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 Does Personality include –

 Eternal appearances and behaviour

 The inner awareness of self as a

permanent organizing force and

 The particular organization of measurable

traits, both inner and outer.
Definition of Personality
It is the dynamic organization within
the individual of those
psychophysical systems that
determine his unique adjustments
to his environment.
The sum total of ways in which an individual
reacts and interacts with others.

Personality Traits
Enduring characteristics that describe an
individual’s behavior.
Major Determinants of Personality
 Biological Factors
 Heredity
 Brain
 Physical features
 Cultural Factors
 Family Factors
 Social Factors
 Situational Factors
Theories of Personality

 Intrapsychic Theory
 Type Theories
 Trait Theories
 Self-Theory and
 Social Leaning Theory
Intrapsychic Theory

The components of
Intrapsychic Theory

(Conscience Ego ideal)

(untamed passion, sex instincts, preconscious

Biological urges, aggressive and
destructive Impulses.

Unconscious Id
Freud’s conception of the Personality
Structur Level of Characteristics
e consciousness
Id Unconscious Primitive component containing the sexual
instincts, biological urges, aggressive and
destructive impulses. Source of the libido.
Operates according to the pleasure principle,
seeking immediate gratification. Impulsive,
amoral, and selfish.

Ego Largely conscious Logical, rational component, which functions to

Partly unconscious satisfy the id’s urges and carry our transactions
in the real world. Acts according to the reality

Superego Both conscious and The morale component, consisting of the

unconscious conscience and the ego ideal. Sets moral
guidelines, which limit the flexibility of the ego.
Defence Mechanisms

 Repression
 Projection
 Denial
 Rationalization
 Regression
 Reaction Formation
 Sublimation
Type Theories

A. Sheldon’s Physiognomy Theory

 Sheldon identifies three body types

 Endomorph
 Mesomorph

 Ectomorph
Body type Behavioural temperament
Endomorphy Softness and spherical The endomorphic type of individual usually
appearance; highly has a love for comfort, eats heavily, likes to be
developed abdominal around people and desires affection. He is
area; even tempered, shows a relaxed posture,
underdevelopment of reads showily, and is tolerant of others, and
bone muscle etc. easy to get along with others. He prefers to be
led than to lead.
Mesomorphy Hard and rectangular The mesomorphic individual likes physical
physique with a adventure and risk-taking. He needs muscular
predominance of bone and vigorous physical activity. He is
and muscle; strong, aggressive and insensitive toward others. He
tough and injury- tends to be noisy and courageous; he desires
resistant body; well action, power, and domination. He is athletic
equipped for strenuous and seeks outdoor activity.
physical demands.
Ectomorphy Linear and fragile; flat He displays restraint, inhibition, and desire for
chest and delicate concealment. He tends to be distrustful of
body; usually thin and people. He works well in closed areas. He
light-muscled. reacts over quickly, sleeps poorly, and prefers
solitude when his mind is troubled. Also he
prefers not to attract attention to himself.
Typically, he is anxious, ambitious, and
The BIG FIVE Personality
Core Traits Descriptive characteristics of High Scores

Conscientiousness Dependable, hardworking, organized, self

disciplined, persistent, reasonable

Emotional stability Calm, secure, happy, unworried

Agreeableness Cooperative, warm, caring, good natured,

courteous, trusting

Extraversion Sociable, outgoing, talkative, assertive,


Openness to Curious, intellectual, creative, cultured,

experience artistically sensitive, flexible and imaginative
Those with extraversion are likely to be successful
in sales and management as a whole.

Those with high agreeableness become

successful in public / customer relations and HR
particularly in conflict handling.
Study indicates that those with high conscientiousness
have high level of performance

Those with a strategic management style are characterized

by conscientiousness and openness to experience.

Those with a strong interpersonal management style are

characterized by extraversion and openness to
In today’s workplace, groups / team are
becoming more important. The Big Five
Traits are also predictive of team

Higher the average score of team members

higher is the performance of the team.
Carl Jung’s Extrovert-introvert Theory:-
He believed that a person can be typed into

1. Extrovert Or
2. Introvert based on two mental

b. Perception &
c. Judgment
Jung then further divided perception into:-
 1. Sensing &

 2. Intuition
 AND Judgment into:-

 1. Thinking
 2. Feeling
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
A personality test that taps four characteristics
and classifies people into 1 of 16 personality

Personality Types
• Extroverted vs. Introverted (E or I)
• Sensing vs. Intuitive (S or N)
• Thinking vs. Feeling (T or F)
• Judging vs. Perceiving (P or J)
Where do you get your energy ?
• Extraversion (E) • Introversion (I)

• Outgoing • Quiet
• Interacting • Concentrating
• Speaks, then thinks • Thinks, then speaks
• Gregarious • Reflective
Where do pay attention to and
collect information on?
• Sensing (S) • Intuiting (I)

• Practical • General
• Details • Possibilities
• Concrete • Theoretical
• Specific • Abstract
How do you evaluate and make
decisions ?
• Thinking (T) • Feeling (F)

• Analytical • Subjective
• Head • Heart
• Rules • Circumstance
• Justice • Mercy
How do you orient yourself to the
outside world ?
• Judging (J) • Perceiving (P)

• Structured • Flexible
• Time oriented • Open ended
• Decisive • Exploring
• Organized • Spontaneous
• The combination in four major dimensions yield
16 types.

• As example: An ESTJ personality is

“Extraverted, Sensing, Thinking and Judging.”

• This type of person will interact with others (E),

sees the world realistically (S), make decisions
objectively and decisively (T) and likes
structures, schedules and order (J) – he is a
good manager.
• MBTI is used by numerous companies such as
AT &T, Exxon, Honeywell, HP and others in
selection as well as MDP.
Locus of Control
Locus of Control
The degree to which people believe
they are masters of their own fate.

Individuals who believe that
they control what happens to
Individuals who believe
that what happens to them
is controlled by outside
forces such as luck or
Self-Esteem and Self-Monitoring

Self-Esteem (SE)
Individuals’ degree of
liking or disliking
A personality trait that
measures an individuals
ability to adjust his or her
behavior to external,
situational factors.
• High Risk-taking Managers
– Make quicker decisions
– Use less information to make decisions
– Operate in smaller and more entrepreneurial
• Low Risk-taking Managers
– Are slower to make decisions
– Require more information before making decisions
– Exist in larger organizations with stable environments
Personality Types
Type A’s
2. Are always moving, walking, and eating rapidly;
3. Feel impatient with the rate at which most events take place;
4. Strive to think or do two or more things at once;
5. Cannot cope with leisure time;
6. Are obsessed with numbers, measuring their success in
terms of how many or how much of everything they acquire.

Type B’s
2. Never suffer from a sense of time urgency with its
accompanying impatience;
3. Feel no need to display or discuss either their achievements
or accomplishments;
4. Play for fun and relaxation, rather than to exhibit their
superiority at any cost;
5. Can relax without guilt.
Personality Types
Proactive Personality
Identifies opportunities, shows initiative, takes
action, and perseveres until meaningful change
Creates positive change in the environment,
regardless or even in spite of constraints or
Basic convictions that a specific mode of
conduct or end-state of existence is personally
or socially preferable to an opposite or converse
mode of conduct or end-state of existence.

Value System
A hierarchy based on a ranking of an individual’s
values in terms of their intensity.
Importance of Values
• Provide understanding of the attitudes,
motivation, and behaviors of individuals and
• Influence our perception of the world around us.
• Represent interpretations of “right” and “wrong.”
• Imply that some behaviors or outcomes are
preferred over others.
Types of Values –- Rokeach Value Survey

Terminal Values
Desirable end-states of existence; the goals that
a person would like to achieve during his or her

Instrumental Values
Preferable modes of behavior or means of
achieving one’s terminal values.
Trait Theories

A. Gordon Allport’s Personality Traits

 Allport identified two main categories of traits:-
 Common traits and
 Individual traits.
 Cardinal Traits
 Central Traits
 Secondary Traits
B. Raymond Cattell’s 16
Personality Factors
Cattell identified two types
Surface Traits
Source Traits
 Self-theory rejects both psychoanalytic and behaviouristic
conceptions of human nature as too mechanistic portraying
people as creatures helplessly buffeted about by internal
instincts or external stimuli.

 Carl Rogers is most closely associated with his approach of


 Rogers and his associates have developed this personality

theory that places emphasis on the individual as an initiating,
creating, influential determinant of behaviour within the
environmental framework.
Social Learning Theory
 Four processes have been found to determine the
influence that a model will have on an individual
 Attentional Processes
 Retention Processes
 Motor reproduction processes
 Reinforcement Processes
 Direct
 Vicarious
 Self-administered
Personality Characteristics in Organizations

 Locus of Control
 Machiavelleanism
 Self-esteem
 Self-efficacy
 Self-monitoring
 Positive / Negative Affect
 Risk Taking
 Type A Personality
Measuring Personality

The Projective Tests

Behavioural Measures
Self-report questionnaire
 Minnesota Multiphasic Personality
Inventory (MMPI)
 The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
Matching Personalities and Jobs
Type Personality Characteristics Sample Occupations
Realistic: Prefers physical Shy, genuine, persistent, Mechanic, drill, press
activities that require skill, stable, conforming, practical operator, assembly line
strength and coordination worker, farmer
Investigative: Prefers Analytical, original, curious, Biologist, economist,
activities involving thinking, independent mathematician, news reporter
organizing, and understanding
Social: Prefers activities that Sociable, friendly, Social worker, teacher,
involve helping and cooperative, understanding counsellor, clinical
developing others psychologist
Conventional: Prefers rule- Conforming, efficient, Accountant, corporate
regulated, orderly, and practical, unimaginative, manager, bank teller, file clerk
unambiguous activities inflexible
Enterprising: Prefers verbal Self-confident, ambitious, Lawyer, real-estate agent,
activities where there are energetic, domineering public relations specialist,
opportunities to influence business manager small
others and attain power
Artistic: prefers ambiguous Imaginative, disorderly, Painter, musician, writer,
and unsystematic activities idealistic, emotional, interior decorator.
that allow creative expression impractical
Our personality shapes our behaviour.

We can better understand people if we know something

about his or her personality.

Personality is the sum total of ways in which an individual

interacts and reacts with other people or groups.

Managers need to know about personality and personality

tests because they are useful in making hiring decisions.

It is important that employees personalities fit with the

overall organisations’ culture and with the characteristics of
the specific job which they have to perform.