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Science Lesson: Raceway to Science (Motion, Forces, and Energy)

Prepared by: Andrew Knox Curriculum material sources: Title: Science Explorer: Motion, Forces, and Energy Author: Peter Kahan Publisher: Prentice Hall Unit Title: Earth Science Lesson Title: Layers of the Earth Grade Level: 5th Grade Lesson Objective: Demonstrate how distance and movement depends on the amount of force applied. Learning Goals to be addressed in the lesson from the Michigan Grade Level Content Expectations (GLCEs) and the related main ideas and practices within those learning goals. Physical Science GLCE P.FM.05.41 Explain the motion of an object relative to its point of reference. P.FM.05.42 Describe the motion of an object in terms of distance, time and direction, as the object moves, and in relationship to other objects.

Science Process GLCE S.IP.05.11 Generate scientic questions based on observations, investigations and research. S.IP.05.12 Design and conduct scientic investigations. S.IP.05.13 Use tools and equipment (spring scales, stop watches, meter sticks and tapes, models, hand lens) appropriate to scientic investigations. S.IP.05.15 Construct charts and graphs from data and observations

S.IA.05.13 Communicate and defend ndings of observations and investigations using evidence. S.IA.05.14 Draw conclusions from sets of data from multiple trials of a scientic investigation. Central Question for Your Lesson: What is the cause of an objecting moving a particular distance?

EPE Table addressing your learning goal embodied in your central question: Experiences Watch a video of forces and motion in action. Reference playing with toy cars or other toys that call for you to use force in order for you to play with them. Reference tangible objects around the class that may have a motion due to force (i.e. pencils, pens, crayons, etc.) Reference tangible objects in your daily life that may have a motion due to force (i.e. balls, cups, cars, etc.) Using different amounts of force to move a toy car a particular distance. Compare the different forces that can be applied to cause force. Application Patterns There are different types of forces that. Different distances are determined by the different forces applied. Distance traveled is smaller when less force is applied. Distance traveled is greater when more force is applied. There is no motion without force. Explanations When forces are applied to an object there is motion. The different amount of forces causes different motions.

Inquiry

Assessment
Task: In groups, students demonstrate what occurs when a force is applied to an object (using a toy car, unsharpened pencil, ruler, and a chart). Diagnostic Features: Which trial car moved the most distance? Which trial car moved the least distance? Why did the car move the farthest distance that it did? Why did the car move the least distance that it did?

Knowing Your Students 1. The importance of knowing your students:


As educators there are a few things we must account for when creating an effective lesson or educating our students in general. Of all the things we must take into consideration, past experiences and background knowledge of each student is probably the most important information we must consider when approaching how we will be teaching any lesson. Students learning experiences affect how they react to particular topics that are being taught. For example, a student may check out of class when the teacher begins to teach about the phases of the moon in science. They may have done poorly in the past with that particular subject, so it brought negativity to their learning. It is our job as teachers to access what our students need help with as we enter new material. One way to accomplish this is to see what your students think before you approach a new lesson. Now this does not have to be done with every lesson, just for lessons that may seem to be more difficult than others. This will enable you to find out about students resources for learning including funds of knowledge and ways of making sense of the world through a science talk or short conversation with a small group of children. This allows you to find what your students bring to the classroom along with what you will need to bring to the class yourself. In their science class, I spoke with the group of students I usually sit with to access their knowledge and it gave me the background information I needed for my lesson. 2. Commonly held ideas by students: I first wanted to make sense of the lesson I was trying to compose and then teach in the eyes of the students. I wanted to find out what some of my students already knew about the topic. I selected four students to probe to learn about their knowledge of the topic. I began by asking the students to define what both motion and force were. The mean answer was that motion was something that moves and force was something that causes something else to move. I then asked the students my central question which was What causes an object to move a particular

distance? The students responses varied. Two students said that forces cause an object to move a particular distance. Another student said that a particular amount of force causes an object to move a particular distance. The last student said that an object moves a certain distance based on the type of object it is. I asked the students to think about each others answers in relation to force and motion. They all came to the conclusion that everything said could be right. After discussing the students answers I placed a few objects on the table. The objects I placed were a pencil, a toy car, and a little bouncy ball. After having the students observe the objects, I then asked what the motion was for all of the objects. The consensus answer was that all the objected rolled. I then called for them to deliberate why the objects rolled. The students gave another consensus answer, believing that the object only could move if someone made them move. In other words, the objects would not move if a force was not applied. The students knowledge and experiences about the topic of force and motion was more advanced than I thought it would be, so I decided to take the activity to further heights. 3. Previous Experiences and Banks of Knowledge: I began to ask the students questions that related to their real life experiences. I wanted to know if the students really understood concepts. I felt there was no other way to find out but to access their cultural experiences. The first thing I asked each student was to give me an example of a force and motion interaction they experienced sometime after they left school the previous days. The students thought for about five minutes. Two students were able to give me answers while two were stuck trying to think of examples. One student said that he believed his mothers truck involved motion and force. He could not explain it but he did know that it was quite similar to the toy car which also rolled. He came to the conclusion that it was there was some type of force that caused the motion of the car. The other students answer was much simpler. As he said his answered aloud, he stated, Motion is just the moving of an object and force is what you do to make that object move. I probably experienced this just closing the refrigerator door because the door moves when I move it. I told him that was a great analysis. I then turned to the other students who could not come up with an answer the first time. I asked them could they think of a force and motion interaction after hearing the other students examples. They both were then able to give logical examples of objects moving due to a force being applied. We then came up with a list of things that we do daily that were interactions between force and motion. The list included playing the sports baseball, basketball and football, vacuuming or sweeping the floor, and even brushing your hair or teeth. The students really had good concrete knowledge about forces and motion which they learned from a previous grade. I felt confident that I could conduct the lesson with no problems at all, especially since I would not have to alter the lesson to tend to any special needs students because there are not any present in this class. 4. Linguistic, social and academic challenges, resources and supports: There are not special needs students in my field classroom. There are ways to modify the lesson to accommodate the different needs. If there were ELL students present, they could be group together to conduct the experiment. The visual aid in the form of the video clip could really help ELL students to understand the topic critically. The experiment itself may also provide the hands-on experiences that ELL students need for their learning style. The lesson is also geared to those students who struggle in large group settings. The smaller groups help

students who are afraid to participate in the larger groups which often hinder their overall learning. Smaller groups allow students to be a bit more comfortable in the learning environment. The experiment is also basic for those who are slow to understand directions or to critically think. Since the students would be conducting the experiment I wanted to create a lesson that was basic enough for all students to easily understand. In general, I attempted to create my lesson to reach all learning styles. For the most part I believe that my lesson can aid in teaching all of the learning styles.

Total time for lesson: 40 Minutes Materials Needed: Teacher Materials Forces and Motion video clip Timer Student Materials Toy Cars Raceway Sheet Data Trials Chart Ruler/Meter Stick Unsharpened Pencil

Lesson Plan Procedures


Learning Goals: P.FM.05.41 Explain the motion of an object relative to its point of reference. P.FM.05.42 Describe the motion of an object in terms of distance, time and direction, as the object moves, and in relationship to other objects. S.IP.05.11 Generate scientic questions based on observations, investigations and research. S.IP.05.12 Design and conduct scientic investigations. S.IP.05.13 Use tools and equipment (spring scales, stop watches, meter sticks and tapes, models, hand lens) appropriate to scientic investigations. S.IP.05.15 Construct charts and graphs from data and observations S.IA.05.13 Communicate and defend ndings of observations and investigations using evidence. S.IA.05.14 Draw conclusions from sets of data from multiple trials of a scientic investigation. Objective: Demonstrate how distance and movement depends on the amount of force applied. Academic, social & linguistic resources and support The teacher will group students so that those with behavioral problems are in groups with supportive classmates. The students will learn the benefits of working in a group setting.

Activity Element and Time Activity 1: Introduction to Forces and Motion (5 minutes)

Procedures and Management The teacher will split the students into groups of 4. The teacher will introduce the lesson and the lessons objectives. The teacher will have the students discuss what they know about forces and motion in their respective groups. The teacher will walk around the classroom to ensure the groups are discussing the topic.

Students At this time students will be attentively paying attention to the teacher as the lesson for today is explained. Students move into groups. Students are to discuss what they already know about the forces and motion. Students will report their discussion to the class.

Students

will

learn

the

The teacher will ask leading questions to lead students to critically think about the subject matter. The teacher will have the students report what they discussed in their smaller groups back to the larger group.

Students are anticipated to ask questions. Students are anticipated to critically think. Students are anticipated to recall prior knowledge and add to what the teacher has presented to them.

importance of exploring each others ideas. Students will learn the importance of critically thinking and offering their opinion. Group work allows ELL students to get help from and connect to their peers. Group work allows ELL students to be a part of a smaller group rather than a larger class; they will be a primary focus. The teacher will use examples and models from history to build on and access prior knowledge Students will learn that others ideas can be beneficial to them.

Transition 1: (2 minutes)

The teacher will connect students ideas about forces and motion, keying on all the similar comments of the group. The teacher will show a video clip of how various objects respond when different forces are applied. What do you occur when force is applied? What do you see occur

Activity 2: Introduction to Forces and Motion (10 minutes)

Students are anticipated to further their critical thinking based on the connections made with other groups. Students are expected to be excited to watch the video clip. Students are expected to be

The video will support those students who are visual learners. The teacher will activate

when more force is applied? What do you think force is? What does force cause? The teacher defines force and motion. The teacher will explain the interaction that occurs between forces and motion. The teacher will give a real life example of the interaction of forces and motion. The teacher will ask the students for other examples of force and motion interactions that occur in the students daily lives. The teachers will hand out the materials (toy car, raceway sheet, unsharpened pencil, ruler, and trials chart) for the science experiment at each groups table. The teacher will require that the students do not touch the materials until they are told to do so.

critically thinking about the video clip as they watch. Students are expected to be taking notes as the teacher explains the details of forces and motions. Students are expected to recall daily events that involve force and motion.

students prior knowledge by giving real life examples of forces and motions. The students can connect the lesson to their life outside of school.

Transition 2: (1 minutes)

Students are expected to patiently wait for the teachers instructions. Students are expected not to touch the materials for the upcoming science experiment.

Students ability to follow important direction will be assessed.

Activity 3: Conduction of the Science Experiment Raceway to Science (10 minutes)

The teacher will introduce the science experiment, explaining the objective of the experiment being to demonstrate how distance and movement depends on the amount of force applied. The teacher will write the experiment procedures on the board and give a thorough explanation of them. The teacher will give the procedures to the experiment as follows: 1. Groups will conduct four different trials as seen on the Trials Chart. Each Trial will occur from a different distance on the Raceway Sheet. 2. Place the race car on the sheet so the back end lines up as indicated on the sheet. 3. Using the unsharpened pencil, place the pencil on the Trial 1 line and push through to the stop line behind the car shown on the raceway sheet, therefore pushing the car forward.

Students are expected to pay close attention to the directions the teacher is giving. Students are anticipated to be excited about conducting and experiment.

The students will learn the benefits of working in a group setting. Students will learn the importance of exploring each others ideas. Visual directions will assist ELL learners. Group work allows ELL students to get help from and connect to their peers. Group work allows ELL students to be a part of a smaller group rather than a larger class; they will be a primary focus. Experiments allow students to learn science through inquiry. This activity will support tactile learners who can better demonstrate their knowledge through creating a model. The teacher will use examples and models from real life to build on and access prior

Students are expected to work positively in their respective groups. Students are expected to carry out the experiment as the procedures ask. Students are expected to observe the activity with detail. Students are expected to record all the details of their experiment in the chart they were given. Students are anticipated to have fun while doing the experiments.

4. Measure the distance the car traveled from the stop line to the back of the car and record on the Trial chart by the label Trial 1. 5. Repeat steps 1-4 for Trials 2-4 from the lines marked for each specific trial. Record the data in Trial Chart. The teacher will ask if the students understand what they are supposed to do. The teacher will then give the students permission to begin the experiment. The teacher will facilitate the experiment around the classroom to ensure the students are doing the experiment correctly.

Students are expected to cooperate and assist each other with the experiment. Each student will get the chance to have a part in the experiment.

knowledge. Students will learn the importance of working and cooperating in a group setting.

Transition 3: (2 minutes)

The teacher will collect all the materials used during the experiment.

Students are to assist the teacher with the collection of the materials.

Students ability to get back on the educational track after a fun experiment will be assessed. This will be used when considering experiments

in the future. Activity 4: Reflection of the Experiment (5 minutes) The teacher will bring the group back together as one. The teacher will collect the data from each group. The teacher will represent each groups data on the board by trials. The teacher will ask the students to compare contrast the data for all of the different trials. The teacher will probe students to make them critically think about the data.

Students will report their collected the data to the teacher aloud. Students will reflect on and discuss what they observed as a class. Students are expected to critically think about the similarities and differences of the data. Students are expected to ask questions about concepts they do not understand.

Students will demonstrate the knowledge gained while conducting the experiment. Students who do demonstrate their knowledge may receive extra assistance from the teacher by relaying that they do not understand some concepts. Students will learn to build connections between different thought processes. Students will understand the importance of small and large group discussions when it comes to their learning.

Conclusion: (5 minutes)

The teacher will explain the concepts of forces and motion one more time. The teacher will give the students the assessment that was created for the lesson.

Students are expected to answer the assessment questions with a great deal of accuracy.