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Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California at Berkeley ME 104 Engineering Mechanics II Spring Semester 2010 Instructor: F.

Ma Final Examination The examination has a duration of 2 hours and 45 minutes. Answer all questions. All questions carry the same weight.

May 11, 2010

1. Each of the sliding bars A and B engages its respective rim of the two riveted wheels without slipping. If, in addition to the information shown, bar A has an acceleration of 2 m/s2 to the right and there is no acceleration of bar B, calculate the magnitude of the acceleration of point P for the instant depicted.

2. The crank OA revolves counterclockwise with a constant angular velocity of 5 rad/s. For the position shown, determine the angular velocity and angular acceleration of the slotted link BC.

3. The slender 150-lb bar is supported by two identical cords AB and AC. If cord AC suddenly breaks, determine the initial angular acceleration of the bar and the tension in cord AB.

A 5 ft B 8 ft C
g

4. A sphere of mass m and radius a rests on top of a larger fixed sphere of radius b. The smaller sphere is slightly displaced so that it rolls without slipping down the larger sphere. Where will the rolling sphere leave the fixed sphere? Is there any change in the take-off position if two cylinders of radii a and b are used instead? The moment of inertia of a sphere of mass m and radius r about a diameter is 2mr 2 / 5 . The moment of inertia of a cylinder of mass m and

radius r about its axis is mr 2 / 2 .


m a G b O

5. Determine the minimum velocity v which the wheel must have to just roll over the obstruction. The centroidal radius of gyration of the wheel is k, and it is assumed that the wheel does not slip. What is the value of v if the wheel is a uniform disk with mass m and radius r and h = r / 8 ? g

Problem 1. For A and B on the riveted wheel, ( a A / B )t = rA / B v A / B = rA / B

2 = (0.26)
= 7.69 rad/s2 0.8 ( 0.6) = (0.26)

The center O is in rectilinear motion along the x-axis and aO = (0.16) = 1.23 m/s2 For O and P on the wheel, a P = aO + ( a P / O ) n + ( a P / O ) t
= 1.23i rP / O 2 i + rP / O j

= 5.38 rad/s

= 1.23i 0.16(5.38) 2 i + 0.16(7.69)j = 3.41i + 1.23j Thus a P = 3.412 + 1.232 = 3.62 m/s2
100 mm A 160 mm P vA = 0.8 m/s aA = 2 m/s2

19.8o

aO vB = 0.6 m/s B

x y

Problem 2. Attach a rotating xy-frame to C with the y-axis directed along CB. The pin A can only slide along the slot on link CB, therefore both v rel and a rel act along the link CB. Then Equating i coefficients, v A = v C + rA / C + v rel = rA / C + v rel v A sin 30i + v A cos 30 j = BC k 8 j + vrel j 4(5) sin 30i + 4(5) cos 30 j = 8BC i + vrel j BC = Equating j coefficients, v rel = 20 cos 30 = 17.32 in/sec Since AO rotates with a constant angular velocity of 5 rad/s about fixed point O, a A = (a A / O ) n = 4(5) 2 cos 30i 4(5) 2 sin 30 j = 86.60i 50 j In a similar manner, rA / C + ( rA / C ) + 2 v rel + a rel a A = aC + = rA / C + ( rA / C ) + 2 vrel j + arel j = BC k 8 j + 1.25k (1.25k 8 j) + 2(1.25)k 17.32 j + arel j 20 sin 30 = 1.25 rad/s 8

= 8BC i 43.30i 12.5j + arel j It follows that 86.60i 50 j = 8BC i 43.30i 12.5j + arel j Equating i coefficients,
BC = 43.30 = 5.41 rad/s2 8

B 5 rad/s 4 O

A 8 30

x y
C

vA
30 v rel rA / C

Problem 3. For the bar,

F F

= m( aG ) x = m( aG ) y
G


IG m(aG/B)t

T cos =

M
T B maB

= IG
A

4 T = m( aG ) x 5 3 mg T sin = mg T = m( aG ) y 5 12 1 T ( 4 sin ) = T = m82 5 12

(1) (2) (3)

G mg

C
y

There are three equations containing four unknowns T, ( aG ) x , ( aG ) y and . From kinematics, aG = a B + aG / B Since the bar is stationary when the cord AC breaks, = 0 and v B = 0 . Hence, aG / B = ( aG / B ) t = 4 ( a G / B ) n = 4 2 = 0
2 vB =0 a B = (a B ) t 5 Thus a G / B is perpendicular to BG and a B is perpendicular to AB. Suppose a B makes an angle with BG. Then 3 ( aG ) x = ( a B ) x + ( aG / B ) x ( aG ) x = a B cos = a B 5 4 ( aG ) y = ( a B ) y + ( aG / B ) y ( aG ) y = a B sin + 4 = a B + 4 5 Eliminate a B from the above two equations,

(a B ) n =

( aG ) y =

4 ( aG ) x + 4 3

(4)

Solve Eqs. (1) (4) simultaneously, 27 = g = 4.18 rad/s2 208 20 15 T= m = mg = 43.27 lb 9 52 In addition, ( aG ) x = 7.43 ft/s2, ( aG ) y = 26.63 ft/s2, and a B = 12.38 ft/s2. As a consequence, ma G has a direction as shown. A IG T
B maB mg G m(aG/B)t maG C

In comparison, Tst = mg mg 5 = = mg = 93.75 > T = 43.27 2 cos(90 ) 2 sin 8

Alternative Solution Using the moment equation about B, M B = I G ma G d = I G + m(a G ) y d


1 m82 + m( aG ) y ( 4) 12 Solve Eqs. (1), (2), (4), and (5) simultaneously, = 4.18 rad/s2 T = 43.27 lb

mg ( 4) =

(5)

Problem 4. Let and be angular velocity and acceleration of the rolling sphere. The position of the mass center G of the rolling sphere may be specified by the absolute coordinate with respect to the vertical. From kinematics, the contact point C is the instantaneous center of zero velocity and vG = vC + vG /C = vG /C = a ( a + b) At any position before the rolling sphere leaves the fixed sphere, T + Vg = 0

1 2 1 mvG + I G 2 mg ( a + b)(1 cos ) = 0 2 2 2 12 1 2 2 ( a + b) m[( a + b) ] + ma = mg ( a + b)(1 cos ) 25 a 2

For the rolling sphere, Combine Eqs. (1) and (2),

2 =

10 g (1 cos ) 7( a + b )

(1) 2 mg cos N = m( a + b)

F
N=

= m( aG ) n

(2) (3)

1 mg (17 cos 10) 7 When the rolling sphere leaves the fixed sphere, N = 0 and 10 = 53.97 = cos 1 17

The take-off position is independent of m, a, and b. For two cylinders, I G = cylinder and the same process yields
= cos 1

1 ma 2 for the rolling 2

4 = 55.15 7 If the rolling sphere is treated as a particle sliding on a smooth fixed sphere, the take-off position is given by 2 = cos 1 = 48.19 3 n t
G C N F mg
Position 1: = 0 Position 2: > 0

Problem 5. The motion of the wheel is divided into parts: (1) impact at C and (2) rolling over the obstruction afterwards. When contact occurs at C, the wheel pivots about the obstruction at C and the friction F between the wheel and horizontal ground vanishes. During and immediately after impact an unknown impulsive force R acts on the wheel over a short duration t 0 . After impact the wheel rotates about C with a velocity v2 perpendicular to GC. Since there is no slipping, v = r1 v2 = r2 Just before impact, v ( H C )1 = I G 1 + mv ( r h ) = mk 2 + mv ( r h ) r Just after impact,

v2 + mv2 r r Let s be the distance of C from the vertical line through G. Then ( H C ) 2 = I G 2 + mv2 r = mk 2
t

M
t

dt = H C

mgsdt = mgst = ( H C ) 2 ( H C )1

( H C )1 = ( H C ) 2

rh (1) v 2 = v 1 2 2 k +r After impact, the wheel rolls on curb point C against gravity. Thus T + Vg = 0 For minimum v, kinetic energy after impact is totally expended in rolling over the obstruction, 1 2 1 2 = mgh mv 2 + I G 2 2 2 v2 1 2 1 (2) mv 2 + mk 2 2 = mgh r2 2 2 Combine Eqs. (1) and (2) to eliminate v2 , r v= 2 2 gh( k 2 + r 2 ) k + r 2 rh Suppose the wheel is a uniform disk with mass m and radius r and h = r / 8 . Since k = r / 2 , the minimum velocity v which the wheel must have to just roll over the obstruction is 24 gr r v= 2 2 gh( k 2 + r 2 ) = = 0.4454 gr 2 k + r rh 11 1 2 v2 v G G mg C mg C h h F s s R Just before impact at t = 0 Just after impact at t = t