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30K visualizzazioni13 pagineexperiment to find frequency of A.C. mains

Mar 14, 2009

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experiment to find frequency of A.C. mains

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

30K visualizzazioni

99 mi piace55 non mi piace

experiment to find frequency of A.C. mains

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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project

report

melde’s

e xp e ri m e n t

Mr. rohit verma group 27,b3

TYPES OF WAVE MOTION

The mechanical waves are of two types.

• Transverse wave motion

• Longitudinal wave motion

A transverse wave motion is that wave motion, in which individual

particles of the medium execute simple harmonic motion about their mean

position in a direction perpendicular to the direction of propagation of

wave motion.

For example-

example-

(i) Movement of string of a sitar or violin

(ii)

(ii) Movement of membrane of a tabla

(iii)

(iii) Movement of a kink on a rope

Waves set up on the surface of water are a combination of transverse

waves and longitudinal waves. Light waves and all other electro-

electro-magnetic

waves are also transverse waves. A transverse wave travels through a

medium in the form of crests and troughs.

normal position of rest of the particles of the medium, when a transverse

wave passes through it. The centre of crest is the position of maximum

displacement in the positive direction.

below the normal position of rest of the particles of the medium, when a

transverse wave passes through it. The centre of trough is the position of

maximum displacement in the negative direction.

direction.

is called wavelength of the wave. It is represented by λ

Thus AC = BD = λ

possess the following characteristics:

(i)Elasticity, so that particles can return to their mean position, after

having been disturbed.

(ii)Inertia, so that particles can store energy and overshoot their mean

position.

SOME TERMS CONNECTED WITH WAVE

MOTION

• Wavelength- Wavelength of a wave is the length of one wave. It

is equal to the distance travelled by the wave during the time; any one

particle of the medium completes one vibration about its mean

position. We may also define wavelength as the distance between

any two nearest particles of the medium, vibrating in the same phase.

As stated already transverse wave motion,

λ = distance between centers of two consecutive crests or

distance between centers of two consecutive troughs.

Also, wavelength can be taken as the distance in which one crest and one

trough are contained.

Similarly, in a longitudinal wave motion,

λ = distance between the centers of two consecutive

compressions or distance between two consecutive rarefactions.

Also, wavelength can be taken as the distance in which one

compression and one rarefaction are contained.

number of vibrations completed by particle in one second. As one

vibration is equivalent to one wavelength, therefore, we may define

frequency of a wave as the number of complete wavelengths

transversed

transversed by the wave in one second. It is represented by υ.

the time taken by the particle to complete one vibration about its

mean position. As one vibration is equivalent to one wavelength,

therefore, time period of a wave is equal to time taken by the wave to

travel a distance equal to one wavelength. It is represented by T.

RELATION BETWEEN υ AND T

By definition,

Time for completing v vibrations = 1 sec

Time for completing 1 vibration = 1/υ sec

i.e.

T = 1/υ or υ = 1/T or υT = 1

…………. (1)

FREQUENCY AND WAVELENGTH OF A WAVE

Suppose υ = frequency of a wave

T = time period of the wave

λ = wavelength of the wave

v = velocity of the wave.

By definition,

definition, velocity = distance/ time

v = s/t.................. (2)

In one complete

complete vibration of the particle, distance travelled, s =

λ and time taken, t = T

From (2), v = λ/T = λ X1/T 1/T

Using (1), we get

v=λυ

.......... (3)

(3)

the wave. This relation holds for transverse as well as longitudinal waves.

STANDING WAVES IN STRINGS AND

NORMAL MODES OF VIBRATION

When a string under tension is set into vibrations, transverse harmonic

waves propagate along its length. When the length of string is fixed,

reflected waves will also exist. The incident and reflected waves will

superimpose to produce transverse stationary

stationary waves in the string.

The string will vibrate in such a way that the clamped points of the

string are nodes and the point of plucking is the antinode.

ends x=0 and x=L. This wave gets reflected from the two fixed ends of the

string continuously and as a result of superimposition of these waves,

standing waves are formed on the string.

Let the wave pulse moving on the string from left to right be

represented by

y1 = r sin 2π (vt - x)

λ

Where the symbols have their usual meanings. Note that, here x is the

distance from the origin in the direction of the wave (from left to right).It

is often convenient to take the origin(x=0) at the interface (the site of

reflection), on the right fixed end of the string. In that case, sign of x is

reversed because it is measured from the interface in a direction opposite to

the

the incident wave. The equation of incident wave may, therefore, be

written as

λ

As there is a phase change of π radian on reflection at the fixed end of the

string, therefore, the reflected wave pulse travelling from right to left on

the string is represented by

y2 = r sin [2π (vt - x) + π ]

λ

= - r sin 2π (vt - x)............

x)............ (2)

(2)

λ

According to superposition principle, the resultant displacement y at time t

and position x is given by

y = y1 + y2

= r sin 2π (vt + x) - r sin 2π (vt - x)

λ λ

= r [sin 2π (vt + x) - sin 2π (vt - x)].......(3)

λ λ

Using the relation,

sin C - sin D = 2 cos C + D sin C - D

2 2

We get,

y = 2 r cos 2 π v t sin 2 π x

λ λ

………

……… (4) (4)

As the arguments of trignometrical functions involved in (4) do not have

the form (vt + x), therefore, it does not represent a moving harmonic wave.

Rather, it represents a new kind of waves called standing or stationary

waves.

From (4),

y = 2 r cos 2 π vt sin 2 π (0) = 0

λ λ

At other end of the string, where x = L

From (4),

y = 2 r cos 2 π vt sin 2 π L .......... (5)

λ λ

As the other end of the string is fixed,

∴ y = 0, at this end

sin 2 π L = 0 = sin n π,

λ

where n = 1,2,3..........

sin 2 π L = n π

λ

λ=2L

N

.............(6)

where n = 1,1, 2, 3.....

3..... correspond to 1st,

1st, 2nd, 3rd.....

3rd..... normal modes of

vibration of the string.

Suppose λ1 is the wavelength of standing waves set up on the string

corresponding to n = 1.

From (6), λ1 = 2 L

1

or L = λ1

2

The string vibrates as a whole in one segment, as shown in figure.

The frequency of vibration is given by

υ1 = v = v ………. (a)

λ1 2L

As v = √T/m

where T is the tension in the string and m is the mass per unit length of

the string.

∴ υ1 = 1 √T

2L m

fundamental mode. The

frequency of vibration of string in this mode is minimum and is called

fundamental frequency. The sound or note so produced is called fundamental

note or first harmonic.

EXPERIMENT

OBJECTIVE-

To determine the frequency of AC mains by Melde’s experiment.

APPARATUS-

• Electrically maintained tuning fork

• A stand with clamp and pulley

• A light weight pan

• A weight box

• Balance

• A battery with eliminator and connecting wires

THEORY-

A string can be set into vibrations by means of an electrically

maintained tuning fork, thereby producing stationary waves due to

reflection of waves at the pulley. The end of the pulley where it touches

the pulley and the position where it is fixed to the prong of tuning fork.

(i)For the transverse arrangement, the frequency is given by

n = 1 √T

2L m

where ‘L’ is the length of thread in fundamental modes of vibrations,

vibrations,

‘ T ’ is the tension applied to the thread and ‘m’ is the mass per unit

length of thread. If ‘p’ loops are formed in the length ‘L’ of the thread,

thread,

then

n = p √T

2L m

(ii)For the longitudinal arrangement, when ‘p’ loops are formed, the

frequency is given by

n = p √T

L m

PROCEDURE-

• Find the weight of pan P and arrange the apparatus as shown in

figure.

• Place a load of 4 To 5 gm in the pan attached to the end of the string

passing over the pulley.

pulley. Excite the tuning fork by switching on the

power supply.

• Adjust the position of the pulley so that the string is set into resonant

vibrations and well defined loops are obtained. If necessary, adjust

the tensions by adding weights in the pan slowly and gradually. For

finer adjustment, add milligram weight so that nodes are reduced to

points.

• Measure the length of say 4 loops formed in the middle part of the

string. If ‘L’ is the distance in which 4 loops are formed, then

distance between two consecutive nodes is L/4.

• Note down the weight placed in the pan and calculate the tension T.

Tension, T=

T= (wt.

(wt. in the pan + wt. of pan)

pan) g

• Repeat the experiment twine by changing the weight in the pan in

steps of one gram and

and altering the position of the pulley each time to

get well defined loops.

• Measure one meter length of the thread and find its mass to find the

value of m, the mass produced per unit length.

OBSERVATIONS AND

CALCULATIONS-

For longitudinal arrangement

loops thread each loop

20 4 152 38 36 45.5

30 4 143 35.75 46 54

40 3 130 43.3 56 49.3

Mean frequency=49.6 vib/sec

loops thread each loop

40 7 157 21.5 56 49.7

50 6 145 24.1 66 48.1

60 5 137 27.4 76 45.4

Mean frequency=47.7 vib/sec

Mass per meter of thread, m=……… kg

For transverse arrangement,

n = 1 √T

2L m

For longitudinal arrangement,

n = 1 √T

L m

Mean frequency, n=………… vib/sec.

PRECAUTIONS-

• The thread should be uniform and inextensible.

• Well defined loops should be obtained by adjusting the tension with

milligram weights.

• Frictions in the pulley should be least possible.

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