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Risk Factors: Genetic

• Hypercholesterolemia predisposit
• Men (>45 years old) ion
• Women (>55 years old)
• Cigarette smoking cell
• Alcoholism membrane
• Diabetes mellitus alteration
• Obesity
• Physical inability
• ↑ sodium intake*
functional
vasoconstri
\
• Hereditary* ction
Predisposing Factors:
• Hypertension* ↑
peripher
• CAD*
al

HPN
(↑ BP)

Vasoconstrictio
n of blood
vessels

Vasoconstricti ↑
on of coronary afterloa
arteries

Increase workloa
pressure of d
blood flow
↑ force of
Injury of the LV
endothelial contractio
vessel layer
(coronary
↑ stress on
the left
Vessel ventricular
damage ↑ cardiac
output
Left
Monocytes,
ventricular
platelets,cholesterol
Hypertroph
and other blood
LV
Ventricular Hypoxia
Scarrin
remodeling
g
↓ Brain
Atherosclerosis
perfusion:
dizziness, ↓ left
light ventricular
CA headedness,
D confusion,
anxiety, ↑ residual
restlessness blood of the LV
↓ cardiac . ↓Response at the time of
tissue to energy diastole
blood flow demands
causing ↑ LV
↓ cardiac easily pressure
muscle
contraction
↓ Cardiac blood

{ Output backflows
Activation of from LV to
baroreceptors in
the LV, aortic ↓ Systemic ↑ residual
blood blood of the
pressure LA during
Stimulation of diastole
vasomotor ↓ Perfusion of
regulatory tissues of the ↑ LA
centers in body pressure

Activation of ↓GFR ↓ blood returns to


sympathetic Renal pulmonary
nervous circulation
system Proteinu Reni
ria, Accumulation
↑ ↑ urea of blood in the
(8.0), ↓
catecolami crea formation pulmonary
nes of capillary bed
(epinephrin Angiotensi (Lung
s)
Angiotensin ACE
Hypothala
Sodium
ADH and Water Pulmonary
retention edema:
dyspnea, cough,
crackles, 2 pillow
↓ urine ↑osmo orthopnea
tic
pressu
↓ urine ↑osmo Pulmonary
tic edema:
pressu dyspnea, cough,
crackles, 2 pillow
orthopnea
HR

↑ pulmonary ↓O2
vascular saturation
resistance

↑ RV
contract

↑ force of
RV
contractio

↑ RV
oxygen RV
demand
↓ force of
RV
contractio

↑ residual
blood of the
RV at the
time of

↑ RV

blood
backflows
Peripheral from RV to
edema, liver
congestion, ↑ RA
ascites,
weakness,
weight gain due ↑ RA

↑ venous blood
↑ fluid moves
pressure backflows
into the
JVD from RA to
interstitial
(07/24/08)