arabic. With ,"a following defined noun it signifies 'some o f or 'part of: ba9D in-naas yi9taqiddun inn it-tilivizyuun Hardam 'Some people believe that TV is forbidden (by Islam)' yibdyyin maaxdhiin bq9D il-xiydash u mxalltin bd9Dha 'It appears they've taken some of the sacks and left' some of them' mustdwa l-maay ndazil - bd9Dah Idazim insbdrab "The level of. the water's gone down - some of it must have been drunk'
JI.

UNIT 19 "259 rdpSi yi9awwirni-fi bq9D il-aHydah " 'My head gives me paih now and a"gain' (V . . in some of the times') i> * The construction /)aDj+,profioun * . . (il-) ba9D is used to mean 'each other': yikrahuun bd9Dhum bq9Q 'They hate each other'*('Some of.them hate sonfe*)' Dirbaw bd9Dhum H-ba9D 'They had a fight' ('Some of them hit some'). Ii\ some cases the verb demands a preposition:
5

9drraf il-muwaDHDHafiin bd9Dhuht9dla bdVD 'He introduced the officials to, each other' ('. . . some of them to some') 19.6 ADVERBS IN -AN
v

A great many of the adverbs which describe" how or when an*action is done are formed in all dialects of Arabic (and Gulf Arabic is no exception) by suffixing -an to nouns or adjectives: we have already met', for example shaxSiyyan 'personally', derived from shdxSi 'personal' (which itself is derived from shaxSlashxdaS 'person') and mdthalan 'for example*, derived from mdthallamthdal 'exJ ample'. We look here at the use of sdme of the corhmonest of these adverbs in everyday speech: 9dadatan: 'usually' 9dadatan maa dziid yoomiyyat il-9damil 9dla siti danaandr 'A labourer's daily wage isn't usually more than 6 dinars' Tdb9an: 'naturally' . u Tdb9an il ydahil maa yiddr bdalah min hdadha lxdTar. . . . ' . and naturally, the child pays no attention to'this danger. . . .'
ta

qriiban: 'approximately', 'more or less'

260 UNIT 19 . 1 1 t . . fi dhi'ich is-sda9a, 9umri tqqriiban thqlaathtd9shar>sdna. '. -. t,at-that time, Lwas about thirteen years old^tc . . * Siidfan: 'by chance' ligdytah Siidfan fish-shdari9 'I met him by chance in.the.street' ghdSban 9dla + pronoun: 'unwillingly' inDammdytfil-jayshghdSban 9aliyyii 'I joined the'army against, my-will' dbadan: 'never,, not at all' mista9mil hal-dala min gdbil! dbadan. 'Have you used this tool before?' 'Never.' Exercise 19.3 Translate into English: Getting a drivirig licence bddaldn min: 'instead of

UNIT 19 261

This, of course, is not an adverb but a conjunction, butis derived from a noun (bddal 'alternative') by the addition of -an in the same way as the adverbs. t baTdrrish wdaHid bddalan min artiuH H-ijtimda9 ndfsi 'I'll send so'meone instead of going to the meeting myself

aHydanan: 'sometimks' (syn. ba9D H-aHydan) maat nshuufhum wdayid, bas aHydanan yd9ni 'We don't see them a4ot, only occasionally' -j rd'san: 'directly' (syn. siida) waSSllni rd'san il-bayt, losimdHt 'Take me straight home, would you?' i9tibdaran min: 'with effect from' i9tibdaran min bdachir, il-mudiir maa yismaH likum tiTla9uu fi fardaghkum 'As from tomorrow, the headmaster will not allow you to go oU during your free periods' An alternative to i9tibdaran min. . . is min . . . rdayiH, e-g' mi** bdachir rdayiH 'from tomorrow on', min is-sdna l-jdaya rday 'from next year on'.
V aa

A: idha tdbbi tiHdSSil 9dla ruxSat is-siydaqa . . . Idysan, yd9ni. . . shMdazim tsdwwi!^ B: dwwal truuH sh~yis'ammuunah - il-gdl9a - u yisajjiltiunik tu yifHaSuun 9dlan-ndDHdr. 96gubybbmdyri taqriiban ya9Tiiunik in-hattija: idha sttta fijitta, zayn, u idha Da9iif yiguuluun lik 'jiib innaDHDHdara, tibas naDHDHdara'. . . ". haay illi yiguuluun, dna'xub maa riHt. . . . r A: u ba9addyn idaxidk it-tist! B: ay, it-tist. tidtshsh wfyya D-DdabiT uHdha shdafik tamdam hijdHt, sh'dafik mu 'taihdam radddyt. A: wis-sayydara Idazim tikuun maal is-sdayiq ndfsah! B: la, 9dadatan maahil-mu9dllim. tdaxidhha'sda9a, tidishsh wiyya D-DdabiT u ta9Tiih ijrd. idha nijdHt ta9Tiih ikraamiyya ya9ni chidhii hddiya bi muhaasdbatHn-najdaH, ya9ni. OCABULARY SUMMARY 'furniture' 'never, not at all' 'to think, consider' 'overtime' dwwalmaa baal 9dla baal + pron. 'when first, from the first time that. . .' 'mind' 'I/you, etc. think'

'hiath Qbadan '<*mmal


a

irtd aym

f !|| i* j It M Fl i l 1.1 IS , I if 1 !| ' 'l l " ill ill ! i J (I 11 11| i j fm i [11 ' i l l (1 i l "I j 1 f J U II l.l| i II (I I ' . J| 1 ill * ] j 111 IL ' 1 111 l | 'jl 1 ' ni II 1 I |l[ 262 UNJT 19 ghdyyar il-baal 'to change kdlmin one's mind' Idysanbdddlan'min 'instead of, '" * i bdyyan maaddam' 'to appear' * chdyfmaa 'however, in majdal whatever way* mdshsha chinn'as if, like' a. y mdthal/amthdal "'to knock, hit' daggiyidigg! 'whoever' 'driving a licence' 'as long as' "room, scope' 'to drive( (e.g. a car)' 'example; proverb' 'situation, position' 'dead' , 'hammer' sdjjal Siidfan shgdddmaa. shkithirmaq shwdqfmaa iamaam^ taqriiban tilifuun(aat) tist(aat) titvdqqa9 mdTTal
UNIT 19 263T

IH

EH In

1 111 Hi j j ' I II Ji ' li Fa 1 11 I 1 " |1| III ' '? 'if1 < ill ! 1 1 1 :sr [ > 5 . \ \h ' ft i f|i | l | H * 'in . I H|

**fl^ 9dla DHann + 'I/you, etc. mdwqifl think' mawdaqif pron. 'difference, mdyyit arg f miTraga*! gap' ghdSban 9dla 'unwillingly' maTdarig mithilmaa' 'just as' " + pron. f 'Harb(f)! 'war* bi munaasdbat 'on the < Huruub -hnoun occasion of HiinlaHydan 'time, perjod' muqdabla* (aat) 'meeting' Hurri a 'freedom' muwdDHDHaf 'official, yy \ 'fee* employee' (Hn), i?ra ikraamiyya 'bonus, _ mu9tdqad(aat) 'belief honorarium' naaTuur[ 'watchman' nawaaTtir 'to rent, hire' istdajar isfri9/a/ 'to hurry* ndDHqr 'sense of sight ittSSa/ '.to get in touch naDHDHdara* 'eye-glasses' with (fi)' ' (aat) ixtdlaf 'to differ' ,.> najdaH 'success' i9tdqad 'to believe' natiija*/ -'result* i9tibdaran min 'with effect natdayij . jidoba, wdHda :in one go, all from' at once' jdwwad 'to grasp, hold onto' qdrya*lqura 'village' kdmmal 'to complete' rd'san 'directly' kdrahlyikrahl 'to hate' rdayiH: min 'from . . . on* fairan . . . rdayiH kariimlkirdqm 'generous, raddlyirdddl 'to repeat, do kind' radd again' 'whatever, u rtixSat 'driving klllmaa siydaqa* licence' whenever*

'gun' 'to record, t"iifgdm!tifag register' waaliddyn 'parents* 'by chance* waaliday + 'my/your, etc. 'however if * pron. parents' much' fc \ t wan^dyt(aat) 'pick-up truck' .'however. wdynmaa 'wherever' much' txab"Urfcubarda^'expert' 'at whatever ( xdffdS 'to crush, time" i squash' 'excellent, xub intensifying perfect* particle 'approximately' meaning 'telephone' , 'heck!''really!' 'dijving test' , ydommaa 'as soon as' 'to expect, pdqcfatqn, 'usually'anticipate' 9ddam 'lack, dearth' 'to break 9dwwar 'to cause pain, hurt' down; be unemployed'

1 | 1 1 1 1 " 1 1 1 < 1

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UNIT 20

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In this concluding unit, some abridged extracts from a recent 'black comedy' broadcast'by a Gulf radio station'are""presented for comprehension and translation .-These extracts arehighly colloquial in style, being aimed at a'local audience, alid will give good practice in coping with the 'real thing'. Read through each extract with the help of'the notes which follow, and answef'the comprehension questions. When you have worked through each extract in this way, try to write an idiomatic translation of the whole thing. The play is entitled id-dinya maSdaliH, which means roughly "The world is business'. In the'first extract the main character, Muhammad bih"Rashid, introduce's himself to the audience:

speakers have / instead of g: gariib 'near, close'. 9iydal 'family dependants'. In the context, he means 'children'/ ndgla 96oda a great burden', that is, 'a lot of Jrouble'. % Hdlqa*!Halaqdat 'episode' in a radiq or(TV serial. Questions 1 How long'has Muhammad been married?* 2 What does Muhammad .want front any job he takes? 3 What job did he settle on in the end? 4 How didme first come into contact with this profession? 5 What does his friend do for a living? i 6 How long;has Muhammad" known him? Extract 2 In this1 extract, Muhammad, who is about to hang himself because he can stand life with his wife no longer, is interrupted by his friend Khalid.'. . . K: dna dkrah innik tintiHir. . .,. 9ayb, wdllah 9ayb, Hdtta lo (ntariftiji, lo&'dkkil 9iydali min wardak xdmsat ayydam . . . hdadhi waDHiifti, shasdwwi yaa-7-xuuk! M: 9aad inta* widdik antiHir> Hdtta tistdnfi9 min warday? laakin-maana bbmintiHir] K) la- tintiHir! (gTa9 rizji! xall 9iydali yimuutuun min ilyuu9\ M: yaa, wdllah mishkil! yoom'maa antiHir 9iydalik yimuutuun min il-$uu9! K: ay, inta is-sdbabfihal-Hdala illi (Hna fiih! d\vwal, ilwdaHid yimraD, yoom, yoomdyn, thaldatha, ilyoom ir*rdabi9 yiwdddi9, u nistdnft9 min wardah. M: yaa! sh~hal-kaldam yaa xdalid! K: "yiit il-Hiin, wil-mariiD illi byimuut ta9Tiih duwa tixalliih yi9Hsh! u min 9ala~~Hsdabah? 9ala~Hsdabi dna! laysh inta 9aniid? laysh inta andani? laysh! M: yaa yubba, -haay shughlati, sh~asdwwi! K: laysh maa tixalliina nisdwwi Hidna li mtiddat sdna wdHda banistaftid minha dna u into). I 1

Extract 1 yaa jimda9a, dna (smi mHdmmad bin rdashid. mitzdwwaj min jariib - tisa9td9shar sdna bas, wila 9indi 9iydal. . . tammdyt mudda Tawiila addwwir shiighul, shiighul yirayyiHni. . . ashghdal wdayid, bas maa tinaaslbni. . . dbbi shiighul maa fiih kildafa yirayyiHni u aHdSSil minnah fluus. yildst ayydam "Tawiilatidna afdkkir fish-shughul. . . afdkkir u afdkkir u tdali ydtni fikra: laysh maa ashtdghil ddxtar? u bil-ft9l, ishtaghdlt ddxtar li'ann, ayydam iz-zamdan kaan ydarna hlndi - ddxtar Hindi - u min hash-shdkil ta9alldmt shloon yidawwdun in-naas . . . Idakin, yaa jimda9a, 9indi Sadiiq 9azliz min ayydam U-muTdwwa9, bas hu yishtdghil Haffdar gubtiur u ana ddxtar. haSSadiiq sdwwa fiini ndgla 96oda, u min hal-Hdlqa wilHalaqdat il-ydaya, abbtikum tisim9iiun qiSSad ,ma9daAh u md9a zdojti. . .,. Notes: min jariib 'recently', jariib is one of those words in which some

266

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267

M: yaa! shi'nhi hal-H(dhd!' ' K: sdllimk dllah, kill rrlafiiD iydk 'ihni, 'dhibHah aW 9dTah duwa Bil-ghdlaT u a9T(ik nuSS il-mdblagh illi aHdSlah min ghasdalahl * * M: dwwal shay, dna yaa^xduyi mub gaS$dabr, v . thdani shay maa dgdar axuun ir-risdala illi HaTTdoh 9ala chdtfi. K: yaa, wdllah, illi yisim9ik yiguul^haay maa fdpgah, foog, muull ,. M: dna bd9dd 9(ndi DHamlir u 9indi iHsdas. . %. K: zayn, 9indik DHamdr u 9ihdik iHsdas, zayn'maa? 9dldyh . . . kill mariiD iydk ihni tiguul lih maa'fiik" mdraD layn yistlHi u yimuut bas\ M: arjuuk, yaa~-xtiuyimaa dgdarl K: yaa! (nta la tinTdbax wila tinshiwi\ Notes: intdHar 'to* commit suicide'. 'dkkal 'to feed' min wardak 'because of you' (lit; 'from behind you') waDHiifti = shughlati. *'i * maana bi mintiHir 'I'm not going to commit suicide'. The construction maa + independent pronoun (+ bi) + noun/adjective is a way of negating dna mintiHir 'I'm going to commit suicide' which can be used instead of dna mub mintiHir. Instead of saying dna mub rdayiH, one can say mdna brdayiH;. instead of hum mub maakltin, maa hum bi maakliin, etc. la tintiHirl 'Don't kill yourself then!' ('See if I care!'). yiwdddi9 'he bids farewell',-i.e. he dies. min 9dla Hsdabah! 'At whose expense?' (lit. 'who at- his expense?') This type of interrogative phrase is common. Other examples: min Hdggah sawwdyt hdadha! 'Whop did you do that for?' (lit. 'who- for him did you. ...'); sh-^mlnnah maSndu9! 'Made from what?' ('what from it made?'). In each case the suffixed pronoun refers back to the question word. sdllimk dllah 'God save you!' = yisalKmk dllah or dllah yisdlmik. ghasdal means here'Specifically the washing of the corpse. muul 'completely' - used like kUlish.

la tinTdbax wila tinshiwi\''YoM'can*i be1 cooked and you can't be* roaste'd'meaning'that'Khali'd can't convinde him to'do what he wants^no matter what proposal he makes. Questions ,,

7 How has Muhammad affected Khalid's livelihood? 8 What deal 'does Khalid- suggest to Muha^imad? 9 What is Muhammad's reaction? What reasons does he give?'

Extract 3 Muhammad"and Khahd*make a deal. . . . M: yaa.9aziizi dna mwdafig a9Tiikilli Tildbtah! alf! alf. K: ta9Tiini iyydahum? 9dshrq xuDur! Nl: ay nd9am, nooT'ytnTaH nooT! 9dshra x&Durl K: xtiDur xtiDur! 9dshra xtiDur, ya9ni 9dshra! M: ay nd9am, yiibbaV K: bismilldah^ir-raHmdan,. . . (faints), M: ohdo! radd TaaH mdrra thdqnya! guum, ytibba, guurn). K: dna wayn? mHdmmad? ydwwidni! sda9idni\ . M: guum yubba, Siir rayydal u (sma9 kaldami u xall 9dnnik iT-TayHdat bas. 9aad malldyna. K: arjuuk yaa~xuuk laa tifdwwil 9aliyyi! xdllni dwwal aHdSSil alfxuDur, xdllni aHdSSilhuml M: bitiHdSSithum . . . bas dna mithilmaa git lik - ' K: dna yaa~xuuk flstdahil minnik, dna dbghi M: Saaj, Saaj, u ba9Tdk alf. . . bas Hi sharT. . . . K: (sKruT! sharT wdaHid bas! M: sharT wdaHid Sughdyyir. . . . K: wdlfah, lo tabghtini dglub il-bdHar Hllu! lo tabghtini aHdwwit lik nytium is-stmi! lo tabghdni M> abghiik, yaa~xuuyi tidhbaH z6ojti\ Notes: xtiDur 'green ones', i . c Bahrain! 10 dinar notes. i

t t 1 '

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268

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UNIT 20 269 Hdlqa*! Halaqdat Hldna* iHsdas int&Har* istahdal istdHa istdnfa9 (min) kildafa* mdraDI yimraDI mdraD mdSlaHa*! maSdaliH muul , ndasab 'episode' 'truce' 'sensitivity' 'to commit suicide' 'to deserve, merit' 'to be shamefaced' r 'to profit, benefit' (from) 'bother, trouble' 'to be, fall ill' 'interest,* benefit, business' 'completely, absolutely' 'to suit, match' ndgla* ndjimlnujuum ndTaHl yOiTaHl ndTaH rdyyaH 'burden' 'star' 'to butt'

wi

nooTlniiTdan 'banknotes (from English 'note',). yinTafi 'butts', i.e. one note packed against another, 'oodles of cash'. t bismitldah etc. The full phrase is bismillddh ir-raHmdan irraHiim 'In the name of God the Compassionate, the Merciful'. This phrase is used at the inception of any project, activity or action at all.* i r xall 9dnnik iT-TayHdat 'Stop falling down!.' ('Keep frorn you the falls'). malldyna 'we've got bored with it!' Note that 'we* here refers to the (singular) speaker only. dfdwwil from the verb fdwwat, 'to"diddle, cheat' (from the English football term 'foul'). git lik, i.e. gilt lik. The /js often dropped in this phrase. Saaj 'you're right' fern. Sdaja pi. Saqdgdn. nytium 'stars', simi 'sky'. These words in more-educated speech would be nujtium (sing, ridjim) and simiia. Questions 10 How much does Muhammad offer Khalid? 11 What does Khalid offer to do fdr the money, if Muhammad were to ask him? 12 What does Muhammad ask Khalid to do in fact? Now try to translate the whole df the "text into idiomatic English. VOCABULARY SUMMARY 'dkkal andani chatflchitdaf ddwwa DHamiir fdwwal bil-fi9l 'to feed' 'selfish' 'shoulder' 'to treat, give medicine* 'conscience' 'to cheat, dupe' (9dla) 'indeed, in fact' f 'grave, tomb' gabrlgubuur gdlq'blyigiubl ''to turn over (something); galb turn something into something' min gartib 'recently' hindilhuntiud 'Indian* 'digger' Haffdar(iin)

'to relieve, give rest' risdala* 'vocation, mission' rizg (or rizf) 'sustenance; food (fig-)' i .SaajfSaadgiin 'truth-telling* shughla* 'job' TdyHa*(aaty 'fall, swoon' wddda9 'to bid farewell* yuu9 'hunger' t 9aniid 'stubborn' 9az(iz 'dear, cherished* 9iydal 'family dependants, children'

ANSWER-jCEY 271, ANSWER-KEY 2.4 1 xudh ish-shdkkarl 2 ruuH il-mulldssin\ 3 jiib lii shwdyyat niaay\ A xudh is-sandawiichdatl 5 ruuH is-suug min fdDlakl 6 jiib lii d-dafdatirl 7>xudh buTldyn* Hatiibl 8 ruuH 'il-ingliiziyydyn sh\9 jlibi l-agldam <min fdDtich). 10 xudhi :guuTiy'ydyn jigdara). 11 rtiuHt* d-ddxtarl 12 xddhi nitfat 9aysfy\ 13 jiibi l-akwdab\ 14 jfitii U-kitabdyn min fdDlich1. 15 ruuHi>l-mutidrrisdatl 3,"1 1 cHam ddftar Hastlfii! mda 'hastlfiilmish dafdatir bil-mdrra, 2 fham shtirTi hastlfii! maa' hastlfiilmish bil-mdrra 3 cham IdHarH hastlfii! maa* hast!fillrhtsK IdHam *4 chdm' mdra hastlfii! maa hastlfiilmish niswdan 5 cham btiTil,hast!fii! maa.'hdstlfii! mish bTdala'bilrmarra 3.2 1 'hastlfii xtibuz! 'ay, hastlfii. 2 hastlfii bdSal! Id, maafiilKastlniish'il-yoom. . 3 hdstlfti,naas ihni!,la,'inaa,hastlfiitmish ihniM-yoom. 4 hastlfii mudarrisiin hundak! py, hastlfii. > 5 hastlfii daxdatir ihni! Id, mdd hastlfiilmish. 3.3" Y'bi chant ddr'zari bayD! 6. bi cham gtiuTi chibrtil! T bi'cham'-xdyshat'Saysh! 1 bi cham bufil dihin! 8 bljcham ghdrshat'bdbsi! * 3 bi "cham kdylo * -9 bi cham glaas chaay! burtugdal JO biicham kdylo rubydan! *-4 bi cham guuTi-jigdara! 5 bi cham chiis ddlu! 3.4 -^How many clerKs are there in the company? - Nine. * -/And "how many secretaries? * - Thefe're six. *- OK, are there messengers, as well?" - Yes, there are two". * - And drivers . . . how many are there? - There are no drivers .af the ^moment, -v Right . . . a!re there any labourers? ' - Yes. - How-many? - Ten. 3.5 cham wdlad fii fiS-Saff! - t(s9a. cham yoom fii fihusbuu9! - sdb9a. cham Hijrafiifil-bayt!

The numbers .refer tottne exercise numbers jn' the text. i 1.1. ,riuSS kdylo IdHam; 'buTil Haliib;- ddrzan bayD; kdylo fsdrnach; nuSS ddrtan burtugdal; sanddWiich jibin. 1.2h .rAhrnad, makferae a elass of'tea please. * *" Layla,'give me a bit of fish "please., * Muhammad,go and fetch me a packet >bf cigarettes please. Abdalla'h, give'me a cup of coffee plea's^. jSalwa, go*and fetoh mea dozen or ange\ please. * 1.3> jiib' lit "nuSS "kdylo IdHam min fdDlak 9dTni nitfat jtbin min fdDlak * "rduH saww Hi sanddwiich jibin min fdDlak sawwi liifinjdalgdhwa,inin fdDlich * ' ruuHi jlibi lii glaas Haliib min fdDlich ruuHi jiibi lit ddtzdn bayD^'min fdDlich 1.4 "9dTni guuTi chibrlit min 9aTiini chiis ddlu minfdDlich fdDlati gtiuTi milH kdylo bdSal btiTil dihin gtiuTi Saqbuun- ' shwdyyat!nitfat xast rub9 kdylo shdkkar nqSS kdylo 9aysh kdylo tdmar gtiuTi zlbid gtiT9at IdHam rub9 kdylo TamdaT glaas maay 2.1 il-mudiir; il-farrdash; ir-rayydal; il-pooliis; is-sikir'tiir; issammdach; il-gaSSdqb; il-muddrris; il-9damil; ishshdrika. 2.2 sharikatdyn; darzandyn; guT9atdyn; baHrayniyydyn; gauTiyydyn; jigaaratdyn; glaasdyn; is-sikirtiirdyn; il-muhandisdyn; is-smichatdyn; Yil-mukaandyn; il-finjaaldyn; ilmikaanikiyydyn; il-baytdyn. 2.3 1 Bring me the notebook! 2 Go to the office, pi ease! 3 Make me two cheese sandwiches please! 4 Give me a pen! 5 Take the car and go! 6 Go to the baker's and bring me two loaves! 7 Take the money! 8 Make me a cup of coffee, Ahmad! 9 Give me the cups! 10 Go to the butcher's and1 bring me two kilos of meat! 11 Go home! 12 Go to the headmaster (chief) please and bring me the books!

272 ANS\VER-KEY -.ixams, Hifaf u Hammadmdyn. .,= * cham muhtindis fii fish?shdrika! - maa fii. * chamfluusfii fil-m(HfaDHd! * j i. t sdb9a danaaniir. ( 3.6' C: Peace be upon you. B: And peace.be upon you. vC: Is there, any beef today?* B: Yes^there is. "* C: How,much is it per kilo? i B: Two'and a half dinars. | * C: Fine, give'nie half a kilo.pledse. * B: All right . .<. is there anything else,(you,want)?1 C: Is there any-chicken? s B: No,there's no,chickeh today. Tomorrow, God willing. C: OK." Good-bye. B: Good-bye. 3.7 1 (a) il-yoom fii >bdSal? (b) il-chiis bi Warn!, (c) 9dTni chiis (d) u-hast dalu! 2 (a) il-yoom fii,tuffdaH! (b) il-kdylo bi cham! <c) 9dTni nuSS kdylo (d) ufii burtugdal! 3 '(a) il-yoom fii -bayD! (b) id-ddrzah bi-cham! (c) 9dTni darzandyn (d) u hast 9inab! 4 (a) il-yoom hast Haliib! (b) il-btiTil bi cham! (c) 9dTni thaldatha bTdala (d) ufiijibin! 5 (a) il-yoom fii 9aysh! (b) il-xdysha bi cham! (c) -9dTni drba9 xiydash (d) u hast shdkkar! Note that if the vendor-is female,, the correct imperative form is 9aTiini. 4.1 1 il-ghtiuri 9attij 2 it-kardasi jadiidafjiddad 3nl-buytiut kabiira!kibdar 4 il-yihdal farHaantin 5 iUHijan Saghtiral Sighdar 6 il-axdyn Tiwdal 7 il-mdra samiina 8 il-gdhwa 'zdyna '9 il-Haliib raxiiS 10 il-baaSdat xdalya 11 ilmiHfaDHa ghdalya 12 ir-rayyaaldyn taObaantin. 4.2 1 il-Hijra jadtida The room is new il-buyuut jadddal'ftddad The houses are new il-mudarrisdat jlddad The female teachers are new il-farrdash jadiid The messenger fs new 2 is-sayydara ghdalya The car is expensive
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ANSWER-KEY 273 The books are expensive il-ktitub ghdalya The ch,eese is expensive il-jibin ghdali The Jea is' expensive il-chaay ghdali Tb,e .boss is,, rich il-mudtir ghdni\ ti The two girls are-rich il-bintdyn aghniyda The*queen is rich il-mdlika ghantyya* The twp bpys aye rich il-waladdyn aghniyda 1 The tall bpys 2 'The' fast aeroplane 3 An empty hus 4 The sun is hot 5 Old houses 6,The,big*(old) girls 7 Rich merchants 8 Give m,e the big glasses please! 9 There are no cheap books here,, 10 There are five pew departments in the company. 1 mikdanilci zayn 241-mudiir, mit'dxxir 3 il-yoom bdarid 4., il-mdktab il-jadiid 5 U-mdra ghaniyya 6; stiatyp, raxiiSa 1 il-dkil ladhiidh 8 il-gdSir. jl-9attij 9, sikirtiir jadiid 10 il-mtishkila l-kabiira. # The old palace ;s-a_ very large bmlding. It has two outer doors and four inner doors. Its walls are white and its windows are of yellow and blue glass. wdllah yaa 9dli, dna wdayid 9aTshdqn . . . jiib lii bdarid min fdDlak dna wdayid 9aTshdar\ \ . , jiib Id glaas 'chaay, etc. " dna wdayid 9afshdan . . . jiib lii.kuub maay, etc. " 4na wdayid 9aTshdan. . . jiib Hi gtiuTi bdbsi, etc. dna shway yuu9dan . . . jiib (ii rtiuii jibin, etc. " dna shyvay yuu9dan . .,. jiib~lii sandawiich IdHam dna shwayryuu9dan . . ^jiib Hi 9aysh uu simich - How are you Ahmad? - Qod save you. How are you? - I'm really tired today. . . . ' - Why? - ^Because there's a lot of work (to do). dna il-yoom za9ldan - Warm- is-sayydara xarbdana " ' it-tilivizytiun xarbdan " ith-thalldaja xarbdana, " il-ghassdala xarbdana 1 ana barddan uu yuu9dan . . . fii dkil! 2 fdaTma uu dHmad ta9baaniin W dnn fii shiighul wdayid il-yoom ,t

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274 ANSWER-KEY 3 it-makiina xarbdana . . . hast mikdarliki (hnP. "4 il-mUdlir laysh z'a9ldah! 5- il-bayt dbyaD uti'lihsagf dxDar s 6 9dTni'l-qam(iS H-dHmar wil-jtiuti 1-tfByaD 7 il-Wizdara d-daaxil(yya binydati dby^hD -9ood 8 is-safdara4-briiTaaniyyafil-far(ij il-9dtiij 9 il-bank il-w'dTani binydan Saghiir lih badb' dswad kab(ir> " t < * 10 is-saftir il-miSri xoosh 'rayydal ' ' '5.l .1 xamsdn kd$lo dalu *2 sitt u afba9(in xdyshat smiit '* 3 thaldath (mya uu' sittiiff mayl* 4 sittdh* lalf ndfar 5 miyatdyn alf diindar 6 fi sdnat alf u tis9 (mya u sitt u sab9(in 7 fi sdnab alf u tis9 (mya d sittdn 8 sab9 (mya u xamsdn fils 9 miyatdyn -xdyshat *9aysh 10 tis9 u thalathtin * sdna u iHdd9shar shdhar 5.2 1 bi cham il-burtugdal il yoom? - imyatfils il-k'dylo '' 2 bi tharh U-bdSal 'il-yoom! - xams u xamsdn fils il-kdylo 3 bi cham' is-simich il-yoom! - (Haldath (mya u xamsdn fils il-kdylo 4 bi'cham il-modz il-yoom! - miya u xams"w9ishriin fils id-d5rzan 5 bi cham il-malfuuf il-yoom! - Mtya u X'ams u 9ishriin ' fils il-wdaHid ' *6 bi cham il-chaay il-yoom!,- sdb9iinfilsir-rub9 7 bi cham'it-tdmar il-yoom? - tis9 (mydtfils il-kdylo '8 bi cham iT-TamdaTa il-yoom! - xamsdnfilsil-chiis 9 bi cham il-dalu U-yoom? - thamaantin fils"d-xdysha 10 bi cham ir-ruwdyd il-yoom? - \thnti9sharfilsiS-Stirra 5.3 1 at 1.30 p.m. 2 at 8.40 a.m. 3 at 4.00 p.m.-4 at 8.30 p.m. 5 at 7.15 a.m. 5.4 1 ithnd9shar u thilth 2 thintdyn ilia thilth 3 sttta ilia xams 4 sdb9a u rub9 5 sdb9a u'nuSS u xams 6 9dshra u 9dshar v 5.5 - What's your full name-please? - My name is Hussain Muhammad Hassan: - Fine . . . and your nationality? - Bahraini. - Social status? - Married. - Do you have any children?

ANSWER-KEY 275 - Yes. Two girls and six boys. - Six boys! That's:a lot! And where d'you live? * - I live in IsaTown. - In what street? - Street 46, House No. 311. - OK,. . . and what is your present job? - Labourer in the company. - Which company? ' - BAPCO. - What is your salary? - 190 dinars per month. '< . - That's a good salary! And how old.are you now?, , - About 45. * - You have educational certificate's df course?. > - Yes. Primary "schoorcertificate. ' - Is that all? Don't you have secondary? - No. 1.1 - Ali, come here! .-Yes? - Fetch me some cold water please*. I'm very thirsty. -, God willing. 1.2 Boss: Do I have any appointments tomorrow, Salwa? Sec: You have two in the morning. . . . The first is at nine 'with official visitors from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and.the other is at eleven-thirty with the chief engineer Of the Antar Company. B. Fine. Is there anything in the afternoon? S. No, nothing . . . you're free. B. And in the'evening? S. You have a. tennis match with Mr Johnson at sixfifteen. . . . - 9(ndak thaldatha^ mawaa9(id iS-SubH . . . il-mdw9id ildwwal wiyya rSdHafi min jarddat il-jumhuuriyya fissda9a tis9a u -nuSS. . . . with-thdani wiyya Taalibdyn min il-jdami9afis-sda9a9dshra u rub9 . . . with-thdalith fis-sda9a iHdd9shar wiyya l-muqdawil dHmad 9abd dllah . . . uu 9(ndak Hdflat chaay fissafdara 1-briiTaan(yya il-9dSir fis-sda9a drba9a . . . il-masda 9lndak Hdflat 9dsha fil-bayt.

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276 ANSWER-KEY 1.3 - Hello, Jaasim! * .*-5 vli- Hello, Ahmad! How are*you?Well?- r v * - Fine! How are you? > t 1 - Fine! . . . Have some tea! f, * f Excuse me, but I've got abit of wqrk"to do at.home. - What is it? i v. ., >,/* - A real headache! My car,'s broken,down. - -Really? Repairing cars is my business! > - Is that so? sst - Yes. - OK, come with me then! 1.4 My name is-Faatima Muhammad Isa. I was^bprn in Manama and I'm living at present in Al-Fadil quarter. J've'got four kids *- a girl-called Nuura and three, boys galled Jaasim, Mubaarak and*Baxayt. My daughter Nuura is 17 and she's a student at the university. She's-a Idvely girl! My son Jaasim works as a clerk in the Antar Company. He's a-nice lad! Mubaarak works as a contractor. He's got ,a lot of money and a .big red car. My third son is Baxayt. He's, about 20 years old now, but hchasn't any,qualifications pr^anything - he's a nice boy but he-hasn't a lot of brains!' t 5 1.5 Hast9(ndak Haltib!" . t %. nzdyn, 9dTni thaldath aghrdash, . fii bdbsi 9indak! . .,. nzdyn, '9aTni thaldatha kawaartdn hast milH! ... . nzdyn,- 9dTni gtiuTi hast IdHam xartiuf! it. . . nzdyn; 9dTni,kdylo I fii 9indak burtugdal!' nzdyn",. 9dTni nuSS ddrzan*, hast dalu il-yoom! . . : nzdyn, 9dTni thaldatha kaylowdat fti malfuuf il-yoom! . . . nzdyn^jiib lii wdaHid hast chibriit? . . . nzdyn, 9dThi guuTiyy&yn . . . nzdyn,,. jiib -lii xdtnsa t fii Vindak jigdara! gawdaTi Note: The answers in* this exercise are only examples of the many acceptable sentences which could be made using hast! fii, 9indak, jiib, 9aT. It.has been assumed that the shopkeeper is male.

ANSWER-KEY 277 6,1 1 gariib min id-dawv)dar <%*yamm H-mdtHaf fi shdari9 9dbddllah 3 wayh il-mdsyid? A-mgdabil shdrikat '9dntar' fi shdari9 9uthmdan 5 ba9iid 9an * shdrikat1 '9dntar' 6 mgdabil il-bahk il-wdTani 7 gariib min il-bariid fi shdari9*9abddllafr'(or yamm,il-bariid etc.) 8 ismdH lii, wayn < il-bariid! yamm il-mdl9ab 9 wayn madrdsat abu- bakr min fdDlak% mgdabil il-bank il-wdTani '10 ismdH lii,, wayn shdrikat '9dntar'! gariib i' min id-dawwdar fi shdari9 ' futhmdan- 11 ismdH lii, 'wayn il-mdsyid! wdra madrdsat abu bakr^ 12' wayn is-stinama mih fdDlak! 'gariib min ida dawwdar"ftshdari9 9abddilah. 6.2 \vayn il-jdnTa! -.9ala l-mayz'- < wayn il-mikdaniki%- taHt is-s'ayydara wayn dHmad! - foog id-ddray* ' wayn 9dli? fis-siinama ( fis-sayydara; taHt il-bdHar; 9ala (or foogf is-sagf; gariib min bdyti; gidddam HLbanki; foogi il-bayt; fil-maay; yamm il-gdSir il-jadiid; ba9iid 9an il-kuwdyt; "wara shdari9 Hmdlik; 9ala l-jiddar; gariib min id-dariisha; taHt'il-mayz 6.3 id-drdywilftmdktabik uu fii rayydal wiyydah il-farrdash'fi mdktabik uufii'rayydalwiyydah sikirtiirtik fi mdktabik uu fii rayydal wiyydaha it-tinddylfimdktabik uu fii rayydal wiyydah bintifi mdktabik uufii rayydal'wiyydaha il-muhandisiinfimdktabik uu fii rayydal wiyydahum iS-SaHaftyyiinft mdktabik uufii rayydatwiyydahum il-muddrrisafimdktabik uufii rayydal wiyydaha shfiik! ta9bdan bas\ shfiich! 9aTshdana bas\ shfiikum! yuuwda9a bas\ shfiihum! bardaaniin bdsl i bdyti yamm bdytkum 0. jigdara *9dntar' maa foogah foog\ 3 9aliyyi dytiun u maa 9indi fluus' 4 chayf il-Haal! foog in-ndxal\ 5 sh~fii th-thalldaja? xarbdana. 6.4 they heard; I/yoU(m.) stayed; you(pl.) played; she grew; she filled; you(f.) hit; they stopped; we entered; he carried; 1/ you(m.) filled; he broke; she heard; I/you(m.) stopped; they broke; they carried; she wrote; we hit; you(pl.) drank; he grew; you'(f.) played; they'sai; we grew.

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278 ANS.WER-KEY

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^ 6-5 they heard him; I/you(m.) filled it; he carried it; you(f.) ' then did the washing up. In the afternoon I played with j broke it; we entered it; they broke it; we hit him;, she wrote the kids for two or three hours. it; they drank it; you(pl.), entered it. 7.1 they slept; you(pl.):-went; y<5u(f.) brought; she visited; 1/ sim&Qtik\, Dirbatik; Hamalndak; ^D&rabih (or *Drdbik); you(m.) saw; I/you(m.) stole; I/you(m.) died; we became; sim96ok; s(ma9ik,(ov smd9ik); Hlmlatik; sima9hdak. i he was afraid;'you(pl.) sold; she stood up; they said; you(pl.) he hit .me; they heard me;'they hit me; they carried me; hunted (or caught); we sold; you(f.) came; she' became; 1/ i you(pl.) hit me; you(f.) hit mfi; she heard me"; he carried 1 you(m.)-stood up; I/you(m.),visited; he died;, they brought; , me; he.,heard me; she carried me. she saw; I/you(m.) slept; they removed;lI/you(m.) was; we simd9thum; sim96okum; Dfrabhum;- kisartoohum; Hamsaid; they went; she brought"; you(f.) were afraid; she was; altiihum; Darabndakum; tirdsthum; Dirb6okum\ he hunted (or caught). 6.6 1 - Ali, have you written the.report pr not?7.2 1 - Wha*t happened?v - Sorry, Mr Smith, I haven't written it. They stole the car and sold it! - How come ypu haven't writteri it? 2 - Where" did you go yesterday? We didn't see you. - Yesterday I had a lot of work. Tstayed in the office until - We took the launch and went to a small island. We 6.00 p.m, but I didn't finish it. caught a'loj-of fish and ate it for dinner. ' - All right, never mind. How nice! * 2 - Haven't you heard the news? 3 Why did they go home? -, What? - They didn't tell me. - 'Salwa passed the exam! 4 ^ What did you bring from the market? - My 'goodness! What about Ftfatima? - Lots of things . . . some^ good beef and 'fruit and a few - She passed.as well, but Abdallah failed. sacks of rice. - And you? "5 - Where's Jaasim? il haven't seen him for ages. - I passed! - He's gone to London for the summer holidays. 3 - What3was your lunch-like today>tAhmad? - Lucky fellow! how much money did he take with him? - By God, *he best lunch there is . . . rice and meat and ' -'600 dinars. stew, .and we drarik red tea. i 6 - Where did you have dinner last night? - Very nice! And then? - In a Lebanese restaurant called -'The Cedars'. The food - We sat in the sitting-room for a little and drank a cup was-really delicious, and we drank a few bottles of Pepsi. of coffee. 1.3 1 gaal liyyi (nnik axddht rtixSa u riHt id-ddxtar li-dnnik - Did you have a sleep or not? mariiD - Yes, we had a sleep in the afternoon. 2 gall Itiyi innich bl9ti l-bayt il-9at(ij li'dnnich maa '4 - 'Hello? This is Ahmad. . . . > 9indich fluus - How. are you Ahmad? Well? 3 gaal Uyyi Ihnik'jibt il-ghdda wiyydak u akdlt minnah - God save you! Are the boys in? shwdy - No, they went,out at 11.30 and <hey haven't returned 4 gaal liyyi (nnakum* ytitaw min amrdka lHagg il-9tiTla yet. u ylbiaw haddaya Hagg il-yihdal - OK, thanks. Good-bye. 5 gaal Uyyi (nnakum fitdHtaw l-mdxzan uu shlltaw I5 - What's the matter,'Amina, are you tired? - Yes, very tired. This morning I-washed the clothes and aaldat minnah 6 gaal Uyyi (nnich maa shiftdh min zamdan

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m 280 ANSWER-KEY 7 gqal liyyi innah sdakin il-Hiin wdrd madrdsat dbu bakr, gariib min bdyti 8 gaal Uyyi innik rijd9t min ish-shtighul u nimt min waqt li'dnnik ta9bdan wdayid ( 9 .gaal Uyyi innakum fishdltaw fil-imtiHaahaat li'dn nakum kaslaaniin * { 10 gaal liyyi innik gumi u gilt'dhlan wctsdhlan' .7.4 1 sa'dlni law shift il-ahrdam 2- sa'dlni law simd9taw l-xdbar 3 sa'dlni law rijd9t min ish-shughtil 4 sa'dlni law nijdHtaw fii-imtiHaandat * 5 sa'dlni law kisart-il-jaam * 6 sa'dlni law btigti 1-jdnTa * i.5 Ajripdo Kuwait i - Hello Abu Khaliil! Glad to see,you safely home! - God save you Hassan! A- How was the trip? You went by plane, didn't you? - Yes. It was very nice. I got to 'Kuwait at three in the afternoon and I .wentj straight from *the airport to * *- Salmiyya. , - Does your family live there? - Yes. In the old days they used to havje an old house in the market but-they sold'it and rented-a, new house last year. It's a. lovely house with an interior courtyard in which there are trees, and an outer courtyard covered in flowers. - Nice . .,and did you go anywhere elsC-in Kuwait? - We went to the parks and the markets in the day-time and the restaurants at night? - How was your family? - In good health: It's a long time since I saw my cousin, and he's grqwn really big now - he's a man.iHe's clever as well - he came out first in the secondary school examinations. 7.6 ~,yaa hdla Hassan! irrn'Hla chayf kdanat? - zdyna! wuSdlnd Idndan fis-sda9a drba9a U-9dSir uu riHna slida min il-maTdar Hl-ftinduq. kdanat Hijrdtna killish 96oda liha mdnDHan jamiil min iddariisha. ANSWER-KEY 281 - wayn riHtawftlandan? - riHna 1-matdaHif, il-guSuur wil-maTda9im fin-nahdar, wit-masdariHt wis-siinamdqt bii-layl. il-'akil wdayid ghdali bin-nisbada kuwayt, laalcin in-naas Tayyibtin wil-jqw bdarid. - chamfluusSardftaw^ - wdayid! Idakin jnaa 9qldyh! kinna mistaanstin fi ldndan\, 8.1 mudiir ish-shdrikq l-mastyhuur; mudiir il-mddrasa lmiSri; baab il-bayt^ il-barrdani^ suug is-sdmach; mdktab il-Hisaabdat ir-ra'iisi; madrdsat il-awldad il-kabiira> ra'iis iUwuzarda; as9darM-mawdadd il-ghdalya+ The Ministry of Defence; the State of Kuwait; the, cup of coffee; the .National Library's books; ,the street-lighjts; the company-boss's son^ the daughter of a headmistress; the windqws of niy old, house t 8.2 ii-mddrasq 'maal (or mdalat)^ il-bandat; il-mdktab maal irra'iis; iz-zaam maal dn-nahdar,; il-qamtiS H-dHmaf mdali; id-dardayisht mdalat il-Hijrq l-96oda\ il-jdnTa l-kabiira mdaltich; il-jidrdan id'-faaxiliyyq mdalat il-gdSir; M-maTdabix mdalat mdT9am il-'arz; iS-StiHuf mdalat il-kti? tub;il-firiij maal il-bagaagiil Translation: the girls' school; the boss's office; the day-shifty my red shirt; the windows of the big room;_your big case; the palace's interior walls; the kitchens of the 'Cedars' restaurant; the pages of the book; the green-grocers' quarter. 8.3 qy^ Idakin sd9ar-is-sdmach dghla bd9qd\ ay, Idakin 'dkil il-bayt dHsan bd9ad\ (or dzyan bd9adl) ay, Idakin bandat lubndan dHIa bd9ad\ ay, Idakin sqyydarat axtiuk dkbar.bdVadl i ay, Idakin sikirtiirat ir-ra'iis kasldana dkthar bd9ad\ ay, Idakin dukkdan il-baggdal dwsax bd9ad\ ay, Idakin rdatib il~farrdash agdll bd9ad\ ay, Idakin sdmach il-baHrdyn alddhdh bd9ad\ Translations: Yes, but - the price of ^sh is even,higher! - home-cooking is even better! - Lebanese girls are even prettier!

fflpfffja 282 ANSWER-KEY - ypiir brother's car is even* bigger! *s- the Boss's secretary fis evdn lazier! - thevgreen-grocer's shop is'eve'n dirtier! - the-salary of a servant is even less! i - Bahrain! fish are even jnbr'e** tastyl rt 8.4 la, amiina shtighulha "mumdrriDa*' '* ' i t * la;9dli wildah.il-dkbar^killish ghdbi ' la, hdli'il-bayt mdalhumfifiriijil-Hammdam la, sdlWa jdrtimatha innaha gttlat'zddjHa ! A la, il-x'dddim.,yopmtyyatah sitta danaaniir " * la, "il-bank Taabujah itlj-thddni mdafiihkaridishan* Id, il-baHrdyn bti9dha'9dn giTar thalaathiin mdy'l * ( !Translation t ' ; '* * ' 1 ! No, Amtna w6rks"'as # nurse ' No', All's eldest *son'is'very stupid ,a " l *J No/my family's house,is in Al-Hammaafrl quarter 'v No, Salwa'& crime was' that she killed herhusbahd ' ,l\X- No/a' /adowrer's'M^y-wage'is 6 dinars No, th'ere's'no air*-conditioning on the bank's second floor No, Bahrqin'is thirty miles" from Qatar " * 8.5 1 In the seventh 'century AD.*" 2 Becadse there are two kinds1 of water fdhhd* there - sweet v water an'd sea-water. ; 3 It "declined. 4 They went toSvofk in the oil-company. 1 5 About 300',000.' 6 It has only a little oil. '7 If is'a thousand'times more beautiful - the' writer thinks that because* Bahrain is his -country, u 9.1 layn ga9ddt, shardbt glaas chaay uu axddht ir-raytiug ' bd9admaa xalldSYir-ray'uug, la9dbt wiyya.l-yihddl gardyt il-jarliHa gdbil la TaldVi min il-bayt yoom wuSdlt U-mdktab, riHt siida*l-mdSria9 ba9ad maa' kishdft 9ala l-mantuujdat, Hichdyt wiyya ttinddyl layn rijd9t ila l-mdktab, jaab liyyi l-farrdash chaay Dardbt tiliftiunli zdojti gdbil la riHt.il-bank yoom xalldSt shughli fil-bank, mashdyt 9ala l-sayf u axddht il-ghdda
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ANSWER-KEY 283 ,. * "Using 3rd person'he':, layn gd9ad . . . shdrab^. . . un dxadh . bd9admaa xdllaS . . , ld9ab. . . . 'gdra . . . gdbil la Tdla9. .-,.. yoom wtiSal. . . raaH. . . . bd9ad maa kishaf . . . Hicha. . . .. Iaynr(ja9 . . . jaab Ufa. i .*. Ddrab tiliftiun .v... gdbil la raaH.-. . . yoom xdllaS . -.Smisha . ,-v uu dxadh. . . . 9.2 ^the -first ship; the .first lesson in the third of the books; the 'twentieth page of the last report; the end of the fourth month; the sixteenth house on.the right; the fifth street on the left; firstly, I haven't the money/and secondly there isn't o enough,time; the first"time.J went to Saudi Arabia I. didn't lik,e it; the second time I liked it better. 9.3 1 Saar lih ihdd9shansdna, 2 shughlah'muHdasib. ra'iisifivharikat tijdqra 3 mdllat ^zdojtah min il-baHrdyn uu sdyyid Johnson bd9ad mall minha 4 JdrrasH risdala 11 mudiir, shdrikat is-smtit uu Tdlab fiihawaDHiifa jadtida -. , 5 ilnmaardat bdlad faqiir fil-xamsiindaf - maa fiiha maay wala 'dkil 6 sukkdan il-imaardat fagdara fil-xamsiindat 7 fi ra'y is-sayyid Johnson, il-imaardat maal il-qadiim dHsan, li'ann gluub is-sukkdan dHsan, min gluubhum il-Hiin Translation: The Emirates in the old days andnow I: You've spent a long time in the Gulf, haven't you Mr Johnson? J: Yes indeed, about 16 years. I've been 6 years in Dubai now, but I stayed 11 years in Bahrain before that. I: What were you doing in Bahrain? J: I was chief accountant in a trading company. I: So why did you come to the Emirates? Didn't you like Bahrain? J: Yes, yes, I liked it a lot, but 11 years is a long time . . . one day my wife told me she was fed up with the place.

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284 ANSWER-KEY I said to her that I'd got fed up with the wofk at the trading company as well.So*I sent a letter to the"boss of the Dubai Cement Company, and-asked"for a new position. When I got the reply I was'happy, because they accepted me on the spot, and gave me abetter salary than the Bahraini company. I: What d'you think of the Emirates? J: The first time I came' to the Emirates, about-20 years ago, there was nothing there - no water and no decent food. Frankly Bahrain was 20 times better. But'little by little 'it changed, until, when \ returned, it was completely different from before. I: How was it different? J: There* are enormous buildings everywhere . . . banks, apartment blocks, palaces, restaurants . . . there's everything available, nothing lacking. I: Do you like the Emirates of today better than the country you knew in the fifties, or the other way around? J: A difficult question. In the old days, people were poor, it's true, but they were good hearted. Now they're not. They've got richer than before - they've got houses furnished with everything, and big'American cars . . . but in my opinion, there's less companionship than there was. I: You mean, there's more money but less companionship? J: That's right . . . and more illnesses as well! 10.1 ir-rayydal illi shiftah ams il-muHdasib kitdbt lih risdata ir-rd'dsi Tarrdsht lih taqrtiri muqdawil kabiir gilt lik 9dnnah Sadlig il-Hdakim Hichdyt wiyydah shaxSiyya hdamma nda'ib il-mudiir SdHafi mashhuur nda'ib ra'ds il-wuzarda il-muhdndis ir-ra'tisi

ANSWER-KEY 285 10.2 il-Hdfla-lli HHtha il-9uTld~lligaDdyffi Idndan il-mukadndat (Hi zirthum kdanal , ., ,, wdayid U-fandddiq (lii nizdlt kdanaw ftihum U-mabdanilli shlfthum il-jdami9a~lli HHtha
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Taldbtahlha it-tddhkira 'sda9a? ir-risdala ligdytahlha ams? it-ta%r(ir 9aTdytik iyydahlha? il-jarfida Taldbtah/ha'gdbil subuu9! il-mildffa 10.3 illi shirdytahlha iS-SubH! wayn 41-dkiL HaTTdytahlha ihni gdbil il-barqiyya il-gdlam xams dagdayig?* il-kitdab il-Tard 10.4 1 hal-ydahil dshTar min dhaak, etc: 2 hdadhi s-sayydara dghla min dhiich, etc. > 3 hal-Hijra dwsa.9 min haadhiich, etc. 4 hash-shayb dkbar rAin dhaak, etc. 5 hdadha l-wdlad dTwal min haadhdak, etc. 6,hal-kutub dqdam min dhayldak etc. 7 hdadhi l-xiydash dthgal min haadhayltiak, etc. 8 hdsh-shiqqa drxaS min dhiich, etc. 9 hdadfti 1-jdnTa axdff'min haadhiich, etc. 10 hdadha sh-shayx dghna min'dhaak, e t c Suggested,, ad j ectives: 1 dghba ('more stupid') from ghdbi 2 drxaS 3 dSghar 4 dSghar 5 dqSar ('shorter') from qaSiir 6 ajddd 1 axdff 8 dghla 9'dthgal 10 dfqar (or agdlt il-maal Mess of fortune') 10.5 1 hdadha htiwa l-kdatib (Hi Tdrrash ir-risdala 2 haadhiich hiya l-mdra~lli yaat mdktabik 3 haadhayldyn hum il-masaaktin Illi maa 9(ndhum fluus 4 haadhayldyn hum iS-Suwar illi gilt lik 9dnhum

mashhtiura zdyna! zayniin ghdalya Hdlwai Halwtin raxtiSa kabiira! kibdar wdasi9a gdbil nuSS

286 ANSWER"-KEY *5 haadhdak htiwa sh-shayb illi ligdytah ams 6 hdadha htiwq d-dukkdan illi shirdy thai-jtiuti fiih 7 hdadha htiwa l-mdT9am illi akdlt fiih ams 8 hdadhi hiya l-bddla illi shirdytha s-subtiu9> il-mdaDi 9 hdadhi hlya l-fluus illi ligdytha"fish-shdari9' 10 haadhayldyn hum il-9ummdal ilfi Tllbawfluusdkthar 11 haadhayldak hum ish-shubbdan 'illi shardbt wiyydahum chaay > > 12 hdadha huwa l-ftinduq illi nizdlt fiih daxir mdrra yiit il-kuwdyt 10.6. 1 ir-rayydal illi shiftah mub inta 2 layn rija9t, min il-mdktab maa ligdyt-dHad fil-bayt 3 fii dHad bdrra A hdadha mub illi bdghatah 5 maa shdafaw dHad'wa la s(m9aw shay 6 maa'9djabni il-ftinduq - maa.kdan naDHiif u kaan fii wdayid Ddjja 7 mdHHad ja 1-maTdar yoom wuSdlt 8 hal-Haitib illi shirdytah minnik iS-SubH mub Tdazij 9 hal-gtiTa9 ghiydar illi shirdythum' minnik maa ftihum fdyda (or mub mufiida) * 10 mdHHad gaal liyyi tnnik mawjdud 10.7 - Hello,Jaasim, how are you? - Hello Abu Khaliil. I!m not feeling well today. - Why?, What's the matter? Are* you tired? - Yes, I've got a bit of a cold . . . my head's going-round. - Haven't you been to the doctor?* - Yes I've been, but he didn't give me good medicine. Those doctorcare useless, you kribw.' - What did- the doctor tell you then?. - Nonsense . . . he told me 'Just take this medicine twice a day and rest^at home.' - And this medicine he gave you",-what is it? - Just little white pills. When I got home I took one of them but the taste was bab* - horrible in fact. I haven't taken any more - I threwl the rest away.' - I've got a good idea! * - Let's hear it! ' - There's a medicine which is better than the one he gave

ANSWER-KEY 287 and it's in my fridge! - What?- ... - A freezing cold bottle of Pepsi! II.1 1 cham fluus-axddht! arba9iin diindaf. gilt lik drba9q mub arba9iin\\ 2 cham karttiuntjigdara*shirdyt! ithnd9shar karttiun:, gilt Uk ithndyn (or kartuyjidyri)^ mub ithnd9shqr\ 3 cham yoom 9tXTla axddht! * xamstd9shar yoom. * giltfik xdmsq mub-xamstd9shqr\ 4 cham xdysha 9aysh sturdy fl ^sittdtfshar xdysha. gilt Uk sin mub sittd9shar\ 5 cham gdfsha ddwa axddht!gafshatdyn (or thintdyn). gilt Uk drba9 mub thintdyn\ U.2. 1 Umdn 9aTdyt il-ftuus! lil-farrdash. V gilt Uk il-kdatib mub'il-farrdash\ 2 Umdn bi9t ith-thalldaja! Ul-miSriyya. gilt lik il-lubnaaniyya mub il-miSriyya). 3 Umdn 9aTdyt il-xdbqr! li nda'ib il-mudiir. gilt lik il-muddr, mub nda'ibahl 4 Umdn Tarrdsht iUbarqiyya! li axtiuk illifi amriika. gilt lik li axuuyillifi inglltard, mub Illifi amriika) 5 Umdn Tarrdsht id-da9wa! li ra'iis shdrikat it-tijdara. gilt Uk ra'iis wakdalat is-sdfar, mub shdrikat it-tijdara\ 1 - shirdyt liha nafntiuf qamiiS II.3 1 - hdadhi mub il-hddiya~lli bagh. kraafdat dtha, Tdbatjuuti - bas hlya maa gdalat Uyyi chidhii sda9a 2 tanntiura

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ANSWER-KEY 289 bddla <bluuskitdab dalat taSwiir ustutfdana 'xdatqfh ' ydabi9a dalat tasjdl sdykal ,rdydo' ''dataHdasiba jaakdyt bantaldbn . . . gtitant II.4 1 - hdadhi mddrasa kabiira. - 'ay, Idakin hast dkbar min hdadhi ft wasT il-madiina. - wdllah? 9timri maa shlftha\ * * s 2 - hdadhafirdjfaqtir. ' ! - > ay', Idakin hast dfqat-ntirt hdadha gariib 'min il-j(sir. . - wdllah? 9timri maa shiftah). H 3,- hdadha mdsyid'jamtil. * '* * -ay, Idakin hast ajmal''min hdadha mgdabil il-gdSir il9attij. * * V - wdllah? 9umri maa shlftaht " * 4 - hdadha mdbna qadiim. * - ay, Idakin'hast dqdam min hdadha gariib-min maktab U bariid. - wdllah? 9timri maa shiftah). ** 5 - hdadha rrCdT9am wdsix. - ay, Idakin hast dwsax min hdadha yamm siinama * 9dntar. - wdllah? 9timri maa shiftah). 6 - hdadha sdaHil jami'd. - ay, Idakin hast djmal min hdadha bi bu9d xams amydal min ihni. - wdllah? 9timri maa shiftahl 7 - hdadhi mindara Tawiila. - ay Idakin hast dTwal min hdadhi gariiba min il-bank il-9drabi. * * - Wdllah? >9umri maa shifthai 8 - hdadha maTdar HadUth. - ay, Idakin hast dHdath min hdadha fish-shdrja. - wdllah? 9timri"maa shiftahl II.5 1 Tilbaw mdzza lubnadniyya kdamla (mujdddara, HummuS bi TaHiina, baylinjdan mdHshi, etc.) 2 li'dnnahum mub yuwda9a wdayid '3 jaab lihum iT-Talab'dat maal ndas ghayr4 li jin%da9a min is-sa9uudiyyiin f Translation: m: Right^ what d'you haye that's nice? We're not' very hungry. w: We've gof everything-. . . for example roast chicken, and thdre's rice and f\sh . .'. we've got'lamb with yoghourt, aml'meat sandwiches. . . . j: No, no! All those dishes'are Gulf dishes - they're a bit heavy. Don't,you have any-houmus'and stuffed aubergines and fried lentils. . . light Lebanese1 dishes I mean? 'We're not that hungry! s "w/Yes, we've gbt as much* Lebanese food* as'you want! m:,OK, bring us a big plate of fried lentils and houmus and . . . a complete hbrs d'oeuvres, I mean. w: Yes sir. j: Where's the waiter? m: Here he comes now! " " w: OK, this is twcf plates ktf chicken*, and this is Jhe'rice and fish you ordered. . . . j: No, no! This is a mistake! This food isn't'for us! It must be for some other people. We ordered a complete hors d'oeuvres, not these things you'Ve brought! w: No,* no! What I've brought is correct! Your orders are written* on'this paper. Look! 'Two plates of chicken -' m: What's the number of this tabid w: Sixteen. , m: What's the number you've written on this paper? w: 'Six' is written . . . oh! Sorry, I'm mistaken, this food isn't yours, it's true, it's for those Saudis sitting over there! And I've given them your hors d'oeuvres! 11.1 1 ,.... ta9Tiihum! 5 ... v ta9Ttina? a9T(ihum d9Ttikum 2 sitttih diindar... 6 ta9Ttini! 3 ta9TiiHa!' a9Tiik \ : a9Tliha 7 ..xams u sab9Un diindar kill subuu9dyn 4 kill subuu9 r.% 2 9aysh u simich H.2 1yHibb ?

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290, ANS.WER-KEY, tiHibbuun,.v...(....? 6 .-;..;.. diyday mdshwi niHibb ^ ' l" " yiHibbiiun ? 4 yiHibbiiun v ; dkil ingliizi i5^ tiHibbtin ?, 8 baylinjdan mdHshi aHibb .' \" 11,3' 1 mtSJr. vttSjr, ashtiuf ashtiufil-ahrdam il-ahrdam I 5 bjyruuHtiun il-bdHar , 2 .... stiuriya ddr'ts 9drabi yiSiiduun simich ? 3 bitruuHtiun ? 6 .'....ry.t biyrtiuH biyrtiuH il-bdHar yiSiid binruuH ....-.* v .. ? simich , 4 biyruuHtiun ..s ? ;. 7 biyrduH il-jibdal fS biyruuHuun, ydaxidh rdariatdh 11.4 U sda9a thaldatha u-nuSS 5 .' , bitylin! ,2, ..*.-v *biytiun! bayii, biytiun 6 ....;.... sda9a ithnd9shar t 3 , biyii! 7 bityii? biyii : bityti 4 .. sda9a xdmsa ilia rub9 8 sda9a thaldatha u thilth 11.5 1 i . chaay? 5 . ., bdarid? 2 , gdhwa? 6 . ' . . . . . . . . ' 9aSiir! 3 tishirbtiun ? 7 tishirbiin ? /a, maa nishrab la, maa tishrab 4 yishrab ,....v ,? 8 yishirbdun ? la, maa yishrab la, maa yishirbuun 11.6 1 ..; sayydara*jadtida! 5 .......... is-subiui9 il-jaay 2 shiraw .-L...' ? 6 shirat * ? f la, maa shiraw la, maa 'shirat byishrtiun bitishri .....v.. \shirdyt ? 7 , thdlltiaja jadiida! la, maa' & shirdyti ? , shirdyt bdshri v . la, maa shirdyt 4 ...,gtiT9at 'arD jadiida! bdshri 11.7 1 il-baHrdyn ? 4 maa ti9ijbah ? il-baHrdyn ! ti9ijbah " ! ti9ijbah 2 maa ta9jibkum ! ; ? ta9jibna .i ! ta9jibna 5 maa yi9ijbiiunah il! kuwaydyyiin ? 3 .*.. is-sa9uudiyya ? yi9ijbtiunah! .... is-sa9uudiyya ! yi9ijbtiunah ! 3

ANSWER-JCEY 291 6 maayi9ijbtiijnha .>!, 7 is-sa9uudiyytin yi9ijbtiunha! .. is-sa9uudiyyiin! yi9ijbtiunha, *..! ^ 8 maayi9ijbtiunich* ? yi9ijbtiunni ! yi9ijbuunni i 11.8 5 ytimmtiun fil-bayt v 1 .... ktiura Tda'ira "6 .< .-/. hum. kibdar 2 ? 4iila 3 kdanat $H9ab .... hiya 7 1 + yStidtiun simich 8 kaan yigtia] simich \Saghtira, ~htiwa kabiir 4 kdanawt yili9btiu*n humlSighdar i ,* 11.9 - Hello. , - Hello.,. .*. What canj do for you? - This car of mine isn't running well. I don't know what's wrong with it. . . . Maybe something's wrong with the plugs or the carburettor. flj . . ,c - O.K, put the bonnet up and let's have a look inside. . . . ,. Np^. nothing wrong with thet plugs . . let's see the breaker-points ... . a bit dirty, need cleaning, but that's not the cause. . . . This is A problem. . . ! When was the last time you put oil in it? - I 'don't know exactly .'-. about two or three months - Oh! ;Tnat's not^o good! In this hot weather you must put oil in every month. Let's look at the level. . .*. See! The level's very tow. It's almost runout. I'll put a couple of cans in for you and you'll see how well your, car goes . . . but no, two cans isn't enough ...t. let's put in one more . . . that's OK.like that . . . finished!,That's two and a half dinars please, - Here's your money . . . and thanks. - Why not take, another can? Maybe it'll come in handy on ,the, road! - That's true. . . . Give me a big can and I'll put it in the boot. 11-10 1 Jaasim's father 2 12.15 p.m. 3 2.00 p.m. 4 Jaasim's father 5 He's ill, and the doctor says he must stay at home 6 He'll be wearing a yellow suit and a blue shirt. 12.1 baghdani artiuH il-bayt; abghiik tiguul lii shay; tabbiih

292 ANSWER-KEY yighdsil is-sayydara; nabbiikum taakltiun hal-dkil' wiyydana; tabbtinni agtiul lich iS-Sidq? bdghaw ydirstiun fiiqdahira; baghdyti tishriin dhaak il-juuti, muu chidhii? hal-Hljrd tdbbi tiha tanDHiif; il-baab dhaak* ydbghi lih taSliiH; tdbbi liha fluus. maa giddrt asikk il-baab; maa yigdartiun yooSltiun ihni gdbil sda9a tis9a; giddrt tigra il-xaTT mdalah? layn shaaf il-ghdlaT gaam yiD-Hak; yoom ana 9timri 9ishrtin sdna, gumt tishrab jigdayir; bd9ad sda9a gdafnat iT-Tayydara tdnzil; DHalldyt dskin fir-riydaD sanatdyn bd9ad; tdmmat timshi thaldath saa9dat; DHdllaw yDirbtiun lii dliftiiin kill yoom; maa zilt tdskin gardb min mdktab ilbariid, muu chidhii? maa- zaal yistiug sayydarat foord; maa zilt ddhkir haadhdak il-yoom. ana gda9id dktib risdala; amiina gda9da tigra mujdlla; gda9da tdknis il-arDiyya; Idazim maa tigra hal-xdrbuTa; muu Idazim yirja9 bdachir, muu chidhii? Idazim maa tixdaf min ir-rayydal dhaak; muu Idazim trtiuH Hdalan; ytimkin ydbbi yirtiuH; yumkin maa y9arfuun yigrtiun; ytimkin yifraH layn 'yishtiufah, maa~dri. 1 9dsharsiniin kuura Tda'ira 2 : xamstd9shar sdna yiHibb dhiich il-bint maa zaal yiHibbhal -3 9ishriin sdna yirtiuH is-siinama marratdyn fil-yoom maa zaal yirtiuHl 4 wdaHid u 9ishrtin sdna, yistiug sayydarat kdadilaak maa zaal yistiugl .5 yoom hlya 9timurha ithnd9shar sdna kdanat tiTbax zayn Sid}, u maa zdalat tiTbax~zayn\ 6 tisa9td9shar sdna tilbas azyda gharbiyya maa zdalattilbdshumI 7 sitt sintin tigra saa9atdyn kill yoom maa zdalat tigra saa9atdyn kill yoom 8 arba9td9shar sdna tdktib qiSaS maa zdalat tdktibhuml yabghiik - 1 tyiib lihfinjdalgdhwa 2 tighdsil sayydartah 3 truuH is-suug

ANSWER-KEY 293 4 tishiil il-wdsix min hal-Hijra 5 tyii bdachir sda9a drba9a shitigtiul U-mudiira! tabghiich - 6 tiH9btin wiyya yihdalha 7 tyiibtin liha 'glaas maay 8 tiDirbiin tilifdun Hsh-shtirTa 9 tisikktin il-baab il-barrdani , tabghiich -10 dmurfdn 9dld l-bank u ta9Tiin risdala lil-mudiir 12.6 1 layn raaH il-kuwdyt; gaam yilbas dlshdasha 2 layn gdra l-maqdal, gaam yiD-Hak 3 layn rikab il-baaS, gaam yiHchi bi Soot 9dali 4 layn shqaf il-ghdlaT, gaam yibchi 5 layn wuSdlt il-xaliij, gumt dshrab wdayid gdhwa 6 layn kint ft 9umdan, gumt dmshi fil-jibdal 7 layn shirdyt tilivizytiun, gumt atimmfil-baytwdayid 8 layn riHt il-qdahira, gumt dTla9 wdayid li Hafaldat 12.7 1 laazim trtiuH il-bank il-Hiin\ la, mub Idazim il-Hiin . . . bartiuH bdVad shway 2 truuH is-suug ! baruuH is-suug 3 tighdsil d-mawaa9iin ! baghdsilhum \.... 4 tigra hdadha l-kitdab ! bagrdah 5 tiTbax il-ghdda ! baTdbxah :.. 6 tdaxidh had-ddwa ! bdaxidhah 7 tdktib hal-jawdab ! bakttbah ! 8 truuH tyiib iT-Tawdabi9 ! bartiuH aytibhum 9 tdDrubMh tiliftiun ! bdDrub lih tilifdun 10 timtirr 9aldyha ! bamtirr 9aldyha 12.8 1 a9Tiih ir-risdala s-subtiu9 il-mdaDi 9aTdytah iyydaha !

12.2

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12.5

294' ANSWER-KEY i

ANSWER-KEY 295 t(shrabu (tishirbu)! la tinsdaha, tinsdyha, tinstiuha! (kithum, ikldhim, ikltiuhum klllhum! doguf oogfi, dogfu gariib min il-bank! la tiHuTTha, tiHuTJiihha, tiHuTTtiuha hndak! yiibhum, yiibiihum, yiibtiuhum Uyyi! guul, gtiuli, gtiulu shay! xudh, xtidhi, xtidhu rdaHatiklichlkum! la tiTJiH, tiTiiHi, tiTHHu! liff, lifft, Jiffu yasdar ihni! la tiliff, tilifft, tiitffu yamtin! Ig9ad, fg9adi (g(9di) tg9adu (giVdu) ydmmi!" tktibha, iktibiiha (kitbliha), iktibtiuha (kitbuuha) bi stir9a! gtiTThum,guTTiihum, guTTtiuhuml 12.12 - I want to go to the Arab Bank . . -. how muclrd'you want? - Half a dinar. - No, that's too much (lit. 'does not happen'). Take three hundred fils!, - Four hundred'. - OK. i - Where is the Arab Bank exactly? - In Sheikh Salman Street . . . go .round this roundabout ... , pK . . . and-take the first street on the right . . . turn lef>,at the Casino restaurant go straight on no, no! I said turn left^iot right! What's the matter with you? t - Sorry. I've only been driving a^axi for three days. Don't get upset! - It doesn't matter . . . stop here please . . . here's your money . . . Ihanks. - abbi artiuH il-wizdara l-xaarijiyya. - wayn hdadha? - maa (ddri? fi shdari9 il-m&ghrib, gariiba min bank ilkuwdyt. - diindar wdaHid. - xudh sab9 (mya u xamsdn fils. * - zayn. - Tuuf id-daw\ydar . . . zayn . . . liff yasdar . . . xudh thdani shdari9 9ala yamlinik . . . la . . . la truuH stida! gilt lik tdaxidh thdani shdari9 yamdn! - 9dfwan. maa a9drf hal-minTaqa dhi. 12.13 1 First, take a little rice and pour water over it.

9azdmtni _

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5 6 7 12.9

QaTdvtah ivvdah ....*.>. dgra l-maqdql min gdbil a9Tiik ma9dashik H-bdarHa dgra taqrlirha min gdbil

1 gift lih )'djlis Idakin tamm ydoguf . yigra l-kitdab .yisma9 ir-rdydo 2 *. yilbas dishdasha .:: yilbas 3 bantaldon A
A\

.. yiDHillfil-fardash r. y(g9ad' yil9ab fishK \ydakil il-ghdda :..../...-: shdari9 .. yismd9ni ... ytgra jariidatah 7 .. ydoguf yistiug 8 9 .i ... ydaxidh rtiaHatah yddris 10 yighdsil is-sayydara Hdalanl 12.10 1 5 6 2 3 4 ydktib taqrtir haamm 5 vddris HOQS H-imtiHaandat 12.11 la tdoguf, toogufi, tdogufu! ruuH, rtiuHi, rtiuHu l-bayt! la tiguul, tigtiuli, tigtiulu lii hdadha! shiil, shtili, shtilu hdadha! 9dTni, 9aTiini, 9aTuuni iyydah! sikk, sikki, sikku l-baab! (Tla9, (Tla9i (Td9i), CTla9u (Til9u) bdrra! iyii yishuuf hdadha ...A !

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s 296 ANSWER-KEY 2' Put the saucepan on the heat and don't forget to add a little salt. 3 Cut up "the"meat into'small pieces with a sharp knife and brown it with a little oil. 4 Add spices to taste with a little flour. 5 Pour hot water on the meat and stir it over the-heat until 'it boils. 6 Cover the saucepan and leave it boiling for twenty minutes until it is ready. 7 Remove the rice from the heat when it is ready and shake it dry in a sieve ('sieve it until it dries'). 1 xtidhi shwdyyat 9aysh u ghasllihftmaay bdarid '2 ghaTTlih bi maay bdarid u HtiTTi i-jidir 9dla D-Daw 3 DHiifi nitfat milH 4 gdSgiSi d-diyday Sighdar u Hamriiha 5 DHiifi nitfat TiHtin u xurri dagiigatdyn 6 Stibbi maay Harr 9ala d-diyday u xtiuri bi gdfsha layn ylghli 7 ghdTTi l-fldir u xdfDi l-Harr 8 layn ylnDHaj il-9aysh, shtiliih min iD-Daw u shaxllih, la tixdlli il-9aysh yighli dkthar" mid xamstd9shar dagiiga 13.1 1 - Where's the officer who -wrote this report? I don't know, I haven't seen him today. 2 - Have you been to Egypt? - No, not yet. I'll go next year. 3 -'Read the first paragraph on page five, ple'ase. - Excuse me, sir, my friend who is absent has taken my book! 4 - Watch out for him, he's a very dishonest man! -~-Not just'dishonest, he's a thief as well. He's stolen my wallet! 5 - Don't get upset, my friend! - Why shouldn't I get upset? Those layabouts beat me with a stick! 13.2 1 - wayn HaaTT id-ddftar mdali? mub laagiih - fi d-durj il-yamiin min il-mayz 2 - wayn bddlatik il-jadtida? - bd9adni muu maaxidhha min il-xayydaT 3 - 9dThum glaas chaayl

a $$%& ANSWER-KEY 297

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- la, maa yabbtiun. kill minhum shdarib glaasdyn 4 - ir-rayydal dhaak yaay min wayn? - ana laagdh fish-shdari9 5 - shloon muu shdayil dhaak il-mayz? - maagdar ashtilah, thagiil wdayid 13.3 1 - la; muu maaxidhha bd9ad 2 - la, muu faahlmha bd9ad 3 - la, muu mdaxdah bd9ad 4 - la, muu gaariiha bd9ad 5 - la, muu waaSilha bd9ad 6 - la, muu laagytinha bd9ad 7 r - la, muu Saaydiinah bd9ad 8 - la, muu jaaybtinah bd9ad 9 - la, muu raaj9lin bd9ad 10 - la, muu raayHlin bd9ad Translation: 1 - Have you got'your Secondary School Certificate yet or not? - No, not yet. 2 - Do you understand Arabic yet or not? - No, not yet. 3 - Have you had breakfast yet or not? - No, not yet. 4 - Have "you read that paragraph yet or not? - No, not yet. 5' - 'Have you reached the end of the story or not? - No, not yet. * 6 - Have you found the money which you lost yet or not? - No, not yet. 7 - Have they (you) caught the thief yet or not? - No, not yet. 8 - Have they brought the food you ordered yet or not? - No, not yet. 9 - Have they returned from the trip yet or not? - No, not yet. 10 - Have they gone to the mosque yet or not? - No, not yet. 13.4 1 - la, la, tdwni shaariiha). 2 - la, la, tdwha rdaj9a\

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298 ANSWER-KEY 3 - la, la, tdwhum daashshtihha{ *, 4 - la, la, tdwwah rdayiHf " '* 5 - la, la', tdwnni shdayfahl v 6*- la, la, tdwhum naashriin'ahl i *t 7 - la, la, tawna maakltinahl 8 - la, la, tdwha ghadsldtha.(6r~ghaasldthum) Translation: ' <* \ 1 - I thoughtyou boughfthis suit'ages agb. - No no, I've just bought.it! 2 - 1 thought Amiina returned from- Syria the day before <t yesterday. ; - No no, she's just returned! H * 3 - 1 thought they went into the room three hQurs ago. - No no, they've just gone'in!. ^4 - , I thought he went to the doctor's two days ago. - tyo no,(he's just gone! 5 , - 1 thought* you saw the "mistake before.me. - No no, I've just seen it! 6 - 1 thought they published the book-last year. - No ho,'they've just .published it! 7 - 1 thought you had dinner a short while after you got back. ,k - No no, we've just had it! 8 - 1 trjought she did the dishes before she went out. - No no, she's just done them! 13.5 1>' She's a girl who is (well) known in the district - everyone is afraid of her because she's mad; 2 I didn't pick up the skirt from the tailor's because the hem was ripped. 3 This sink is ^full of water because'th&.pipe from it is blocked up with rubbish. "4 Have you seen the plastic bags dumped on the sea-shore? The government ought to remove them. 5 I wanted to talk to you on the phone yesterday but the line was engaged all the time. 6 Have you found the money, which wafc lost? No, riot yet. 7 What d'you want to eat? I want a boiled egg with a little roast meat. 8 ( Who is responsible for this mess? Not us, sir, it's them

ANSWER-KEY 299 who are responsible! 9 When we were young, marbles was a very popular game with us. 10 Have you heard the news? The Minister of Defence has been killed! " IL The late Shaikh Salman was a famous ruler. 12 The Arab countries are open to everyone - everyone is allowed entry. " ' c 13.6 One day, Juha spreads out his shirt on the roof. Then he went downstairs, having left it*up thereto dry. Juha began to*cry out. His(neighbourt hears him and comes out, and he says to him 'What's*up Juha?'* (Juha)!says to.him 'My shirt'. has fallen from the rodf to1 the ground!' So the neighbour says 'So what?' So Juha-says 'IfTd be$ninthe shirt I'd have ! diedj' ' 14.1 1 la tiTtirrish haadhdak' il-^ladl 2 SdlliH Mh-thalldaja\ 3 la twdggif is-sayydaral 4 wdSJSilni l-bayt* min fdDlikl 5 fdkkir* ,gdbil la tsdwwi shayl 6 wdq\dha l-bariid\. 7 rawwtiuni Suwarkum). S^sdllifdi xamsdn' diindar min fdDlikl 9 la tiHaachlihuml 10 la'tiHdawil truuHl 11 He came and jpuj: lip the picture Crookedly bdt put it straight later. 3 12sDon't put that tyre on . ... it's got a puncture. 13 Clean the windows'please ahdf repair the broken door. 14 Give me the report and I'll thinfc about the matter. 15 Trjey sent me to school (I was sent to school) when I was five. 16/They travelled to India and stayed there a long time. 17 Don't talk to me in that tone! Lower your voice! 18 When they sacked him from his job at the company, he took up repairing broken down'cars. 19 After I'd shown him the present which they'd given me, he remained silently thinking. 20 I'll pass by youff.) "tomorrow and take you to your uncle's. 21 I can't hear you! Speak up! 22 We'reduced the prices by 25%.> 23 I taught for two years in a-government school. 24 Don't put the "gear over there! Put it over here!

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T -'ssffiBaa-^^ 300 ANSWER-KEY 1 dtrdyyag kill yoomfis-sda9asitta 2 atghdddafi hal-mdT9am kathdr 3 sda9a cham nit9dshsha il-ldyla? "4 laysh maa titghadduun wiyydana bdachir? K 5 tirdyyag wiyyday bdachirl 6 hat-tayr maa yitrdkkab 9dla has-sayydara 7 baab-il-mdxzan maayitbtiTTal i 8 il-makaatiibtitwdddabil-ydd dda'iman ! 9 has-suug maayitbdnnad dbadan .f ; 10 iS-SdHan il-makstiur maa yitSdllaH 11 xdllna nitHdacha shway'9an hdadha l-mawDuu9\ * 12 xdllna rtitfdahamfihan-ntiqTa). t 13 xdllhum yitsaabaduuhfthal-mawDtiu9\ 14 xdllna nitldaga mqrra thdanya-96gub bdachirl . 15 xdllhum yitSaalaHtiunl 16 /flys/i maa yitHachchuun? j , 17 fay^n moo yitzdwwaji 18 /ayS/i maa tit9dllam il-lugha^ l-ingliiziyya? ' 19 /ays/i moo nitwdafag 9dla hdadha? 20 /aysn man titsaa9adtiun dkthar?* 21 /ays/i maa titpdwwad 9dla l-dkil? (In Nos 16-21 shloon can equally well he.used*instead of laysh) y , t 14.3 1 - Hdachdyt il-mudlir ams, muu chidhii?' - la muu mHaachtih bd9ad). <2 - SalldHt il-makiina ams, muu chidhii? ~ la, muu mSdlHHha bti9ad\ -3 - naDHDHdft ghtirfat in-noom iS-SubH,-muu chidhii? - la, muu mndDHDHifha bd9ad\ 4 - Tarrdsht il-makttiub dwwal ams, muu chidhii? - la muumTdrshah bd9ad\ 5 - waafdgt 9dla l-mashrtiu9 ish-shdhar il-mdaDi; muu chidhii! T la, muu mwdafig 9aldyh bd9ad\ 6 - fattdsht U-mdSna9 is-subtiu9 il-mdaDi] -muu chidhii! - la, muu mfdtshah bti9ad). 7 - jarrdbt il-mdT9am il-jadtid ams, muu chidhii! - la, muu mjdrbah bd9ad\ < 8 - fanndsht il-9ummdal dhayldak is-subtiu9 il-mdaDi, 14.2 ANSWER-KEY 301 muu chidhii! - la, muu mfdnnishhum bd9ad\ 9 - chayydkt mustdwa z-zayt gdbil nuSS sda9a, muu chidhii! - la, muu mchaykah bd9ad\ 10 - badddlt it-fayrda{ is-subtiu9 il-mdaDi, muu chidhii? - la, rmiu mbtiddilha bdVad). Using the you(f.) form: 1 Haachdyti - mHdachyatah 2 SalldHti - msdlliHdtta 3 naDHDHdfti - mnaDHDHifdtta 4 Tarrdshti - mTarshatah 5 waafdgti - mwdafga 6 fattdshd - mfdtshatah 7 jarrdbti - mjdrbatah' 8 fanndshti - mfannishdttum 9 chayydkti - mchdykatah' 10 badddlti - mbaddildtta Using the you(pL) form: 1 Haachdytaw - mHaachiinah 2 SalldHtaw - mSalHiinha 3 naDHDHdftaw - mnaDHfiinha 4 Tarrdshtaw - mTarshiinah 5 waafdgtaw - J mwaafgiin 6 fattdshtaw - mfatshdnah 7 jarrdbtaw mjarbiinah 8 fanndshtaw mfanshtinhum 9 chayydktaw - mchaykiinah 10 badddltaw j mbadliinhai 14.4 Juha went to his radio and turned it on. The one who was singing (on the radio) said 'My darling I'm thirsty!' Juha went and put the radio in the water jug, and pulled it out. It kept on singing 'My darling I'm thirstyK Juha dunked it in the water again and pulled it out . . . now he wants to play it and it dQesn't work. Juha says to it 'Won't-you work now? When you were thirsty I gave you (water) and now you've stopped (working)!' ('thirsty' ;s a common locution in Arab love-songs meaning thirsty for love) 15.1 Translation: 1 He didn't agree to help the club 2 It's prohibited for you to smoke in the bedroom 3 What they did won't be any use to us at all 4 Who allowed you(f.) to come in? *5 I get angry merely seeing his face 6 The inspector ordered the policeman to stop the bus 7 He sells and buys apartments, that's his business 8 He smashed the window pane unintentionally

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<t#ag)-js^^ 302 ANSWER-KEY Using verbal nouns: ^ * * " 1 maa wdafag 9afa fnusd9adat in-ndadi 2 it-tadxiin>rhamntiufighurfat in-noom 3 ttswdaihum maa btifiidna dbadan ^* 4 minhu simaH lich 'id-duxtiul! * 5 mujdrrad shdofat il-wijh mdalah tiiq99iini * * tf 6 il-mufdttish 'dmar ish-shtirTi bi tawgiif 4J-baaS 7 bay9 u shirda shiqqdai, haay shughlah >k 8 kdssar'il-jaam bidtiun qaSd ' Translation:* "" V V hal-kutp.b tdbbi liha gaTdaJ * 10 mamntiu9 tawgiif-is-sayyaafdat ihnil * 11 rmq y?arf is-sibdaHa ! 12 gdolah ydbbi lih taHqiiq ' Vl 13 tachytik'Hal-Hisaabdqt shiighul mtit9ib ' J H 14 la tdiir bdalak min HdchiTi-nqasl 15 nishri agdll W^ fiwwal Min zbod ilias9dpr * 16 shinhu it-taxdSSuS mdalik! tadriis il-lughdat 15.2 1 moa sima9-illa galiil min il-Hddhi 2 la laytdat is-sayydara wa la l-bitri mdalha mSdilaHa 3 maa 9aTdanatashjii9-wa la<musda9ada * 4"m*aa t9arf tiTbax wa la tdbbi tit9dllam: bafdnnishikl 5 bititHdssan bi'ktithrat il-mumdarasd " 6 wiaa aHibb H'-musdawama, la fis-suug wa la wiyya suwwdag'if-takdasi " 7 maa gidrat tdakil wa la tindam'min humtiumha 8 la 'ddab wa la axltiaq 9indhum\ 9 mub laagyiin wa la mTarrishiin makaattib has-subtiu9 10 la inta wd la'ghdyrik yigdar yistia9idni<fi hdadha 11 dawwdrt, Idakin maa ligdyt burtugdal wa lajuffdaH 12 rayydal zayn: maa iyii sh-shtighul mit'dxxir \ya la yirtiuH mubdkkir 15.3 1 saww brtiuHik, ana maa basda9dikl 2 maa bdghaw yisaafrtiun-brquHhum ' 3 maa biysda9dik Hdadha; sda9id rtiuHikl 4 si'ldtni nafs is-su'dal'- 9aTdytha ndfs il-jaw'dab 5 shiighlik nafs shtighli (or shughlatik nafs shtighldti) 6 maa wadddyt is-saamdan killah fi nafs il-mukdan; wadddyt il-masaamtir fi Sandtiug brtiuHhum wil-chilaaliib ANSWER-KEY 303, fi chiis brtiuHhum > 7 maa baTTdlt id-dariishq - tibdTTalat brduHha -' 8 hdadha nafs il-bayt illi ddshshatah l-9ajudz 9 U-miHfaDha l-mabytiuga rtaffhdadhi * 10- Idazim maa truuHtiun il-firtij dhaak" brtiuHkum - wdayid xdTarl -, 15.4 The usefulness of fasting First 'of all, fasting is, useful (from the point of yiew'of the body . . . the body, erm, is like the engine of a car. If, every six months on every year you, don't-take it for" servicing, to be checked, cleaned, adjusted - even if itVa-caY (costing) sixty or seventy thousand - in the'space of two or three years it'll be ruined.- On thVother hand, the car'which costs one thousand dinars, if every six months'the^mechanicxhecks it, inspects it and sees if it's {working) well and ^properly - it .won't deteriorate. The body is like a car - it needs to be rested andt adjusted now and again. These days, disease is on the increase . . . Why? ffbm over-eating. . . . Verbal nouns: Soom from SaamlyiStium 'td,.fast'; fdyda' from faadlyifiid 'to give benefit; be useful to (someone)'; xidma from xddamlydxdim 'to serve'; tachydk from chdyyaklyichdyyik 'to check'; tanDHtif from ndDHDHaflyindDHDHif 'to clean'; ta9diil from 9tiddal!yi9addil 'to adjust';, amrtiaD pi. of mdraD from muraDiyimraD 'to fall, be ill'; akil from 'dkallydakil 'to eat'. 15.5 One* day, Juha went to the doctor's. He gave him some medicine in a bottle and said to him 'When you take this medicine, shake the bottle.' Juha went home and took the medicine without shaking it. When he remembered what the doctor had told him, he said 'Oo-er!' and began jumping up and down Uke this. The neighbours said to hiin 'What's wrong with you Juha?' So Juha said T forgot- to shake the .bottle before I took, the medicine - so I'm shaking it up now 1 in my belly!' III.l T^Hello? E: Hello. Good morning! T: Good morning! E: Is that Gulf Aviation?

304 ANSWER-KEY T: Yes. E: May I speak'to the general manager please? My name is Johnson. I'm the manager of 'New World'.travel agency. T: JiSst a moment, the line is engaged . . . (pause) . . . I'm sorry Mr Johnson, his secretary says he's not there at the moment. He went out five minutes ago/she'says. . . . E: When will he be back? T: Just a moment, I'll ask his secretary . . . she 'sdys she doesn't know. . . . , . < ' E: Canl leave a message for him with her? T: Please do. E: I want her to tell him that we've agreed to the conditions he imposed'on us regarding the contract. T: Fine, I'll give her the message and she'll inform him when he gets back. E: Thank you. 1 T: Don't mention it. i III.2 (a) haay shdrikat il-xaliij lin-nafT? lis-smiit! lil-binda! Ut-taTwtir it-iqtiSdadi! lil-mantuujdat iz-ziraa9iyya! haay mu'dssasat il-xaldj lin-nafT? 'etc. haay shdrikat il-kuwdyt lis-smiit? etc. haay il-mu'dssasa 1-waTaniyya li taSdiir in-nafT! li taSdiir il-asmdak! li taswdq il-ldHam? i li taSUih is-sufun? li San9 il-aaldat iS-Sinaa9lyya? (b) ana mudiir shdrikat is-smiit '9dntar' . il-binda 'ziydad' ana mudiir wakdala il-anbda*'ay bii sii' il-9dmal 'fayrtiuz' (c) 1 wayn raaH? 2 9indah mawda9id ba9ad iDH-DHtihur? 3 9indah fardagh bdachir? 4 hu mashghtiul kill il-yoom! 5 mtimkin yigdabilni ba9addyn! 6 hu gdari

ANSWER-KEY 305 taqriiri! 7 hu mHtiachi zamiili! 8 hu kdatib Una lo bd9ad! 9 hu mwdqqi9 il-9aqd wila la! hu mitldggi risdalti! (d) 1 abbiiha tiguul lih innana mufakriin- fi 9drDah u bind9Ti jawdabna is-subtiu9 il-qdadim 2 . . . mufakriin fi 9drDah laakinna radfDtin ish-shurtiuT UU hu mwaddiiha 9aldyna 3 . . . muu mwaafgiin 9ala 9drDah fi shdklah dl-Hdali 4 . . . muu mwaafgiin 9ala t-taghyiirdat illi hu Tdalibha 5 . . . qaabltin shuruuTah u binjdawib rasmiyyan . bd9ad ayydam galtila III.3 Old-style marriage The 'boy's father would go to the girl's father and betrothe her. If they agreed, we would send those presents we used to send, and clothes,-and we'd send them money, and we'd betroth (them) in the Sheikh's presence. Then the 'Henna Night' came. They beat drums and clapped hands rhythmically and (there were) songs. They'd paint 'the bride' with henna and then they'd slaughter an animal and cook (it). 4 Afterwards, they'd take her, the bride I mean, and wrap her in a rug and bring her in to her husband. 16.1 1 la, hal-glaasdat maa tinkisir 2 la, hat-tayrdat maa titrdkkab 3 dhiich il-Hijaardat maa tinshdail 4 la, it-taqriir maa yitwddda fiiha 5 la, as9darna maa titxdffaDX 6 maa yindkil 1 hal-baab maa yitbdnnad 8 la, hal-maay maa yinshtrib 9 la, maansim9aw or maa yinsim9uun 10 la, 9aaddathum maa tighdyyarat. 1 You broke the glasses, didn't you? - No, those glasses are unbreakable 2 Did you fit the new tyres? - No, these tyres can't be fitted 3 Remove those stones! - Those stones can't be removed! (e.g. because they are too heavy) 4 You put the report in this envelope, didn't you? - No, the report wouldn'tgo in it (e.g. because it was too big) 5 Reduce your prices a bit please! - No, our prices can't be reduced! 6 What do you think about English food? - It's inedible 7 Shut the door please! - This* door can't be shut 8 This is drinking water, isn't it? -> No this'water isn't drinkable 9 Could you hear them from far away? No, they couldn't be heard 10 They changed their customs as time passed, didn't they?

7^yj!2,V3^%tf^-i-/. 306 ANSWER-KEY A - No, -their customs'didn'tchange. 16r2 1 aSdrr 9ala muqdablat il-ivaziir shaxStyyan 2 yiHibb ilqda muHaaDrdati bil-ltigha' l-9arablyya 3 maa simHaw Id, isti9mdal il-aaldat maaldthum 4 iqtirdaHah muu ma9guul fi rd'yi ydna -5 Idazim tachyiik il-makdna gdb'd tarkiih. U-hladgdat. ' '" 1 H^e insisted on meeting the minister personally 2 He likes " " giving lectures in Arabic 3 They didn't allow me to use their tools 4 His suggestion is unreasonable, in my opinion 5 You must check trie engine before fitting the plugs, i 16.3 1 gaal 'innah istafdad wdayid min had-doora 2 gdalaw 'tnnahum iHtdajaw ila musda9ada dzyad Idakin -maa HaSSaldoha 3 gdalat 'innaha maa tigddr tistdghni 9an -dhaak il-kitdab 4 gdalaw 'innahum yoom <hum Sghdar,* ihtdmmaw wjdayid bi jam9 iT-Tawdabi9. 5 gaal 'Innah tamm yi9Hsh hash-shdkil Tuul Haydataht * 1 He said me benefited a lot from this course 2 They said they needed more help'but they didn't get it 3 She .said she can't 'do .without that book 4 They said that when they were small,'they were very interested - in collecting .stamps 5 He said that he carried on living this way all his life. 16.4 - zirt ,il-qdahira!ta9alldmt; is-siydaqalishtaghdlt muddrris! ishtardyt mdT9amltizawwdjt min 9umri 9'ishrtin sdna! ta9alidmt is-sibdaHa - gilt lih iS-Sidq! salldftah maa Tdldb! 9alltimtaK ylgra 9drabi? 9arrdftah 9dla r-ra'iis? 9aTdytah shiighul? saa9ddtahfi diraasdatah? - idhallolin chaanlila tdTlubah minnah!tixdabrah il-Hiin! tistd9milah kamda ydjibltlqbal shurtiuTah/tiTdrrish lih il-bayzdatitimt(ni9 min, shurb il-jigdayir. 16.5 Before, you used to work in the airport? - Yes. I, spent a whole year at the airport . . . and at the bank a year and a few months. Well, I used to work as a machine operator at first, and then I changed to the computer, and after the computer to the Accounts (Department) downstairs . . . for those who are opening accounts or who are paying cheques into their accounts . . . that 1 kind of thing, that's my job. -

-^W^.^,Ett^^^ ANSWER-KEY 307

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Dcyou like the college here? Really,'I wanted to go to university to study Law. Why didn't you go? '* Circumstances were a bit difficult before. . . . I was obliged to. go to work, and61 worked at the American Mission Hospital. . . . I only worked (there) for two years. . . . - What was your job? - Clerk. . . . I worked two years there and, well, I don't know, office hours were morning" and afternoon, and my mother said it was a bother for me to go morning and afternoon, so I should look for another job. But she insisted that I enter the college so I'd bectfme a teacher. 17.1 1 titgdhwa kill yoom gdbil la truuH ish-shtighul 2 nitgdhwa nruuH . (. 3B 9dli yitgdhwa .yruuH 4 yitgahwtiun yruuHtiun 5 titgahwuun truuHtiun 6 il-9ummdai yitgahwtiun' ..yruuHtiun 7 il-mudiir yitgdhwa yiruuH . 8 limmi titgdhwa tfuuH 9 Idha tixalltihum y'isawwtiun hdadha brtiuHhum, byitgharbaluun 10 tixalltiha tisdwwi '..... brtiuHha, bititghdrbal brtiuHa, , tixdlli fdaTma tsdwwi 11 bititghdrbal brduHah, 12 tixdlli d-drdywil ysdwwi byitghdrbal 13 tixdlli sikirtiirtik tisdwwi brtiuHha, bititghdrbal 14 tixdlli l-miikdaniki ysdwwi ...-. bruuHah byitghdrbal 15 tixdlli hal-yihdal ysawwtiun bru'uHhum, byitgharbaluun 16 tixalldna nsdwwi brtiuHna, nitghdrbal 17 Hdtta lo 9aTdach qaamuus, thaan maa giddrti titarjimiin hal maqdal 18 9aTdana giddrna nitdrjim 19 9dTa T-Tulldab gidraw yitarjimtiun

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I 308 ANSWER-KEY 20 21 22 23 24 17.2 1 2 3 4 5 '6 7 17.3 1 2 9aTdakum ....* giddftaw titarjipitiun . 9dTal-bint \.\gtdrat tittirjim ..,;. a7fl zamiili gidar yitdrjim 9dTa l-kdatib g[dar yitdrjim .../..... 9aTpak .f> giddrt titdrjim idha til9ab wiyydah yistganis U'-dnnahtyiHibb il-U9b tindkkit *. it-tankiit .f titmdshsha . il-mdshi .\ tiHddig f. il-Haddag ...f fl-Hdchit ; titHdchqha '.?. tiqdamk ,i.......'.....\dl-muqdqpira .-.. tighdnni.: il-ghinaa hiya widdha trtiuH,H-jdami9a utddris Huqtiuq, hum widdhpm yiruuHtiun jl-jdami9a u ydirstiun Huquuq 3 iHna widdqq nriiuH il-jdami9a u nddris Huqtiuq 4 niHibb niruuH il-jdami9a u nddris Huqtiuq 5 yiHibb yirtiuH H-jdami9a u yddris Huquuq 6 yiHibb yiruuH H-jdami9a u yddris hdndisa 7 yiHibb yiruuH il-jdami9a u yddris riyaaDiydat 8 yiHibb yiruuH H-jdami9q u .yddris il-ltigha l-9arabiyya 9 yi9tjbah yiruuH H-jdami9a u yddris il-ltigha I9arabiyya * 10 yi9(jbik trtiuH H-jdami9a u tddris il-ltigha l-9qrqbiyya 11 - yi9ijbah yishtdghil fil~9irdaq! ^ - la, maa yi9ijbah yifdDDH yishtdghil ftl-kuwdyt .12 - yi9jibkum tishtaghluun ? - la, maa yi9jibna. nifdDDil nishtdghil 13 - yi9jibhum yishtaghltiun ? - la, maa yi9jibhum. yifaDltiun yishtaghltiun 14 - yi9jibha tishtdghil ? - la, maa yi9jibha. tifdDDil tishtdghil 15 - y(9jib abtiuk yishtdghil ? - la, maa yi9ijbah. yifdDDH yishtdghil 16 - ypijbik tishtdghil drtiywi[? - la, maa yi9jibni. afdDDil ashtdghil farrdash 17 tiztiur il-imaardat? atimm fil-bayt (orftbildadi) 18 tdakil ft mdT9am! ./
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v ... astdghni 9an il-dkil 19 tig9ad mubdkkir! ag?,ad mifdxxir 20 tit9dllam 'ttrkab sdykal! - ...v..v at9dllam astiug sayydara 17.4S 1. ,hdadha hu l-kitdab 'illi j-aw\vdytah iyydana s-subtiu9 il-mdaDi! 2 , rawwooh i ? ? ( 3 hdadhi hi sh-shariiTa~lli rawwooha 4 9aT6oha iyydaha ? 5 t. . samma96oha * ,, ? v..t... 6 sammd9tha ? 7 ptigtha ? 8 hdadha hu l-koot ML btigtah , ? ? 9 l-juuti v,:s i0 xarrdbtah .-..'.!...! ? 17.5 1 la tbuugah iyydahl 2 la ta9Tiiha iyydaha). 3 la trawwiina iyydahuml 4 la tixdrbah iyy day I 5 {a tsammi9ha iyydaha! 6 la ta9Tiih iyydaha/iyydahum 1 la trawwiini iyydah,\ 8 la Jbtiugna iyy dahum! iyy dahal yi.6 1 ydahil TaaH min sdTah bayt 2 kaan il ydahil yiqdllid rayydal shdafah fit-tilivizytiun ( 3 ti'dyyid il-bardamijJi-9ilmiyya l-mistaftida 4 hal-mandaDHirtixalliihumyisaw\ytiun mtinkar A: They say a child threw himself from the .roof to the ground, imitating a strqng man,he saw on TV. B: Yes, he was imitating Steve. A: Why do children do things like that? B: A child doesn't understand. Every single lad is following tnat serial. T/hen he thinks he's the same as Steve and leaps from house to house and falls. . . . , A: What are the best programmes on now, d'you think? B: I'm in favour of scientific programmes, for example. Now they put on a programme every,week called 'The First Year in the Life of ,a Child'. That's very good, it's useful. A; D'you watch films on TV? B:.No. There are films on TV with shameless scenes in them , which are not proper. A girl just wearing a bra and shorts is an unlawful thing in Islam. And another thing is that if

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m 310 ANSWER-KEY young men see' such* things they're bouhd'to commit bad acts. 18.1 Well, any friend, J began my life iii the 1940s. I was, a little child - I'd be about*5 or-6, as I remember - God knows!, I was happy and would'play in our quarter'withtthe little lads, 'thy .bathers'* happy and without a care jn the*wprl<f. Then one day,-before I knew what was happening, m/TJad took me and put pie in* the Koranic schoor>. . with the Koran teacher callecPbjn HumuuVJ. SbT put my trust in*G*od, and went^o Koranic 'school. . . .'Well, I stayed there - I don't know how long'-"a year and a half "or two" years. I read the Koran from cover to cdver. I had a lot3 of friends . . . some of them have died,' and some I've lost touch with now. I was content at the Koranic school fof those t W years (roughly, and then my father said 'We'll send you'to the (government) school*, so'they took"me away from the Koranic school and sent me td the gove/nmenTscnool, trje'wesj-side school which isk today (called^ Abu Bakr school. Well^ I stayed" at the school - they put me.in the'first class' of '"the kindergarten at first . . . yes, that's right . . . and'"after a--while they put on dramas and plays at the school. . . and some of the teachers would let us act in the'plays . 1 . and I became one of them (the actors). And, as far as I remember, the late Shaikh A. bin I., the Minister of Information, would attend'these plays . . :'-as would Mr A. il-9. We played'our roles' well, and Mr A. il-9. would give us presents after we'd' finished. . . . I ll! - and drawing books, and an envelope with ten ruppees in it and white (sports) shoes - if you don't mind me'mentioning such a thing! - and blue shorts with a white stripe. . ^ . 18.2 There was a jobber who went and climbed up on top of a wall, wanting to jump inside. But he fell from.tne top to the ground and really smashed himself up. They sent him to hospital. The doctor examined him and prescribed just pills - he didn't prescribe him any medicine for his legs. They just said to him"'Go to the chemist's and take this medicine.' So he went to'the chemist's and they just gavehimpills. He said

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'What's written (on .the prescription)? -What are these pills for?' They told him 'For worm's', so he* said 'These pills are for worms? Why'pills'for worms?' They said 'How should we .know? Go and ask the doctor.' So he went to the doctor and said to him 'I'm all smashed up and you're giving me pills for worms, for my stomach?' And thfr doctor* said to him 'Yes! If you hadn't had a worm in you you wouldn't have climbed up'(onto the wall)!' 19.1 min tirja.9 aktiun. . . . 1 miHdSSH-, 9dia "rtixSat siydaqa 2 mitzdwwaj 3 miSdlUH sayydartik 4 ndajiH fil-imtiHdan 5 misdaftr is-sa9uudiyya 6 ghdasil il-mawaa9iin T miHdSSil shiighul jadiid 8 mitghdddi. ' In all the above sentences it is acceptable to>use a past-tense verb instead iof the participle, viz: 1 HaSSdlt 2 tizawwdjt 3 SalldHt 4'nijdHt 5 saafdrt 6tghdsdlt '7 HaSSdlt 8\taghadddyt 9" - rikab il-b&aS rdqam xamstd9shar. '' -kaan Idazim yirkub ir-rdqam xamsunl 10 - 9aTdani 1-miTraga l-kabiira. - kaan Idazim ya9Tiik iS-Saghiiral 11 - ishtdghalaw saa9atdyn awirtdym dms. - kaan Idazim yishtaghltiun thaldath). Y2 - istaajdrt sayydara abu daxlatdyn: -, kaan Idazim tistdajir wandytl 13 - gilt lit-tinddyl iyii sda9a thamdanya u nuSS. - kadn Idazim tigtiul lih iyii sda9a sdb9a\ 14 min wuSdlna kaati il-filim bdadi. 15 shifna kdanaw mxalStin shayaldan il-aathdath. 16 min rikbat iT-Tayydara kdanat laabsa' tanntiura ' xdDra. 17 layn ittaSdlt fiih, kaan mighdyyir bdalah. 18 min wuSlat sayydarat il-waziir kdanat ish-shdrTa msdyTira 9dla l-mdwqif. 19 kint ahtdmm bi aaldat it-taSwiir ti daxidh * Stiwar wdayid. 20 dwwalmaa yi'tt il-xaltij kint ashtdghil najjdar. 21 shkdanaw il-kuwaytiyydn yaakltiun dwwal? 22 - wayn 9dli? - muu mawjtiud. Itiatim raaH il-bayt.

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I 312 ANSWER-KEY - kaan Idazim yitimm saapqtdyn,bd9ad\ 23, - mumkin tisallifni 9dshra danaaniir? -^mit'dssif, Sirdfticill ma9dashi. - kaanjdazim maa dSrufah ktllahl f 24 - yv&yn il-mawaa9tin il-wdsxa? ,t i - tdwni ghaasilhum. - kaan mub'Jddzim Qdwjvi hdadha). 25 - cham DHalldyt 9ind waaliddyk! - yoomdyn bas. kqan Idazim nilaagiik. * t , - kaan mub Idazim dsta9jiltiun hash-shdkill * 26 - wayn it-tinddyl! - Idazim raaH il-mdxzan. - kaan Idazim, maa yixdlli har-rayaayiil brtiuHhum] 19.2 1 killmaa tdbbi, nigdar niHdSlah 2 killmaa*, tiHtdaj ila shay, mtirr 9aliyyi 3 maaddam ^dna ihni, atipim aHdawil attdSil fiih 4 mithilmaa tddri, aktiun Tarrdsht ir-risdala min yirja9 5 wdynmaa truuH, la tinsa tixdlli 9unwdanik 9indi 6 killmin yidisHsh il-mdtHaf Idazim yidfa9 miyatdyn u xams(9in fils 1 shgdddmaa kint juu9dan, kaan laazim maa tdakil hdadha 8 shkithirmaa tiSruf, la tiDdyyi9 fltiusik bi ashyda maa lihd fdyda 19.3 A: If you want to get a driving licence, . . . a licence . . . what d'you have to dd? B: First you go to - what d'you call it - the (police) fort, and they register you and test your sight. After about two days they give you the result: if it's six ouj of six, fine; if it's weak they tell you to get glasses, to wear glasses . . . that's what they say, anyway, I haven't been. . . . A: And then you take a driving test? B: Yes, the test. You get in the car with a {police) officer and if he thinks you're OK you pass, if he doesn't you repeat.A: And does the car have to be the driver's own? B: No, usually it's the instructor's. You take it for an hour, go with the officer and pay (the instructor) a fee. If you pass you give him (the instructor) a bqnus, er, like a present because you've passed. 20 Questions 1 19 years 2 No trouble and a lot of money 3 Medical doctor ANSWER-KEY 313 4 His family's neighbour was an'Indian doctor 5" Grave-digger'6 Since they were both at Koranic'school 7 By curing people who would, in the old days, have died, Muhammad has reduced the amount of money Khalid makes from his job! 8 Khalid suggests they call a truce: Muhammad will give patientsthe wrong medicine or no methane at all, which will result in more deathsand more money for Khalid, which he will split with Muhammad 9 He refuses because he can't betray his vocation, and he has a conscience and feelings 10 100= Bahraini dinars'11 He would change the sea into sweet water and bring down the stars from the1 heavens! 12 To kill his wife Translation Hello, everyone! My name's Muhammad bin Rashid. I married recently - only.19 years ago! - and I've gotpo kids. . . . I looked for a longtimcfor a job which wduld leave me in peace . . . there are lots of jobs, but they don't suit me. . . . I want a job in which there's no bother*. . . which leaves me in peace and in which I earn a lot of money. . . . I sat for many days thinking about work. . . . I thought and thought, and then I had an idea: why not become a doctor? And in the event, I became a doctor, because, in the old days, our Indian neighbour, was a doctor, and in that way I learnt how they treat people . . . but I have a dear friend from the days of Koranic school, but he works as a grave-digger while I'm a doctor. This friend of mine got me into some real trouble, and in this episodeand the ones that follow, I want you to listen to the story of me, him and my wife. . . . K: I'd hate you to kill yourself . . . it's*a sin, by God a sin, even though you're my friend and I'll be able to feed my family for five days because of what you're doing. That's my job, what can I do about it? M: So, you want me to kill myself so you get the benefit! But I'm not going to kill myself! K: All right, don't kill yourself then! Take the bread out of my mouth! Let my children starve to death! M: Well,'that's something, isn't it!'If /don't kill myself your children starve!

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314 ANSWER-KEY K: Yes, you're the reason for the situation we're in! Before, someone would fall ill for a day or two or three, and on the fourth day. he'd kick the bucket, and we'd get the benefit. * f M: Heavens! What are you on about, Khalid? ' K:- Now you come, and give the sick who would die medicine, and keep them alive! And at whose expense? At mine! -Why are you so stubborn? Why are you so selfish? Why? M: Look pal, that's my job, what can'I do about it? K: Why don't yomlet-us make a truce for just one year? You'll gain from-it and so will I!1 M: Huh! What's this 'truce'? K: Now, every sick person that comes to see you, kill him or give him thcwrong medicine, and I'll give you half the money I get for washing the corpse! M: First thingVl'm no butcher, and second, I cannot betray the vocation which has been placed upon my shoulders. K: Hell, anyone hearing you talk would think you were the absolute cat's whiskers! M: And, as well, I have a conscience and I have sensitivity. . . . K: OK, You've got a conscience and sensitivity, never mind . . . every time a sick person comes here tell him there's nothing wrong with him until he feels ashamed and just dies (of his own accord)! M: Please, mate, I can't! K: Blast! I can't get round you, one way<or the ofher! M: My dear friend, I agree to give you what you've asked for! One thousand! One thousand! K: You're giving it to me? Ten green ones? M: Yes, note on top of note! Ten green ones! K: Green ones, green ones! Ten green ones, really ten! M: Yes,-mate. K: In the name of God the . . . (faints) M: Oh! He's gone and fainted again! Get up, get up! K: Where am I? Muhammad! Hold on to me! Help me! M: Get up and be a man! Listen to what I say and leave off falling down. I'm bored with it!

ANSWER-KEY 315 K:, Please, my friend, don't cheat me! First let me get* a thousand green ones, let me get hold of them! M: You'll get them . . . but, a^ I told you K: I'deserve it from you, I want M: Right, right, and I'll give you a thousand . . . but I have one condition... . . K: Make your condition! One condition only? M:'Just one" little tiny condition. . . . K: By God, if you want me to turn salt water sweet, to bring down stars from the sky', to M: My friend, I want you to kill my wife!

II. v

APPENDICES 317 APPENDICES 3 f The variety of Arabic presented in tpis book is that which js used by educated Gulf Arabs when talking in'a relaxed style'. Like all speakers of all, languages,,Gulf Arabs may.speaK"more or less, formally, depending on who they are talking tb, what they are talking about,and when and where they are speaking. The differences in the formality of situation are reflected in a number.of ways in speech, and it is a good idea to be aware of some of the .commonest features of this. (A) CONSONANT ALTERNATIONS* 1 k and ch ch is the less formal variant in pairs like kamlcham 'how much?' kalblchalb 'dog', chibiirIkabiir 'big, old', sdmaklsimich 'fish*. 2 j and y y is the less'formal variant. Examples: jdahillydahil 'child', jalya 'he came', jadlidlyidiid 'new', ddrajlddray 'steps, ladder'. 3 q and gh Some speakers regularly substitute q for gh and vice versa in informal speech (a tendency which is also noticeable on even quite formal occasions too), e.g. they say qdsal 'he washed' and mtiqdnni 'singer' instead of ghdsal and mughdnni and ghur'dan 'Koran' and taghdddum 'progress' instead of qur'dan and taqdddum. This book reflects usage in which these two consonants are not confused.. 4 / a n d th, d and dh In some parts of the Gulf (especially Bahrain and Qatar), some speakers substitute / for th and d for dh quite consistently, e.g. faldafa 'three' and hdadi 'this(f.)' for thaldatha and hdadhi. Such substitutions rarely occur in educated speech. 5 D and DH In Literary Arabic, these two sounds are distinguished, as they * 1 f t . increasingly are in the speech of educated Gulf Arabs. However, many do not consistently make the distinction, and depending on their origin, some use only D for both sounds or, only DH for both .sounds.'Thus some speakers pronounce the words for 'he hit' and 'noon' as, respectively, Ddrab and Qdhur, while others say DHdrab and DHtihur. In this book, 'educated' usage is reflected, which makes a distinction between Ddrab and DHtihur. The spelling conventions used in this book distinguish three consonants D, DH and H. In the rare cases of the juxtaposition of D and H, a hyphen is inserted between them to distinguish them from DH, e.g. dDHa. 6 ;' and g and q In a_few words (though some of them are common), three-way variation is possible between j, g and q, e.g. jidiim, gadiim and "qadiim may all be used to mean 'ancient, old', while mjdabil, mgdabil ar\d jnuqdabil are all possible ways of saying 'opposite". Of the three variants, j is less and less used, being considered uneducated. The q variant, on the other hand, is limited to situations where the speaker is deliberately aiming at a 'high' style of speech. The g variant is the commonest and most neutral variant, use of which is reflected in this book? '(B) VOWEL ALTERNATIONS AND DROPPED VOWELS 1 In many words, a short vowel -a may be replaced by -i- if it occurs in a short open (CV) syllable. Examples: taHdchcha ddrrasat sdbab kdtab yisaww&un simdVna niruuH tiHdchcha muHdmmad 'he spoke' varies with 'she taught' 'reason' 'he wrote' 'they do' varies with 'we heard' 'we go' 'he spoke' 'Mohammed' tiHdchcha ddrrisat sibab kitab ysawwtiun smd9na nrtiuH tHdchcha (see BI above) mHdmmad ( 1 \ i i I * I

2 Unstressed -i- and -- in open (CV) syllable are often dropped:

i? X

wmm'^m^^tm

APPENDICES 319 318 APPENDICES 3 A short vowel (usually it-) may.be'put at the beginning*t>f forms llike 'riruuH to make them'easier to pronounce:iXitHdcHcha 'he *spoke', ismd9ha 'we,neard\ etc. The processes described hVBl-3 can-leaHl to alternations of the tfpe'il-kabiirllikbiir 'the'big one': kabiir 'big * kibiir (by BI). * " * . '' * ' -*,kbtir (byB2) -> ikbiir (by/B3) * ^ \' Definite article:' il-kabiir varies with likbiir 'the big pne' -(C) CONSONANT CLUSTER REDUCTION If a 'cluster,' of three consonants occurs as a result pf,the' juxtaposition of two words, speakers 'reduce' ,the cluster by dropping a consonant, or in. some cases, by inserting a votwel. Thus: -* ^9idhum "or -9ind + hUm Hhey have' J 9indahum - git Uk op gilt ilih T*told you' gilt Uk " Tdggdna 'he hit us'* Tagg + na In'some verb forms, clusters arise as a result'of the dropping of unstressed -i (B2 above): y{darrsuun 'they teach' yidarristiun In such^cases, the cluster is reduced: yi&arstiun* And applying the -i- dropping rule again, some speakers say; * ydarstiun (D) ALTERNATIVE SYLLABLE STRUCTURES Many words which have a CV-CV-C(V) or a CVC-CVC syllable .structure have alternatives with a CC^V-CV(C) structure: HdTaba 'a piece of wood' varies with HTiba kitbat Dirbaw rtigba ndxla mdghrub 'she wrote' 'they hit' 'neck* 'palm-tree' 'evening' ktibat Drtibaw rg'tiba nxdla mghdrb

(E) VARIATIONS JN STRESS PLACEMENT 1 Words (or combinations of words in phrases) "having a CVCCV-CV syllable structure are sometimes stressed on the first, sometimes-the second syllable: > madrdsa 'school' varies with mddrasa Hijratik 'your room' Hijratik sim9dtah 'She' heard him' sim9atah 'ismdH lii 'Excuse me!' 'IsmdH lii 2 Words having a CW-CVC structure in which the first syllable is stressed according to the rule given in the Pronunciation Guide, may be stressed on the second syllable if a prepositional phrase or pronoun is suffixed which begins with a consonant: shaafat + kum maalat + ha gaalat + lik 'she saw you' 'belonging to her' 'she told you' shdafatkum or shaafdtkum mdalatha or maaldtha gdalat Uk or gaaldt Uk

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