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Life cycle of ameloblast

Life cycle of ameloblasts

Morphogenic stage: Organising stage: Formative stage: Maturative stage: Protective stage: Desmolytic stage:

Morphogenic phase
during the morphogenic stage shape of the crown is determined cells of the inner enamel epithelium are cuboidal or low columnar with large centrally located nuclei and poorly developed Golgi separated from the dental papilla by a basement membrane IEE cells influence dental papilla cells to differentiate into odontoblasts

Organising stage
Ameloblasts elongate. Almost become double in length Nuclei shift toward the stratum intermedium (Reversal of functional polarity)

Cell becomes polarized with most of the organelles distal to the nucleus
at the distal end of the cell extensions form called Tomes processes - against which enamel forms Basement membrane fragments by the cytoplasmic projections of the ameloblasts during the formation of predentin this allows contact between the pre-ameloblasts and pre-odontoblasts Reversal of nutritional supply.

Secretory Stage
cells acquire intense synthetic and secretory activity enamel proteins are translated by the RER, modified by the Golgi and packaged into secretory granules
migrate to the distal Tomes processes

secretion is constitutive the secretory granules are not stored for long within the cells the contents of the secretory granules are released against the newly formed dentin along the surface of the Tomes process little time elapses between the secretion of enamel and its mineralization as the initial enamel layer forms the ABs migrate away from the dentin surface and develop a distal portion of Tomes process extension from the existing proximal portion of Tomes process
the pTP extends from the distal junctional complex to the surface of the enamel layer the dTP interdigitates into the enamel beyond the initial layer the cytoplasm of both processes is continuous with that of the body of the AB so once the initial enamel layer forms the AB only has a pTP the dTP forms once the enamel forms into rods when the dTP forms the enamel proteins are secreted at two sites located at defined ports along the dTP the dTP lengthens as the enamel layer thickens it also becomes thinner as the rod grows in diameter eventuallyu squeezed out of existence

Maturative stage
Ameloblast bring about changes in the physiochemical properties of the enamel actually because the pre-existing HA crystals of the enamel grow in width and thickness and NOT because new crystals are made made up of a transitional phase and the maturation proper phase
transitional phase after the full thickness of the enamel has formed
the ABs undergo significant morphological changes that prepares them for the maturation of the enamel reduction of AB height and a decrease in their volume and organelle content

maturation proper phase Ameloblasts become involved in the removal of water and organic material
characterized by the modulation of the cells cyclic creation, loss and recreation of a highly ruffled apical surface and a smooth surface occurs in waves traveling across the crown of the developing tooth from least mature to most mature enamel regions the calcium ions are required for active crystal growth because the cellular junctions at the ruffled end are more leaky these show enhanced endocytic activity and numerous lysosomes for the withdrawl of enamel proteins from the maturing enamel matrix

Ruffled and Smooth ameloblasts

+ + Ca+ Ca Ca + Ca + Ca+ Ca

Ruffled ended A

Smooth ended A

Protective stage
After accomplishing of amelogenesis, the ameloblasts secrete or leave structure less material on enamel surface, known as primary enamel cuticle. The dental organ epithelium becomes reduced in thickness (reduced enamel epithelium) and functions as a protection against contact with connective tissue to inhibit cementum deposition or enamel resorption. In this stage the composition of Enamel can be modified.

Oral Epithelium

Reduced Enamel E

Enamel space


Desmolytic stage
The reduced enamel epithelium induce atrophy of the mesoderm which separate it from the oral epithelium. It leads to eruption. REE releases proteolytic enzymes which cause breakdown of collagen fibers As tooth approaches oral epithelium both epithelium and REE proliferated They fuse to each other forming epithelial plug This degenerated to form a pathway for eruption

Epithelial plug Proliferating REE

Formation of Enamel
Enamel formation takes place in two steps
Formation of organic matrix Mineralisation
Early incomplete mineralization Maturation.