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Gross AnAtomy of the musculAr system

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Gross AnAtomy of the musculAr system

Gross Anatomy Muscular System


Laszlo Vass, Ed.D Version 420012-01-01

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L ab RepoRt assistant
This document is not meant to be a substitute for a formal laboratory report. The Lab Report Assistant is simply a summary of the experiments questions, diagrams if needed, and data tables that should be addressed in a formal lab report. The intent is to facilitate students writing of lab reports by providing this information in an editable file which can be sent to an instructor.

Exercise 1: Muscles Head and Neck


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Muscle Movement(s) Performed Example: Deltoid Example: Abducts the arm Raises eyebrows Frontalis Levator Scapulae Tilts head back Elevates mandible Masseter Movement of lips Obicularis oris Facial movements Occipitalis Close eyelids Orbicularis oculi Depresses the lower jaw Platysma Head extension/ lateral flexion & rotation of the cervical Splenius capitis spine Sternocleidomastoi Flexes the neck/ extends the head d Abduction of the arm at the shoulder joint Supraspinatus Move the scapulae/ support the arm Trapezius Raises the corners of the mouth when a person smiles Zygomaticus

Data Table 1: Movement(s) performed by each muscle for Figures 3-4.

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Questions eXeRCise 1
A. List a muscle shown in Figures 3 and 4 that is a prime mover/agonist for pivoting the head. Levator scapulae B. List one prime mover/agonist for extension of the head. Splenius capitis C. List one muscle that is the prime mover/agonist for depression of the mandible and list one muscle that is the antagonist for depression of the mandible.
Masseter

D. List one muscle that is a prime mover for smiling.


Zygomaticus

E. List one muscle that raises your eyebrow as if you were questioning what someone said. Fronatlis

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Exercise 2: Muscles of the Trunk


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Muscle Deltoid External intercostal muscles External oblique Infraspinatis Internal intercostal muscles Latissimus dorsi Pectoralis major Pectoralis minor Rectus abdominis (under fascia) Rhomboid major Rhomboid minor Serratus anterior Serratus posterior Subscapularis Supraspinatus Teres major

Data Table 2: Movement(s) performed by each muscle for Figures 5 through 7.


Movement(s) Performed
Abducts the arm Cause expansion of chest cavity during inhalation Pulls chest downwards & compress the abdominal cavity Rotate the arm & stabilize the shoulder joint
Aids in elevating the ribs in inspiration- only used in forceful inhalation Extension, adduction, transverse extension& medial rotation of shoulder

Flexion of humerus, adduction of humerus, rotates humerus medially, keeps the arm attached to the trunk of the body Depresses the point of the shoulder Controls tilt of pelvis & curvature of the lower spine Holds the scapula on to the ribcage/ retract the scapula Holds the scapula on to the ribcage/ retract the scapula Pull the scapula forward around the thorax
Draws the lower ribs backward & downward to assist in rotation & extension of the trunk

Rotates the head of the humerus medially Abduction of the arm at the shoulder joint
Medial rotator & adductor of the humerus and assists the latissimus dorsi in drawing the previously raised humerus downward & backward

Move the scapulae/ support the arm

Trapezius

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Questions eXeRCise 2
A. List one muscle shown in Figures 5 through 7 that is a prime mover/agonist for adducting the arms.
Pectoralis major

B. List one shoulder muscle that abducts the arm.


Deltoid

C. Which muscle is the prime mover for shoulder flexion (upper arm moving toward the ear)?
Deltoid

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Latissimus dorsi

Gross AnAtomy of the musculAr system

D. List one antagonist for shoulder flexion.

E.

What are the muscles between the ribs called? What do they do?
Intercostals- aid in movement of chest cavity during breathing

Exercise 3: Muscles of the Upper Body


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Data Table 3: Movement(s) performed by each muscle for Figures 8-10.
Movement(s) Performed
Extension of elbow Flexes the forearm & supinates the hand Forearm flexor Forearm flexor Draws the humerus forward & toward the torso Extends and abducts the wrist Extends and abducts the wrist Extends the wrist & digits Power wrist flexor & abductor Flex & adduct the hand Rotate the arm & stabilize the shoulder joint Weak wrist flexor; tenses skin of the palm Pronates the hand Help hold the humeral head in the glenoid cavity of the scapula- part of rotator cuff Elbow extensor

Muscle Anconeus Biceps brachii Brachialis Brachioradialis Coracobrachialis Extensor carpi radialis longus Extensor carpi radialis brevis Extensor digitorum communis Flexor carpi radialis Flexor carpi ulnaris Infraspinatus Palmaris longus Pronator teres Teres minor Triceps brachii

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Questions eXeRCise 3
A. List three agonist muscles that flex the elbow. Biceps, brachialis, brachioradialis B. List one antagonist for elbow flexion. Triceps C. List two muscles that flex the wrist and allow a human to make a fist.
Flexor carpi radialis, flexor carpi ulnaris

D. List two muscles that allow extension of the wrist and flaring of the fingers.
Extensor carpi radialis longus & extensor carpi radialis brevis

E. List one muscle that allows supination of the hand and one muscle that allows pronation of the hand.
Biceps brachii & pronator teres

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Exercise 4: Muscles of the Lower Body


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Data Table 4: Movement(s) performed by each muscle for Figures 11-12.
Movement(s) Performed
Hip adduction, flexion Knee flexion Plantar flexing the foot at the ankle & leg at the knee joint Main hip extensor Hip abduction Hip abduction Adducts & flexes hip/ aids in knee flexion Hip flexion
Laterally rotates the femur with hip extension and abducts the femur with hip flexion

Muscle Adductor longus Biceps femoris Gastrocnemius Gluteus maximus Gluteus medius Gluteus minimus Gracilis Pectineus Piriformis

Psoas major Psoas minor Quadratus femoris Quadratus lumborum Rectus femoris Sartorius Semimembranosus Semiteninosus Soleus Tensor fascia latae Tibialis anterior Vastus lateralis Vastus medialis

Hip flexor Hip flexor

External rotator and adductor of the thigh Lateral flexion of vertebral column; extension of lumbar vertebral column; fixes the 12th rib during forced expiration; elevates ilium Knee extension
Flexing, adduction/ abduction & lateral rotation of hip/ flexion of knee

Extend the hip joint and flex the knee joint Extend the hip joint and flex the knee joint

Maintains standing posture/ plantar flexion of the foot Hip flexor Dorsiflex and invert the foot
Stabilizes patella/ extends the leg at the knee to a straightened position

Stabilizes patella/ provides stable leg extension at the knee

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Questions eXeRCise 4
A. List one muscle that performed extension of the hip. Gluteus maximus B. Which muscle extends the knee and flexes the thigh? Rectus femoris C. List one muscle that dorsiflexes the foot.
Gastrocnemius com 23 Hands-On

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D. Which three muscles extend the thigh and flex the knee? Semimembranosus, semitendinosus, sartorius E. List three muscles that abduct the leg. Gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, adductor longus

Overview
Prepare tables similar to Data Tables 5 and 6 below to record your observations. Label Figures 13a and 13b in Data Tables 5 and 6.

Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Data Table: 5 - Figure 13a


Muscle
Deltoid Subscapularis Pectoralis major Biceps brachii Brachialis Brachioradialis Rectus abdominis Pronator teres External oblique Psoas minor Adductor longus Rectus femoris Tibialis anterior

Figure 13a: Anterior muscles of the human body

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Numbe r 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Data Table: 6 - Figure 13b


Muscle
Levator scapulae Trapezius Splenius capitis Deltoid Rhomboid minor Brachialis Brachioradialis Latissimus dorsi Gluteus maximus Quadratus femoris Semimembranosus Semitendinosus Gastrocnemius Soleus

Figures 13b: Posterior muscles of the human body

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Exercise 5: Identification and Dissection of Cat Muscles


A. Match the muscles on the left with its function or description on the right Answer Item F 1. Pectoralis Major D 2. Brachioradialis J 3. Mylohyoid A 4. Vastus Lateralis B 5. Soleus C 6. Acromiodeltoid G 7. Triceps Brachii I 8. Levator Scapulae Ventralis H 9. Biceps Femoris E 10. Palmaris Longus Description A. Extends the leg B. Flexes the foot C. Adducts the arm D. Supinates the hand E. Flexes the fingers F. Flexes the forelimb G. Extends the arm H. Flexes the leg I. Elevates and adducts the scapula J. Raises the floor of the mouth

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Questions

Gross AnAtomy of the musculAr system

A. Explain the structural difference between the deltoid and trapezius muscles found in the cat versus the human.
single muscle Humans have a single deltoid muscle, cats have three deltoid muscles. The trapezius is also one in humans and three separate muscles in cats.

B. Compare the cat and human muscles of the thigh and lower leg. Why are their structural differences in these muscles?
variation. There are structural differences in these muscles because they move differently than the human

C. Cats have additional, arm, chest and upper leg muscles that humans do not have. Propose a reason for these differences.
four limbs support the Cats require these extra muscles in their arms, chest and upper legs because they are mobile on as opposed to the two limbs humans move on. Cats need to have more strength in their arms and chest to rest of their body weight as most of the pressure is put on their arms and legs.

Conclusions
Why cant individual muscles work all by themselves to produce a movement? Muscles need to work in pairs to produce steady movements. Individual muscles need to connect to something else in order to actually produce a functional movement.

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