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# ANALIZA

N
COMPONENTE PRINCIPALE

IIN
NT
TR
RO
OD
DU
UC
CE
ER
RE
E
Studiem cu ajutorul acestei metode un tabel indivizi x variabile, n cazul
n care toate variabilele sunt numerice.
3UH]HQW P PDL vQWkL R DERUGDUH H[SORUDWRDUH FDUH SHUPLWH GHVFULHUHD

## indivizilor n multiplele lor GLPHQVLXQL L YL]XDOL]DUHD DFHVWRU UHOD LL vQWUH

variabile.
8UPHD]  \$QDOL]D vQ &RPSRQHQWH 3ULQFLSDOH \$&3  \$FHDVW  PHWRG 
SHUPLWHRE LQHUHDXQHLK U LDLQGLYL]LORUvQIXQF LHGHDVHP Q ULOHGLQWUHHLL
RKDUW DYDULDELOHORUvQIXQF LHGHFRUHOD LLOH

lor.

(VWHGH DVHPHQL SRVLELO  RE LQHUHD XQHL UHSUH]HQW UL VLPXOWDQH SH R KDUW 
DLQGLYL]LORULDYDULDELOHORU
0DLPXOWHVWHQHFHVDUV FRPSOHW PUHSUH]HQWDUHDJUDILF DGDWHORUFXR

tipologie a indivizilor.
3UH]HQW P GH DVHPHQL PHWRGD GH FODVLILFDUH DVFHQGHQW  LHUDUKLF  FDUH
IRORVHWHFULWHULXOOXL:DUGIRDUWHELQHDGDSWDWODWUDWDUHDGDWHORUQXPHULFH

## Analiza exploratoare a datelor multidimensionale

7DEHOXO  YD VHUYL GUHSW ILU FRQGXF WRU SHQWUX DFHDVW  SUH]HQWDUH /LQLLOH
WDEHOXOXL

UHSUH]LQW 

PRGHOH

GH

PDLQL

GLQ

DQXO



LDU

FRORDQHOH

## FDUDFWHULVWLFLOH WHKQLFH FDSDFLWDWHD FLOLQGULF  VDX FLOLQGUHH SXWHUH YLWH] 

JUHXWDWHOXQJLPHO

LPH

Tabelul 1
Nr. Crt.

Model

Cilindree

Putere

9LWH]

Greutate

Lungime

LPH

## Studiul descriptiv al indivizilor

&HLLQGLYL]LSRWILUHSUH]HQWD LvPSUHXQ FXFHOHFDUDFWHULVWLFLDOHORU

Figura 1
Grafic n stea
9LWH]

Putere

Cilindree

Greutate

Lungime

LPH

## Fiecare individ este reprezentat printr-un hexagon. Fiecare vrf al

KH[DJRQXOXL FRUHVSXQGH XQHL YDULDELOH 3HQWUX LQGLYLGXO UHSUH]HQWDW GLVWDQ D
GHODYkUIODRULJLQHHVWHSURSRU LRQDO FXDEDWHUHDYDORULORUYDULDELOHLID

GH

## YDORDUHDHLPLQLP HDHVWHPLQLP GDF FDUDFWHULVWLFDHVWHPLQLP LPD[LP 

GDF FDUDFWHULVWLFDHVWHPD[LP 
&HLLQGLYL]LVXQWUHSUH]HQWD LvQILJXUD
6 SXQFW PFkWHYDFD]XULSDUWLFXODUH

3HXJHRW  5DOO\H 6HDW ,EL]D 6;L L &LWURsQ\$; 6SRUW DX YLWH]H
PDULLSXWHUHPDUHvQU

## aport cu celelalte caracteristici ale lor

1LVVDQ9DQHWWHL9:&DUDYHOOHVHFDUDFWHUL]HD] SULQYLWH]HPLFL

Figura 2
Graficele n stea pentru indivizi

5HQDXOWDUHRSXWHUHPLF vQUDSRUWFXFLOLQGUHHDVD\$FHVWDHVWH

un diesel.
QJHQHUDOPXO LPHDFDUDFWHULVWLFLORUHYROXHD] vQDFHODLVHQV
*UDILFHOHvQVWHDFUHVFUHJXODWGHOD PDLQLOHPLFLSUHFXP)RUG)LHVWDL
)LDW8QRODFHOHPDLPDULSUHFXP%09,5RYHULL5HQDXOW

## Studiul descriptiv al variabilelor

Tabelul 2
Rezumate statistice ale datelor
Statistici elementare
Variabila

Media

Dispersia

Abaterea
medie

Minim

Maxim

Greutate

Lungime

S WUDWLF

&RUHOD LL

Variabile

Cilindree

Putere

9LWH]

FRUHOD LL

## 3UHFL] P F  GLVSHUVLLOH VXQW FDOFXODWH vPS U LQG SULQ Q L QX SULQ Q

-1),

GHRDUHFH HVWH YRUED GH R DQDOL]  JHRPHWULF  D GDWHORU L QX H[LVW  LQIHUHQ

VWDWLVWLF 
6WDWLVWLFD LQIHUHQ LDO  VWXGLD]  XQ HDQWLRQ L WUDJH FRQFOX]LL SHQWU

vQWUHDJDPXO LPH 
3HQWUX D DYHD R YL]LXQH FRPSOHW  D GDWHORU L D LQWHU UHOD LLORU vQWUH

## variabile, am construit graficul din figura 3.

Figura 3
*UDILFXOFRUHOD LLORULQWHU

-variabile

## Toate variabilele sunt corelate pozitiv ntre ele. AceaVWD vQVHDPQ

 F 

H[LVW  XQ IDFWRU P ULPH WDOLH  L F  OD R SULP  DQDOL]  PDLQLOH SRW IL
RUGRQDWH GH OD FHOH PDL PLFL OD FHOH PDL PDUL \$FHDVWD VH YHGH GH DOWIHO L

## examinnd global graficele n stea din figura 2.

9LWH]DHVWHIRDUWHFRUHODW FXSXWHUHDLPDLSX LQFXDOWHYDULDELOH

## Variabilele grupului (Cilindree, Lungime, Greutate) sunt puternic corelate

ntre ele:
Cor (Cilindree, Lungime) = 0.86
Cor (Cilindree, Greutate) = 0.90
Cor (Lungime, Greutate) = 0.92
&RUHOD LLLPSRUWDQWHPDLVXQWFHOHGLQWUH/XQJLPHL/
GLQWUH3XWHUHL9LWH]  

FODVLILFDUH

LHUDUKLF 

DVFHQGHQW 

D

YDULDELOHORU

## VLPLODULWDWHvQWUHYDULDELOHFRUHOD LLOHORU DLFLWRDWH

OXkQG

GUHSW

LQGLFH

-o

GH

pozitive).

'DF  FRUHOD LLOH  YDULDELOHORU DX YDORUL QHJDWLYH OX P vQ FRQVLGHUD LH

## valorile lor absolute.

6 GHVFULHPDFHDVW PHWRG
Q SULPD HWDS  VH UHJUXSHD]  FHOH GRX  YDULDELOH FHOH PDL FRUHODWH
*UHXWDWHL/XQJLPH  
QDGRXDHWDS VHFDXW FHDPDLSXWHUQLF FRUHOD LHFDUHDU PDV
(VWHYRUEDGHFRUHOD LDGLQWUHYDULDELOHOH*UHXWDWHL&LOLQGUHH  

## Variabila Cilindree se va uni deci cu grupul (Greutate, Lungime)

Q D WUHLD HWDS  JUXSXO 3XWHUH 9LWH]  VH IRUPHD]  FX R FRUHOD LH GH

0.894.
QDSDWUDHWDS /
&RU /

LPHDvQWkOQHWHJUXSXO &LOLQGUHH*UHXWDWH/XQJLPH 

LPH/XQJLPH

 

L vQ VIkULW vQ D FLQFHD HWDS  FHOH GRX  JUXSXUL 3XWHUH 9LWH]  L
&LOLQGUHH*UHXWDWH/XQJLPH/

LPH IX]LRQHD] 

## a celui de-DOGRLOHDJUXSHVWHHJDO FXFHDGLQWUH3XWHUHL&LOLQGUHH

Acest procedeu de agregare iterativ este vizualizat n figura 4 printr-o
GHQGRJUDP 

## PDL SXWHUQLF  FRUHOD LH vQWUH

YDULDELOHOHXQXLJUXSLFHOHDOHFHOXLODOWJUXSvQPRPHQWXOUHJUXS ULL

Figura 4
&ODVLILFDUHDLHUDUKLF

DVFHQGHQW

DYDULDELOHORU

0HWRGDFRUHOD LLORUPD[LPH

PXO LPHD

WXWXURU

YDULDELOHORU

LQFOXVLY

HD

vQV L 

XWLOL]kQG

S WUDWHOH

## FRUHOD LLORU(VWHYRUEDGHFLGHDP VXUDLPSRUWDQ DXQHLYDULDELOH

'H H[HPSOX LPSRUWDQ D YDULDELOHL &LOLQGUHH HVWH FDOFXODW  I FkQG PHG
WXWXURUS WUDWHORUFRUHOD LLORUVDOHFXPXO LPHDGHYDULDELOH

1
4.29
(1 + 0.8612 + 0.6932 + 0.905 2 + 0.864 2 + 0.709 2 ) =
= 0.715
6
6

ia

7DEHOXO  FRQ LQH VLPLODULWDWHD ILHF UHL YDULDELOH FX vQWUHDJD PXO LPH D

variabilelor:
Tabelul 3

lelor.

## \$VWIHOYDULDELODFDUHUH]XP FHOPDLELQHPXO LPHDFHORUYDULDELOHHVWH

FLOLQGUHHD9LWH]DHVWHRYDULDELO PDLLQGHSHQGHQW ID

GHFHOHODOWH

## Analiza n Componente Principale

'DWHOH FDUH WUHEXLH DQDOL]DWH VH SUH]LQW  VXE IRUPD XQXL WDEHO LQGLY

izi x

## YDULDELOH ([LVW  S YDULDELOH 

LQ 1RW P FX

L

xij 

## YDORDUHD OXDW  GH YDULDELOD

LPHDFDUDFWHULVWLFLORU

X j pentru individul i,

pentru individul i, x j , s 2j =

s j PHGLDGLVSHUVLDLDEDWHUHDPHGLHS

WUDWLF DYDULDELOHL

1 n
( xij x j ) 2
n i =1

Xj.

&RPSRQHQWH

3ULQFLSDOH

IUDQFH]H

L

## mericane, la nivelul calculului

FRPSRQHQWHORU SULQFLSDOH SURYLQ GLQ vPS U LUHD FX Q VDX Q-1) n calculul
dispersiei.
\$QDOL]D vQ &RPSRQHQWH 3ULQFLSDOH FRQVW  vQ F XWDUHD XQXL QXP U PLF GH

## FDUHV UH]XPHFkWPDLELQHSRVLELOGDWHOHGHSOHFDUHLQL LDOH

0DL PXOWH FULWHULL SHUPLW RE LQHUHD FRPSRQHQWHORU SULQFLSDOH &ULWHULXO
LQHU LHLHVWHFHOPDLYHFKL 3HDUVRQ LSUH]LQW DYDQWDMHOH

## DERUGDUHDHVWHJHRPHWULF FHHDFHSHUPLWHvQ HOHJHUHDPDLSURIXQG 

DPHWRGHLLDUH]XOWDWHORULQWHUPHGLDUHFDUHDMXW ODLQWHUSUHWDUHDHL

-

## \$QDOL]D &RUHVSRQGHQ HORU GHYLQH R JHQHUDOL]DUH D \$QDOL]HL vQ

&RPSRQHQWH 3ULQFLSDOH L VH vQ HOHJH PDL ELQ

geometric.
-

UH]XOWDWHOHSURJUDPHORUIUDQFH]HGHDQDOL] vQFRPSRQHQWHSULQFLSDOH
FRUHVSXQGDFHVWHLDERUG UL

&ULWHULXO LQHU LHL HVWH vQ DFHODL WLPS PXOW PDL FRPSOH[ GHFkW FHOHODOWH
GRX  FULWHULL SURSXVH GH +RWHOOLQJ  FULWHULXO FRUHOD LHL L FULWHULXO

dispersiei.

## Vom prezenta de asemeni aceste criterii, ele corespunznd rezultatelor

RE LQXWHFXSURJUDPHOHDPHULFDQH\$&3

3UH]HQWDUHD\$&3FRQIRUPDERUG

ULLJHRPHWULFHDOXL3HDUVRQ

1RUXOGHSXQFWHDVRFLDWGDWHORULFDUDFWHULVWLFLO

e sale

## VSD LX  GH GLPHQVLXQH S ILHFDUH YHFWRU

xi de

caracteristici ( xi1 ,.....xip ) ale individului i este considerat drept un punct ntr-un
VSD LXFXSGLPHQVLXQL
&HQWUXOGHJUHXWDWHDOQRUXOXL1HVWHSXQFWXOJDOHF UXLFRRUGRQDWHVXQW

## mediile diferitelor variabile.

g=

1 n
xi = ( x1 ,...., x j ,.., x p ) = x .
n i =1

## Pentru exemplul nostru:

g = (1906.114,183,1111,422,169).
9HFWRUXOJUHSUH]LQW FXPYDFDUDFWHULVWLFLOHXQHLPDLQLPHGLL
PSU WLHUHD QRUXOXL vQ MXUXO FHQWUXOXL V X GH JUHXWDWH VH P VRDU  FX
DMXWRUXOLQHU LHLWRWDOHDQRUXOXL1GHILQLW SULQ

I (N , g) =

1 n p
( xij x j ) 2 .
n i =1 j =1

,QHU LD WRWDO  SRDWH IL FDOFXODW  GLUHFW ILLQG HJDO  FX VXPD GLVSHUVLLO

or

YDULDELOHORUGLQSUREOHP

I (N , g) =

1 n 2
1 n p
d
(
x
,
g
)
=
i
( xij x j ) 2 =
n i =1
n i =1 j =1

p
1 n
2
(
x

x
)
=
s 2j

ij
j
n
j =1
i =1
j =1

=
2E LQHPSHQWUXH[HPSOX

I(N,g)=267072+1441+609+50824+1638+56=321640.
6HREVHUY F LQHU LDQRUXOXLVHGDWRUHD] vQSULQFLSDOFLOLQGUHHL
\$FHDVWD GLQ FDX]D DOHJHULL XQLW

## LORU GH P VXU  'DF  DP IL P V

urat

FLOLQGUHHD vQ OLWUL LPSRUWDQ D  H[DJHUDW  D FLOLQGUHHL vQ FDOFXOXO LQHU LHL DU IL
GLVS UXW
Q SUDFWLF  DGHVHRUL HVWH SUHIHUDELO V  RE LQHP R GHVFULHUH D GDWHORU
LQGHSHQGHQW GHDOHJHUHDXQLW

LORU

## 3XWHPV RE LQHPGDWHRPRJHQHWUDQVIRUPkQGGDWHOHLQL LDOHvQYDULDELOH

FHQWUDWH UHGXVH ILHF UHL YDULDELOH

X *j =

X j xj
sj

X j L VH DVRFLD]

GHPHGLHLGLVSHUVLH

1RXOWDEHOVWXGLDWHVWHIRUPDWGLQFDQWLW

xij* =

LOH

xij x j
sj

## La individXOLVHDVRFLD] DFXPSXQFWXO xi* = ( xi*1 ,...., xip* ).

Noul nor de puncte este N * = {x1* ,...., xn* } .
Centrul de greutate al norului N *  HVWH  L LQHU LD VD WRWDO

##  HVWH HJDO  FX

QXP UXOSDOYDULDELOHORU

3ULPDD[

SULQFLSDO

LSULPDFRPSRQHQW

SULQFLSDO

## apoi vom ilustra interpretarea ei cu ajutorul unui exemplu.

3ULPDHWDS DDFHVWHLFRQVWUXF LLFRQVW vQF XWDUHDSULPHLD[HSULQFLSDOHD

norului de puncte N * .
3ULPDD[

SULQFLSDO

1  V

## mijlocul norului de puncte N .

6H P VRDU  vPSU WLHUHD QRUXOXL

## N * n jurul unei drepte cu ajutorul

ODGUHDSWD .

LQHU LHL

I ( N * , ) norului N * UDSRUWDW
1 n
I ( N * , ) = d 2 ( xi* , yi ) unde yi 
n i =1
*
punctului xi pe dreapta .

Dreapta 1 FDXW
a norului N * .

V PLQLPL]H]H

## 6H SRDWH DU WD F  GUHDSWD

HVWH

SURLHF LD

RUWRJRQDO 

I ( N * , ) LVHQXPHWHSULPDD[

P ( xi* )

SULQFLSDO 

*

##  GH  YHFWRUXO XQLWDU

YHFWRUSURSULXQRUPDWDOPDWULFHL5DFRUHOD LLORUvQWUHYDULDELOHOH

u1 ,

X j , asociat

## la cea mai mare valoare proprie 1 .

9DORULOHSURSULLLYHFWRULLSURSULLDLPDWULFHL5VXQWFXSULQLvQWDEHOXO
& XWDUHDSULPHLD[HSULQFLSDOH

1 HVWHYL]XDOL]DW

vQILJXUD

Tabelul 4

9DORULLYHFWRULSURSULLDLPDWULFHLGHFRUHOD LL

Figura 5
&

XWDUHDSULPHLD[HSULQFLSDOH

3HQWUXH[HPSOXOFXPDLQLOHDPRE LQXW

1 = 4.6745
u1 = (0.4434;0.4182;0.3497;0.4252;0.4246;0.3811).

6

## | | u1 ||= u12j = 0.4434 2 + ...... + 0.38112 = 1

j =1

3ULPDFRPSRQHQW

SULQFLSDO

Prima FRPSRQHQW

 SULQFLSDO 

Y1  HVWH R QRX

## 1 .Valoarea lui Y1 (i ) este deci egaO

xi* pe axa

FXSURGXVXOVFDODUvQWUHYHFWRULL

x ij x j

j =1

sj

Y1 (i ) = Oy i = u1 j (

u1 L xi* :

## Astfel, valoarea primei componente principale Y1 SHQWUX5RYHUHVWHHJDO

FX

Y1 (Rover)=0.44*1.49+0.41*1.67+0.34*1.58+0.43*1.13+0.43*1.17+0.38*0.83=3.19
Global, Y1 se scrie deci:
Y1 = 0.44Cilindree* + 0.41Putere * + 0.34Viteza * +
+ 0.43Greutate* + 0.43Lungime* + 0.38Latime* .

## Valorile lui Y1 pentru fiecare individ sunt cuprinse n tabelul 5.

WUDWHOHGLVWDQ HORUSkQ
LS

Tabelul 5
ODRULJLne, componentele principale

WUDWHOHFRVLQXVXULORU

Y1 HVWH FHQWUDW

##  ILLQG FRPELQD LH OLQLDU  GH

variabile centrate.
6HSRDWHDU WDF GLVSHUVLDVDHVWHHJDO FX

1 :

1
1
Y12 (i ) = d 2 ( y i ,0) = I ({ y1 ,...., y n },0) = 1 .

n i =1
n i =1
Dispersia primei componente principale Y1  HVWH HJDO  FX LQHU

Dispersie (Y1 ) =

LD QRUXOXL

## de puncte proiectate pe 1 , n raport cu centrul de greutate O.

&RUHOD LLOH vQWUH YDULDELOHOH

Xj

L FRUHVSRQGHQ D SULQFLSDO 

Y1 pot fi

## calculate cu ajutorul formulei:

cor ( X j , Y1 ) = 1 u1 j
6H GHGXFH F  DVLPLODULWDWHD  OXL

Y1  ID

##  GH PXO LPHD GH YDULDELOH HVWH

HJDO FX

1 p

cor 2 ( X j , Y1 ) = 1

p j =1
p

## Pentru exempluO QRVWUX RE LQHP

4.656
= 0.776 comparabil cu 0.715 al
6

## cilindreei din tabelul 3.

&RUHOD LLOHvQWUH

X j L Y1 DSDUvQSULPDFRORDQ

DWDEHOXOXL

Tabelul 6.
&RUHOD LLYDULDELOH

-componente principale

PULPD FRPSRQHQW

 SULQFLSDO

##  SR]LWLY FX WRDWH

YDULDELOHOH HD SRDWH IL LQWHUSUHWDW  FD XQ IDFWRU GH P ULPH FODVkQG PDLQLOH

de la cele mai mici ( Y1 (Fiat Uno)= -3.76; Y1 (Ford Fiesta)= - 3.50) la cele mai
mari ( Y1 (Renault 25)=3.44; Y1 (BMV530i)=3.95).
&DOLWDWHDJOREDO DSULPHLFRPSRQHQWHSULQFLSDOH
3HQWUX D P VXUD FDOLWDWHD JOREDO  D SULPHL FRPSRQHQWH SULQFLSDOH
FRQVLGHUDW  FD UH]XPDW DO GDWHORU VH IRORVHWH IRUPXOD GH GHVFRPSXQHUH D
LQHU LHLWRWDOH

## Vectorul yi  ILLQG SURLHF LD RUWRJRQDO

avem:

 D YHFWRUXOXL

xi* pe dreapta 1 ,

## d 2 ( xi* ,0) = d 2 ( yi ,0) + d 2 ( xi* , yi ) de unde :

1 n 2 *
1 n 2
1 n 2 *
d
(
x
,
0
)
=
d
(
y
,
0
)
+
d ( xi , yi )
i
i n
n i =1
n i =1
i =1
,QHU LDWRWDO

I ( N * ,0) =

1 n 2 *
d ( xi ,0) = p
n i =1

VHGHVFRPSXQHGHFLvQGRX S U L

1 n 2
d ( yi ,0) = I ({ y1 ,...., yn },0)  UHSUH]LQW  LQHU LD WRWDO  D
n i =1
norului { y1 ,...., yn } D SURLHF LLORU SXQFWHORU xi* pe axa 1 \$FHDVW 

primul termen

## FDQWLWDWHUHSUH]LQW LQHU LDH[SOLFDW GHD[D

1 LHVWHHJDO

1
d 2 ( xi* , yi ) = I ( N * , 1 )  UHSUH]LQW

n i =1
a norului n jurul axei 1

al doilea termen

PentruH[HPSOXOFXPDLQLOHRE LQHP
LQHU LDWRWDO S 
LQHU LDH[SOLFDW GH 1 = 1 =4.656
LQHU LDUH]LGXDO  S- 1 =1.344

FX

ID

1
p

## 6H UHJ VHWH  DSURSULHUHD FRPSRQHQWHL SULQFLSDOH

GHPXO LPHDGHYDULDELOH
QH[HPSOXSDUWHDGHLQHU LHH[SOLFDW GH

## poate sSXQH F   GLQ LQHU LD WRWDO

de-a lungul primei axe principale.
&DOLWDWHDUHSUH]HQW

1 HVWHHJDO

FX

4.656
= 0.776. Se
6

##  HVWH H[SOLFDW  SULQ DOXQJLUHD QRUXOXL

ULLLQGLYL]LORUSHSULPDD[

SULQFLSDO

## &DOLWDWHD UHSUH]HQW ULL ILHF UXL LQGLYLG SH D[D

Y1

1  VH P VRDU
*
WUDWXOXLFRVLQXVXOXLXQJKLXOXLIRUPDWGHYHFWRUXO xi cu axa 1 :
cos 2 ( xi* , 1 ) =

 FX D

jutorul

d 2 ( yi ,0)
Y1 (i ) 2
=
.
d 2 ( xi* ,0) d 2 ( xi* ,0)

## Astfel avem pentru Rover:

Y1 ( Rover ) = 3.19
d 2 ( Rover,0) = 1.49 2 + 1.67 2 + 1.582 + 1.132 + 1.17 2 +
+ 0.832 = 10.8
cos 2 ( Rover , 1 ) =

10.18
= 0.94
10.80

5RYHUHVWHELQHUHSUH]HQWDWSHD[DSULQFLSDO 

1 .

3 WUDWHOH GLVWDQ HORU  ILHF UXL LQGLYLG OD RULJLQH L S WUDWHOH FRVLQXVXULORU

## sunt date n Tabelul 5.

\$GRXDD[

SULQFLSDO

LDGRXDFRPSRQHQW

## 3UH]HQW P FRQVWUXF LD L SURSULHW

SULQFLSDO

LOH FHOHL GH

-a doua componente

principale.
\$GRXDD[

SULQFLSDO

6HFDXW RD[ 

2 RUWRJRQDO

## \$FHDVW  D GRXD D[  SULQFLSDO 

FX

1 LFDUHV

 PLQLPL]H]HLQHU LD

I ( N * , ) .

## 2  WUHFH SULQ RULJLQHD 2 L HVWH JHQHUDW

 GH

vectorul u2  YHFWRU SURSULX QRUPDW GLQ PDWULFHD GH FRUHOD LL 5 DVRFLDW OD D
doua cea mai mare valoare proprie 2 .
Valoarea proprie 2  L YHFWRUXO SURSULX u2  SHQWUX H[HPSOXO FX PDLQLOH
se DIO  vQ 7DEHOXO  & XWDUHD FHOHL GH-a doua axe principale 2 este
YL]XDOL]DW vQ)LJXUD

Figura 6
&

6  QRW P FX

XWDUHDFHOHLGH

## -a doua axe principale

zi  L ai  SURLHF

LLOH SXQFWXOXL

## ( 1 , 2 ) respectiv. Vectorii yi L zi VXQWGHDVHPHQLSURLHF LLOHSXQFWHORU ai pe

axele 1 L 2 .
Din descompunerea:
d 2 ( xi* ,0) = d 2 (ai ,0) + d 2 ( xi* , ai ) =
= d 2 ( yi ,0) + d 2 ( zi ,0) + d 2 ( xi* , ai )

deducem:

## I ( N , O ) = I ({ y1 ,...., yn },0) + I ({z1 ,...., z n },0) + I ( N * , ( 1 , 2 ))

(1)

unde
1 n 2 *
d ( xi , ai )
n i =1
*
LDQRUXOXL N
n raport cu planul (1 , 2 ) . 6HSRDWHGHPRQVWUDF
I ( N * , (1 , 2 )) =

HVWHLQHU

I ( N , (1 , 2 ))  HVWH PLQLP
*

##  GH WRDWH FHOHODOWH SODQH

posibile.
Planul (1 , 2 )  VH QXPHWH  SULPXO SODQ SULQFLSDO (VWH SODQXO FDUH  WUHFH
cel mai bine posibil prin mijlocul norului N * vQVHQVXOFULWHULXOXLLQHU LHL
\$GRXDFRPSRQHQW

SULQFLSDO

## \$ GRXD FRPSRQHQW  SULQFLSDO  

Y2  HVWH R YDULDELO

## fiecare individ i prin :

Y2 L 

OXQJLPHDDOJHEULF DVHJPHQWX

lui [0, zi ]

xij x j

j =1

sj

Y2 (i) = u2 j (

) .

## Pentru exemplu, putem scrie Y2 global:

Y2 = 0.03Cilidree* + 0.42 Putere * + 0.66Viteza * 0.26Greutate *
0.30 Lungime* 0.48Latime*

## Valorile sale sunt date n Tabelul 5. Pentru Rover, Y2 ia valoarea 0.77.

\$GRXDFRPSRQHQW SULQFLSDO 

Y2 HVWHFHQWUDW

LGHGLVSHUVLHHJDO FX

2 .

Putem scrie:
1 n
1 n 2
2
Y
(
i
)
=
2
d ( zi ,0) =
n i =1
n i =1
= I ({z1 ,...., z n },0) = 2
Disp (Y2 ) =

## variabilele X J L Y2 VHFDOFXOHD]

Y1  L Y2  HVWH HJDO

(2)

##  FX ]HUR &RUHOD LLOH vQWUH

FXDMXWRUXOIRUPXOHL

cor ( X J , Y2 ) = 2 u 2 j
&RUHOD LLOH  GLQWUH YDULDELOHOH L FRPSRQHQWD SULQFLSDO 

Y2 din exemplul

nostru sunt datH vQ 7DEHOXO  3XWHP REVHUYD F  Y2  HVWH FRUHODW
YDULDELOHOH

PRWRU &LOLQGUHH

3XWHUH

9LWH] 

YDULDELOHOHFRQIRUW *UHXWDWH/XQJLPH/
\$ GRXD FRPSRQHQW  SULQFLSDO 

Y2

L

FRUHODW 

 SR]LWLY FX
QHJDWLY

FX

LPH 

## motor prea puternic n raport cu confortul

( Y2 (Peugeot 205 Rallye)=1.48, Y2 (Audi 90 Quattro)=1.36)
ODPDLQLIDPLOLDOHFXXQFRQIRUWVSRULWvQUDSRUWFXPRWRUXO

## ( Y2 (VW Caravelle= - 2.38, Y2 (Nissan Vanette)= - 1.82).

&DOLWDWHDJOREDO
GRX

DFHOHLGH DGRXDFRPSRQHQW

SULQFLSDO

LDSULPHORU

FRPSRQHQWHSULQFLSDOH
'LQ HFXD LLOH   L   VH GHGXFH F  SDUWHD GH LQHU LH H[SOLFDW  GH D GRX

HJDO FX

##   LDU DFHHD H[SOLFDW  GH SODQXO

(1 , 2 ) este

(1 + 2 )
.
p

n exemplu, 2 H[SOLF
H[SOLF   

&DOLWDWHDUHSUH]HQW

 

##  GLQ LQHU LD WRWDO  LDU

(1 , 2 )

GLQLQHU LDWRWDO 

ULLLQGLYL]LORUSHDGRXDD[

SULQFLSDO

LSHSULPXO

plan principal
&DOLWDWHDUHSUH]HQW ULLILHF UXLSXQFW

## xi* SHGHRSDUWHLGHD[D 2 sau planul (1 , 2 ) SHGHDOW

SDUWH

Pe 2 :
cos 2 ( x i* , 2 ) =

d 2 ( z i ,0)
Y2 (i ) 2
=
d 2 ( xi* ,0) d 2 ( xi* ,0)

Pe (1 , 2 ) :
cos 2 ( xi* , (1 , 2 )) =

=
=
d 2 ( xi* ,0)
d 2 ( xi* ,0)

## Pentru Rover, avem:

cos 2 ( Rover , 2 ) = 0.06
cos 2 ( Rover , (1 , 2 )) = 0.94 + 0.06 = 1.00
&XFkWHYDDSUR[LP ULGDWRUDWHURWXQMLULORUSXWHPDILUPDF 5RYHUVHDIO 
FRQ LQXWvQSULPXOSODQSULQFLSDO

Rezultate generale
Extinznd
PXO LPH

GH

S

D[H

SULQFLSDOH

1 ,......., p

## generate de vectorii proprii

RUWRQRUPD L u1 ,......., u p DVRFLD LODYDORULOHSURSULL 1 ,......., p aranjate n ordinea
descUHVF WRDUHGLQPDWULFHDGHFRUHOD LL5
)LJXUDYL]XDOL]HD] DFHVWQRXUHSHU

Figura 7
Axele principale. Componentele principale

## Componentele principale Y1 ,......,Y p sunt definite prin Yh (i ) = u hj xij* .

j =1

(OHUHSUH]LQW FRRUGRQDWHOH

## 6HSRDWHDU WDF HOHVXQWFHQWUDWHGHGLVSHUVLH

h LQHFRUHODWHvQWUHHOH

*
i

## Punctele x pot fi exprimate n acest nou reper:

p

xi* = Yh (i )u k
h =1

Formulele carH XUPHD]  VXQW IRDUWH LPSRUWDQWH L VH GHGXF GLUHFW GLQ
procesul de construire al componentelor principale:
Formula de reconstituire a datelor:
p

xij* = Yh (i )u hj

(3)

h =1

)RUPXODGHUHFRQVWLWXLUHDPDWULFHLFRUHOD LLORUGLQWUHYDULDELOH

## cor ( X j , X l ) = huhj uhl

(4)

h =1

WUDWXOXLGLVWDQ HLXQXLSXQFWODRULJLQH

)RUPXODGHGHVFRPSXQHUHDS

## d 2 ( xi* ,0) =|| x i* ||2 = Yh (i ) 2

h =1

de unde se deduce:
p

(i)

cos ( x ,
2

h =1

*
i

(ii)

h =1

&DOFXOXOFRUHOD LLORUvQWUHYDULDELOHOH

) =1

=p
X j LFRPSRQHQWHOHSULQFLSDOH Yh

cor ( X j , Yh ) = h u hj

(5)

X 1 ,...., X p 

## HVWH HJDO  FX 

H[SOLFDW GHD[DSULQFLSDO 

1
p

cor
j =1

( X j ,Yh ) =

p
p

Yh cu variabilele

##  DGLF  SDUWHD GH LQHU LH

h .

'LVWDQ DOXL0DKDODQRELV
3HQWUXDP VXUDGLVWDQ DGLQWUHXQLQGLYLGLFHQWUXOGHJUHXWDWHDOQRUXOXL
VHXWLOL]HD] DGHVHDGLVWDQ DOXL0DKDODQRELV
(D VH GHILQHWH vQ IHOXO XUP WRU VH FRQVWUXLHVF PDL vQWkL FRPSRQHQWHOH

principale Z h preferabil pentru datele de origine dect pentru datele centrateUHGXVH 3HQWUX  DFHDVWD VH XWLOL]HD]  YHFWRULL SURSULL vh din matricea
de
covariaQ  D YDULDELOHORU X j  L VH FDOFXOHD]  YDULDELOHOH Z h cu ajutorul
formulei:

Z h (i ) =
'LVWDQ DOXL0DKDODQRELV

v
j =1

hj

( x ij x j )

## d M ( xi , x ) dintre punctul xi LFHQWUXOGHJUHXWDWH

x DOQRUXOXLIRUPDWGLQGDWHOHGHRULJLQHVHGHILQHWHFXDMXWRUXOIRUPXOHL
p

d ( xi , x ) = Z h* (i ) 2
2
M

## unde Z h* este variabila Z h UHGXV

h =1

5HSUH]HQW ULJUDILFH
(VWHYRUEDGHUHSUH]HQW ULJUDILFHDOHLQGLYL]LORULYDULDELOHORU

Harta indivizilor
3URLHF LLOH SXQFWHORU

## coordonate pe axele principale 1 , 2 valorile Y1 (i ) L Y2 (i ) .

5HSUH]HQWDUHDJUDILF  D SXQFWHORU

Ai = (Y1 (i ), Y2 (i ))  QH G

n Figura 8.

## 6H YHULILF  LQWHUSUHWDUHD D[HORU SUH]HQWDW  DQWHULRU PDLQLOH DSDU GH

-a

OXQJXO SULPHL D[H vQ IXQF LH GH PRGHOXO ORU GH OD FHOH PDL PLFL )LDW 8QR
)RUG)LHVWD ODFHOHPDLPDUL 5HQDXOW%09L LGH

## -a lungul celei dean

Vanette, VW Caravelle) la cele sportive (Citroen AX Sport, Peugeot 205
Rallye).

D GRXD D[H vQ IXQF LH GH FDUDFWHULVWLFD ORU GH OD PDLQLOH IDPLOLDOH  1LVV

Figura 8
3ULPXOSODQSULQFLSDOLFHUFXOFRUHOD LLORU

Harta variabilelor
Variabilele sunt reprezentate ntr-un plan cu ajutorul punctelor:
B j = ( cor ( X j , Y1 ), cor ( X j ,Y2 )) Se RE LQH UHSUH]HQWDUHD  JUDILF  GLQ )LJXUD 
QXPLW FHUFXOGHFRUHOD LL
(VWH YL]XDOL]DW ELQH IDSWXO F  SULPD FRPSRQHQW  SULQFLSDO  FRUHODW 
SR]LWLYFXWRDWHYDULDELOHOHSUREOHPHLHVWHXQIDFWRUGHWDOLH P ULPH LF 
DGRXDFRPSRQHQW SULQFLSDO RSXQkQG 9LWH]D3XWHUH OD /

LPH/XQJLPH

## Lungimea R j a vectorilor-variabile B j  UHSUH]LQW  FRUHOD LD PXOWLSO 

R( X j ;Y1 ,Y2 ) dintre variabila X j LFHOHGRX FRPSRQHQWHSULQFLSDOH6HRE LQH
vQDGHY U

## || B j ||2 = cor 2 ( X j , Y1 ) + cor 2 ( X j , Y2 ) = R 2 ( X j ;Y1 ,Y2 ),

F FL YDULDELOHOH

## Y1 ,Y2 sunt necorelate ntre ele. Pentru exemplul prezentat se

RE LQH

Variabile
Cilindree
Putere
9LWH]

Greutate
Lungime
/

LPH

Rj
0.96
0.98
0.97
0.92
0.97
0.93

7RDWHYDULDELOHOHVXQWELQHUHSUH]HQWDWHSHFHUFXOGHFRUHOD LL
3DUWHD GH LQHU LH H[SOLFDW  GH SULPXO  SODQ SULQFLSDO ILLQG IRDUWH PDUH
 FRUHOD LLOHvQWU

## e variabile sunt bine reconstituite utiliznd doar primii

doi termeni din formula (4):

cor ( X j , X l ) = h u hj u hl

FDUHGHYLQHGDF  LQHPFRQWGH 

h =1

h =1

X j L X l 

## produsul scalar < B j , B l > dintre vectorii B j L B l .

Exemplu:FRU &LOLQGUHH3XWHUH  HVWHELQHDSUR[LPDW

SULQ

## cor (Cilindree, Y1 )cor ( Putere, Y1 ) + cor (Cilindree,Y2 ) cor ( Putere,Y2 ) =

= 0.96 0.89 + 0.03 0.40 = 0.8664

## Cosinusul unghiului format de vectorii B j L B l fiind dat de formula:

cos( B j , B l ) =

## < B j ,Bl >

|| B j |||| B l ||

, FRUHOD

LDvQWUH

X j L X l se scrie aproximativ:

## cor ( x j , xl ) =|| B j ||||B l || cos( B j , B l ).

\$VWIHO FRUHOD LLOH vQWUH YDULDELOH

## X j sunt aproximativ reconstituite pe

FHUFXO GH FRUHOD LL vQ IXQF LH GH OXQJLPHD YHFWRULORU

YDULDELOH L D

FRVLQXVXULORUXQJKLXULORUGLQWUHDFHWLYHFWRUL
6H SRDWH YHULILFD GH H[HPSOX F  GHQGRJUDPD GLQ )LJXUD  H[SULP  ELQH
SR]L LDYHFWRU

ilor-YDULDELOHGLQFHUFXOGHFRUHOD LLXQLLvQUDSRUWFXFHLODO L

Biplotul
Lundu-QH FkWHYD SUHFDX LXQL vQ FHHD FH SULYHWH VFDUD GH UHSUH]HQWDUH
HVWH SRVLELO V  VXSUDSXQHP FHOH GRX  JUDILFH SULPXO SODQ  SULQFLSDO L FHUFXO
GHFRUHOD LLRE LQkQGDVWIHORUHSUH]HQWDUHvPERJ

LW 

## \$FHDVW  UHSUH]HQWDUH VLPXOWDQ  D LQGLYL]LORU L D YDULDELOHORU VH QXPHWH

ELSORWH[SUHVLHLQWURGXV GH*DEULHO  
3UHVXSXQHP PDL vQWkL F  SDUWHD HVHQ LDO  GLQ LQHU LD WRWDO  HVWH H[SOLFDW 
GHSULPXOSODQSULQFLSDO'DF QXHVWHDDWUHEXLHV OLPLW PUH]XOWDWHOHFDUH
YRU XUPD OD SXQFWH ELQH UHSUH]HQWDWH SH SULPXO SODQ SULQFLSDO L OD YDULDELOH
IRDUWHSXWHUQLFFRUHODWHFXSULPHOHGRX FRPSRQHQWHSULQFLSDOH

## Cu aceste ipoteze, formula

p

xij* = Yh (i )uhj
h =1

de reconstituLUHDGDWHORUSHUPLWHRE LQHUHDXQHLEXQHDSUR[LP

ULDSXQFWHORU

*
ij XWLOL]kQGGRDUSULPHOHGRX GLPHQVLXQL

*
xij* = Yh (i )u hj Notnd Yh =
h =1

utiliznd faptulF

Yh
h

FRPSRQHQWD SULQFLSDO 

2

IRUPXO GHYLQH

## xij* = Yh* (i )cor ( X j , Yh ) (6).

h =1

Yh 

UHGXV  L

2675 1906.1
= 1.49 bine reconstituit prin
516.79
Y1* ( Rover )cor (Cilindree, Y1 ) + Y2* ( Rover ) cor (Cilindree, Y2 ) =

## Exemplu Avem x(*Rover ,Cilindree ) =

=

1
1
3.19 0.96 +
0.77 0.03 = 1.44.
4.656
0.9152

## xij* este aproximativ reconstituit prin

produsul scalar dintre vectorii Ai* = (Y1* (i ),Y2* (i )) L B j = ( cor ( X j , Y1 ), cor ( X j ,Y2 ))
*
1RW P Pij SURLHF LDYHFWRUXOXL Ai pe axa ( B j ) JHQHUDW GHYHFWRUXO B j .
\$FHVWHQRWD LLVXQWYizualizate n Figura 9.
/XQJLPHDDOJHEULF 

OPij =

OPij

HVWHHJDO FX

Y (i)cor(X ,Y )

## cor ( X j ,Y1 ) + cor ( X j ,Y2 ) h=1

2

*
h

Figura 9

3XQFWHLQGLYL]LLD[HYDULDELOH
1XPLWRUXOILLQGHJDOFXFRUHOD LDPXOWLSO 

R j ntre X j LSULPHOHGRX

D[H

## principale, avem deci: x = R j OPij .

\$DGDU SURLHF LLOH SXQFWHORU-indivizi
Ai* pe axele variabile ( Bij ) au
*
OXQJLPLOH DOJHEULFH SURSRU LRQDOH FX GDWHOH xij 5HSDUWL LD SURLHF LLORU Pij pe
axa ( B j )  UHIOHFW  GHFL ELQH UHSDUWL LD YDORULORU xij* ale variabilei X *j  L vQ
FRQVHFLQ LDFHHDDYDORULORU xij ale variabilei de origine X j .
*
ij

Q)LJXUDDPFRQVWUXLWELSORWXOUHSUH]HQWDUHDVLPXOWDQ DLQGLYL]LORUL
DYDULDELOHORUvQIHOXOXUP WRU

## - LQGLYL]LLVXQWUHSUH]HQWD LSULQSXQFWHOH Ai* = (Y1* (i ),Y2* (i ));

- variabilele sunt reprezentate prin axele ( B j ) situate pe grafic cu
ajutorul punctelor (3cor( X j ,Y1 ),3 cor( X j ,Y2 )). Coeficientul 3 a fost
DOHVvQVFRSXORE LQHULLXQHLPDLEXQHYL]LELOLW LDSXQFWHORU-variabile.

Figura 10
%LSORWUHSUH]HQWDUHDVLPXOWDQ

DLQGLYL]LORULDYDULDELOHORU

\$VWIHO VH SRDWH YHULILFD IDSWXO F  SURLHF LD PDLQLORU SH D[D 9LWH] 
UHVWLWXLHELQHUHSDUWL LDGDWHORUGHSOHFDUHSURLHF LLOHPDLQLORUFHOHPDLUDSLGH

(BMW 530i, Renault 25, Audi 90 Quatro) se opun bine la cele mai lente (Ford
Fiesta, Nissan Vanette, Fiat Uno, VW Caravelle).
'H DVHPHQHD SURLHF LLOH PDLQLORU SH D[D /

## Prezentarea Analizei n Componente Principale (A.C.P.) conform

DERUG ULLlui Hotelling)
3URFHVXO GH FRQVWUXLUH DO FRPSRQHQWHORU SULQFLSDOH SUH]HQWDW SkQ  DFXP

## este laborios, dar conduce la un ansamblu de rezultate foarte complet.

+RWHOOLQJ   D SURSXV  FULWHULL FDUH V  SHUPLW  RE LQHUHD PDL GLUHFW  D

componentelor principaOHGDUVHSLHUGHvQDFHVWFD]GLPHQVLXQHDJHRPHWULF
a problemei.

9RPSUH]HQWDFULWHULXOFRUHOD LHLDSRLDOGLVSHUVLHL

&ULWHULXOFRUHOD LHL
6H FDXW  P YDULDELOH

maximizeze criteriul :

F1,....., Fm centrate-UHGXVH

L QHFRUHODWH FDUH V 

[ p cor
h =1

j =1

( X j , Fh )]

(7)

## &X DOWH FXYLQWH VH FDXW  UH]XPDUHD YDULDELOHORU GH RULJLQH

X 1 ,....., X p

printr-XQ QXP U PDL PLF GH YDULDELOH F1,....., Fm  QHFRUHODWH vQWUH HOH L FDUH V
reprezinte principalele dimensiuni ale fenomenului studiat.

Fh = Yh* =

Yh

## ,care sunt tocmai componentele principale reduse. Valoarea

PD[LPXOXLHVWHHJDO FX

(1 + .... + m ) / p .

Criteriul dispersiei
6H FDXW  P YDULDELOH

Z1,....., Z m de forma Z h = v hj X j

cu vectorii

j =1

## vh = (vh1,....., vhp ) RUWRQRUPD

LFDUHV PD[LPL]H]HFULWHULXO

Dispersie( Z
h =1

) (8)

## 6H GHPRQVWUHD]  F  PD[LPXO IRUPXOHL   HVWH DWLQV SHQWUX YHFWRULL

SURSULLQRUPD L

v1,....., vm DLPDWULFHLGHFRYDULDQ

vQWUHYDULDELOHOH

x j asociate

## la cele mai mari m valori proprii v1,....., vm LDUHGUHSWYDORDUH v1 + ..... + vm .

'DF OX PP

SVHRE LQH

v1 + ..... + v p = Dispersie( X j )
j =1

## Suma SULPHORU P YDORUL SURSULL UHSUH]LQW  GLVSHUVLD H[SOLFDW  GH FHOH P

variabile Z1 ,....., Z m .
*
*
'DF  VH OXFUHD]  FX YDULDELOHOH FHQWUDWH-reduse X 1 ,...... X p , atunci Z h = Yh
LRE LQHP

Dispersie(Z
h =1

## Metoda de clDVLILFDUH DVFHQGHQW

Ward

) = 1 + ....... + m .

 LHUDUKLF

##  FX DMXWRUXO FULWHULXOXL OXL

\$FHDVW  PHWRG  FRQGXFH OD XQ DOW SURFHGHX GH D UH]XPD GDWHOH
FRQVWUXLUHDXQXLWLSRORJLL VDXSDUWL LL DLQGLYL]LORUvQFODVHDVWIHOFDLQGLYL]LL
FDUH DSDU LQ DFHOHLDL FODVH V  ILH DVHP Q WR

## Calitatea unei tipologii

6 FRQVLGHU PRWLSRORJLHDPXO LPLLQRDVWUHGHLQGLYL]LvQNFODVHILHFDUH
FODV DYkQGUHVSHFWLY
6 QRW PFX

n1 ,....., nk indivizi.

G1 ,....., Gk WLSRORJLDFRUHVSXQ]

WRDUHQRUXOXLGHSXQFWHDVRFLDW

## N = {x1 ,....., xn } LFX g1 ,....., g k centrele de greutate ale acestor clase.

,QHU LDWRWDO DQRUXOXL1VHGHVFRPSXQHvQIHOXOXUP WRU

k
k
n
n
I ( N , g ) = ( i )d 2 ( gi , g ) + i I (Gi , gi ).
i =1 n
i =1 n

3ULPXO WHUPHQ GLQ GUHDSWD VH QXPHWH LQHU LD LQWHU FODVH L P VRDU  IHOXO

## vQFDUHFODVHOHVHGHS UWHD] XQHOHGHDOWHOH

\$FHVW WHUPHQ VH QRWHD]  FX ,

G1 ,....., Gk  L UHSUH]LQW

##  LQHU LD H[SOLFDW  GH

tipologie.
Al doilea termHQ GLQ GUHDSWD VH QXPHWH LQHU LD LQWUD-FODVH L P
omogenitatea claselor.

VRDU 

&DOLWDWHD WLSRORJLHL VH P VRDU  FX DMXWRUXO UDSRUWXOXL GLQWUH LQHU LD LQWHU

FODVHLLQHU LDWRWDO 

## Criteriul lui Ward

Cnd n tipologia G1 ,....., Gk se nlocuiesc GRX  FODVH Gi  L G j prin
reuniunea lor, Gi  G j VHSURGXFHRGLPLQXDUHDLQHU LHLLQWHU-clase.
\$FHDVW PLFRUDUH

poate

fi

## FDOFXODW LHVWHHJDO FX

D (Gi , G j ) =

ni n j
n(ni + n j )

d 2 ( gi , g j )

\$FHVW FULWHULX XWLOL]DW SHQWUX P VXUDUHD GLVWDQ HL vQWUH GRX  FODVH

Gi  L

G j VHQXPHWHFULWHULXOGHDJUHJDUHDOOXL:DUG

Exemplu:
6 OX P

*
G1 = {xCitroenBX
}

G2 = {x*Peugeot 405 }

. Avem

*
*
d 2 ( x CitroenBX
, x Peugeot
405 ) =

## (1769 1769) 2 (90 90) 2 (182 180) 2

+
+
+
267072
1442
609
(1060 1080) 2 (424 440) 2 (168 169) 2
+
+
+
= 0.189
50824
1638
56
=

*
D 2 ( xCitroenBX
, x*Peugeot 405 ) =

&ODVLILFDUHDLHUDUKLF

1 1
0.189 = 0.00393
24 (1 + 1)

DVFHQGHQW

## \$OJRULWPXO GH FODVLILFDUH LHUDUKLF  DVFHQGHQW   HVWH LWHUDWLY Q HWDSD

LQL LDO VHSOHDF GHODRSDUWL LHDPXO LPLLGHLQGLYL]LvQNFODVH

G1 ,....., Gk LVH

## WRWDO HVWHDWXQFLHJDO FXLQHU LDLQWHU

-clase.

/D  HWDSD ILQDO  QX PDL H[LVW  GHFkW R VLQJXU  FODV  L LQHU LD LQWHU
HVWHGHFLQXO

-clase
6XPDSLHUGHULORULQHU LHLLQWHU-clase a diferitelor etape este deci

HJDO  FX LQHU LD WRWDO  /D ILHFDUH HWDS  VH FDOFXOHD]  XQ LQGLFH RE LQXW SULQ
vPS U LUHDSLHUGHULLGHLQHU LHLQWHU FODVHODLQHU LDWRWDO 

## 6H DOHJHWLSRORJLDRE LQXW OD HWDSD FRUHVSXQ] WRDUHXQHLFUHWHULEUXWDOH

a indicelui
\$SOLFD LH
\$P UHDOL]DW R FODVLILFDUH LHUDUKLF  DVFHQGHQW  D GDWHORU FHQWUDWH

-reduse

## din exemplul cu ajutorul criteriului lui Ward.

7DEHOXO  LQGLF  GHVI XUDUHD DOJRULWPXOXL L UH]XOWDWHOH  VXQW YL]XDOL]DWH

## cu ajutorul dendogramei (arborelui de clasificare) din Figura 11.

QSULPDHWDS VHUHJUXSHD] PRGHOHOH&LWURHQ%;  L3HXJHRW  
SHQWUXFDUHGLVWDQ DOXL:DUGHVWHHJDO FX

##  L DSDUH vQ

GHQGRJUDP  OD QLYHOXO OXL &LWURHQ %; DGLF  D HOHPHQWXOXL FDUH SUHFHGH SH
FHO ODW&ODVDHVWHQXPHURWDW 
/DDGRXDHWDS VHRE LQHFODVDUHJUXSkQG)RUG6LHUUD  L3HXJHRW
%UHDN  DOF UHLLQGLFHGHDJUHJDUH



## D ( x2* , ( x4* , x6* ) / 6 este egal cu 0.19%.

\$OJRULWPXO XUPHD]  DFHODL SURFHGHX SkQ  OD XOWLPD HWDS  FkQG VH
UHJUXSHD] FODVDD PLFLORUPDLQL &LYLF6HDW)LHVWD LFODVDIRUPDW 
GLQUHVWXOHDQWLRQXOXL
&ULWHULXOOXL:DUGFXPXODWGHODXOWLPDLWHUD LHSHUPLWHFDOFXODUHDLQHU LHL
H[SOLFDWHSULQGLIHULWHOHWLSRORJLLFRQVWUXLWHQDGHY UODXOWLPDLWHUD LHDYHP

I(43,46)=D(43,46)=3.07202
ntruct iQHU LD H[SOLFDW  ,   SULQ FODVD  IRUPDW
REVHUYD LL HVWH QXO  Q FRQVHFLQ

##  LQHU LD H[SOLFDW  GH WLSRORJLD IRUPDW  GLQ

GRX  FODVH  L  HVWH HJDO  FX  L SDUWHD GH LQHU LH H[SOLFDW  HVWH
HJDO FX

Clasa



##  D IRVW IRUPDW  SULQ UHXQLXQHD FODVHORU 

%0: L

\$XGL %0:

7LSR59:&DUDYHOOH 

, 



## LQHU LHH[SOLFDW GHDFHDVW WLSRORJLHvQFODVHHVWHHJDO FX

&RQWLQX PVSUHvQFHSXWXODOJRULWPXOXL

## Clasa 45 provine din reuniunea claselor:



(VSDFH2PHJD9:&DUDYHOOH`L



7LSR55`

## 'LQIDSWXOF ' 

, 

-I(43,44,45) deducem:
I(43,44,38,42)=D(43,46)+D(44,45)+D(38,42)=
=3.07202+1.42919+0.29270=4.79391.
&UHWHUHDLQHU LHLH[SOLFDWHILLQGPLF DWXQFLFkQGVHWUHFHGHODWLSRORJLD

IRUPDW  GLQ  FODVH   OD WLSRORJLD IRUPDW  GLQ  FODVH  
DGRSW PWLSRORJLDGDWHORUGLQFODVH

Tabelul 7
&ODVLILFDUHDLHUDUKLF

DVFHQGHQW

## Descrierea claselor formate

Clasa

Elementul
care
precede

Elementul
FDUHXUPHD]

Nr.
elemente
FRQ LQXWH

Criteriul
lui
Ward

Indice(%).

Tabelul 8
0HGLLOHYDULDELOHORUSHFODVHLWHVWXO)LVKHU

Figura 11
Dendograma

Figura 12
Vizualizarea tipologiei din 3 clase

3HQWUX

D

LQWHUSUHWD

FX

PDL

PXOW 

SUHFL]LH

DFHDVW 

WLSRORJLH

DP

reprezentat-RSHSODQXOSULQFLSDOGLQ)LJXUDLDPFRQVWUXLW7DEHOXOXQGH
YDULDELOHOH VXQW DUDQMDWH vQ RUGLQHD GHVFUHVF WRare a testului Fisher ntre
YDULDELOHLWLSRORJLH

&ODVDPDLQLORUPLFLFRUHVSXQGHFODVHL

Honda Civic, Seat Ibiza Sxi, Citroen AX Sport, Peugeot 205 Rallye,
Peugeot 205, Fiat Uno, Ford Fiesta.
&ODVDPDLQLORUPHGLLFRUHVSXQGHFODVHL

Fiat Tipo, Renault 19,Citroen BX, Peugeot 405, Renault 21, Espace, Opel
Omega, Ford Sierra, Peugeot 405 Break, Nissan Vanette, VW Caravelle.
&ODVDPDLQLORUPDULFRUHVSXQGHFODVHL

Rover 827i.

Concluzie
V-DP

## S-DX XWLOL]DW SURJUDPHOH 6WDWJUDSKLFV L 63\$'1 SHQWUX WUDWDUHD H[HPSOXOXL

prezentat.
3HQWUX FLWLWRUXO FDUH GRUHWH  V  WLH PDL PXOWH GHVSUH \$QDOL]D vQ
&RPSRQHQWH 3ULQFLSDOH DWkW OD QLYHO WHRUHWLF FkW L SUDFWLF UHFRPDQG P
OXFU ULOHXUP WRDUH
%RXURFKH L 6DSRUWD   -DFNVRQ   -ROOLIIH   /HEDUW
0RULQHDX L )pQpORQ   /HEDUW 0RULQHDX L 7DEDQ

d (1977), Saporta

##  6DSRUWDWHI QHVFX  

Q FHHD FH SULYHWH PHWRGHOH GH RE LQHUH D WLSRORJLLORU UHFRPDQG P vQ

special:
(YHULWW   L SURFHGXULOH \$&(&/86&/867(5)\$67&/86 GLQ

programul SAS.

B
BIIB
BLLIIO
OG
GR
RA
AF
FIIE
E
Michel Tenenhaus
Gilbert Saporta,
9LRULFDWHI QHVFX

## - Methodes Statistiques en Gestion. Editura Dunod

1994, Paris.
- \$QDOL]D GDWHORU L ,QIRUPDWLF  (GLWXUD (FRQRPLF 
1996.