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Pre intermediate Voc

English Part of Speech Definition

UNIT 1 accountant accounts atmosphere book-keeping consultant coordinate correspondence deadline executive faulty hectic human resources n n n n n v n n n adj adj pl n a person who keeps the records of money that is received and spent by a company the records of all the money that a company has received or spent the character or feeling of a place or situation the job of keeping a record of the money that is received and spent by a company a person who advises people on a subject that they are an expert in make all the different people and different parts of an activity work together in an organised way letters, especially ofcial or business letters a time or day by which something must be done a person in a high position in an organisation who makes decisions not well-made or not working correctly very busy and fast the part of a business that deals with nding new employees, keeping records of employees and helping them with any problems, etc. a list of things bought or work done with the price, for payment later a room or building with equipment for doing scientic tests very busy a group of activities to help sell a product or service by considering buyers wants and needs very careful and paying a lot of attention to detail the ofcial record of what people say and decide during a meeting a list of people employed in a company, showing how much each person is paid the people who work in an organisation a set of rules or a plan of what to do in a particular situation decide which tasks are the most important the activity of looking at goods or services to make sure that they are of the correct standard the department in a business which deals with planning new products and trying to improve existing ones a person who sells products to the public something which provides energy at the start of an action provide something for people to buy rich a persons health and happiness

invoice laboratory manic marketing meticulous minutes payroll personnel policy prioritise quality control research and development (R and D) retailer springboard stock wealthy welfare UNIT 2 access

n n adj n adj pl n n pl n n v n n

n n v adj n

the opportunity to see or use something

call off challenge challenging colleague come up with competitive face to face exible open-door management style pension pension scheme

v n adj n v adj adj adj

decide not to do a planned activity something that is difcult to do difcult in a way which tests your ability or determination a person who you work with produce (an idea or suggestion) equal to or better than others looking directly at one another able to be changed easily according to the situation a system where managers deal with employees problems quickly and directly money which is paid regularly to a person who has retired a system into which an employee and employer make regular payments for a period of years, so that the employee can receive a pension when they retire allow something to be collected and shared by everyone in a group a persons or products ability to develop and succeed a suggestion, sometimes a written one state (an opinion or suggestion) for other people to consider satisfying because you feel it is important or useful the position or purpose that a person has in an organisation usual or normal a plan for achieving success the group of people who work in a company

n n

pool potential proposal put forward rewarding role standard strategy workforce UNIT 3 advertising campaign award billboard chain charitable trust collective commercial decline depression exhibition founding growth inherit launch leading merge mill packaging pension fund

v n n v adj n adj n n

n n n n

a series of activities to advertise something a prize for achieving something a large board used to display advertisements a number of shops, hotels, etc. which are owned by the same company a trust which is formed with the aim of giving money to charity a business which is owned or controlled by the people who work in it an advertisement on TV or radio a situation where something becomes less in number or amount a long period when there is very little business activity and not many jobs an event where companies show their products to the public start (a new company or organisation) the process of increasing in number or size receive money or a business from a person after they have died show something for the rst time the most important join together a building tted with machinery for a manufacturing process the material put around goods before they are sold an amount of money which people can pay into while working, which is then used to make regular payments to them after they retire

n n n n n n n v v adj v n n n

philanthropist poverty privatise rivet share slogan take over trust wrapper

n n v n n n v n n

a person who gives money and help to people who need it the situation of being poor sell a company which is owned by the government to a private company or a member of the public a metal pin, usually used to join pieces of metal together any of the equal parts into which a companys capital is divided a short phrase used in advertising which is easy to remember get control of or responsibility for something (e.g. a company) an organisation which controls money or property for the benet of other people a piece of paper or plastic which covers something that you buy (especially food)

UNIT 4 backre booked up broadband v adj n have the opposite result of what you wanted with no free places for extra appointments a telecommunications system which allows information to be sent quickly between computers and other electronic equipment full of unnecessary things a person, company or product which is trying to be more successful than another in the same market copy data from one computer system to another or to a disk the amount of one currency which you can buy with a particular amount of another currency something which is used to get peoples attention but which isnt very useful image which is shown on a computer screen the cost of moving goods from one place to another a paper copy of information which came from a computer the rst page that you should see when you look at a website abbreviation of download a design or symbol which is used by a company to advertise its products connected to the internet buy a computer programme which nds information on the Internet using words that you type in organise (an event); start (a new business) needing a lot of time modern or containing the most recent information make something more modern or give the most recent information to

cluttered competitor download exchange rate gimmick graphic handling charge hard copy home page load logo online purchase search engine set up time-consuming up to date update

adj n v n n n n n n v n adj v n v adj adj v

UNIT 5 agricultural assemble blade adj v n connected with farming build something by joining different parts together the sharp metal part of a machine or piece of equipment which is used to cut something

bulb (abbr. of light bulb) cable card index charge craftsman crash device dismantle fasten le gadget hole punch jam lead lever paper clip permanent pliers premises run out seminar shredder stapler temporary tool upgrade UNIT 6 authorise blend budget budget holder dissolve evaporate evaporation extract extraction ling cabinet ingredient in-house label production plant

n n n v n v n v v n n n v n n n adj pl n pl n v n n n adj n v

a glass object which produces light from electricity a wire, usually covered by plastic, which carries electricity or telecommunication signals a box for storing cards in a particular order store electrical energy in a person who uses special skills to make things, especially with their hands suddenly stop working a piece of equipment which does a particular job take something apart so that it is in several pieces x something together, or x one thing to another a type of container used to store documents a small piece of equipment which does a particular job a small piece of equipment used for making holes in paper become unable to work because a part is stuck a wire which connects a piece of electrical equipment to the electricity supply a handle that you push or pull to make a machine work a small piece of bent metal used for holding papers together lasting forever or for a very long time a piece of equipment with two handles for pulling small things (e.g. nails) or for cutting wire the land and buildings owned by an organisation use all of something so that there is none left a meeting of a group of people for discussion or training a machine used for cutting documents into very small pieces a small piece of equipment used to x papers together by pushing a small piece of metal through them lasting for only a short time a piece of equipment which you use with your hands to make or repair something improve the quality or usefulness of something

v v n n v v n v n n n adj n n

give ofcial permission for something mix two or more things together a plan which shows how much money you have and how you will spend it the person responsible for a particular budget (of a solid) become part of a liquid (of a liquid) change into gas the act of evaporating take something out of something else the act of extracting something a piece of furniture in an ofce used for holding documents any of the substances used to make something, especially food done within a company by its employees, not by people from outside the company a small piece of paper, material, etc. attached to an object which gives information about it a place where an industrial or manufacturing process takes place


a measure which compares the value of what a company produces with the time and money which it spends producing it encourage the popularity and sales of a product a small amount of something which shows you what it is like things which you use for writing (e.g. pens and paper) a company which provides products or services a result that you intend to achieve the group of people that a product is aimed at a large container for mixing or storing liquids, especially in a factory

promote sample stationery supplier target target market vat

v n n n n n n

UNIT 7 backlog bankers card (also bank card, cheque card) bear with someone catalogue courier customs n n a large amount of work or matters which are waiting to be done a card which you show when you pay for something by cheque to show that the bank promises to pay your cheques wait while a person does something a book with a list of all the goods you can buy from a shop or company a person who transports documents or products the place at an airport or port through which goods must pass to make sure they are not illegal and where any tax must be paid break the connection during a telephone call a reduction in the usual price (of a telephone line) unavailable because already being used by another person a telephone, especially one with its own additional number on a line leading from the main switchboard goods which are carried from one place to another by ship, rail, plane or truck a person or company who arranges for goods to be transported from one place to another succeed in speaking to somebody on the telephone nish a telephone conversation and put the telephone down especially strong so that it can be used in difcult conditions wait for a short time wait for a short time (on the telephone) a persons or companys rights to prot from their idea or design (without another person copying it) top a computer being connected to a computer system, when you want to stop working a list of goods that are packed and ready to send the legal right to be the only person or company to make or sell an invention for a certain number of years connect a person to another telephone extension nish a telephone conversation and put the telephone down the way or place in which something is sold a piece of equipment for the manual control of telephone connections an event where companies show and sell their products to retailers or other companies who work in the same

v n n pl n

cut off discount engaged extension freight freight forwarding specialist get through hang up heavy-duty hold on hold the line intellectual property (IP) log off packing list patent put through ring off sales channel switchboard trade fair

v n adj n n n v v adj v v n v n n v v n n n

eld trademark n a legally registered name or symbol which represents a company or product and cannot be used by another company a large building for storing goods before they are sold

warehouse UNIT 8 banner brand identity carrier channel

n n n n

an advertisement that appears across the top of a webpage the values and qualities which people associate with a particular brand a company, usually an airline, which transports goods or people from one place to another a way of getting something done or a way of communicating with people the way in which goods are transported from producers to buyers a small advertisement in a newspaper or magazine the money a passenger must pay for a journey say what you expect to happen in the future an attractive and exciting quality concerned with the protection of the environment the action of entertaining people in a welcoming and friendly way the use of new ideas and methods the length of time that people continue to buy a particular product the length of time a machine or piece of equipment is expected to last a company which sells more of a type of product than its competitors activities to obtain and study information about the things which people buy or want to buy the percentage of sales which a company has for a type of product compared with its competitors an advertisement which appears in a separate window on a webpage the activity of keeping good relationships between an organisation and the public see classied ad the process of getting to know about a product by hearing about it from friends, colleagues, etc.

channel of distribution n (also distribution channel) classied ad fare forecast glamour green hospitality innovation lifecycle lifespan market leader market research market share pop-up public relations (PR) small ad word of mouth n n v n n n n n n n n n n pl n n n

UNIT 9 agenda branch brand catering compact connection demonstrate n n n n adj n v a list of things to be discussed in a meeting any of the ofces or shops that belong to a large company a type of product made by a company under a particular name the activity of providing food and drink closely and neatly packed together to save space a train or plane which passengers arriving on another train or plane can catch to continue their journey. show something (e.g. a product) and explain how it works

demonstration entertain entertainment organiser pick someone up rep representative retire stylish voicemail wall planner

n v n n v n n v adj n n

the act of showing something and explaining how it works show hospitality to a business client (e.g. by taking them to an event or a restaurant) action of showing hospitality a small le or diary where you record your appointments and other useful information collect a person or object from somewhere (abbr. of representative) an agent of a company who travels to clients to sell products stop working because of old age or ill health of high quality in appearance and design an electronic telephone answering system a poster to put on the wall showing the days of the year so that you can write appointments on it

UNIT 10 aisle boarding card (also boarding pass) check-in desk debt departure lounge dip duty-free shop fee glove compartment heavy goods train locker put off reschedule road tax shuttle soar thriving venue UNIT 11 audiovisual equipment capacity conference n n n equipment that allows you to hear and see something (e.g. a presentation) the total amount that can be contained or produced a formal meeting of people from the same type of business or with the same interests, usually lasting a few days to change in form, character or use a person sent to represent others at a conference n n n n n n n n n n n v v n n v adj n the passage between seats on an aeroplane the card that a passenger must have to show that they have passed security checks before getting on a plane the place at the airport where you show your ticket, give in your luggage and receive your boarding card money that is owed to a person or company the area in an airport where passengers wait before they get on a plane a movement downwards to a lower level or number a shop in an airport or on board a ship where you can buy goods without paying government tax payment made to a professional person in exchange for advice or services a small cupboard in the front of a car for storing small objects a train used for transporting large goods a small cupboard which can be locked, usually one of several placed together in a public place arrange to delay an event or appointment until a later time change the arranged time of something a tax you must pay on your vehicle before you are allowed to drive it on the road a vehicle or aeroplane that travels regularly between two places rise quickly to a high level or number growing and successful the place where an event or meeting takes place

convert delegate

v n

downgrade ipchart gym (abbr. of gymnasium) high-tech IDD (International Direct Dialling) phone laundry service lecture partition safe stage state-of-the-art suite video conferencing

v n n adj n n n n n n adj n n

reduce a person or thing to a lower position a board with large pieces of paper xed at the top which can be turned over a large room with equipment for doing physical exercises using the most advanced technology and equipment a phone which you can use to make international calls without going through an operator a service offered by some hotels for washing, drying and ironing guests clothes a formal talk to a group of people on a particular subject a structure, usually a thin wall, which separates one part of a room from another a locked cupboard where you can keep money and other valuable items the area of a theatre where actors perform or lecturers give their talks using the most recent technology and ideas a set of connected rooms in a hotel a telecommunications system in which two or more people in different parts of the world can talk to each other and see each other on a TV screen

UNIT 12 approach autonomy ban chairman (also chairwoman, chairperson) diverse feedback headquarters negotiate ofce politics panel parcel questionnaire rumour stand survey task team-building n n v n a way of dealing with a situation or problem a companys ability to choose and organise its own systems and activities not allow a person to do or have something the person in charge of a meeting, conference or organisation made up of a variety of different things or different types of people information about a product or person, used as a basis for improvement the managerial centre of an organisation have formal discussions with a person in order to reach an agreement the relationships (good and bad) between people who work in the same ofce a small group of people brought together to decide or discuss something an object wrapped in paper so it can be sent by post a list of questions, usually with a choice of answers, in order to collect information about a subject an interesting story, which may or may not be true, that people are talking about a temporary display area where products are shown, often at a conference or trade fair a study of the opinions of a group of people, based on a list of questions a piece of work activities to encourage people to build relationships with each other and work together as a team

adj n n v pl n n n n n n n n n


associate badge be based in consultancy crate draw ethos oristry framework insolvency lapel pin mailshot mission motto put down to referral stafng telemarketing turnover wind up UNIT 14 body language

n n v n n n n n n n n n n n v n n n n v

a person you know because of work or business a small piece of plastic or metal with words or design (e.g. your name and company) to attach to your clothes live or work mainly in this place a company that gives expert advice on a particular subject a large box used for storing or moving things a competition where people are given numbered tickets which are chosen at random to decide winners of prizes the set of beliefs and ambitions which are typical of a group or company the business of arranging and selling owers order or structure the situation when a company does not have enough money to pay its debts a pin which is used to fasten something (e.g. a badge) to the front of your jacket a piece of advertising material sent to a large number of addresses the purpose or aim of an organisation a short sentence or phrase which expresses a belief or purpose think something is caused by something else in particular the act of directing someone to another person or place for help or business the action of providing employees for an organisation selling goods or services by telephone the amount of money taken by a business in a particular period gradually bring an activity to an end

bonus commemorate department store eye contact giant harmony host job description minimal offence pharmaceutical product positioning

n v n n n n n n adj n adj n

the movements and positions of your body which show other people how you are feeling, often without you knowing it an extra amount of money paid to a person for good performance ofcially remember, with respect, people or an event, especially with a ceremony a large shop selling a variety of goods in different departments the situation when two people look at each others eyes at the same time a very large, successful company peacefulness or agreement a person who invites other people as guests a written list of the responsibilities you have and things you are expected to do in your work of a very small amount feeling of annoyance or hurt concerned with the preparation of medicinal drugs the way that people think about a product compared with competing products, or the way that the company would like them to think arriving or doing things at the correct time, not later polite conversation about unimportant things

punctual small talk

adj n

spectrum to the point unwrap wrap UNIT 15 act on at the cutting edge average

n adj v v

the range of possible opinions, feelings or ways of behaving directly expressed and suitable for the topic being discussed remove the paper or material that covers something cover something with paper or material

v n

block booking boom break down barriers break the ice committed conict cooperate cooperative creative crisis dominate forum handout implement interact in-tray maintenance object objective original participant review stand for talented wisdom

n n v v adj n v adj adj n v n n v v n n n n adj n v v adj n

do what is suggested at the most recent stage of development a standard or level which is considered to be normal or the number obtained by adding two or more amounts together and dividing the total by the number of amounts a booking (e.g. for a hotel) for a group of people a period when a country or industry is very successful improve understanding and communication between people make people who do not know each other well feel more relaxed with each other willing to give your time and energy to something that you believe in a serious disagreement or argument work together for a particular purpose willing to work with people and do what they ask producing and using new and unusual ideas a situation which has reached a very difcult point, or a time of great disagreement and uncertainty have control over a person or group of people a meeting for the exchange of opinions a piece of printed information, sometimes given by a speaker to their audience put into action communicate and work together a container on a desk for letters and documents to be dealt with later the activity of keeping a building or machinery in good condition the aim or purpose of doing something something you plan to achieve not the same as anything else and therefore special and interesting a person who takes part or gets involved in something (e.g. a training course) consider something in order to decide if changes should be made be an abbreviation of or symbol for having a natural ability to be good at something the ability to use your knowledge and experience to make good judgements

UNIT 16 close a deal courteous deal demanding desalination v adj n adj n nalise a business agreement polite and respectful a business agreement needing a lot of time, attention or energy the process of removing salt from sea water

etiquette extend get down to impressed in due course irrigation machinery outing speciality

n v v adj adv n n n n

the usual rules of polite behaviour in a certain social situation offer or give begin to do or give serious attention to feeling admiration for something at a suitable time in the future the process of supplying land with water so that plants can grow a group of large machines or the parts of a machine which make it work a short trip taken for pleasure a product for which a person, region or restaurant is famous

UNIT 17 account for v bar chart (also bar graph) n uctuate uctuation gross domestic product (GDP) level off line graph make inroads make up negligible overtake peak pie chart v n n v n v v adj v n n supply or make up (a certain amount) a diagram in which different amounts are represented by rectangles of different length rise and fall irregularly in number or amount an irregular rise and fall in number or amount the total value of goods and services which are produced within a country stop rising or falling and stay at the same level a diagram in which changes in amount over time are represented by a line start to have a noticeable effect compose or form too small in number to be important become a greater amount (than something else) the highest point or value of something a circle divided into parts that shows the way in which something (e.g. population or amount of money) is divided up improve after a period of weakness or low value the process of improving after a period of weakness or low value staying at the same value without changing for a long period of time a general direction in which something is developing or changing the percentage of the working population who do not have a job

recover recovery static trend unemployment rate

v n adj n n

UNIT 18 acquisition assembly bankrupt break even capital capital employed cashow chase payment n n adj v n n n v the purchase of one company by another the process of putting together parts (e.g. of a machine, product or structure) unable in law to pay debts and therefore forced to stop operating have neither prot nor loss at the end of a business activity money used to invest, lend or borrow the money that a business invests back into the company the amount of money moving into and out of a business try to make a person pay the money that they owe

component cover costs creditor curriculum vitae debtor decit gross liquidation

n v n n n n adj n

a part which combines with other parts to form something bigger make enough money to pay for expenses a person or organisation that a company owes money to a written description of a persons qualications and previous employment a person or organisation that owes money to a company the amount of money that a business has lost in a particular period of time total, before any costs or taxes are deducted the situation when a company closes because of nancial difculties and its assets are sold to pay its debts remaining after deduction of tax and other costs the prot that a company makes from its usual activity the regular costs which are involved in running a business (e.g. rent or electricity) spend more than was originally planned pay back the full amount the money that a company earns from something before tax is deducted the state of producing a prot see curriculum vitae a prot from an investment an organisations income or the money it receives one company which is owned or more than 50% owned by another the action of taking control of one company by another after purchasing a majority of shares cancel the record of a bad debt

net operating prot overheads overspend pay off pre-tax return protability rsum (US) return revenue subsidiary takeover write off a debt UNIT 19 bear market bond

adj n n v v n n n n n n n v

n n

a nancial market where prices are falling a certicate issued by a government or public company which promises to repay money at a xed rate of interest at a specied time a person who buys and sells shares for others a nancial organisation that pays interest on members savings and lends money for the purchase of property a nancial market where prices are rising an amount of money paid to an agent for arranging a sale or purchase a substance or agricultural product that can be bought or sold in large amounts the part of a companys prots which is divided between its shareholders the amount of prot paid to shareholders, calculated as a percentage of the current share price a reduction in business activity stocks and shares which pay no xed amount of interest sell shares of a company on the stock market for the rst time the process of offering shares of a company for sale to the public for the rst time perform better than another

broker building society bull market commission commodity dividend dividend yield downturn equities oat otation outperform

n n n n n n n n n v n v

portfolio racecourse sector shareholder stake stock exchange stock UNIT 20 asset

n n n n n n n

a collection of investments; all the products and services offered by a business a ground or track for horse or dog racing a distinct part of the economy a person who owns shares in a company a share or interest in a company the place where stocks and shares in companies are bought and sold shares, or a certain number of shares

business angel business plan corporation data management entrepreneur ood format loan merger monitor pump money into raise money relocation resign savings secure a loan

n n n n n v n n n v v v n v pl n v

something valuable belonging to a business (e.g. machinery) which could be used for the payment of debts a private investor who provides money for new businesses a document giving details of a companys expected sales, costs and future nancial planning a large company or group of companies which acts as a single organisation and is recognised as such in law control and organisation of information held on computer databases a person who starts up their own business, especially one which involves risk arrive in large numbers the way in which information is arranged and stored the act of lending something, or the money which is lent the process when two or more companies join together to form a larger company watch and check for a period of time spend a lot of money on something to try to make it successful collect money the process of moving to a new place leave a job because you want to money kept in a bank to use later make certain that money which is lent will be paid back by giving the lender the right to own an asset (e.g. the house) of the borrower, if the money is not paid back the length of time that a product, especially food, can be kept in a shop before it becomes too old to sell make use of something, especially peoples interest or ability a person who makes money available for investment in a new company, especially a risky one

shelf life tap into venture capitalist

n v n

UNIT 21 applicant appoint candidate fullling highlight jobseeker prole recruitment n v n adj v n n n a person who applies for something, especially a job ofcially choose a person for a job a person who applies for a job making you feel happy and satised attract attention to a person who is looking for a job a short description of a person which gives only the most important details the process of nding new people to work for a company

recruitment agency referee reference shortlist turn down vacancy voluntary UNIT 22 break the news computer-literate credit checking

n n n v v n adj

a business that makes its money by nding suitable people for employers who need new workers a person who conrms in writing an applicants character or ability a letter from a previous employer or teacher to conrm a persons ability or reliability put a person on a list of candidates from which a nal choice is made reject or refuse a job that no one is doing (and therefore available for a new person to do) done willingly, without being paid for it

v adj n

tell a person about something unpleasant which will affect or upset them having knowledge of how to use and work with computers the activity of looking at a persons record of repaying loans and advising whether or not to give them a new loan the act or system of treating different groups of people in different ways, especially unfairly remove from a job, especially when a person has done something wrong see dismiss tell your employer that you intend to leave your job employ a person to do a particular job the candidate during an interview the person who asks the candidate questions during an interview the situation of having a job which is likely to be permanent. stop employing a worker temporarily or permanently because there is not enough work stop employing a person because there is no longer enough work for them, or because the company cannot afford to continue employing them the situation when a person is raised to a higher or more important position in their work stop giving money for something leave no longer employed because there is not enough work see dismiss get rid of something by selling it cheaply a xed idea, especially one that is wrong, that people have about a type of person or thing a person who measures and records the details of areas of land or a person who is trained to examine buildings and discover if there are any problems with the structure a new business activity which involves risk or uncertainty

discrimination dismiss re hand in your notice hire interviewee interviewer job security lay off make someone redundant promotion pull funding quit redundant sack sell off stereotype surveyor

n n v v v n n n v v

n v v adj v v n n


UNIT 23 anonymous adj without the writers name on it


a meeting between an employee and their manager to discuss the employees progress, aims and needs at work, or the report which summarises this meeting the employee who is receiving the appraisal the manager who gives the appraisal a document which shows a companys nancial position, i.e. its wealth, assets and debts, at a particular time ending an argument or difference of opinion by each side agreeing to some of the demands of the other a special price offered to companies a persons ability to make other people believe and trust them a high level of knowledge or skill something that surprises you and teaches you new facts about people or life thing done or action taken to continue something done before a statement showing the amount of money earned and spent by a company in a particular period of time enthusiasm showing up-to-date knowledge and/or an ability to think and act quickly a training course to bring a persons knowledge up to date, especially knowledge needed for a job completely change something so that it is much better a situation where neither side in an argument can win and no action can be aken a person who is being taught certain skills for a job

appraisee appraiser balance sheet

n n n

compromise corporate rate credibility expertise eye-opener follow-up income statement motivation on the ball refresher course revolutionise stalemate trainee UNIT 24 absentee absenteeism audit counselling email overload folder goal icon open question overload sick leave

n n n n n adj n n adj n v n n

n n n n

a person who is not at work when they should be the problem of employees not being at work when they should be an ofcial examination of something by an expert, usually the accounts of a business the process of listening to a person and giving them professional advice about their problems the situation when you receive more emails than you can manage

n n n n n n

a collection of les kept together on a computer an aim or purpose a small picture or symbol on a computer screen which the user can click on with the mouse a question to which the answer is not just yes or no too much of something the length of time that an employee is allowed to be absent from work because of illness and still receive pay the money that an employer pays to a person who is absent from work because of illness a computer programme for doing nancial calculations and plans an email system where a group of people are asked the same question which they answer by clicking a button with their chosen reply

sick pay spreadsheet voting buttons

n n n

Upper-intermediate Voc
English Part of Speech Definition

UNIT 1 appraisal bonus scheme book-keeping computer literate core dedicated degree rm ying start goal graduate hands-on high ier in-house key learning goals: meet the learning goals limited n n n adj n adj n n n n n adj n adj adj v adj assessment or evaluation of how well you do your job company system in which employees receive extra payments if certain targets are reached recording the money that an organisation or business spends and receives able to use a computer competently central, essential designed especially for that use university qualication company very good beginning aim, objective, target someone who has obtained a university degree practical, not theoretical someone with a lot of ability and ambition who is expected to be successful taking place within the company very important, essential provide good enough instruction in what the employees want to learn company where each shareholder is responsible for the companys debts up to but no more than the amount that he/she has invested in the company watch carefully and record the results training while you are working person at the same level as you in a company an employment agreement which is not for a limited period of time showing signs of being likely to develop successfully give someone a better-paid, more responsible job; advertise or publicise a product or service so that people will buy it someone who has recently started working for a company money paid regularly to employees for doing a job ability to do something well expansion of skills and consequent possible promotion for employees period of time away from work for study specially designed to meet individual needs reputation based on things done up to now the amount of work you have to do

monitor on-the-job training peer permanent contract promising promote recruit salary skill staff development study leave tailor-made track record workload UNIT 2 accounting areas audit baby: your own baby board of directors candidate

v n n n adj v n n n n n adj n n

n n v n n n

activity of preparing and maintaining nancial records departments check that nancial statements and accounts are correct project or piece of work that you care about a lot because it was your idea top-level managers of a company person applying for a job

cashier CEO challenging checkout Chief Executive Ofcer Chief Information Ofcer CIO customer relations

n n adj n n n n n

the person who takes the money when customers pay at a supermarket short for Chief Executive Ofcer difcult and demanding to do the place in a supermarket where you pay for your shopping highest manager with responsibility for the day-to-day running of a company manager responsible for information and computer systems short for Chief Information Ofcer approach to management which recognizes the value of building and maintaining a long-term relationship with customers through, e.g. special credit cards, loyalty cards giving customers good service nal time by which a task or job must be completed the manager responsible for the accounting and nancial affairs of a company the -month period for which a company produces accounts dismiss someone from their job predict business and nancial performance for the future making you happy or satised the moment of successfully completing ones university course Human Resources Manager the manager responsible for recruiting, training and managing employees conference or other event which companies use for thanking customers and rewarding their staff person being interviewed short for Information Technology; computer and telecommunications technology start selling a product or service for the rst time the way that you live your life preparing nancial information to help management decisions highest manager with responsibility for the day-to-day running of the company, Chief Executive Ofcer someone whom companies employ to give advice about how to market their products or services short for Personal Assistant job which is only done for part of the working week, less than a full-time job how well a person or company does someone who is employed to do secretarial and administrative tasks, especially for a manager short for Public Relations Ofcer, the person responsible for ensuring that the public think well of a company short for Research and Development the activity of nding and employing new people to work in an organisation person who takes the place of another worker so that he/she can have a break that I have authority over the activity of investigating and developing new products job or function in a company normal, everyday letters and emails which are not special

customer service deadline Finance Manager nancial year re forecast fullling graduation HRM Human Resources Manager incentive event interviewee IT launch lifestyle management accounting Managing Director Marketing Consultant PA part-time job performance Personal Assistant PRO R&D recruitment relief reporting to me Research and Development role routine correspondence

n n n n v v adj n n n n n n v n, adj n n n n n n n n n n n

n n n

selling point smooth-talking supervisor target thrive on treasurer vision workwise UNIT 3 academic background common sense consumer product CV

n adj n n v n n adj

characteristic of a product that makes people want to buy it good at persuading people, not to be trusted person who makes sure people do their jobs properly goal or objective decided in advance against which performance can be measure really enjoy the person who looks after the money in an organisation plan or hope for the future as far as work is concerned

n n n n

what you have studied and the qualications you have received practical, sensible thinking and judgement product bought by the public and not by companies short for curriculum vitae: a written summary of work experience and qualications sent to a possible employer by someone applying for a job shown to be dishonest total performance, concert start dealing with be thrown away without being looked at new idea or product feeling of pleasure and achievement in your job small building where products are sold the supply of goods through the Internet extra payment or benet which is not part of your salary, e.g. a company car being given a better-paid, more responsible job willing to listen and accept person who gives information about your experience and ability when you apply for a job show or represent the moment when something is available for the public to buy opportunities letters sent by post compared with the speed of email very good advice

found out full-on gig go about go straight in the bin innovation job satisfaction kiosk online distribution perk promotion receptive referee reect release scope snail mail words of wisdom UNIT 4 bring up details critical details: bring up your details great deal hang on intended recipient put someone on hold screen: get it up on the screen update vacancy Unit 5

adj adj n v v n n n n n n adj n v n n n pl n

v adj v n v n v v v n

nd information on a computer very important nd information about you on my computer a lot (inf) wait a moment the person you wanted to contact make someone wait to speak to the person they have called on the phone see, bring up your details add new information to available job

brand awareness branding

n n

knowledge among people in general that a certain brand exists giving a company or product a particular design or symbol in order to give it an identity for marketing and advertising purposes magazine published by a company advertising or giving information about its products and services benefit from, take advantage of the most important or attractive part or feature of something ability to begin a romantic relationship publicity sent directly to a person's home disadvantage invent most important quality group of people who are paid to discuss and give their opinions for market research something which is given to you time when someone visits a website publicise strongly, advertise in an exaggerated way printed material of a page or a few pages publicising or giving information about product and training start using a computer; visit a website design which represents a company or a product game in which numbered tickets are sold to people who then have the chance of winning the prize if their number is chosen the percentage of the market which is taken by a particular product in comparison with competitors' products advertisements on the Internet the regular and necessary costs, such as rent and heating, that are involved in operating a business pay a higher price tactic or trick, especially when used in marketing where products are arranged in a shop in a way which advertises them to customers pin on the walls the percentage difference between income and sales ways of advertising something something which you buy appreciation and acceptance change the appearance or characteristics of something, modify selling goods in small amounts to customers in shops; v sell to customers in shops small example which shows what the rest of something is like short, easily remembered phrase used to advertise something helping by giving money to an event such as a sporting event and in that way getting publicity change person or particular group of people at whom something is directed job computer le with words and pictures which you can reach through the Internet

brochure capitalise on centrepiece dating skills direct mail drawback dream up essence focus group gift hit hype leaflet log on logo lottery market share online publicity overheads pay a premium ploy point-of-sales display post profit margin promotional activities purchase recognition reinvent retail sample slogan sponsorship switch target audience task website

n v n pl n n n v n n n n v n v n n n n pl n v n n v n n n n v adj n n n v n n n

UNIT 6 cashow n the amount of money moving through a business

chill-out zone co-founder contacts customer base customised decent deli

n n n n adj adj n

area for people to relax in person you begin a company with people, especially in high positions, who can give you useful information or introductions which will help you at work regular customers made especially to suit the users needs good small shop that sells high-quality foods, such as types of cheese and cold cooked meat, which often come from other countries abilities connected with starting a new business set up or establish a company or organisation a commonly used abbreviation for the Financial Times, an important British newspaper for people who are interested in nance, business and economics, printed on pink paper opportunity to sell a new product which isnt being sold already relating to a group of similar things rather than one thing in particular keep something developing after it has started company name or symbol new type of product product which only interests very specialised customers and does not interest the mass market for sale travelling to different places choose sell more than other products wrapped and displayed so that people will want to buy having personal contact with and being aware of the needs of every individual customer to make them feel special aim, direct large and powerful business so expensive that you cannot afford it planned small, closed container made of paper or plastic containing a small amount of something, usually only enough for one occasion rent a building or part of a building to run a business from rise very fast support nancially in order to get publicity for your company arrangement of shelves and tables at an exhibition where an organisation offers information, goods or services small business that has just been started a lot of interest the network of companies who bring goods from manufacture through wholesale supply and distribution to a retailer start selling well, become a popular product income received in a shop from selling goods total income of a company from sales of its products or services; sales expensive, high-quality, appealing to the luxury end of the market people telling each other about how good a product is report, article

entrepreneurial skills found FT

pl n v n

gap in the market generic keep momentum label line: new line niche product on the market on the road opt for outsell packaged personal touch pitch player: big player prohibitive projected sachet

n adj v n n n adv adv v v v n v n adj adj n

secure a site soar sponsor stand start-up stir supply chain take off takings turnover upmarket word of mouth write-up UNIT 7 budget

v v v n n n n v pl n n adj

money you have available to spend

deliver edge rst-come-rst-serve keen liaise man meet your brief power cut server stand out trade event UNIT 8 bulk: in bulk carry a lot of stock come back to you on that gadget get in mark-up payment terms pop recommended retail price (RRP) repeat order sight: at sight sort out stick to stock take a seat terms and conditions UNIT 9 buy into competition credit facilities drop the idea entrepreneur estate agencies failure rate fat cat fee rst: in the rst place franchise go from strength to strength go it alone household name interior designer legitimate

v n adj v v v n n v n

provide what was promised advantage dealt with in the order in which people ask competitive communicate and exchange information be present at, help to run carry out your instructions interruption in the electricity supply central computer from which other computers obtain information make people notice event within a particular business or industry

adj v v n v n pl n v n n adv v v v v n

in large quantities keep a large amount of stock in a shop / chain of shops talk to you again in order to give you further information small device or machine with a particular purpose arrive amount by which the price of something is increased before it is sold again arrangements made for payment, especially the amount of money and the period of time agreed (inf) put price at which a manufacturer suggests a product should be sold, although this may be reduced by the retailer something which you order again payable immediately, when the item is presented discuss, deal with not change or be forced to change keep a supply of a product in the shop (formal) sit down the details in an agreement or contract

v n pl n v n n n n n n v v n n adj

invest in other companies which produce the same goods or services as your company arrangement to borrow or owe money in order to buy goods decide not to continue person who starts up a new business businesses that arrange the selling, renting or management of property and land for their owners the number which do not succeed someone who has a lot of money and who has the power to increase their own income money you pay for professional services at the start right to sell a companys products in a particular location using the companys name become increasingly successful start your own business company name that most people have heard of person who plans the decoration of the inside of a building likely and reasonable

make a go of make redundant marketing never look back outlet prepared prot quit redundancy money security source take the plunge terms: in terms of trademark

v v n v n adj n v n n v v

make successful by working hard re someone because their job is no longer needed the activity of presenting products or services to customers in order to make them want to buy become more and more successful shop willing, happy money which is earned in trade or business, especially after paying the costs of producing and selling goods and services give up, leave, stop doing money paid to workers that a company no longer needs, to compensate for losing their job way of making sure that money which has been lent will be paid back nd decide to do something risky after thinking about it for a long time when talking about name or symbol put on a product to show that it is made by a particular producer and cannot be legally used by any other producer

UNIT 10 angel investor application business card catch on cold-call n n n v v private investor willing to invest money in new business computer program designed for a particular purpose small card to give to business contacts showing your name, job title and details of the company you work for become popular phone or visit possible clients to try and sell something without any previous contact or appointment be too difcult to explain in a normal business plan start money given by the government for a special purpose strong belief which cannot be explained be connected with using the most modern and advanced machines and technology money which is lent or borrowed use what was available money which you borrow in order to buy a house nothing better than company owned by two or more people in a very few words without trying to be polite the amount of money borrowed money which is not spent but is kept to use in the future money an employer pays into a government fund to cover unemployment, sickness pay and retirement pensions spend a lot of money on things you dont need information given to the government about how much you have earned a year investment from companies which specialise in high-risk new business additional worksheets and other materials not xed or dependable

defy a conventional business v plan get off the ground government grant gut instinct have something to do with hi-tech loan make do mortgage nothing to beat partnership point blank principal savings social security splash out tax return venture capital wrapper written in sand v n n v adj n v n n adv n pl n n v n n n adj

UNIT 11 agent bioinformatics clear up cloned cross-fertilisation of ideas distributor get down to get onto great stuff ground-breaking hush-hush keep up with knowledge industry milestone purpose-built right away sector spin-out business state-of-the-art stem-cell strings attached UNIT 12 digest dry up eye contact: make eye contact feel free to ndings make the most of premium prompts slide would-be UNIT 13 accident: is no accident bankrupt bear in mind bid bottom line break the bank business centre has been planned for carefully having no money; unable to continue in business because you cannot pay your debts remember when making plans the price offered for a piece of work or a service the most important thing allow something to cost more than you can afford facilities that business people can use to do work or contact people, e.g. fax machines, secretarial help, Internet connections number of businesses owned by the same company v v v v n v adj n n adj take time to understand have nothing more to say look at peoples eyes to keep them involved dont be afraid to information discovered take full advantage of an opportunity which will not last long higher than usual list of key words used to remind you what to say image which is projected onto a screen or wall wanting or trying to be n n v adj n n v v adj adj v n n adj adv n n adj n company which sells another companys products on commission information science about living things deal with, get an explanation for plant or animal which has the same genes as the original from which it was produced articially mixing of ideas from different types of people to stimulate new thinking company which buys another companys products and sells them in a particular region start start dealing with (inf) Thats excellent! new and very different from others of its type secret not fall behind service industry in which employees deal in knowledge rather than products and need a high level of education and training mark, stage, level of achievement designed and built for a particular use immediately area of the economy new, separate company based on a original organisation very modern cell taken from a person or animal in a very early stage of devlopment that can develop into any other type of cell special demands or limitations (on the loan)

adj v n n v n


frequent-ier program (UK programme) gathering gush keynote speaker loyalty program off-season pitfall plus practice pull together rival single out staffer subscriber tweak what really counts wi-

n n v n n n n n n v n v n n v v adj

system where regular users of an airline earn points to get benets and discounts large group meeting express so strongly that it does not sound sincere the most important speaker at a conference reward system, e.g. free hotel breaks to thank regular customers for buying goods and services from a business the time of year when there is less business activity likely mistake or problem advantage method create, organise competitor, company which produces the same products or services as your company praise especially (American English) member of staff person who buys a service or a magazine on a regular basis change in small ways what is really important wireless connection by which computers can connect to the Internet up to a certain distance from where they are usually plugged in

UNIT 14 address behind the scenes boom buzz drop an email eco-tourism emerging market enhance entrepreneurship formula get round to it implementation implication insight intractable Maori poi dance v v n v n n v n n v n n n adj n deal with which the public dont see or meet grow rapidly and successfully feeling of excitement send a short, quick email tourism connected with the environment and nature new or developing market improve the starting up of new businesses combination of things which will produce the result you want do what youve intended to do putting something into action possible effect understanding seemingly impossible to solve dance performed by women using balls attached to strings. The poi dance was originally used to increase the flexibility and strength in the womens hands and arms for weaving. using the opportunity to meet people it might be useful to know very experienced person job opportunity excellent government organisations all day and all night for the moment special meal where traditional food, kai (chicken, pork, sh and vegetables), is steamed under banana leaves in a pit of hot stones, an umu successful a successful mixture

networking old hand opening outstanding public sector round the clock time: for the time being Umukai Polynesian feast

v n n adj n adv n

up-and-coming winning combination UNIT 15

adj n

coverage: brilliant coverage occupancy rate quarter UNIT 16 action point adjourn call off chair get together outcome promotional literature put off put solutions into practice set up skip while were about it workshop UNIT 17 appeals to billion classied ad cyberspace date: to date desktop dot-com: the dot-com crash

n n n

excellent reports in both quantity and quality the average number of rooms occupied in a hotel over a period of time, in this case, a year period of three months

n v v v v n n v v v v

thing assigned to specic person to be achieved before the next meeting stop a meeting temporarily with the intention of continuing it at a later time cancel direct or manage a meeting organise, produce result written adverts and marketing material about a company, designed to encourage people to buy its products or services delay or postpone act to solve the problem, not just think about it and then do nothing organise not attend a meeting on purpose at the same time meeting of people to discuss and/or perform practical work

v n n n n n

interests one thousand million (,,,) small advertisement usually placed by private individuals or small companies the imaginary place where Internet data exists up to the present time software program where icons and les are displayed on a computer screen period when there was fast growth in dot-com companies. A dotcom company is one that sells goods and services through the Internet. The projected income of many companies never materialised, and a lot of shareholders' money was lost in a short space of time the activity of selling goods or services through the Internet computer equipment or machinery (as opposed to software) a person whose job requires a high level of education and training company's main purpose linked computers which can share information and programs service providing everything you need in one place individual website page read by people logged onto the Internet short for Personal Digital Assistant mini handheld computer which has multiple functions such as word-processing, spreadsheet, diary and calendar facilities make very important at the same time without having to wait

e-commerce hardware knowledge worker mission network one-stop shopping page view PDA Personal Digital Assistant place a premium on real time

n n n n n n n n n v n

refine roughly streamline title effect top-heavy track twenty-four: 24/7 (twentyfour seven) upside web browser UNIT 18 across the spectrum browse click down download fingertips: at your fingertips get at home page icon information-rich site itchy ngers Javascript junk knowledge: to my knowledge log off loved one navigation online portal search engine set way site map spectrum: across the spectrum straightforward trade: in the trade upgrade user-friendly whet someones appetite

v adj v n adj v

improve by making small changes approximately make a company, organisation or process more efficient the way the title of a movie is brought onto the screen with too many senior managers for the size of the company monitor movements of, for example, parcels or shipments all the time, 24 hours a day, seven days a week advantage computer program which gives you access to the Internet

n n

v v adj v v n n n n n adj

search the Internet press the mouse button not working, disconnected for a time transfer information from the Internet to a computer available for immediate use find, locate first/front page of a website small picture or symbol on a computer screen that you click on to open a program site which people visit mainly for the information it contains people who will quickly leave your website and go to another one if they dont nd it interesting a computer programming language frequently used on the Internet information sent to people, although they do not want it and have not asked for it, usually advertising products or services as far as I know

v n n adj, adv n n n n

close down a computer person that you love, usually a member of your family moving around and locating of information connected to the Internet website which provides information and links to other websites website which helps you nd other websites xed method plan of where to nd information on a website and how the pages link together including the widest possible range of people


simple and easy to understand working in or involved with a particular industry improve the quality or usefulness easy to operate give someone a small experience to make them more interested

v adj v

UNIT 19 absenteeism cutbacks implement n pl n v people taking time off work when they should be there reductions made in order to save money put into operation

machine tool peak time rush hour sick leave staff retention staff turnover take for granted tie it into my work uptight working party

n n n n n n v v adj n

tool which uses power to cut and shape strong materials the busiest time the busy part of the day when people are travelling to and from work, and towns and cities are crowded absence from work through illness or when you say you are ill because you do not want to go to work keeping employees and persuading them not to work for another company the number of employees leaving their jobs and new ones starting in a company believe something to be the truth without thinking about it plan it to t what I have to do stressed and easily annoyed small group of people which studies a particular problem or situation and then reports on what it has discovered and gives suggestions way of working the amount of time you spend at work compared with your free time

working practice work-life balance

n n

UNIT 20 cost-effective domestic expense: at the expense of intranets adj adj n of good value to you for the amount of money paid from within the same country at the same time having a negative effect on systems of connected computers within organisations through which employees can communicate with each other and share information provide a good enough reason put in a difcult and inconvenient situation which is difcult to get out of not expressing an opinion employ companies outside the organisation to do part of the organisations work something unusual or interesting which is extremely successful advantages and disadvantages

justify leave high and dry non-committal outsource phenomenon (pl phenomena) pros and cons UNIT 21 best practice bond business case business culture comment card competitive advantage competitive differentiation condence: have condence in someone dealership drive empowerment

v v adj v n pl n

n n n n n n n

best way of working relationship the real value to the business the beliefs and way of behaving of a particular company card on which customers write their opinions and suggestions having an advantage over your competitors by being better than them the special things about a companys products that make them different from those of other companies trust someones abilities

n v n

business that sells the products of a particular company, e.g. car dealership work hard to produce giving employees responsibility so that they have the power to make their own decisions in their job

engaged provider of choice repurchase return on investment revenue sample shop time and time again trade in trolley vendor UNIT 22 after-sales service brief bulletin commitment customer care customer services manager discount the job help desk helpline mail order National Curriculum point of purchase protable quote rack up rapport register retain stand by subscription service swallow take trouble target customer there and then up-front user group whatever they throw at you

adj n v n n n adv v n n

involved and interested the company people prefer to shop with continue buying the prot made from something you have invested in income from doing business typical representation of what people would normally buy repeatedly exchange cart person or organisation who sells something

n n n n n n v n n n n n adj n v n v v v n v v n adv adj n n

help or advice received after a purchase has been made set of instructions short, written news update willingness to give time and energy the way customers are treated person responsible for beforeand after-sales service reduce the price place customers can visit or phone when they have problems telephone service for when customers have problems buying goods, usually from a catalogue, by post the set of subjects that children in England and Wales must study from the age of ve to sixteeen the place where a product is sold bringing advantages price someone offers to do a job for / supply goods at accumulate good understanding of someone and an ability to communicate well with them show, express keep dont change providing a service in return for a regular payment which can be cancelled at any time accept make an effort person or organisation you would like to have as a customer immediately honest group of people who are interested in your products and can give you feedback all their complaints and requests

UNIT 23 deliberate door-to-door hoist long-standing man hour plate: a lot on my plate point out shipment v adj n adj n v n think carefully about something all the stages of a journey from the beginning to the end machine used for lifting heavy things for a long time the amount of work one person can do in an hour large amount of important work to deal with make clear large amount of goods sent together

take notice of

give attention to

UNIT 24 abreast: keep abreast of anecdote benchmark customer prole feature get a feel for hassle keep abreast of no end of opposite number retrospect: in retrospect understaffed stay informed about the most recent facts short, amusing story high level of quality which can be used as a standard when comparing other things description of an average customer include as an important part develop a good knowledge or understanding of trouble stay informed about the most recent facts a lot of person who has a similar job to you in a different organisation thinking back to something in the past without enough employees

n n n v v n v n



Part of Definition Speech

UNIT 1 autocratic bonus by the book dress code goal

adj n adv n n

demanding absolute obedience from other people extra amount of money that is given to you as a present or reward in addition to the money you were expecting formally, or according to the rules set of rules for what you can wear aim or purpose

mentor vision dotcom publicly accountable rat race red tape streamline board bottom line make redundant market share monitor return revenue shareholder UNIT 2 delegate

n n n adj n n v n n v n v n n n v

person who gives another person help and advice over a period of time and often also teaches them how to do their job ability to imagine how a country, society, industry, etc. could develop in the future and to plan in a suitable way Internet company responsible to the government struggle of individuals in a competitive environment paperwork make more efficient group of people who are responsible for controlling and organising a company or organisation final line in the accounts of a company or organisation, which states the total profit or loss that has been made no longer employ someone because there is not enough work percentage of all the sales within a market that are held by one brand or company watch and check a situation carefully for a period of time in order to discover something about it amount of profit on an investment money earned from sales person who owns shares in a company give a particular job, duty, right, etc. to someone else so that they do it for you start to direct your efforts and attention towards work way of doing things which is practical, not theoretical ability to remove or solve difficulties developer of a products image impression of a product in the minds of potential customers very large and important business organisation remarks passed back to the person responsible, so that changes can be made if necessary dismiss showing lack of ability or skill to do something successfully the membership of a group or organisation level of payment share or financial involvement in a business new activity, usually in business, which involves risk or uncertainty amount of work to be done, especially by a particular person or machine in a period of time manage or govern judge or decide the amount, value, quality or importance of something how a company manages its brands and brand image process of dealing with difficult situations direct management of staff level between senior management and junior management salary that increases when your work improves or becomes more productive managing systems in a company so that each department works effectively and produces products or services of the required standard process of assessing and measuring possible dangers and evolving strategies to deal with them skill of administering your time so as to work effectively

get down to work v hands-on approach n trouble-shooting skills n pl brand builder brand image empire feedback fire incompetent ranks rate stake venture workload administer assess brand management crisis management line management middle management performance pay quality management n n n n v adj pl n n n n n v v n n n n n n

risk management time management UNIT 3

n n

budget in-house magazine memo one-to-one interview target timekeeping item query rota update within budget input agenda issue overworked UNIT 4 allot dealings overview procedure proceedings summon undertaking attendee gross profit incentive internal candidate interview panel outcome productive psychometric test report back run over time vacancy schedule

n n n n n n n n n v adv n n n adj v pl n v n pl n v n n n n n n n adj n v v n v

plan to show how much money an organisation will earn and how much they will need or be able to spend publication which is written and produced within an organisation by its employees message or other information in writing sent by one person or department to another in the same business organisation meeting between just two people level or situation which you intend to achieve ability to arrive at a place at the time expected one of several subjects to be considered question list of things that have to be done and of the people who will do them give someone the most recent information not exceeding the amount of money you have available to spend something, such as advice, information or effort, that is provided in order to help something succeed or develop list of matters to be discussed at a meeting subject or problem which people are thinking and talking about having to work too much give (especially a share of something available) for a particular purpose activities involving other people, especially in business short description of something which provides general information about it, but no details set of actions which is the official or accepted way of doing something series of events that happen in a planned and controlled way officially arrange a meeting of people formal promise someone who goes to a place, event, etc. companys profit before certain costs and taxes are deducted something which encourages a person to do something person seeking a position who already holds another job within the organisation group of people who ask candidates questions to see if they are suitable for a job result useful exam to measure scientifically a persons mental capacities and personality bring information to someone in authority take longer than scheduled job that no one is doing and is therefore available for someone new to do arrange that an event or activity will happen at a particular time



based on a clear understanding and good judgement of a situation

UNIT 5 ship

send goods by any form of transport to a distant place

call-centre operative customer care frontline staff outsourcing asset cross-selling profit margin profitability undervalue enhance UNIT 6 bid brand identity itemise proven track record specification value for money allocate benchmark critical path key stage map trade press bid for estimate team up with work out procurement tender entrant fee go out of business UNIT 7 deadline stock control outlay output overtheads payroll retail outlet systems engineer

n n n n n n n n v v v n v n n adj v v n n v n v v v v n n n n v n n n n pl n n n n

person who works in an office where large numbers of telephone calls, especially from customers, are handled for an organisation protection and service provided to customers employees with direct contact with customers the practice of a company paying to have part of its work done by another company something valuable belonging to a person or organisation which can be used for the payment of debts suggestion that customers buy additional or related accessories or products during or just after their primary purchase profit that can be made in a business or sale after costs have been subtracted capacity to make a profit consider someone or something as less valuable or important than they really are improve the quality, amount or strength of something compete against other firms by offering to do a job or contract for a certain amount of money see brand image list things separately all the successful achievements that someone or something has had in the past detailed description of how something should be done, made, etc. something well worth the money spent give something to someone as their share of a total amount, for them to use in a particular way measure the quality of something by comparing it with something else of an accepted standard sequence of stages determining the minimum time needed for the execution of an entire project important time period in a sequence of events make a plan in detail magazine published for and read by members of a particular trade group offer to do some work for a particular price guess the cost, size, value, etc. of something work together with calculate the obtaining of supplies formal written offer to do a job for an agreed price person who takes part in a competition or an examination amount of money paid for a particular piece of work no longer able to operate as a business time or day by which something must be done in a company or shop, the system of making certain that new supplies are ordered and that goods have not been stolen. amount of money spent for a particular purpose, especially as a first investment in something amount of something produced by a person, machine, factory, country, etc. the regular and necessary costs, such as rent and heating, that are involved in operating a business list of the people employed by a company shop person who designs and installs computer systems

VAT return

declaration of Value Added Tax (= a type of tax in European countries which is paid by the person who buys goods and services) invest again all the employees of a company whose job is persuading customers to buy their companys products or services person whose job is to organise the sending of goods from one place to another financial commitment to pay tax if you state an amount per capita, you mean that amount for each person fact or situation which influences the result of something use to your advantage combine several things, especially businesses, so that they become more effective rises and falls in the currencies of other countries make progress at the expense of small area of trade within the economy, often involving specialised products total amount of resources available to achieve maximum output place or building used to store and distribute goods money which you can spend as you want and not the money which you spend on taxes, food and other basic needs making goods available to customers associate in a commercial enterprise which is undertaken jointly how much share of a particular market a company or a product manages to achieve change in position or direction ability to purchase goods important company involved in a market or industry organised programme of advertisements, usually concerning promoting a certain product or brand form of advertising on the World Wide Web which involves putting a wide and short, or tall and narrow advert on an interesting web page knowledge of a particular make of product small advertisement placed in a newspaper by a person wishing to buy or sell something, offer or get employment, etc. when a customer favours a certain brand or company over others (the company sometimes offers financial or other rewards for this favouritism) visual presentation for promotional purposes at the place where goods are sold group of people or things that is chosen out of a larger number and is questioned or tested in order to obtain information about the larger group small rectangular pattern of thick and thin black lines of magnetic ink printed on an item, or on its container, so that its details can be read by and recorded on a computer system experience of something device for reading information into a computer system particular group at which advertising is aimed examination of opinions, behaviour, etc., made by asking people questions

reinvest sales force shipper tax exposure UNIT 8 per capita factor capialise on consolidate foreign exchange fluctuation gain ground (on) niche market production capacity storage and handling facility disposable income distribution join-venture partner penetration shift spending power player UNIT 9 advertising campaign banner ad

v n n n adv n v v n v n n n n n n n n n n n n

brand awareness classified ad/advertisement customer loyalty

n n n

point-of-sale display sample

n n


exposure scanner target audience survey

n n n n

customise purchase sponsored link UNIT 10 account for brochure

v n n

make or change something according to the buyers or users needs something that you buy text-based advertisement which describes an advertisers website and the products and services offered form the total of something type of small magazine that contains pictures and information on a product or a company sales transaction performed digitally, usually over the Internet ordinary sales transaction in a shop period when the economy of a country is not successful and conditions for business are bad rise extremely quickly filter out/remove large shop in which people are encouraged to look at the goods that are on sale before buying them computer program which finds information on the Internet by looking for words which you have typed in business of providing food service to businesses (usually at a remote site) system in which you make regular payments to an insurance company in exchange for a fixed amount of money which will be paid to someone you have named, usually a member of your family, when you die mechanically operated tool for cutting or shaping wood, metals, etc. get something from a particular place when people buy a holiday home together which each person can use for a different part of the year form of online advertising on the World Wide Web when certain websites open a new window to display advertisements compare the price and quality of the same or a similar item in different shops before you decide which one to buy deceive or cheat (someone) form of advertising designed to obtain a direct response between the viewer and the advertiser: the customer responds to the marketer directly gradually become less, worse, or lower become smaller in size or amount, or fewer in number if something halves, it is reduced by half fall very quickly and suddenly fall become smaller, or make something smaller rise very quickly to a high level suddenly start to be successful or popular become unable to pay what you owe, and have control of your financial matters given, by a court of law, to a person who sells your property to pay your debts examine someone or something in order to judge their qualities, success or needs make something known publicly, or show something that was secret meet people who might be useful to know, especially in your job amount of tax which must be paid to the government

v n

e-sale n over-the-counter sale n recession n rocket screen out showroom search engine corporate catering service life insurance v v n n n n

machine tool source time-share holiday home pop-up box (also pop-up ad/pop-up) shop around take (someone) for a ride direct response advertising UNIT 11 decline dwindle halve plummet recede shrink soar take off go bankrupt

n v adj n v v n

v v v v v v v v v

appraise disclose network tax liability

v v v n


when a person in business telephones or visits a possible customer to try to sell them something without being asked by the customer to do so amount by which revenue from sales exceeds cost of sales way of talking that is intended to persuade you to buy something amount of purchases made inside a factory, office building, etc. put back into position and make ready for use again doorkeeper or porter services make (someone) part of a group or team, or become part of a group or team when you are legally responsible for something describes something that is neither large nor small potential purchaser or customer the referring of an individual to an expert for advice examining someone or something to discover if there is anything wrong with them/it ask for money, information or help find by searching or following tracks operating have a strong dislike for taking risks process of looking at goods when they are being produced to make certain that all the goods are of the intended standard when there is not enough of something scheme ready to be used in place of or to help another important skill that is needed to do a job fail to reach a target if a company goes bust, it is forced to close because it is financially unsuccessful (the ability to have) a clear, deep and sometimes sudden understanding of a complicated problem or situation amount of confidence felt by a person or group of people, especially when in a dangerous or difficult situation if an investment or risk pays off, it is successful when an organisation spends less or reduces costs to avoid losing money description of possible actions or events in the future valuation of a companys shares way to reduce the number of employees at the same time or the same speed when someone stops employing someone, sometimes temporarily, because there is no money to pay them or because there is no work for them an amount which is less than the level that was expected or needed amount of business that a company does in a period of time measured in terms of the amount of money obtained from customers

margin sales pitch sales volume UNIT 12 on site reinstall concierge service get on board liability mid-size prospect referral screening solicit track down up and running risk-averse UNIT 13 quality control shortage backup plan competency fall short go bust insight morale pay off retrenchment scenario stock price axe in sync layoff

n n n adv v n v n adj n n n v v adj adj n n n n v v n n v n n n n adj n

shortfall turnover

balance sheet current assets debtor depreciation dividend

n n pl n n n

statement that shows the value of a companys assets and its debts something owned by a business that it does not expect to keep for more than 12 months someone who owes money loss of value of an asset such as machinery over time (a part of) the profit of a company that is paid to the people who own shares in it

emerging market fixed assets goodwill key liability operating profit overdraft

n n pl n adj n n n

area or country where there is growing demand for goods building, equipment or land owned by a company value of the popularity, the regular customers, etc. of a business calculated as part of its worth when being sold very important and having a lot of influence on other people or things debt measure of profit that a business earns on its normal operations an amount of money that a customer with a bank account is temporarily allowed to owe to the bank, or the agreement which allows this land and buildings owned by someone, especially by a company or organisation money which is earned in trade or business before taxes have been paid financial statement that summarises the expenses, losses and overheads of a company, used to calculate the net profit earnings which are kept by the company to invest in future projects, market research, etc. total amount of goods available when two or more people get together to work out complicated issues, usually involving some argument, before reaching a solution bring together different pieces of written information be confident that you can depend on (something/someone) act on an idea which is based on feeling and for which there is no proof have an influence on something or a relationship to something see go on a hunch producing a lot of money, profitable desired by most people fall or drop suddenly and by a great deal choose numbers in a random way, rather than one based on evidence or logic fail to guess or understand the real cost, size, difficulty, etc. of something and think it is less computer program, used especially in business, which allows you to do financial calculations and plans wealthy person who invests money in new business projects person who gives financial support to something small bet employ someone or pay them to do a particular job sum of money which is borrowed, often from a bank, and has to be paid back, usually together with an additional amount of money that you have to pay as a charge for borrowing provide or lend an amount of money for a particular purpose cost more money than is received from sales support a person, organisation or activity by giving money, encouragement or other help take legal action against a person or organisation amount of money a company has lost during a particular period of time whether something can be done, made or achieved attracting a lot of attention and interest from the public and newspapers, television, etc. design or symbol used by a company to advertise its products

premises pl pre-tax profit profit and loss account retained earnings stock bang heads together

pl n n n pl n n v

collate count on go on a hunch have a bearing on hunch lucrative mainstream nose-dive, take a pull figures out of the air underestimate spreadsheet UNIT 14 angel backer flutter hire loan

v v v v n adj adj v v v n

n n n v n

put up (money) run at a loss sponsor sue deficit feasibility high-profile logo

v v v v n n adj n

miscellaneous offset bankable cash cow running costs executive summary reap the benefits stock exchange selling point UNIT 15 bank charge bookkeeping cash credit limit credit worthiness

adj v adj pl n n v n n n n n n n

consisting of a mixture of various things which are not usually connected with each other balance one influence against an opposing influence, so that there is no great difference as a result likely to make money very profitable business or part of the business money you need to spend regularly to keep a system or organisation functioning overview of the main points of a business plan or proposal get the benefit, etc. that is the result of your own actions place where shares in companies are bought and sold characteristic of a product which will persuade people to buy it sum of money paid by a customer for a banks services job of keeping a record of the money that has been spent or received by a business money which is immediately available maximum amount of money a bank will allow you to borrow calculation of someones ability to pay back money which they have borrowed creditor(p 67) someone to whom money is owed [divide the two entries] system of buying debts for less than they are worth and then obtaining payment for them from the debtors amounts of money that regularly have to be spent operating a business while not having enough money to pay creditors and employees something which controls what you do by keeping you within particular limits book in which a company or shop keeps a record of customers orders used to describe costs which are so high they are difficult to pay, and which are often used to punish someone or limit their activities without official permission be able to do something, usually because you have the necessary experience, authority or money pay all the money you owe payment or business deal lengthen the period of time before you have to pay back the money you have overdrawn valuable letter which, for an additional charge, can protect the sender against loss legal agreement in which you pay money in order to use a building, piece of land, vehicle, etc. for a period part of a contract which punishes the person or organisation doing the work if it is not completed on time contract between two businesses where one agrees to provide a service to the other, or between a landlord and a tenant something which someone else wants that you are willing to lose in order to reach an agreement agreement in an argument in which the people involved reduce their demands or change their opinion in order to agree situation in which agreement in an argument cannot be reached because neither side will change its demands or accept the demands of the other side form a mental picture of something, typically something that may occur or be possible in the future

factoring outgoings overtrading constraint order book punitive

n pl n v n n adj

unauthorised be in a position to settle your account transaction extend your overdraft registered letter UNIT 16 lease penalty clause service agreement bargaining point compromise deadlock

adj v v n v n

n n n n n n


horse-trading leverage in line with leaseholder draw up get down to business get (something) straight jot down landlord

n n adv n

negotiation which requires bargaining and each side reducing their demands power to influence people and get the results you want organised at the same level as person who pays the owner of a piece of land, a building, etc. in order to be able to use it prepare something, usually something official, in writing start talking about the subject to be discussed understand correctly, or make something clear write something quickly on a piece of paper so that you remember it person or organisation that owns a building or an area of land and is paid by other people for the use of it activity where a group of people make lots of suggestions quickly give a discount off the price sum of money which is given in advance as part of a total payment for something force someone to leave somewhere sum of money that is paid in one large amount on one occasion pay, especially unwillingly feeling of friendliness towards people with whom you work or share an experience competitive prices, services, etc. are as good as, or better than, other prices, services, etc. area of activity or interest stop employing (someone), sometimes temporarily, because there is no money to pay them or because there is no work for them do well in a particular job or activity compared to others of a similar type people who are approximately the same age as you and come from a similar social group paid less than the market rate involving opposition or disagreement way of considering something process of putting together the parts of a machine or structure line of machines and workers in a factory which a product moves along while it is being built or produced. Each machine or worker performs a particular job, which must be completed before the product moves to the next position in the line a person or group of people without power, but used by others for their own purposes, or someone who is not important powerful effect that something, especially something new, has on a situation or person something given in exchange for good behaviour or good work, etc. person or company that does part of a job which another person or company is responsible for in a way that is a direct business exchange reach the highest, strongest or best point, value or level of skill general development or change in a situation or in the way that people are behaving employees not being at work when they should be intentional damage to machines, buildings, etc. worker in a factory (the factory is the shop floor)

v v v n

buzz session n knock (something) off v the price deposit evict lump sum shell out UNIT 17 camaraderie competitive field lay off n v n v n adj n v

outperform peer group underpaid adversarial approach assembly assembly line

v n adj adj n n n

cipher impact reward subcontractor transactional peak trend absenteeism sabotage shop-floor worker

n n n n adj v n n n n

union (also trade union) white-collar worker worklife balance across the board perk sick leave surveillance UNIT 18 blue-collar worker freelancer

organisation that represents the people who work in a particular industry, protects their rights, and discusses their pay and working conditions with employers person who works in an office or at a professional job, rather than one who works with their hands amount of time you spend at work compared with your free time happening or having an effect on people at every level and in every area advantage or benefit given to an employee in addition to their salary, e.g. private health care or a company car absence from work because of illness the careful watching of a person or place worker who does unskilled work rather than office work worker who does particular pieces of work for different organisations, rather than working all the time for a single organisation person whose work requires specialist knowledge not working for an employer but finding work for yourself or having your own business having or needing only a small amount of training person employed to work for a short period, especially in an office, while another person is absent or when there is extra work worker elected by workers in a factory or business to represent them in discussions with management if you downsize a company or organisation, you make it smaller by reducing the number of people working for it, and if it downsizes, it becomes smaller in this way especially value person who dislikes or fears new technology the activity of working at home, while communicating with your office by telephone, fax or computer working without strict times for starting and finishing working at home, while communicating with your office by telephone, fax or computer doing part of a job with someone else, so that each person works part-time

n n adv n n n n n

knowledge worker self-employed semi-skilled temp union rep downsize

n adj adj n n v

place a premium on technophobe teleworking flexible working home working job sharing career break career continuity overtime cut of the profits loss adjuster

v n n n n n

n period in which a person decides to leave their job temporarily n ability to continue your professional career adv ?? extra payment for working beyond the usual time n share in the profits n person who works for an insurance company and decides how much money should be paid out in each case of something having been damaged or lost standard rate of payment for a particular job person or company that buys and sells stocks and shares for other people healthy and strong needing a lot of workers reduction in the number of people who work for an organisation which is achieved by not replacing those people who leave arrangement when a company needs to reduce its workforce and some employees choose to be made redundant (because they have found another job or would like to stop working)

going rate stockbroker UNIT 19 buoyant labour intensive natural wastage

adj adj n

voluntary redundancy n scheme

excess production capacity glitch hire and fire lead time product-led retool stockpile symposium incentive payment churn out downside gadget manufacturing base shift vagaries UNIT 20 put your money where your mouth is

n n v n adj v v n n v n n n v pl n

ability of a factory to produce more than it actually does small problem or fault that prevents something from working well employ and dismiss time needed to design and develop a new product activities are determined by the requirements of the product (as opposed to customer-led or marketing-led) change or replace machinery in a factory build up a large store of goods which have not been sold yet occasion at which people who have great knowledge of a particular subject meet in order to discuss a matter of interest financial reward to stimulate action from staff or customers produce large amounts of something quickly, usually of low quality disadvantage of a situation small device or machine with a particular purpose all the companies producing goods in a country or region sell any of a set of unusual or unexpected events or changes that have an effect on someone show that you believe in something by spending/or investing money develop again all the details of a plan for doing something collection of benefits offered to an employee who is relocating to another town, city or country for their work finish all your work

reformulate v resettlement package n get your desk clear v

put more on someones plate safety procedure workstation breadwinner close down package cut back legal entitlement

v n n n v n v n

give someone more work to deal with official or accepted set of actions used to keep people safe area in a workplace where one person works member of a family who earns the money that the family needs if a business or organisation closes down, or someone closes it down, it stops operating related group of things when they are offered together as a single unit use in smaller amounts something that, in law, you have the right to do or have, or when you have the right to do or have something money that is paid only once having less money than you started with professional service to help redundant employees to search for a new job, paid for by the former employer position on the salary scale which shows different rates of pay depending on your job and your seniority proposal that organisations should be obliged to make decisions based not only on financial/economic factors but also on the social and environmental consequences of their activities pay a debt completely a system of accepted beliefs which control behaviour, especially such a system based on morals not perfectly made or not working correctly person who supports an idea (or product) things such as medical insurance that employees receive in addition to money richer

one-off payment n out of pocket adj outplacement service n point on the pay scale UNIT 21 corporate social responsibility (CSR) discharge a debt ethics pl faulty advocate benefits better off n

pl n adj n pl n adj

knock-on effect premise progressive recycle regulation stakeholder unethical break even economic downturn pursuit slip compliance mandatory word of mouth crop subsidy trade tariff UNIT 22 acquisition double-digit sustained diverse footprint expertise line of business synergy n adj v n n adj v n n v n adj n n n n

when an event or situation has a knock-on effect, it indirectly causes other events or situations idea or theory on which a statement or action is based encouraging change in the way that things are done collect and treat rubbish in order to produce useful materials which can be used again official rule person such as an employee, customer or citizen who is involved with an organisation and therefore has an interest in its success not morally acceptable make neither a loss nor a profit doing business reduction in a countrys financial activity when you try to achieve a plan, activity, or situation, usually over a long period of time go into a worse state, often because of lack of control or care when people obey an order, rule or request describes something which must be done, or which is demanded by law people telling each other how good a product is (total amount gathered of) a plant such as a grain, fruit or vegetable grown in large amounts money given as part of the cost of something, to help or encourage it to happen tax collected by a government on goods coming into or sometimes going out of a country buying new companies number with two digits (i.e. between 10 and 99inclusive) continuing for a long time varied area over which something is present high level of knowledge or skill particular kind of commercial enterprise the combined power of a group of things when they are working together which is greater than the total power achieved by each working separately meeting where information and instructions are given handful regular customers Financial Times Stock Exchange 100 index; the main measure of the amount by which the leading 100 shares sold on the London Stock Exchange have gone up or down in value judge the value or character of someone or something direct and straightforward way of communicating with others increase suddenly and greatly once every three months the numbers of employees

n adj adj n n n n

briefing clutch customer base FTSE

n n n n

rate straight talking surge quarterly staffing level

v n v adv n


agreement between people who want to work together because of shared interests or aims


degree of quality or excellence of someone


giving out leaflets to people

management reporting

monthly report(s) on financial performance produced by management for shareholders



continuing to exist or develop, or happening at the present moment

realise supply base take over supervision UNIT 23 in the pipeline patent

v n v n

change into money by selling range of suppliers and potential suppliers get control (of a company) by buying most of its shares when someone watches a person or activity and makes certain that everything is done correctly, safely, etc. being planned and developed register the official legal right to make or sell an invention for a particular number of years where the costs of production fall as a business grows in size if something is ground-breaking, it is very new and a big change from other things of its type if a plan or activity gets off the ground or you get it off the ground, it starts or succeeds if a company has a global presence, it sells its products all over the world see global presence programme of action designed for handling possible problems steal money from the place where you work

adv v

economies of scale pl pl n ground-breaking get off the ground global presence presence UNIT 24 contingency plan have your hands in the till in place trade away come under scrutiny get a bad press limited liability company marketing-led adj v n n n v adv v v v n adj

pass on to someone else subject to careful and thorough examination receive criticism from the media if this type of business goes bankrupt, then the owners will only risk the money they have invested in the company influenced by customers needs (as opposed to being product -led)