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Assignment No. 2

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Zahid Nazir - 1 st Semester Autum 2008

(MBA Col)

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MONOPOLY AND PERFECT COMPITITION INTRODUCTION Market ; Its classification : In ordinary language, the word
MONOPOLY AND PERFECT COMPITITION
INTRODUCTION
Market ; Its classification : In ordinary language, the word market
implies a particular place where the buyers and sellers assemble. In other
words, an area, large or small, can be considered as a market where buyers
and sellers are in easy contact with one another. The term thus indicates a
geographical location. In economic jargon, however, market implies a
contact either direct or indirect between buyers and sellers. Thus, market is a
network of dealings between buyers and sellers.
With the development of communications and banking, the markets
have widened and dealings in some commodities are now world-wide.
Therefore, the essential feature of a market is that buyers should be able to
strike bargains with sellers. According to Wicksteed, “Thus market is the
characteristic phenomenon of economic life and the constitution of markets
and market prices is the central problem of Economics”.
Broadly, markets may be classified on the basis of area as local,
national and world markets. But, the classification relevant for our purpose
is based on the extent of competition prevailing in the market.
Accordingly, there are perfect markets and imperfect markets. The
essential characteristic of perfect market is the prevalence of uniform price
for the commodity. On the other hand, different prices prevail for the
product in imperfect markets.
Imperfect
competition
may
have
several
forms,
e.g.
monopoly,
duopoly, oligopoly and monopolistic competition.
Thus, markets are classified on the basis of number of sellers, nature of
the product, degrees of competition etc.
Zahid Nazir - 1 st Semester Autum 2008
(MBA Col)
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PERFECT COMPITITION Perfect competition is said to exist when the market possesses following characteristics or
PERFECT COMPITITION
Perfect competition is said to exist when the market possesses
following characteristics or fulfils the conditions mentioned below:
a)
A large Number of Buyers and Sellers : The fundamental
condition of perfect competition is that there must be a large number of
sellers or firms. The total number of sellers is so large that no individual
seller is in a position to influence the price of the product in the market. In
other words, the individual seller’s decision to raise or lower the supply will
have an insignificant effect on the market price, because each one is selling a
small portion of the total output. Therefore, Each Seller is just a Price-taker
and not a Price-Maker.
b)
Homogeneous Commodity : This is the second fundamental
condition of a perfect market. The products of all firms in the industry are
homogeneous and identical. In other words, they are perfect substitutes for
one another. There are no trade marks, patents etc. to distinguish the
product of one seller from that of another. Under perfect competition, the
control over price is completely eliminated because all firms produce
homogeneous commodities. This condition ensures that the same price
prevails in the market for the same commodity.
The two basic features, viz. large number of firms and homogeneous
product make the demand perfectly elastic for an individual firm. As a result
of this, the demand curve (i.e. AR curve) facing an individual firm becomes a
horizontal straight line and MR curve coincides with AR curve.
c)
Free Entry and Free Exit
:
Under perfect competition, there is
complete freedom of entry for new firms and of exit for the existing firms.
However, in short period, neither the new firms can enter nor the existing
firms can leave the industry.
d)
Perfect Knowledge : It is necessary to assume that the producers
and consumers have full knowledge of the prevailing price. Hence, there is
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(MBA Col)
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no need for the sales promotion or to incur expenditure on advertisement in respect of
no need for the sales promotion or to incur expenditure on advertisement in
respect of their preferences for commodities.
e)
Perfect Mobility
:
There is complete mobility of the factors of
production from one firm to another, or from one industry to another or
from one occupation to another.
f)
No transport costs : Another important condition of perfect
competition is that producers work sufficiently close to each other. In other
words, the differences caused by transport costs do not exist.
PURE COMPETITION AND PERFECT COMPETITION
Economists like Chamberlin and others often make a distinction
between pure competition and perfect competition. The term Pure
Competition is used in a restricted sense. It is also known as atomistic
competition. In order that competition be pure it requires the fulfillment of
three conditions of perfect competition, namely, the existence of a large
number of buyers and sellers, homogeneity of the product, and freedom of
exit and entry. These conditions together mean that no individual firm can
exert any influence over the market price.
But the term perfect competition is a wider concept, in the sense,
that it includes the features of pure competition and some additional
conditions, such as perfect knowledge on the part of buyers and sellers,
perfect mobility of factors of production and absence of transport cost.
This means that, perfect competition requires that there should
be no imperfections in the market. Such imperfections arise due to
imperfect knowledge or immobility of the factors of production.
In fact, pure competition is a part and parcel of perfect competition.
American economists prefer to use the term pure competition, while the
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(MBA Col)
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English economists prefer the term perfect competition. However, both the terms are used to analyze
English economists prefer the term perfect competition. However, both the
terms are used to analyze the features of perfect markets.
PRICE DETERMINATION UNDER PERFECT COMPETITION
The forces underlying the determination of price under Perfect
Competition are Demand and Supply. The interaction of demand and
supply determines the price of a commodity in the market. Marshall has
compared the Process of price determination to the cutting of cloth with a
pair of scissors. As two blades are required to cut the cloth; so the two
blades – demand and supply – are required to determine the price in the
market, no matter one may be more active than the other and more effective
than the other, but the existence of both is indispensable.
Now, demand comes from the buyers and the supply from the sellers.
The demand from the buyers can be shown by the Market Demand Schedule
and the supply from the sellers can be shown by the Market Supply
Schedule.
Table
Demand and Supply Schedules
Price per unit of
commodity
Quantity demand per
week
Quantity supplied per
week
Units
Units
Rs.
50
80
530
40
120
480
30
200
400
20
300
300
10
500
180
5
650
70
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From the above market demand and supply schedules, it is convenient to plot points on
From the above market demand and supply schedules, it is convenient
to plot points on the graph and derive the demand and supply curves
respectively. (Fig-a.)
Y
60
D
S
50
∑∑∑∑
∑∑∑∑
40
∑∑∑∑
∑∑∑∑
30
∑∑∑∑
∑∑∑∑
P
E
20
∑∑∑∑
10
∑∑∑∑
∑∑∑∑
S
D
M
O
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
X
Quantity of X Demanded and Supplied
Fig-a. Price Determination under Perfect Competition
DD represents the demand curve and SS the supply curve. The two curves
intersect at point E. This point of intersection is called the point of
equilibrium – because it is at point E that quantity demanded equals
quantity supplied, viz. 300 units. The possible level of price at which
QD=QS is Rs. 20/-. It is also called the equilibrium price or the market
price, because it is at this price that quantity demanded and quantity
supplied are in equilibrium.
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(MBA Col)
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Price (Rs.)
At pt E, Qd x= Qs x. E is the point of equilibrium between qd
At pt E, Qd x= Qs x. E is the point of equilibrium between qd
At pt E, Qd x= Qs x. E is the point of equilibrium between qd
At pt E, Qd x= Qs x. E is the point of equilibrium between qd x and qs
x and OP is the Equilibrium Price because for OP as the price Qd x = Qs x.
Thus, the price of commodity X in the market under perfect competition is
fixed at the point of intersection of demand and supply curves
TENDENCY TOWARDS ONLY ONE PRICE
We may further note that there exits the tendency towards prevalence
of only one price for the commodity in the market under perfect
competition. (Fig-b). Let us assume that the price instead of being Rs. 20/-
is Rs. 30/-. Then when the price is Rs. 30/-, the sellers are prepared to sell
more. At Rs. 30/- as the price, supply is likely to expand to 400 units but at
the same time, demand will contract to only 200 units. Thus, supply is in
excess of demand when the price is Rs. 30/-. Sellers will compete with each
other to dispose of their stock, and this will result in lowering of the price.
Therefore, when supply is in the excess of demand, the price will start falling
from Rs. 30/- to Rs. 20/- at which point the quantity demanded will equal
quantity supplied and the original equilibrium point will be restored.
Y
Quantity of X Demanded and Supplied 60 D S (Fig-b) Prevalence of Only One price
Quantity of X Demanded and Supplied
60
D
S
(Fig-b) Prevalence of Only
One price
50
∑∑∑∑
∑∑∑∑
40
∑∑∑∑
∑∑∑∑
S Exceeds D
30
∑∑∑∑
∑∑∑∑
P
E
20
∑∑∑∑
10
∑∑∑∑
∑∑∑∑
S
D Exceeds S
D
O
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
X
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(MBA Col)
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Price (Rs.)
D O 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 X Zahid Nazir - 1 st Semester
D O 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 X Zahid Nazir - 1 st Semester
D O 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 X Zahid Nazir - 1 st Semester
D O 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 X Zahid Nazir - 1 st Semester
D O 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 X Zahid Nazir - 1 st Semester
If the price were now to go below the original price, assuming the price to
If the price were now to go below the original price, assuming the price to be
Rs. 10/-, then at this price the buyers will demand more units of commodity
X; the new demand at price of Rs. 10/- will go up to 500 units, but the sellers
will be less prepared to sell commodity X at this low price. The supply will
shrink to only 180 units. Hence when the price falls to Rs. 10/- demand will
exceed supply and there will be competition among the buyer to buy readily
the units of commodity X because it is going cheap in the market. This
competition will lead to the pushing up of the price. Now, the price will
start rising till it becomes Rs. 20/-; and where quantity demanded and
supplied of commodity X once again become equal. This tendency towards
the prevalence of only one price is the acid test of perfect competition.
EFFECTS OF SHIFTS IN DEMAND AND SUPPLY ON THE PRICE LEVEL
Why does the price rise ? The price rises in the market because of two
theoretical conditions:
i)
When demand increases i.e., when the demand curve shifts to the
right (Fig-c). Let us assumed that the original equilibrium point is E
(Fig-c) When demand curve shifts to the right
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and OP is the original market price. Now when the demand increases, the demand curves
and OP is the original market price. Now when the demand increases, the
demand curves shifts to the right and new demand curve is D1D2. This curve
intersects the supply curve at point E’. Thus E’ is the new equilibrium point
and the new price is now OPi , which is higher than the original price OP,
thereby showing that price rises when demand increases. (Fig-c)
ii)
When supply decreases, i.e. when the supply curve shifts to the
left. (Fig-d) Let us assume that E is the original point of equilibrium and OP
is the original price level. Now when supply decreases, the supply curve
shifts to the left and the new supply curve is S1S2. The new equilibrium
points now becomes E’ and the new price is OP’, which is higher than the
original price OP; thus when supply decreases, the price rises.
(Fig-d) When supply curve shifts to the left
When will price fall?
The price will decline when :
i)
The demand decreases, i.e. when the demand curve shifts to the
left. (Fig-e)
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(Fig-e) When demand curve shifts to the left. Let us assume that E is the
(Fig-e) When demand curve shifts to the left.
Let us assume that E is the original point of equilibrium and OP is the
original price level. Now when demand decreases the demand curve will
shift to the left and D1D2 will be the new demand curve. E’ will be the new
equilibrium point and the new price will be OP’ which is lower than the
original price OP. Thus, when demand decreases, the price will decline.
ii)
The supply increases, i.e. when SS curve shifts to the right. (Fig-f)
(Fig-f) When Supply Curve
shifts to the right
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Let us assume that E is the original point of equilibrium and OP is the
Let us assume that E is the original point of equilibrium and OP is the
original price level. Now, when the supply increases, the supply curve will
shift to the right. The new supply curve will be S1S2. and the new point of
equilibrium will be E’. The new price will now be OP’ which is lower than
the previous price OP. Thus, the price will decline when supply increases.
Thus shifts in demand and supply curve will influence the price.
ROLE OF TIME ELEMENT IN THE THEORY OF PRICE
(Marshallian Four Period Analysis)
Marshall assigned considerable importance to the element of time in
determination of price. Depending upon the period of time, supply can
adjust itself either partly or fully or not at all to the change in demand, and
will in turn influence the level of price. Hence Marshall has classified time
period into four categories on the basis of the degree of responsiveness of the
supply to adjust itself to changing market conditions.
i) The very short period or the market period is that period of time
in which the supply is fixed or is perfectly inelastic. The very short period is
so short a period that supply cannot adjust itself to the change in
demand, e.g. if the demand for fish, or milk, or any such commodity shoots
up one fine morning, it would be difficult to increase their supply
immediately to meet demand.
ii)
The short period is that period in which the supply can adjust
itself only partly to the change in demand; may be as a result of firms
making full use of their plant capacity by varying the amounts of only
variable factors. The short period is not long enough to enable the firms to
expand their plant capacities.
iii) The long period refers to that period of time in which the supply
can adjust itself more fully or even fully to the change in demand. The
supply becomes more elastic and at times even perfectly elastic. The long
period is long enough to permit new firms to enter or the existing firms to
expand.
iv)
The Very Long Period is that period of time for which we cannot
predict with any degree of accuracy as to what will happen to forces of
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demand and supply. In fact, Keynes once said ‘in the very long period we are
demand and supply. In fact, Keynes once said ‘in the very long period we are
all dead’.
We shall therefore limit the role of time element while analyzing the
price theory to the very short, short and long periods.
Let us assume that E 1 is the original point of equilibrium and OP 1 is the
original price prevailing in the market. Now, one day the demand for
commodity X increases suddenly and the demand curve shifts to the right,
the new demand curve being D 2 D 3 ; but in the very short period supply will
remain perfectly inelastic; shown by the Market Supply Curve (MSC); and
the new equilibrium point will be E 2 and the new price will be OP 2 . This will
be the very short period price which is considerably above the original
market price, because the supply is perfectly inelastic. (Fig-g)
(Fig-g) The Role of Time Element in the Theory of Price
However, in the short period, supply will be able to adjust itself partly
to the change in demand, and the new supply curve will be SPS; and the
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new equilibrium will be at a point E 3 and the new price will be
new equilibrium will be at a point E 3 and the new price will be OP 3 . The
price in the short period is now lower than the price in the very short
period; although it is above the original market price.
In the long period, the supply will be able to adjust itself more fully
or even fully to the change in the quantity demanded. There will thus be
two possibilities: (a) the supply curve may become more elastic and the new
supply curve will be LPS; the new equilibrium point will be E 4 and the new
price will be OP 4 ; (b) the supply may become perfectly elastic and may fully
adjust itself to the change in demand. In this case, the new supply curve
may become horizontal (LPS 2 ), the new equilibrium point will be E2 and the
new price will become OP 5 , which has come back to the original price level.
Thus, depending on the period of time allowed to pass, the supply may
partly, fully or not at all adjust itself to the change in demand and will
influence the price. This analysis highlights the role of time element in
theory of price.
MONOPOLY
If a certain firm is the only one that can produce a certain good, it has a
monopoly in the market for that good.
A monopolist:
is the sole supplier of an industry’s product
and the only potential supplier
is protected by some form of barrier to entry
faces the market demand curve directly
Unlike under perfect competition, MR is always below AR
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To understand what a monopoly is and how a monopoly operates, we'll have to delve
To understand what a monopoly is and how a monopoly operates, we'll have
to delve deeper than this. What features do monopolies have, and how do
they differ from those in oligopolies, markets with monopolistic competition
and perfectly competitive markets?
Features of a Monopoly
When we discuss a monopoly, or oligopoly, etc. we're discussing the
market for a particular type of product, such as toasters or DVD
players. In the textbook case of a monopoly, there is only one firm
producing the good. In a real world monopoly, such as the operating
system monopoly, there is one firm that provides the overwhelming
majority of sales (Microsoft), and a handful of small companies that
have little or no impact on the dominant firm.
Because there is only one firm (or essentially only one firm) in a
monopoly, the monopoly's firm demand curve is identical to the
market demand curve, and the monopoly firm need not consider what
it's competitors are pricing at. Thus a monopolist will keep selling
units so long as the extra amount he receives by selling an extra unit
(the marginal revenue) is greater than the additional costs he faces in
producing and selling an additional unit (the marginal cost). Thus the
monopoly firm will always set their quantity at the level where
marginal cost is equal to marginal revenue.
Because of this lack of competition, monopoly firms will make an
economic profit. This would normally cause other firms to enter the
market. For this market to remain a monopolistic one, there must be
some barrier to entry. A few common ones are:
Legal Barriers to Entry - This is a situation where a law
prevents other firms from entering the market to sell a product.
In the United States, only the USPS can deliver first class mail, so
this would be a legal barrier to entry. In many jurisdictions
alcohol can only be sold by the government run corporation,
creating a legal barrier to entry in this market.
Patents - Patents are a subclass of legal barriers to entry, but
they're important enough to be given their own section. A patent
gives the inventor of a product a monopoly in producing and
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selling that product for a limited amount of time. Pfizer, inventors of the drug Viagra,
selling that product for a limited amount of time. Pfizer,
inventors of the drug Viagra, have a patent on the drug, thus
Pfizer is the only company that can produce and sell Viagra until
the patent runs out. Patents are tools that governments use to
promote innovation, as companies should be more willing to
create new products if they know they'll have monopoly power
over those products.
Natural Barriers to Entry - In these type of monopolies, other
firms cannot enter the market because either the startup costs
are too high, or the cost structure of the market gives an
advantage to the largest firm. Most public utilities would fall into
this category. Economists generally refer to these monopolies as
natural monopolies.
Profit maximisation by a monopolist
Profits are maximized where MC = MR at Q1P1
In this position, AR is greater than AC so the firm makes profits
above the opportunity cost of capital shown by the shaded area.
Entry barriers prevent new firms joining the industry.
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Comparing monopoly with perfect competition a). Suppose a competitive industry is taken over by a
Comparing monopoly with perfect competition
a). Suppose a competitive industry is taken over by a monopolist:
Competitive equilibrium is at A, with output Q 1 and price P 1 .
To the monopolist, LRSS is the LMC curve, and SRSS is the SMC curve.
The monopolist maximises profits in the short run at MR = SMC at
P 2 Q 2 .
b). Suppose a competitive industry is taken over by a monopolist:
In the long run the firm can adjust other inputs
to set MR = LMC at P 3 Q 3 .
• So we see that monopoly compared with perfect competition implies:
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– higher price – lower output • Does the consumer always lose from monopoly? –
– higher price
– lower output
Does the consumer always lose from monopoly?
– Among other things, this depends on whether the monopolist
faces the same cost structure
– there may be the possibility of economies of scale.
A NATURAL MONOPOLY
• This firm enjoys substantial economies of scale relative to market
demand
• LAC declines right up to market demand
• the largest firm always enjoys cost leadership
• and comes to dominate the industry
It is a NATURAL MONOPOLY.
DISCRIMINATING MONOPOLY
Suppose a monopolist supplies two separate groups of customers
with differing elasticities of demand
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e.g. business travellers may be less sensitive to air fare levels than tourists. • The
e.g. business travellers may be less sensitive to air fare levels than
tourists.
• The monopolist may increase profits by charging higher prices to the
businessmen than to tourists.
• Discrimination is more likely to be possible for goods that cannot be
resold
e.g. dental treatment.
***************************
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MONOPOLY IN PAKISTAN Three major examples of monopoly in Pakistan are: 1). Murree Brewery Company
MONOPOLY IN PAKISTAN
Three major examples of monopoly in Pakistan are:
1).
Murree Brewery Company
2).
The Monopoly of Thuraya in Satellite Telecommunication in Pakistan
3).
PTCL monopoly
We will discuss these one by one.
MURREE BREWERY COMPANY
HISTORY
Consequent to the British annexation of the Punjab in 1849 from Sikh rule,
and more so after 1857 when the British Crown formally extended its
sovereignty over India, a structured administration commenced in the
Punjab.
To meet the beer requirements of British personnel (mainly army), the
Murree Brewery was established in 1860 and incorporated a year later at
Ghora Galli, located in the Pir Punjal range of the Western Himalayas at an
elevation of 6000' above sea level, near the resort town of Murree.
Between 1885 & 1890 the Company established Breweries in Rawalpindi &
Quetta & acquired an interest in the Oticumand (South India) & Norailiya
(Ceylon) breweries. A distillery was also established in the above period in
Rawalpindi next to the Brewery.
The Murree Brewery at Ghora Galli was therefore among the first modern
beer breweries established in Asia. Murree Beer proved to be very popular
among the British troopers who were largely barracked in the 'Galis' of these
hills.
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The virtues of beer brewed from barley malt & hops as a light alcoholic beverage
The virtues of beer brewed from barley malt & hops as a light alcoholic
beverage were not lost on the local population who rapidly became avid
consumers.
By the turn of the 20 century, the name "Murree" was famous for its beer in
keg and bottle in the bars, beer halls and army messes of British India.
Murree Beer was first awarded a medal for product excellence at the
Philadelphia Exhibition in 1876, followed by numerous awards over the past
140 years.
In 1935, a massive earthquake totally demolished the Quetta brewery as well
as substantial part of Quetta town, killing thousands of persons, including a
number of our employees. At Ghora Galli (Murree), the scarcity of water
became an emerging problem. By the 1920s, brewing was mostly transferred
to the Rawalpindi brewery but malting continued at Ghora Galli till the
1940s, when this property was sold. This historic brewery built in Gothic
style architecture was burnt during the partition riots of 1947/48.
Park Lodge a handsome residential properly was purchased by the company
from Mrs. H. Whymper in 1888. It was the principal residence and head
office of the company till 1959, when it was taken over by the Government of
Pakistan to house the office of the President of Pakistan. It remains an office
of the Head of State of Pakistan from 1960 till the present day.
Two English families were closely connected with the founding of the
original brewery. Edward Dyer was the first General Manager of the
company. He was also the founder of Dyer Meaken breweries, Simla hills.
Edward Whymper, a member of this family was the first person to climb
Matterhorn mountain in 1865.
The Rawalpindi brewery is blessed with deep aquifers of good water. A
railway siding was extended to the premises in the 19th century, which is
now derelict.
Under the present prohibition law, only non-Muslims and foreigners are
permitted to consume alcohol. Notwithstanding the consequent reduction in
demand, the Company decided as policy to concentrate on product
excellence. It was decided to modernize the plants.
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A Ziemann (German) brew house was installed in 1967, 'Saladin' Box Maltings in 1971. Also
A
Ziemann (German) brew house was installed in 1967, 'Saladin' Box
Maltings in 1971. Also in the late sixties, it was decided to embark on an
ambitious long-term program to mature Malt Whiskies. Over the past four
decades white oak casks and vats have been procured from North America,
Australia and Spain.
Our two underground cellars now hold over half a million liters of Malt
Whisky for varying periods of maturation up to 12 years under controlled
temperature conditions.
Another wave of modernization was undertaken in the 1990s. New beer
canning and modern bottle filling facility from Holstein and Kappert
(Germany) was installed. Two units of alcohol rectification columns for
producing extra neutral grade of potable alcohol from Molasses were
procured from France and Italy, respectively, to give our Vodkas and Gins a
qualitative edge.
Also in this period, the beer fermentation capacities were renewed. It is
pertinent to point out that our basic beer fermentation system installed in
the 1930s was then at the cutting edge of this technology. Known at the time
as
the Nathan system, it incorporates fermentation and the lagering of beer
in
a single double jacketed vessel. A variation of this system is now in
extensive use world wide.
The Murree Brewery is one of the oldest public companies of the sub-
continent. Its shares were traded on the Calcutta Stock Exchange as early as
1902, and is now the oldest continuing industrial enterprise of Pakistan.
In
1997-1998 and 1998-1999, Murree Brewery was judged among the top 25
performing public companies by the Karachi Stock Exchange.
MURREE BREWERY CO MAINTAINS ITS MONOPOLY
Murree Brewery Co Ltd, the only licensed alcohol manufacturer in Pakistan,
produces good quality beer, wine and spirits, and is making the most of its
monopoly by further improving its products. The company’s brands have
always created strong demand because of their flavour and low prices,
factors which have hitherto discouraged the purchase of illegally imported
products. Different factors enhancing its demand are
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Alcoholic drinks continues to grow Sales of alcoholic drinks in Pakistan continued to grow during
Alcoholic drinks continues to grow
Sales of alcoholic drinks in Pakistan continued to grow during 2008
albeit at slower rates than in previous years due to increases in the
prices of staple items that diverted the demand for alcohol products
towards cheaper, home-made, unbranded varieties. However, the
demand for wine was greater than during most of the earlier years of
the review period. Other categories showed declines in volume
consumption due to rising unit prices. The Government of Pakistan
has become more liberal in its outlook concerning alcoholic drinks,
and people are also being influenced by international media such that
they are becoming more receptive to the idea of drinking alcohol.
Restaurants that serve all kinds of alcoholic drinks have been opened
in major cities across the country.
Increase in sales of cheap contraband alcohol products
Increases in unit prices of basic food commodities together with
growing unemployment have led to a rise in the demand for cheap,
locally produced alcohol which has actually killed several people in
rural areas of Pakistan. This has prompted many social and
government organizations to take action against producers of
counterfeit alcohol.
Off-trade continues to dominate sales
Food/drink/tobacco specialists remains the primary channel for the
sale of alcoholic drinks in Pakistan. On-trade sales have increased
somewhat in absolute terms given the growing number of restaurants
serving alcohol within Pakistan, but these will nevertheless require
considerable time and government support to increase their overall
share of alcoholic drinks volume sales.
Steady growth rate is forecast to continue
The forecast period is anticipated to witness steady growth in volume
sales of alcoholic drinks each year, since little change is expected in the
Government’s stance regarding the legal issues surrounding the sale of
alcohol. Furthermore, expansion is predicted due to people’s rapidly
growing adoption of Western culture. Nevertheless, sales volume
growth will continue to face a challenge from the increased supply of
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cheap contraband and locally produced alcohol which is expected to remain much in demand within
cheap contraband and locally produced alcohol which is expected to
remain much in demand within Pakistan.
It is also evident from their financial statements that there is rapid growth in
the sales of liquors.
Balance Sheet
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Profit and Loss Account Zahid Nazir - 1 st Semester Autum 2008 (MBA Col) Page
Profit and Loss Account
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Cash Flow Statement Zahid Nazir - 1 st Semester Autum 2008 (MBA Col) Page 25
Cash Flow Statement
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THE MONOPOLY OF THURAYA IN SATELLITE TELECOMMUNICATION IN PAKISTAN History UAE based company Founded in
THE MONOPOLY OF THURAYA IN SATELLITE
TELECOMMUNICATION IN PAKISTAN
History
UAE based company
Founded in 1997 in UAE
Thuraya-1 launched on 21 October, 2000.
Thuraya-2 launched on 10 June, 2003.
Thuraya-3 suppose to be launched at the end of March, 2007.
Thuraya’s Primary Gateway is in Sharjah.
Thuraya relies on Geosynchronous Orbital System
In May 2002 THURAYA products and services were launched in Pakistan.
This country has a great potential for satellite telecommunications. With
population of 140 million people we have a fixed line penetration of less than
3%, while 0.7% of Pakistanis use conventional mobile phones. And their
coverage is in major urban cities only. THURAYA on the other hand with its
remarkable satellite technology covers every inch of Pakistan in addition to
1/3 of the globe.
THURAYA has aggressively launched its services in Pakistan with its offices
in all major cities and with an ever-expanding dealer network. We are
working towards encouraging THURAYA usage all across Pakistan i.e. in the
remote valleys of NWFP, deserts of Sindh, agricultural plains of Punjab, the
rugged mountains of Baluchistan and covering the oceans. But also it can be
used in all major cities of Pakistan. Future is satellite communications as it
works in every corner of Pakistan and is accessible to all.
Global Prospects of Thuraya
Thuraya claims 65% of market share of satellite traffic within the
area of Thuraya’s foot print.
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In the global context, Thuraya has 26% share of the satellite market. Major growth market
In the global context, Thuraya has 26% share of the satellite market.
Major growth market of Thuraya’s business (now):
Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Libya, countries of Sahara, in particular
DR Congo and Angola.
Why Thuraya’s Monopoly
No biasness from PTA.
No Political issues.
No security issues regarding allowing any other country to serve
satellite telecommunication services.
No legal and Technical reason.
But only two points or hubs located in two different locations and the
fact is:
The Two hubs or terminals were owned by PTCL and still PTCL is
the owner.
PTCL is the main Licensee.
Thuraya is the only service provider.
Any other company can set up it’s satellite telecommunication in
Pakistan, if and only has to have the above mentioned terminals.
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PERFECT COMPITITION IN PAKISTAN One of the classical example of perfect competition in Pakistan is
PERFECT COMPITITION IN PAKISTAN
One
of
the
classical
example
of
perfect
competition
in
Pakistan
is
Telecommunication
sector.
It
has
all
the
characteristics
of
perfect
competition like:
A large Number of Buyers and Sellers
Homogeneous Commodity
Free Entry and Free Exit
Perfect Knowledge
Perfect Mobility
Pakistan’s Mobile Industry: On the Growth Path
The overall consensus of industry analysts is that Pakistan is one of the
countries with a huge untapped potential for telecom growth and an
attractive investment environment. Recently Business Monitor International
(BMI) ranked Pakistan as a key destination for telecom growth. The BMI
rankings take into account a number of factors including industry situation,
growth potential, competitive landscape and economy and political risks etc.
The sudden growth in subscriber base in Pakistan has caused network
congestion and service quality problems. The major operators are
responding to this problem by upgrading their networks. These multibillion
dollar improvements, along with a regulatory effort to introduce Mobile
Number Portability (MNP) next year, should maintain the stiff competition
in Pakistan mobile market.
Pakistan is still an unsaturated market and with the falling cost of
handsets there are plenty of new subscribers to compete for, especially in the
rural areas. But eventually, as in saturated markets, if mobile operators want
to avoid simply competing on price, they will have to compete on superior
service, innovative features and ease-of-use. As an example of new trends
there were so many text messages (SMS) sent on this Eid that the
networks of all 6 companies were kept extremely busy!
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Pakistan has also had some strategic wins in the international telecommunication scene. This month Pakistan
Pakistan has also had some strategic
wins in the international
telecommunication scene. This
month Pakistan won the council
seat of International
Telecommunication Union (ITU)
and Chairman Pakistan
Telecommunication Authority (PTA)
was elected as member of Radio
Regulation Board of ITU. Pakistan
also holds the office of President in
Asia Pacific Telecommunity. ITU has also announced that it will setup a
Center of Excellence in Pakistan for telecommunication regulation
and policy.
There is still a long way to go for Pakistan telecom industry. Pakistan needs
to increase telecom research and development work within the country.
China and India are in the process of becoming world’s major R&D centers
for technology and telecommunication. Two top Chinese telecom
equipment firms have announced their plans to collaborate with
Pakistan: Huawei is working with UET Lahore and ZTE will setup R&D
center in Islamabad. The goal of the policy makers should be to increase
the rate of transfer of technology from abroad, broaden the pool of local
skilled workforce and accelerate the local production of telecom equipment
and handset parts etc.
At the top of the list of Pakistani mobile companies is
Mobilink, the Pakistani unit of Egypt-based telecom company
Orascom. It has been in Pakistan since 1994. With 20 million subscribers it
has the largest market share. Its shares are listed on the Egyptian and
London stock markets (OTLD).
Ufone, a wholly owned subsidiary of Pakistan
Telecommunication Co. Ltd (PTCL), is now under the control of
Etisalat group of UAE. With 8.8 million subscribers it is the runner up. For
those in Pakistan it is the one company where they can easily invest locally.
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In third place is Warid, owned by the Abu Dhabi group of the United Arab
In third place is Warid, owned by the Abu Dhabi group of the
United Arab Emirates and sister of Wateen group. With 5.9
million subscribers it controls 14% market of subscribers.
Norway Telenor, a recent entrant with about a billion US dollar
invesment in Pakistan has been doing well, based on its recent
earning report. It has about 4.6 million subscribers or 11% of the market.
Telenor stock is listed in the Oslo stock market (TEL) and Nasdaq NY
(TELN).
Paktel and Instaphone now owned by China Mobile Company
(ZONG). It has 2.7% market share.
One sign of the growth burst of the sector in Pakistan and its self-confidence
are the media ads of the various companies. As they fight for market
share, that battle is being conducted over the airwaves and newsprint.
It is hard not to notice the mobile phone advertising campaigns in Pakistan.
The mobile phone and services advertisements are in the media, on
billboards and everywhere else imaginable.
The quality and aggressiveness of the advertising campaigns indicates the
level of effort to gain market share. According to studies Pakistan has been
adding 2 million subscribers each month in 2006. The market segments
mobile companies are targeting include:
∑ tech-savvy youth
∑ business users (due to the their higher average revenue per user)
∑ first-time subscribers in remote and rural areas
∑ previously ignored segments, for instance housewives and women
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Mobile Cellular Services (as on 27 March 2009 ) CELLULAR SUBSCRIBERS Growth Mobilink Ufone Zong
Mobile Cellular Services
(as on 27 March 2009 )
CELLULAR SUBSCRIBERS
Growth
Mobilink
Ufone
Zong
Instaphone
Telenor
Warid
Total
Rate %
2000 114,272
80,221
112,000
306,493
15.39
2001 309,272
116,711
96,623
220,000
742,606
142.29
2002 800,000
350,000
218,536
330,000
1,698,536
128.73
2003 1,115,000
550,000
319,400
420,000
2,404,400
41.56
2004 3,215,989
801,160
470,021
535,738
5,022,908
108.90
2005 7,469,085
2,579,103
924,486
454,147
835,727
508,655
12,771,203
154.26
2006 17,205,555
7,487,005
1,040,503
336,696
3,573,660
4,863,138
34,506,557
170.2
2007 26,466,451
14,014,044
1,024,563
333,081
10,701,332
10,620,386
63,159,857
80.70
2008 32,032,363
18,100,440
3,950,758
351,135*
18,125,189
15,489,858
88,019,812
39.4
July-2008
32,056,336
18,368,074
4,446,024
351,135
18,329,428
15,774,299
89,325,296
1.4
Aug-2008
31,578,241
18,600,511
4,803,058
321,134
18,316,157
15,944,559
89,563,660
0.3
Sep-2008
31,359,049
18,801,402
5,092,476
321,134
18,472,445
16,157,778
90,204,284
0.7
Oct-2008
30,882,528
18,978,138
5,297,610
321,134
18,634,249
16,411,898
90,525,557
0.4
Nov-2008
30,055,187
19,100,291
5,398,823
321,134
18,875,127
16,656,589
90,407,151
-0.1
Dec-2008
28,479,600
19,301,180
5,503,274
321,134
19,387,956
16,914,054
89,907,198
-0.6
Jan-2009
28,315,076
19,414,930
5,851,858
321,134
19,657,177
17,143,722
90,703,897
0.9
Feb-2009
28,116,064
19,497,028
5,979,853
321,134
19,842,594
17,251,369
91,008,042
0.3
Note: Including AJK & NAs
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MONOPOLY MERITS ∑ May be appropriate if natural monopoly ∑ Encourages R&D ∑ Encourages innovation
MONOPOLY
MERITS
∑ May be appropriate if natural monopoly
∑ Encourages R&D
∑ Encourages innovation
∑ Development of some products not likely without some
guarantee of monopoly in production
∑ Economies of scale can be gained – consumer may benefit
DEMERITS
∑ Exploitation of consumer – higher prices
∑ Potential for supply to be limited - less choice
∑ Potential for inefficiency – X-inefficiency – complacency
controls on costs
over
PERFECT COMPITITION
MERITS
• High degree of competition helps allocate resources to most
efficient use
• Price = marginal costs
• Normal profit made in the long run
• Firms operate at maximum efficiency
• Consumers benefit
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DEMERITS ∑ New idea? – firm makes short term abnormal profit ∑ Other firms enter
DEMERITS
∑ New idea? – firm makes short term abnormal profit
∑ Other firms enter the industry to take advantage of abnormal profit
∑ Supply increases – price falls
∑ Long run – normal profit made
∑ Choice for consumer
∑ Price sufficient for normal profit to be made but no more!
CONCLUSION:
Adam Smith said that competitive forces function like an “invisible
hand” to ensure that people pursuing individual interests
simultaneously serve interest of society. Competition among economic
agents would therefore narrow selfish interest of each person in a
sociable desirable direction. Therefore perfect competition would lead
allocative or economic efficiency. On the other hand monopolies could
lead to lower cost due to economies of scale. Although in the real
world it is very difficult (almost impossible) to have a pure perfect
competition or monopoly, both of them, in theory, bring benefits to
society. In order to evaluate whether perfect competition is a more
efficient market structure than monopoly, there has to be a direct
comparison between the two market structures to draw conclusions.
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