Sei sulla pagina 1di 17 Equilibrium of
System of
Coplanar forces

Engineering Mechanics

Equilibrium of system of coplanar forces

EQUILIBRIUM OF SYSTEM OF COPLANAR FORCES  INTRODUCTION

When a particle is acted upon by a number of forces the resultant force will produce the same effect as produced by all the given forces. A little consideration will show that if the resultant of a number of forces, acting on a particle is zero, the particle will be in equilibrium. Such a set of forces, whose resultant is zero, are called equilibrium forces. The force, which brings the set of forces in equilibrium, is called an equilibrant. Condition of equilibrium
Consider a body acted upon by a number of coplanar non-concurrent forces. A little
consideration will show, that as a result of these forces, the body may have any one of the
following states.
1. The body may move in any one direction
2. The body may rotate about itself without moving.
3. The body may move in any one direction and at the same time it may also rotate about
itself.
4. The body may be completely at rest.
Concurrent System
The following set of equation insures equilibrium of a concurrent, spatial system of forces.
1. ∑
where ƩF x , ƩF y , and ƩF z = algebraic sum of the x, y, and z components
2. ∑
Respectively of the forces of the system.
3. ∑
ƩM = 0 may be used as an alternate to one of the above equation. For example, if it replaces
equation (3), then ƩM must be the algebraic sum of the moments of the forces of the system
about neither an axis neither parallel to nor interesting the z axis

Parallel System The following set of equation insures equilibrium of a parallel, spatial system of forces.

1. ƩF y = 0

2. ƩM x =0

3. ƩM z =0

where ƩF y = algebraic sum of the forces of the system along the y axis

parallel to the system,

ƩM x and ƩM z = algebraic sums of the moments of the force of the system about the x and axes respectively.  The Automobile Society (India)

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Engineering Mechanics

Equilibrium of system of coplanar forces

NONCONCURRENT, NONPARALLEL SYSTEM

The following six equations are necessary and sufficient condition for equilibrium of the most general force system in three-dimensional space.

1. ƩF x = 0

2. ƩF y = 0

where ƩF x , ƩF y, , and ƩF z = algebraic sum of the x, y, and z components

respectively of the forces of the system.

3. 4. ƩM x =0
ƩM x , ƩM y , and ƩM z = algebraic sum of the moments of the forces of
5. ƩM y =0
the system about x, y, and z axes respectively.
6. ƩM z =0
All the systems are special cases of this system.
SYSTEM OF FORCES
When two or more forces act on a body, they are called to for a system of forces.
Following systems of forces are important from the subject point of view:
1. Coplanar forces: The forces, whose lines of action lie on the same plane, are known as
coplanar forces.
2. Collinear forces: The forces, whose lines of action lie on the same line, are known as
collinear forces.
3. Concurrent forces: The forces, which meet at one point, are known as concurrent forces.
The concurrent forces may or may not b collinear.
4. Coplanar concurrent forces: The forces, which meet at one point and their line of action
also lay on the same plane, are known as coplanar concurrent forces.
5. Coplanar non-concurrent forces: The forces, which do not meet at one point, but their lines
of action lie on the same, are known as coplanar non-concurrent forces.
6. Non-Coplanar concurrent forces: The forces, which meet at one point, but their lines of
action do not lie on the same plane, are known as non-coplanar concurrent forces.
7. Non-Coplanar non-concurrent forces: The forces, which do not meet at one point and their
lines of action do not lie on the same plane, are called non-coplanar non-concurrent forces.
Couples
A pair of two equal and unlike parallel forces (i.e. forces equal in
magnitude, with lines of action parallel to each other and acting in
opposite directions) is known as a couple.

ƩF z = 0  The Automobile Society (India)

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Engineering Mechanics

Equilibrium of system of coplanar forces

Classification of Couples

The couples may be, broadly, classified into the following two categories depending upon their direction, in which the couple tends to rotate the body on which it acts.

1. Clockwise couple,

2.

Anticlockwise couple It is the moment of a force, whose effect is to turn or rotate the body, in the same direction in which hands of a clock move as shown in fig.(a) 2. It is the moment of a force, whose effect is to turn or rotate the
body, in the opposite direction in which the hands of a clock move as
shown in the fig. (b)
Note:- The general convention is to take clockwise moment as positive and anticlockwise
moment as negative.
TYPE OF SUPPORTS
The three common types of connections which
join a built structure to its foundation are; roller
pinned and fixed. A fourth type, not often found
in building structures, is known as a simple
support. This is often idealized as a frictionless
surface). All of these supports can be located
anywhere along a structural element. They are
found at the ends, at midpoints, or at any other
intermediate points. The type of support
connection determines the type of load that the
support can resist. The support type also has a
great effect on the load bearing capacity of each element, and therefore the system. The diagram illustrates the various ways in which each type of support is represented. A single unified graphical method to represent each of these support types does not exist. Chances are that one of these representations will be similar to local common practice. However, no matter what the representation, the forces that the type can resist are indeed standardized.  The Automobile Society (India)

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Engineering Mechanics

Equilibrium of system of coplanar forces

ROLLER SUPPORTS

Roller supports are free to rotate and translate along the surface upon which the roller rests. The surface can be horizontal, vertical, or sloped at any angle. The resulting reaction force is always

a single force that is perpendicular to, and away from, the surface. Roller supports are commonly

located at one end of long bridges. This allows the bridge structure to expand and contract with temperature changes. The expansion forces could fracture the supports at the banks if the bridge structure was “locked” in place. Roller supports can also take the form of rubber bearing, rockers or a set of gears which are designed to allow a limited amount of lateral movements. a roller support cannot provide resistance to a lateral forces. Imagine a structure (perhaps a
person) on roller skates. It would remain in place as long as the structure must only support itself
and perhaps a perfectly vertical load. As soon as a lateral load of any kind pushes on the
structure it will roll away in response to the force. The lateral load could be a shove, a gust of
wind or an earthquake. Since most structures are subjected to lateral loads it follows that a
building must have other types of support in addition to roller supports.
PINNED SUPPORTS
A pinned support can resist both vertical and horizontal
forces but not a moment. They will allow the structural
member to rotate, but not to translate in any direction. Many
connections are assumed to be pinned connections even
though they might resist a small amount of moment in
reality. It is also true that a pinned connection could allow
rotation in only one direction; providing resistance to
rotation in any other direction. The knee can be idealized as
a connection which allows rotation in only one direction and
provides resistance to lateral movement. The design of a
pinned connection is a good example of the idealization of
the reality. A single pinned connection is usually not sufficient to make a structure stable.
Another support must be provided at some point to prevent rotation of the structure. The
representation of a pinned support includes both horizontal and vertical forces.  The Automobile Society (India)

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Engineering Mechanics

Equilibrium of system of coplanar forces

PINNED CONNECTIONS

These are the typical connection found in almost all trusses. They can be articulated or hidden from view; they can be very expressive or subtle.  There is an illustration of one of the elements at the Olympic
Stadium in Munich below. It is a cast steel connector that acts as a
node to resolve a number of tensile forces. Upon closer
examination once can notice that the connection is made of a
number of parts. Each cable is connected to the node by an end
„bracket” which is connected to a large pin. This is quite literally a
“pinned connection”. Due to the nature of the geometry of the
bracket and pin, a certain amount of rotation movement would be
permitted around the axis of each pin.
One of the connections from the pyramid of I.M. Pei's Loiuvre
addition follows below. Notice how it too utilized pinned
connections.
Pinned connections are confronted daily. Every time a
hinged door is pushed open a pinned connection has
allowed rotation around a distinct axis; and prevented
translation in two. The door hinge prevents vertical and
horizontal translation. As a matter of fact, if a sufficient
moment is not generated to create rotation the door will
not move at all.  The Automobile Society (India)

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Engineering Mechanics

Equilibrium of system of coplanar forces  FIXED SUPPORTS
Fixed supports can resist vertical and horizontal forces as
well as a moment. Since they restrain both rotation and
translation, they are also known as rigid supports. This
means that a structure only needs one fixed support in
order to be stable. All three equations of equilibrium can
be satisfied. A flagpole set into a concrete base is a good
example of this kind of support. The representation of
fixed supports always includes two forces (horizontal
and vertical) and a moment.
FIXED CONNECTIONS

Fixed connections are very common. Steel structures of many sizes are composed of elements which are welded together. A cast-in-place concrete structure is automatically monolithic and it becomes a series of rigid connections with the proper placement of the reinforcing steel. Fixed connections demand greater attention during construction and are often the source of building failures.

For example: Let this small chair illustrate the way in which two types of "fixed" connections can be generated. One is welded and the other is comprised to two screws. Both are considered to be fixed connections due to the fact that both of them can resist vertical and lateral loads as  The Automobile Society (India)

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Engineering Mechanics

Equilibrium of system of coplanar forces

well as develop a resistance to moment. Thus, it found that not all fixed connections must be welded or monolithic in nature. Let the hinges at locations A and B be examined in closer detail. SIMPLE SUPPORTS
Simple supports are idealized by some to be frictionless surface supports. This is correct in as
much as the resulting reaction is always a single force that is perpendicular to, and away from,
the surface. However, are also similar to roller supports in this. They are dissimilar in that a
simple support cannot resist lateral loads of any magnitude. The built reality often depends upon
gravity and friction to develop a minimum amount of frictional resistance to moderate lateral
loading. For example, if a plank is laid across gap to provide a bridge, it is assumed that the
plank will remain in its place. It will do so until a foot kicks it or moves it. At that moment the
plank will move because the simple connection cannot develop any resistance to the lateral load.
A simple support can be found as a type of support for long bridges or roof span. Simple
supports are often found in zones of frequent seismic activity.    The Automobile Society (India)

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Engineering Mechanics

Equilibrium of system of coplanar forces

Introduction

Whenever some load is attached to a hanging wire, it extends and the load move downwards by an amount equal to the extension of the wire. When the load moves downwards, it loses its potential energy. This energy is absorbed (or stored) in the stretched wire, which may be released by removing the load. On removing the load, the wire will spring back to its original position. This energy, which is absorbed in a body, when strained within its elastic limit, is known as Strain energy. It has been experimentally found that this strain energy is always capable of doing some work. The amount of strain energy, in a body, is found out by the principal of work. Mathematically
Strain energy = work done
Load may act in any of the following three ways:
1.
2.
Sudden
3.
With impact
and increases gradually till the body, is fully loaded. E.g. when we lower a body with the help of
a crane, the body first touches the platform on which it is to be placed. On further releasing the
chain, the platform goes on loading till it is fully loaded by the body. This is the case of a
Let
P
A = Cross sectional area of the bar,
l = Length of the bar
E = Modulus of elasticity of the bar material, and
δl = Deformation of the bar due to load
Since the load applied is gradual, and varies from zero to P, therefore the average load is equal to
P/2

Work done = Force × Distance = Average load × Deformation  The Automobile Society (India)

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Engineering Mechanics

Equilibrium of system of coplanar forces Since the energy stored is also equal to the work done, therefore strain energy stored
We also know that modulus of resilience
= strain energy per unit volume
Example calculates the strain energy stored in a bar 2 m long, 50 mm wide and 40 mm
thick when it is subjected to a tensile load of 60kN. Take E as 200 GPa.
Solution given: l=2 m = 2×10 3 mm; b=50 mm; t=40 mm; P =60 kN = 60×10 3 N and E =
200 GPa = 200×10 3 N/mm 2
We know that stress in the bar
And volume of the bar,
Strain energy stored in the bar,
(
)
Ans
When the Load is suddenly applied

Sometimes, in factories and workshops, the load is suddenly applied on a body. E.g. when we lower a body with the help of a crane, the body is, first of all, just above the platform on which it is to be placed. If the chain breaks at one at this moment the whole load of the body begins to act on the platform. This is the case of a suddenly applied load. Now consider a bar subjected to a sudden load.

A = Cross sectional area of the bar, l = Length of the bar E = Modulus of elasticity of the bar material, and  The Automobile Society (India)

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Engineering Mechanics

Equilibrium of system of coplanar forces

δl = Deformation of the bar due to load σ = Stress induced by the application of the sudden load. Since the load applied is sudden,

the load (P) is constant throughout the process of deformation of the bar.

Work done = Force × Distance = Average load × Deformation We know the strain energy stored.
Since the energy stored is equal to the work, therefore
Or
It means that the stress induced in this case is twice the stress induced, when the same load is
applied gradually. Once the stress (σ) is obtained, the corresponding instantaneous deformation
(δl) and the strain energy may be found out as usual.
Example An axial pull of 20 kN is suddenly applied on a steel rod 2.5 m long and 1000
mm 2 in cross-section. Calculate the strain energy, which can be absorbed in the rod.
Take E = 200 GPA
Solution
Given: P = 20 kN = 20 ×10 3 N; l = 2.5 m = 2.5×10 3 mm; A = 1000 mm 2 and E =
200 GPa = 200 × 10 3 N/mm 2 .
We know that stress in the rod, when the load is suddenly applied.
And volume of the rod.
Strain energy which can be absorbed in the rod,
Ans.  The Automobile Society (India)

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Engineering Mechanics

When the Load is applied with Impact

Equilibrium of system of coplanar forces Sometimes in factories and workshops, the load with impact is applied on a body, e.g. when we
lower a body with the help of a crane, and the chain breaks while the load
is being lowered, the load falls through a distance, before it touches the
platform. This is the case of a load applied with impact.
Now consider a bar subject to a load applied with impact as shown in the
fig.20.1
A
= Cross sectional area of the bar,
l = Length of the bar
E
= Modulus of elasticity of the bar material, and
δl = Deformation of the bar due to load
σ = Stress induced by the application of the sudden load.
h
= Height through which the load will fall, before impact-in on the collar of the
bar
Work done = Load × Distance moved
… (i)
And energy stored
… (ii)
Since energy stored is equal to the work done, therefore
(
)
(
)
(
)
(
)
Multiplying both sides by
(
)
This is a quadratic equation. We know that
(
)
(
) (
)

Once the stress (σ) is obtained, the corresponding instantaneous deformation (δl) or the strain energy stored may be found out as usual.  The Automobile Society (India)

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*

+

Engineering Mechanics

 Cor. When δl is very small as compared to h, then Work done = Ph Or

Equilibrium of system of coplanar forces Example
A 2 m long alloy bar of 1500 mm 2 cross-sectional area hangs vertically and has a
collar securely fixed at its lower end. Find the stress inducted in the bar, when a weight of 2KN
falls from a height 0f 100 mm on the collar. Take E=120Pa. also find the strain energy stored in
the bar.
Solution
Given:
×
mm;
A=1500
mm 2 ;
P=kN=2
×
10 3
N;
Gpa
×
.
Stress induced in the bar
We know that in the, extension of the bar will be small and negligible as compared to the
height
from where the weight fall on the collar (due to a small value of weight
and
a large value of
1 00 mm)
Ans.
Strain energy stored in the bar
We also know that volume of the bar,
Example. A steel bar 3 m long and 2500 mm 2 in area hangs vertically, which is securely
fixed on a collar at its lower end. If a weight of 15 kN on the collar from a height of 10 mm,
determine the stress developed in the bar. What will be the strain energy stored in the bar? Take
E as 200 Gpa.

Solution.

Given:

x

x

x  The Automobile Society (India)

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Engineering Mechanics

Equilibrium of system of coplanar forces

Stress developed in the bar

We know that in this case, extension of the bar will be considerable as compared to the height from where the weight falls on the collar (due to a large value of weight i.e,. 15 kN

and a small value of

Therefore stress developed in the bar, [
]
*
+
Ans.
Strain energy stored in the bar
We know that volume of the bar,
x
x
x
And strain energy stored in the bar.
x
x
x
Ans.
Example. A copper bar of 12 mm diameter gets stretched by 1 mm under a steady load of
4 kN. What stress would be produced in the bar by a weight of 500 N, if it falls through 80 mm
before striking the collar rigidly fixed to the lower end of the bar? Take young‟s modulus for the
bar material as 100 Gpa.
Solution.
Given:
x
x
Let
= Length of the copper bar,
We know that cross-sectional area of the bar,

And stretching of the bar

(

)

x

x

x  The Automobile Society (India)

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Equilibrium of system of coplanar forces

We also know that stress produced in the bar by the falling weight.

 ( √ ) ( √ ) BEAMS
A beam is a structural member which has a length considerable larger than its cross-sectional
dimensions and which carries loads usually perpendicular to the axis of the beam (thus the loads
are at right angles to the length). The loads may be distributed over a very small distance along
the beam, in which case they are called concentrated, or they may be distributed over a
measurable distance, in which case they are called distributed.
Because design criteria usually are concerned with the ability of a beam to withstand shear forces
and bending moments.
Types of Beams
a) Simple-supports are at the ends
b) Cantilever-one end is mounted in a wall and the other end is free (this is the only type
considered here)
c) Overhanging-at least one support is not at the end.  The Automobile Society (India)

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Engineering Mechanics

Equilibrium of system of coplanar forces Beams are subjected to uniformly distributed loads (UDL), point (concentrated) loads or a
combination of both. The various loading conditions to which a beam may be subjected to are
shown below.  The Automobile Society (India)

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Equilibrium of system of coplanar forces

TRUSSES

Assumption

a)

b)

Each truss is assumed to be composed of rigid members all lying in one plane. This means that coplanar force systems are involved. The weights of the members are neglected because they are small in comparison with the loads. Forces are transmitted from one member, which are called two-force members, will be either in tension (T) or compression (C) c)
Solution by the Method of Joints
To use this technique, draw a free body diagram of any pin in this truss, provided no more than
two unknown forces act on that pin. This limitation is imposed because the system of force is a
concurrent one for which, of course, only two equations are available for a solution. Proceed
from one pin to another until all unknowns have been determined.
Solution by the Method of Section
In the method of joints, forces in various members are determined by using free body diagrams
of the pins. In the method of sections, a section of the truss is taken as a free body diagram. This
involves cutting through a number of members, including those members whose forces are
unknown, in order to isolate one part of the truss. The forces in the members cut act as external
forces helping to hold that part of the truss in equilibrium. Since the system is non-concurrent,
nonparallel, three equations are available. Therefore, in any one sectioning no more than three
unknown froes can be found. Be sure to isolate the free body completely and at the same time
have no more than three unknown forces.  The Automobile Society (India)

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