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Chapter 11: Noli Me Tangere: A Diagnosis of Filipino Society Guerrero 1998 Indios Bravos Circulo-Hispano January 2, 1889 Filipinos

ilipinos were practically an unknown nation. A sense of national identity for Rizal and his fellow expatriates during Paris Exposition of 1889. Where Rizal proposed on writing a novel about the Philippines Did not materialize because those who were expected to collaborate with Rizal did not write anything on the subject. His fellow expatriates were more interested to write about women. A novel written by Pedro Paterno Subtitle of Pedro Paternos novel Ninay Lunas Spolarium o Conveyed the plight of the vanquished and the pathetic suffering of the human race. o Perceived by Rizal as a reflection of the spirit of the social, moral and political life of his time because it clearly showed mankind under severe ordeal, mankind unredeemed and reason and aspiration in an open struggle with fanaticism and injustice. o Rizal wrote a novel depicting the country to be redeemed from bondage and repression. Uncle Toms Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe o Portrayed the brutalities committed by American slave-owner against their Negro slaves. o Provided Rizal the springbroad to write a novel portraying vividly the miseries of the Filipinos under the oppressive rule of the Spanish tyrants. The Wandering Dew (Jew?) by Eugene Sue o Anti-clerical novel, which made a great impression on him. o Used as model to arouse the feeling against the existing Philippine situation and at the same time, communicate to the Filipinos the ideals he wanted them to embrace. Started: 1884 in Europe Complete : Madrid Complete : Paris Remaining : Germany in February 21,1887 Published in: March 21, 1887 Financial Assistance: Maximo Viola Touch Me Not were the words uttered by Jesus Christ to Mary Magdalene when the latter visited His tomb before the sunrise of Easter Sunday. Deemed it appropriate because the novel contained delicate things nobody wanted to talk about or touch during his time. He trod where angels feared to tread by exposing the evils of the Church and the State, which were hazardous to touch. Read Page 139. Three people he wrote to after writing Noli Me Tangere and stated his reasons for writing it. To picture the past and the realities in the Philippines. To reply to the insults heaped on the Filipinos and their country. To unmask the hypocrisy that have improvised and brutalized the Filipino people.

Ninay Costumbres Filipinas (Philippine Customs) Ideas on Writing Noli Me Tangere

Writing of Noli Me Tangere (Touch Me Not)

Biblical Basis of Noli Me Tangere

Dedication of his novel Hidalgo Ferdinand Blumentritt Marcelo del Pilar Reasons

Plot of the novel Juan Crisostomo Ibarra

Elias

Maria Clara

Don Rafael Ibarra

Sisa

Capitan Tiago

To stir the patriotism of the Filipino people. Read pages 141-144 Characters Main character. Son of an affluent creole in San Diego. Represented the affluent and liberal European-educated Filipino. Civic-minded, liberty-minded and patriotic, he desired the education of the people. His plan of building a school, which was based on a German model, was opposed by Padre Damaso. Represented the Filipino masses. Did everything to vindicate them from the injustices suffered from the Spaniards. He extended help to Crisostomo in many occasions despite the suffering he had brought to his family. Believed that the redemption of the country will depend on the ilustrados. Like Ibarra, he is a mouthpiece of Rizals contradictory thoughts and purposes. A boat pilot who was saved by Ibarra during an excursion of the lake. Was shot by the Spaniards who thought he was Ibarra. Despite being shot, he reached the shore and helped Basilio prepare a funeral pyre for his mother. Died without seeing his country free. His family suffered numerous tragedies for more than three generations. He was pictured as a bandit or an outlaw. She was Leonor Rivera in Noli Object of Ibarras love and affection. Represented Filipino womanhood trained in a convent and immersed in education basically religious in orientation. Symbolizes the Filipino womanhood in their fidelity, coyness and modesty. Daughter of Capitan Tiago. Father of Juan Crisostomo Ibarra. Was jailed for the accidental death of a Spanish tax collector in his defense of a young boy being brutalized. He was incarcerated and detained in prison for alleged reasons till he died. Was considered a heretic and a filibustero by Padre Damaso. Symbolize an affluent landlord with a social conscience. Mother of Basilio and Crispin. Lost her mental balance after learning what had happened to Crispin and Basilio. Through her, Rizal illustrated lack of concern in facing and resolving problems confronting Filipino society and typical characteristics of Filipino mothers (fully cognizant of their sons and daughters and willing to defend them from all forms of injustice or accusations). Don Santiago de los Santos or Don Anastacio delos Santos He was based from Capitan Hilario Sunico of San Nicholas His wealth was derived from his involvement in illegal opium trade. He is the symbol of the cacique. He did not pray to God and used his money to solve all of his problems. He represents the subservient Filipino to the authorities to protect his personal and business interest. The father of Maria Clara.

Dona Victorina Basilio and Crispin Dona Pia Linares Filipino Society as Pictured in Noli:

Dona Patrocinio

Pilosopo Tasyo

School Master of San Diego

Padre Damaso

Padre Salvi

Inhibited Maria Clara from seeing Ibarra after he was excommunicated for hitting Padre Damaso. A social climber She is based from Dona Agustina Medel. Married Don Tiburcio de Espadana to support her claim of being a Spaniard. Despised anything Filipino and imitated anything Spanish. Symbolizes colonial mentality among some Filipinos during that time. Mistress of the Alferez Imprudent, vulgar, cruel and quarrelsome Symbolized the mentality of the Guardia Civil. Only competitor of Capitan Tiago in godliness. She did everything to pretend that she really religious by showing off to the public what she could contribute to the church. Represented Rizals epitome of philiosopher. Was perceived to be a sage of educated and a weird or lunatic by those who did not know him. Symbolized intellectual dissatisfaction in Filipino society during Rizals time. He dreamed of changing the methods of teaching to facilitate greater learning on the part of the pupils then. The parish priest of San Diego that denied Ibarras father a proper Christian burial and ordered his corpse exhumed from the cemetery where he was buried. Although the governor-general wanted him punished, he did not receive disciplined instead he was transferred to another pueblo by his superior Real father of Maria Clara He was based from a typical abusive typical friar during Rizals time. Friar who was in love with Maria Clara. He was based from Fr. Antonio Piernavieja of the Augustinian Order Organized a rebellion among the poor, discontented people of San Diego and those who were victimized by the Guardia Civil and told the Ibarra was the leader and financier. Chaplain of the nunnery of Santa Clara where Maria Clara told Padre Damaso her intentions of joining the convent. The sons of Sisa Based from the Crisostomo brothers of Hagonoy, Bulacan. Mother of Maria Clara. A young Spaniard chosen by Father Damaso to marry Maria Clara The government was administered by self-seekers by enriching themselves at the expense of the people. Honest and sincere official were quite few. Corruption became so rampant. Banditry became a way of life. Friars used the church to amass wealth and to perpetuate themselves into power and they controlled the government and opposed all progress. Rizal also criticized his fellow countrymen for their blind, religious fanaticism, corruption, passion for gambling, subservience of the wealthy Filipinos toward the friars and government officials and their ridiculous efforts to distance themselves from the common people. He also highlighted the virtues and good qualities of the Filipino people. o Modesty and devotion of the Filipino woman

Rizals Diagnosis of Filipino Society

Noli Me Tangere as a Charter of Filipino Nationalism

Number of works by Filipino writers from 1882 to 1896

Antonio Regidor

Archbishop Payo August 30,1887

Emilio Terreo

Permanent Commission on Censorship

The open-handed hospitality of the Filipino family The devotion of the parents to their children and children to their parents o The deep sense of gratitude of the Filipino peasants. Friars were the enemies of reform, progress and justice in the country. Three Reasons: o The agrarian problem in Calamba between the tenants and the Dominicans. o Influence of the Spanish anti-clericalism. o Rizals over-all assessment of the Philippine political situation in 1886 and in 1872. The friars were the real authority in different pueblos, they were the parish priest, tax collector, school inspector, superintendent of public works by forced labor, an intelligence officer and the president of all local boards. According to Jaena, the friar in each town can be described as a sword of Damocles hanging over the head of authority (town mayor) and said that the elected municipal officials served as blind instruments to the friars. Governor Simon de Anda o Emphasized in his report that only the parish priest rules the colony. It calls on the Filipino to: o Regain his self-confidence o Appreciate his self-worth o Return to the heritage of his ancestors o Assert himself as a co-equal of the Spaniards It outlines the reforms needed in Filipino society, which include: o Radical reforms in the armed forces, clergy, and the administration of justice o More respect for human dignity o Greater security for the individual o Less strength in the constabulary o Less privileges for organizations prone to abuses and corruptions. Ninay - by Paterno that was published in Madrid in 1885 La Soberania Monacal - by del Pilar Discursos y Articulos Varios - by Graciano Lopez Jaena that was published in Barcelona in 1889 and 1891. Impresiones - by Antonio Luna that was published in Madrid in 1893 Congratulated Rizal for his writing and publishing of Noli Me Tangere. A Filipino exile for his alleged complicity in the 1872 Uprising. He said, the book is superior and If Don Quixote has made its author immortal because he exposed to the world the suffering of Spain, your Noli Me Tangere will bring you equal glory Sent a copy of the book to the rector of UST for examination on August 18, 1887. When the report was submitted to the archbishop of Manila and was found heretical, impious and scandalous in its religious aspect; unpatriotic, subversive of public order and offensive to the government of Spain. The governor-general during those times, summoned Rizal to Malacanang Palace. Asked Rizal for a copy of his novel. He made no concrete action about the novel Asked by the archbishop so they can decide on the fate of the novel.

o o

Father Salvador Font

Senator Fernando Vida Deputy Luis M. de Pando Prime Minister Praxedes Mateo Sagasta Vincente Barrantes

First attack from the Philippines Fr. Salvador Font

An Augustinian that submitted a report on December 29, 1829, recommending the prohibition of the importation, reproduction and circulation of the books in the Philippines. Unjustly lambasted and criticized Rizal and his Noli in the two chambers of the Spanish Cortes in 1888 and 1889 in Madrid Fernando Vida o Described Rizal as a native, with a doctor of medicine degree from the University of Madrid, an intimate friend of Bismarck and have obtained a professional chair of medicine in a German University. A Spanish academician who spent many years in high posts of Philippine Administration. Attacked Rizal I the newspaper La Espana Moderna in 1889 as a man of contradiction whose criticisms of the friars and the Spanish Regime were actually an insult to the Filipinos themselves. An anonymous letter signed by a friar. Tried to prevent the circulation of the novel by publishing a few copies of his report. Consisted of four parts: o Attacks of the religion of the state o Attacks on the administration, the government employees and the courts o Attack on the Civil guards o Attacks on the territorial integrity of the Spanish Kingdom Attacked Noli by issuing a series of pamphlets under the title Cuestiones de Sumo Interes Judged the novel on a doctrinal level, when he said that it should not be read by devot Christians. Rizal reply to the attacks of Father Jose Rodriguez. A satirical pamphlet, where St, Augustine was made by Rizal to appear to Father Rodriguez while the latter was in deep slumber and scolded him for becoming a butt of all the jokes to all angels in heaven by his foolish articles. A satirical essay that Rizal made to reply to Father Fonts critique in Noli. He narrated a long-distance telephone conversation between Salvadorcito Tont, who was reprimanded by his superior for accepting a hacienda for the Augustinians, which compromised the Augustinian struggle against the vows of wealth, pride and lust, the Superior told him to return to Spain and never come back to the Philippines. One of those who defended Noli. He was Rizals teacher in rhetoric at Ateneo. Filipino priest that gave Noli the greatest defense. Translated into tagalong the famous Imitation of Christ. Writing under the pen name Desiderio Magalang Said that the book was a work of literature and should be judged that way and not on a doctrinal level. Wrote a pamphlet entitled Caiigat Cayo (Be Slippery as an Eel) in reponse to Fr. Rodriguezs pamphlet entitled Caiigat Cayo (Beware) Defended Rizal by stressing his Catholic orientation and the point that the Spanish nationals have to accept these criticisms.

Father Jose Rodriguez

La Vision del Fray Rodriguez

Por Telefono

Fr. Francisco Sanchez Father Vincente Garcia

Marcelo H. del Pilar Ferdinand Blumentritt

Chapter 12: The First Homecoming Maximo Viola Potsdam Accompanied Rizal in his trip to Europe. Where their trip to Europe began. A city near Berlin Where they saw the imposing mausoleum enclosing the statue of Federick the Great. Day they left Berlin by train bound to Dresden. City where Rizal visited Dr. Adolph B. Meyer. Visited botanical gardens for viewing and specific study. Impressed that they were able to maintain monuments and landmarks of aesthetic and historical significance. They met him while viewing the floral exposition. Rizal told him he planned to visit Leitmeritz, Czechoslovakia to meet Blumentritt. Where they arrived in May 13, 1887. Where Rizal finally met Blumentritt in person. Where Rizal and Viola stayed during their stay in Leitmeritz. Wife of Blumentritt Described Rizal as the greatest product of the Philippines, whose coming into this world can be likened to a comet, whose rare brilliance appears only every other century. Rizal was not only the most outstanding man of the Filipino people, but the greatest man the Malayan race has ever produced. Rizal gave him tagalong lessons. Two well-known doctors Rizal met during his time in Europe. Invited Rizal and Viola to a meeting of the Tourists Club of Leitmeritz with Blumentritt as secretary. Gift he gave to Blumentritt as a sign of friendship. Day they left Leitmeritz by train bound for Prague, the capital of Czechoslovakia. Where they visited: o Tomb of Nicolaus Copernicus, a famous polish astronomer. o Museum of Natural History o Bacteriological laboratories o Celebrated cave where San Juan Nepomuceno was jailed. History professor at the Univeristy of Prague, Blumentritt wrote to facilitate their visit into the different historic spots in Prague. They arrived via Brunn in May 20, 1887. Spent four days visiting beautiful buildings and examining holy images and statues, art galleries, museums, public parks and recreation centers. Where they took a boat in the Danube River. Rizal was amazed by the scenario and charmed by the lovely waltzes. He was most impressed were the archaic villages on the riversides which were serene and peaceful. Hotel where they stayed during their visit in Vienna. Where their voyage of the Danube River ended. The birthplace of Mozart and re-entered Germany upon arrival at Munich on May 27, 1887. Where they saw the horrible torture machines used during the Inquisition against the enemies of the Catholic Church. Known for having the largest and the tallest cathedral in Germany. Rizal rested twice until they reached the top.

May 11, 1887 Dresden

Dr. Jagor Leitmeritz Hotel Krebs Rosa Blumentritt

Dr. Czepelak and Dr. Klutschack Pencil Sketch May 17, 1887 Prague

Dr. Welkomm Vienna

Hotel Metropole Linz Salzburg Nuremberg Ulm

Rheinfall Schaffhausen Basel Bern Lausanne Geneva

Rizal Viola Italy

Germany and Blumentritt

Leitmeritz Reason for his desire to return to the Philippines

Paciano and his fellow expatriates Reasons why he was motivated to go home

Where they saw the Bin Waterfall, the most beautiful waterfall in the continent of Europe. Where they enter the Swiss broader from Rheinfall. Where they made brief stops. Lausanne = where they took a boat to Geneva, the most beautiful and frequented city of Switzerland. Where he received news from his friends in Madrid of the deplorable conditions of the primitive Igorots who exhibited in the Exposition on the Philippines. Igorots died and their weapons became objects of mockery and laughter by the Spanish press and the Spaniards. Rizal was infuriated and resented the degradation of his fellowmen from Northern Luzon. This protest was communicated by Rizal to Blumentritt on June 6, 1887. Spent afternoon boating in Leman Lake where Rizal demonstrated his skillfulness in rowing and steering a boat. Where he celebrated his 26th birthday Where he and Maximo Viola separated after spending 15 days together on the day June 23, 1887. Toured Italy Returned to Barcelona Visited Turin, Milan, Florence, and Rome. The city of Rome (the Eternal City), the state of the Vatican (the seat of authority of the Roman Catholic Church) and the capital of the Ancient Roman Empire were his favorite sites. Where he had the opportunity to see St. Peters Dome by Michaelangelo and Giacomo dela Porta and St. Peters Basilica. o St Peters Basilica = first known Christian Church dedicated during the time of Emperor Constantine. Impressed by the fine example of Renaissance architecture. While in Vatican, he attended the feast day of St. Peter and St. Paul. Amazed by the Coliseum and the Roman Forum. Where he prepared for his homecoming to the Philippines. The country he appreciated the most. Qualities he appreciated: Sober, earnest, industrious, progressive and prosperous. Germany was his link to Europe and Blumentritt was his link to Germany. Rizal was 25 and Blumentritt was 33. Blumentritt had written 250 essays and articles on Philippine ethnography. He became Rizals dearest confidente and most trusted counselor. Three factors that gave rise to Rizal and Blumentritts friendship: o Common Interests o Shared love for the Philippines and the Filipinos o Affinity of temperaments and affections. Where Rizal bid Europe goodbye. Financial difficulties at Calamba Dissatisfaction with his studies in Madrid Desire to prove that there was no fear going home. His belief that the Spanish Regime will not punish the innocent. Did not favor his decision because of the publication of Noli Me Tangere. To operate his mothers eyes Serve the people oppressed by the Spaniards.

July 3, 1887 Djemnah

Haiphong Isabelo de los Reyes Jesuits Father Faura

August 8, 1887 Rumors upon his return

Calamba

Doctor Uliman Governor General Terrero

Don Jose Taviel de Andrade Calamba Agrarian Problem

To find out for himself the effects of his novel to the Filipinos and Spaniards To find out the cause of Leonor Riveras silence. Rizal left Rome by train headed for Marseilles, France Same vessel that ferried him to the continent five years ago. Headed to the Orient via the Suez Canal. They stopped at Aden and continued till the vessel reached Saigon. Vessel he rode in Saigon, which reached Manila on August 5, 1887 where he stayed for three days. Rizal visited and called him twice, but was unable to find him. Tried to win back to the fold of his old faith during his visit in Ateneo. Showed him the Image of the Sacred Heart of Jesus he craved during his student days. Told him what was wrong with the Noli, but Rizal responded by saying that he wrote was the truth. Arrived in Calamba, where he found his family in the best of health. He was a German spy An agent of Bismarck A mason A soul halfway to damnation. Opened a medical clinic and started his profession. Where he gave lessons in gymnastics, fencing and shooting to discourage sabong and panggingue. He never fail to communicating to Blumentritt. He came to be called by the old folks of Calamba as he was mistaken for a German. Ordered him to go to Malacanang. Informed him that his novel had caused much pandemonium among the government and the clergy and that he wanted to have a copy of the novel to know if the novel was really subversive and inciting the people to rise up in arms against the government. Did not find anything wrong with it. Bodyguard assigned by Terrero to protect Rizal. Started when Terrero ordered an investigation of the friar estates in order to remendy the agrarian problems relating to land taxes and tenant relations. His exposure angered the friars and wanted him to be eliminated. The hacienda of the Dominican Order comprised not only the lands around Calamba, but the whole town of Calamba. The profits of the Dominican Order continually increased because of the arbitrary increase of the rentals paid by the tenants. The hacienda owner never contributed a single centavo for the celebration of the town fiesta, for the education of the children and for the improvement of argriculture. Tenants who spent much labor in clearing the lands were dispossessed of the said lands for flimsy reasons. High rates of interest were arbitrarily charged the tenants for delayed payment of rentals When rentals are not paid, the management takes the work animals, tools and farm implements of the tenants. His presence was endangering the safety and happiness of his family and friends He could be able to fight better his detractors and serve his country cause in a foreign land.

Rizals findings about the Agrarian problem

Two Reasons for leaving Calamba

Lt. General Valeriano Weyler Doroteo Cortes March Demonstration

Mariano Herbosa

A Profanation (Una Profanacion) Don Francisco Paciano Saturnina Narcisa Lucia Hymn al Trabajo Or Hymn to Labor

Replaced Terrero Approved the counter attack by the Dominicans, which was evicting all the tenants from the Dominican haciendas. Organized a public demonstration in Manila after the mass eviction by the Domincans. The tenants of the Dominican Hacienda presented a petition to Queen Regent asking for the expulsion of the friars from the Philippines. Everyone who participated was arrested. Husband of Lucia, Rizals sister. The Church refused to give him a Christian burial because he was married to Rizals sister. Died of Cholera Essay he wrote that attacked the denial of Christian burial to his brother in law who died of cholera. Were exiled after Rizal had left the country for the second time. Rizal witnessed the effect of the Noli and had caused me so much despair because his family was suffering because of what he did.

February 1888

A poem he wrote request by a friend from Lipa. A poem to commemorate the conversion of Lipa from a pueblo to a villa. Rizals way of commending mans labor and industry and extolling the countrys wealth and vigor. Labor plays a vital role in keeping up the dignity of man for it is work that sustains the man, the motherland, family and the home. Considered labor as the countrys blood, health and life. Left the Philippines. He was 27 years old, a medical practitioner and a recognized man of letters.

Chapter 13: From Calamba to Europe for the Second Time February 3, 1888 Zafiro February 8, 1888 February 16, 1888 Jose Maria Basa Balbino Mauricio And other exiles Barranda SS Oceania February 28, 1888 Day he left the Philippines for the second time. Steamer he rode when he left Manila for Hong Kong. Day he arrived in the British colony. Day he wrote to Blumentritt about what had happened to him Exiles he met in Hong Kong. Rizal was depressedby the colony of Filipinos in the island because they do not want to return to the Manila. One of the exiles Terreros secretary. Accompanied Rizal in his visit to Macao. Chinese New Year was noisy because of the firecrackers. Chinese theaters are usually animated due to the different percussion instruments used by the participants. Lauriat party shows lavishness and hospitality among the Chinese. Dominican Order, the richest religious order in Hong Kong, had millions of dollars deposited in various banks earning very high interests. Graveyards for Catholics, Protestants and Muslims were well maintained. Vessel he rode leaving Hong Kong in February 22, 1888. Day he arrived in Japan

Observation About Hong Kong

Japan

Kuruma O-Sei-San

April 28, 1888 Belgic May 4, 1888

San Francisco Palace Hotel Good Impressions

Negative Impressions he wrote to Mariano Ponce

City of Rome May 24, 1888 Adelphi Hotel Three Reasons for staying in London Dr. Antonio Ma. Regidor

Entered through Yokohama and stayed at Tokyo Hotel for a few days. Learned Nippongo, and dedicated himself to the study of Japanese art and culture. Favorable Impressions of Japan: o Scenic beauty of the country o Cleanliness, politeness and industry of the people. o Picturesque dress and simple charm of the Japanese women o Existence of few thieves in Japan. o Beggars rarely seen in the streets of the city. Popular mode of transportation in Japan during that time. He was disgusted seeing Japanese men pulling the kuruma or rickshaw like horses. Seiko Usui Rizal was charmed by her beauty. Learned from the gardener of the Spanish Legation, the she lives with her parents and usually passes the legation every afternoon. Rizal saw in her the ideals of womanhood: beauty, charm, intelligence and modesty. To her, Rizal was a man of versatile talents, a man of gallantry and a man of courtesy. Loved Rizal sincerely and Rizal responded by his sincere affection. They spent joyful and unforgettable days visiting temples, shrines and castles and even watched Kabuki plays. Cha-no-yu (tea ceremony) o A social tradition of the Japanese people signifying harmony, purity, tranquility and reverence Because of her Rizal was tempted to stay in Japan for good. Arrived in the United States English steamer he rode to the United States. He and the other passengers were not allowed to disembark because they were quarantined because the ship carried 600 Chinese and the elections were being held. Rizals entry point in the US. Where he stayed in San Francisco. The material progress of the country The drive and energy of the American people. The natural beauty of the land The high standard of living The opportunities for better life offered to poor immigrants. Non-existence of true civil liberty as a Negro cannot marry an American and vice versa. Existence of racial prejudice as shown in their hatred of the Chineses, Japanese and Negroes. The valuing of money over human life. Left New York for Liverpool on May 16, 1888 on board this vessel. Arrived in Liverpool. Where he stayed for the night before moving to London. To improve his knowledge of the English language. To study and annotate Morgas Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas To carry on his flight against Spanish tyranny safely. Where he stayed as a guest at his residence upon his arrival in London on May 25, 1888. A practicing lawyer in London and an exile of 1872.

Dr. Reinhold Rost

Good and Bad News from Home

Gertrude Beckett

Morgas Sucesos of Historical Events of the Philippine Islands Three Purposes for Rizals Annotation of the Sucesos

He lived as a boarder of the Beckett Family at No. 37 Chalcot Crescent Primrose Hill. The librarian of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Who recommended that Rizal be allowed to undertake research at the British Museum, where he was able to spend time reading Morgas Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas. Persecution of the Filipino patriots who signed the Anti-friar Petition of 1888 addressed to the Queen Regent requesting the expulsion of the friars including Archbishop Pedro Payo. Persecution of Calamba Tenants Exile of Manuel T. Hidalgo to Bohol, the husband of his sister Saturnina on the order of Weyler without due process. Arrest and Incarceration of Laureano Vida, a medical student of UST for finding copies of Noli in his residence. Rev. Vicente Garcias defense of the Noli against the attacks of the friars. Also known as Tottie and Sissie. Smaller than Rizal and chubby like Segundina Katigbak or Orang, but she was not beautiful. Two things that attracted her to Rizal: Propinquity and happy family. Published in Mexico in 1605 to provide European readers information about the Philippines. To awaken the consciousness of the Filipinos of their glorious or dignified ways of the past. To correct what has been distorted and falsified about the Philippines prior to Spanish conquest To prove that the Filipinos were civilized even before the coming of the Spaniards. Read historical material written by Pigafetta, Chirino and other Spanish chroniclers and historians. Went to the Bibliotheque National in Paris. Wrote the preface of the annotation Emphasized: o Spaniards have to correct their erroneous conception of the Filipinos as the children of limited intelligence o That Rizals comments on the Spanish government were unique as they were given from the point of view of the victims of colonialism. o The Spanish had three delusions about the Philippines. Filipinos were an inferior race. Filipinos were not ready for parliamentary representation and other reforms The denial of equal rights can be compensated by the strict dispensation of justice. o Spanish had to learn Philippine realities from Rizals new edition of Morgas Sucesos o That if the Spanish authorities will not listen to the Filipinos, the Philippines will be lost through their own fault. 8 Chapters o Chapter 1-7: events during the time of the first 11 governor-generals in the Philippines from Legazpi to Acuna. o Chapter 8: Focused on customs and usages of the Filipinos His notes were of three categories: o Anti-clerical

Researches

Blumentritt

Rizals Annotation

Three Main Propositions in Rizals New Edition of Morgas Sucesos

Asosciacion La Solidaridad

La Solidaridad Blumentritt Dr. Czepelak Other Writings in London

Aims of La Solidaridad

Los Agricultores Filipinos Bibliotheque Natioanale Juan Luna Paz Pedro de Tavera Marcelo H. del Pilar and Mariano Ponce

o Sociological o Historical He hoped with this he could equal Blumentritt. First history book of the Philippines written for the Filipino. That the people of the Philippines had a culture of their own before the coming of the Spaniards. Filipinos were decimated, demoralized, exploited and ruined by the Spanish colonization. The present state of the Philippines were not necessarily superior to its past. Created by the Filipino expatriates in Barcelona to establish a patriotic society that shall work for reforms from the Spanish government. Establish on December 31, 1881. Officers: o President: Galiciano Apacible o Vice President: Graciano Lopez-Jaena o Secretary: Manuel Sta. Maria o Treasurer: Mariano Ponce o Accountant: Jose Ma. Panganiban Rizal was unanimously chosen as the honorary president which implies that Rizal was already recognized as a leader of the Filipino colony in Barcelona. He was happy for the recognition and responded through a letter dated January 28, 1889. Rizal was informed about the founding of the organ of the Propaganda Movement by Graciano Lopez-Jaena in February 15, 1889 Organ of Philippine opinion. Where Rizal could express his innermost thoughts and feelings fearlessly. To work peacefully for political and social reforms. To portray the deplorable conditions of the Philippines for Spain to remedy them. To oppose the evil forces of the reaction and medievalism. To advocate liberal ideas and progress To champion the legitimate aspirations of the Filipinos people to life, democracy and happiness. Rizals first article published in La Solidaridad where he described the deplorable conditions in the country, which had brought about its backwardness. Library in Paris where he searched for historical materials and returned to London after intensive research. Acted as his host in Paris Was with Rizal and Luna during Rizals time in Paris. Rizal went to Madrid and Barcelona for a short visit on December 11, 1888. Rizal got acquainted with them with whom he vowed cooperation for the struggle for reforms. Returned to London on December 24, 1888 where he spent Christmas and New Year with the Beckett family. Rizal sent him a bust of Emperor Augustus as a gift for Christmas. Rizal sent him a bust of Julius Caesar as a gift for Christmas. La Vision del Fray Rodriguez o Essay he wrote in reply to the attacks made by Fr. Rodriguez on the Noli Me Tangere. o Where he demonstrate his profound knowledge of religion and his biting satire. Letter to the Young Women of Malolos

Leaving London

Written under the request of Marcelo H. Pilar to commend the young women of Malolos for their courage to establish a school, where they can learn Spanish despite the opposition Fr. Felipe Garcia, the parish priest of Malolos. Trubners Record o Dr. Rost inspired Rizal to contribute two articles to this journal devoted to the literature of the East. o Specimens of Tagal Folklore First article which is but a collection of 14 proverbs, 8 puzzles and 2 verses. o Two Eastern Fables Compared a Japanese with that o a Filipino fable. Left London for Paris on March 19, 1889. Some say he left London for Gertrude to forget him. He curved fine and realistic sculptural works before leaving o Prometheus Bound o Triumph of Death over Life o Triumph of Science over Death o Composite carving of the heads of the Beckett sisters.

Chapter 14: Rizals Legacy to Young Filipino Women December 12, 1888 Weyler Teodoro Sandiko Fr. Felipe Garcia A group of twenty women of Malolos petitioned for the permission to open a night school so they can study Spanish. Governor-general during that time. The women of Malolos wanted him to be the teacher of their night school. The parish priest of Malolos who objected resulting into the turning down of the petition by Weyler, but the young women courageously sustained their agitation for the establishment of the school. Alberta Ui Tangcoy Teresa Tontoco Natia Tontoco Merced Tiongson Agapita Tiongson Basilia Tiongson Paz Tiongson Feliciana Tiongson Eugenia Tangchangco Aurea Tangchangco Leoncia Reyes Olympia Reyes Maria de los Reyes They were granted permission to start a school under the condition that she will be their teacher. Praised the women and requested Rizal to write a letter commending them for their extraordinary courage. The rejection of the spiritual authority of the friars The defense of private judgment Qualities Filipino mothers need to possess Duties and responsibilities of a wife to her husband Counsel to young women on their choice of a lifetime partner

The Women of Malolos

Senorita Guadalupe Reyes Marcelo del Pilar Letter of Rizal focused on the Following Salient Points:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

Rizals Ultimate Desire for Women

Youth Responsibilities of Filipino Mothers to their Children

Qualities Mothers have to Possess

Rizals advice to married women

Rizals advice to Unmarried men and women Three things a woman must look for a man she is going to marry Rizals Reminders on Equality, Self-Respect and True Spirit of Religion

To afford Filipino women with the same opportunities enjoyed by men in education - an education that will liberate women. He emphasized the need for maintaining the independence of mind and reason with the attendant strengthening the will. He urged women to be vigilant over their rights and not be docile and passive in their attitude towards the many injustices forced upon them. A flower-bed that is to bear rich fruit and must accumulate wealth for its descendants Whatever the mother is, so would her son become. Mothers who can teach nothing else but kneeling and kissing the hand of the friars should expect children who are not only stupid but also exploited slaves. Their duties are: o To rise children close to the image of God. o To awaken and prepare the mind of the child for every good and desirable idea o To teach children to prefer death with honor to life with dishonor. Educate them with the following values: o Love for honor o Sincere and firm character o Clear mind o Clear conduct o Noble action o Love for ones fellowmen o Respect for God Has to be a noble wife Has to rear her children in the service of the state like Sparta mother. A wife has to set the standards of behavior for men around her. Three things a wife must instill in the mind of her husband: o Activity and industry o Noble behavior o Worthy sentiments Wife is the partner of her husbands heart and misfortune. Aid her husband Share the perils Refrain from causing him worry Sweeten his moments of affliction. Young men that in choosing their life partner, they should not consider physical beauty nor the sweetness of disposition of a woman but rather give priority to firmness of character and lofty ideas. Young women should not surrender their womanhood to a weak and timid heart. A noble and honored name A manly heart A high spirit incapable of being satisfied with engendering slaves. Tyranny of some is possible only through cowardice and negligence on the part of others. What makes one contemptible is lack of dignity and abject fear of one who holds one in contempt. Ignorance in servitude because as a man thinks so he is a man who does not think for himself and allows himself to be guided by the thought of another is like a beast led by a halter. He who loves his independence must first aid his fellowman because he who refuses protection to other will find himself without it.

Five Major Points of Rizals Letter to the Young Women of Malolos

If the Filipina will not change her mode of being, let her rear no more children, let her merely give birth to them. o She must cease to be the mistress of the home, otherwise she will unconsciously betray husband, child, native land and all. All men are born equal, naked without bonds. God did not create man to be a slave, nor did he endow him intelligence to have him hoodwinked or adorn him with reason to have him deceived by others. Consider well what kind of religion they are teaching you. o See whether it is the will of God or according to the teaching of Christ that the poor be succored and those who suffer alleviated. Filipino mothers should teach their children love of God, country and fellowmen. Filipino mothers should be glad and honored like Spartan mothers to offer their sons in defense of their country. Filipino women should know how to protect their dignity and honor. Filipino women should educate themselves aside from retaining their good racial values. Faith is not merely reciting prayers and wearing religious pictures. It is living the real Christian way with good morals and manners.