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UNITED STATES PACIFIC FLEET


AND PACIFIC OCEAN AREAS

25' 30' 35' 55' I52O"


FIELD SURVEY

40' TRUK

ULALU.S

of JAPANESE DEFENSES on
10"
.

DUBLONIS PARAM IS. i / TARIK IS / .FEFAN


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MESEGON IS

TRUK
PART ONE-THE REPORT
C I N C P A C - C I N C P O A
BULLETIN NO. 3 4 6
15 M A R C H 1946

5" KUOP ATOLL

70' KEY MAP


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HEADQUARTERS,
FLEET MARINE FORCE, PACIFIC
C/O FLEET POST OFFICE, SAN FRANCISCO.
1 March, 1946
Officer in Charge, Japanese Defense Study Group.
The Commander in Chief, Pacific Fleet and Pacific Ocean Areas,
The Commanding General, Fleet Marine Force, Pacific,
TRUK, transmittal of Japanese defense study of.
(a) (b) (c) CinCPOA dispatch 162329 of November, 1945.
CinCPOA - - dispatch 220315 of November, 1945.
CinCPOA dispatch 270316 of November, 1945,

NAME WEINTRAUB, Daniel J. GUTHRIE, James T. HELANDER, Melvin ZIRKELBACH, Harry W. NAME POPE, Albert L. CLARK, John A. HURLBUT, Franklin C. EVANS, William A.

RANK Captain, USN Lt.. USC & GS Lt (jg), USNR Ensign, USNR

ORGANIZATION PHIBSPAC PHIBSPAC INTERPRON 2 MEIU 4

REPRESENTINq
PHIBSPAC
PHIBSPAC
COMMARIANAS
MEIU 4
REPRESENTING
FMF,PAC
JICPOA
COMMARIANAS
COMMARIANAS

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Confidential From To Via : : :

(4) Signal Communications.


ORGANIZATION RANK Captain, USMC Lt (Jg), USNR Ensign, USNR Rad. Elec. Hdqts, FMF PAC JICPOA COMMARIANAS NOB, GUAM

Subject: References:

1* Upon completing its survey of CHICHI JIMA the Japanese Defense


Study Group proceeded to TRUK on board the USS Castle Rock (AVP 35) in accordance
with references (a), (b), and (c). The Group was organized as set forth below
to carry out its mission of reporting on the Japanese defenses on TRUK, Avail able intelligence material was studied enroute.
2. The Study Group was organized as follows:
(a) Supervisory group.
NAME DAVIS, Leonard L. MARSHALL, St.Julien R. REEVE, Parker M. WEINTRAUB, Daniel J. PETERS, James M. RIDGE, Thomas L. MEDINNIS, Charles L. P. POPE, Albert L. PORTH, Alfred M. Assembly and Publication RANK Brig. Gen.,USA Colonel, USMC Colonel, USA Captain, USN Commander, USN Lt.Col., USMC Lt.Col., USA Captain, USMC 1st Lt., USMCR of Report.
ORGANIZATION 2273d AAC (Hawaii) Hdqts, FMF,PAC Oahu Engr. Ser. PHIBSPAC COMAIRPAC 3rd MarDiv Oahu Ord. Ser. Hdqts, FMF,PAC Hdqts, FMF,PAC REPRESENTING
AFMIDPAC
FMF,PAC
AFMIDPAC
PHIBSPAC
COMAIRPAC
FMF,PAC
AFMIDPAC
FMF,PAC
FMF,PAC

(5) Strategic and Tactical Subjects;(History; Order of Battle;


Panoramic-Photographic Terrain Study; Tactical Dispositions;
Infantry Weapons Dispositions; Medical and Sanitary Condi tions).
NAME GOWER, Elmer B. MALLON, James R. SHEEHAN, Richard G. NAME PETERS, James M. RANK Major, USA Captain, USMCR Ensign, USNR (6) Aviation,
RANK Commander, USN ORGANIZATION Hdqts, AFMIDPAC 3rd MarDiv JICPOA ORGANIZATION COMAIRPAC REPRESENTING
AFMIDPAC
FMF,PAC
JICPOA
REPRESENTING
COMAIRPAC

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3. The Study Group arrived at TRUK on 13 December, 1945 and commenced


a study of the Japanese defenses Immediately. The desired data was collected by
23 December, 1945 and the Study Group departed.

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ST. JUKEEN R. MARE
Cblonel, USMC
HEADQUARTERS
FLEET MARINE FORCE, PACIFIC
C/O FLEET POST OFFICE, SAN FRANCISCO.
Confidential 2 March, 1946.
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(b) For the purpose of collecting information and preparation of


the final report the Study Group was divided into sections with the senior officer
in charge of each section,
(l) Engineer. (Fortifications, Installations, Roads, Rail roads, Bridges, Explosives, Demolitions)
NAME REEVE, Parker M, JAMES, David E. JAEDTKE, Gilbert H, HIROKI, Howard K. NAHLIK, Sylvester R. RANK Colonel, USA Captain, USA Lt (jg), USNR 2nd Lt., USA Carpenter, USNR ORGANIZATION REPRESENTING

Oahu Engr, Ser. AFMIDPAC


2805th Engr.Gen.Sr.Bn. AFMIDPAC
5th Naval Cons. Brig. COMMARIANAS
Hdqts, MIDPAC AFMIDPAC
5th Naval Cons. Brig. COMMARIANAS
From To : :

1st Endorsement on ltr fr OinC, Japanese


Defense Study Group to CINCPAC-CINCPOA,
dtd 1 March, 1946.
The Commanding General,
The Commander in Chief, Pacific Fleet and Pacific Ocean Areas.
TRUK, transmittal of Japanese defense study of.
Forwarded,

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(2) Artillery and Ordnance. (CD,AA, and DP Guns: Tanks, and


Vehicles)
NAME MEDINNIS, Charles L. P. DORR, William R. HARRISON, Edward P. MENDENHALL, George E. WYCOFF, DeWltt D. RANK Lt.Col. Lt.Col. Lt.Col. Lt (Jg) 2nd Lt.
USA USMC USA USNR USMCR

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ORGANIZATION
Oahu Ord. S e r . H d q t e , FMF,PAC Oahu Ord. S e r . JICPOA 3 r d MarDiv

REPRESENTING
AFMIDPAC
FMF,PAC
AFMIDPAC
JICPOA FMF,PAC

Subject:
1.

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ROY S. GEIGER

(3) Beaches and Hydrography; Naval Vessels and Installations.

L C " . G ..1LD AT 3 YEfcR INTERVALS;


Lu^.^rtcSlHED ASTfcR 12 YEABS.
D O D DIB 5200.10

UNITED STATES PACIFIC FLEET AND PACIFIC OCEAN AREAS HEADQUARTERS OF THE COMMANDER IN CHIEF TLR/Jrf CONFIDENTIAL

NAVY

20 2

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15 March 1946 - Serial ADM-150802 From:
00

2 2 2
Commander in Chief, U. S. Pacific Fleet and Pacific Ocean Areas* Distribution List. CINCPAC-CINCPOA Bulletin No. 3-46, JAPANESE DEFENSES ON TRUK ATOLL, CAROLINE ISLANDS. (A) Subject Bulletin.

2 2 5 5 2 2 2 2 2 5 5 2 5 2 2 2 2 2

To: Subject: Enclosure:

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1. Subject report, forwarded herewith, need not be reported and when no longer of value should be destroyed. No report of destruction is necessary.

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L. E. PETERSEN, By direction. DISTRIBUTION LIST Copies 10 10 5 14 2 2 4 2 2 5 2 2 2 10 5 2 2 2 2 10 2 2 2 2 2 2 ARMY ComGenAAF War Dept For: AC/AS Intelligence ComGenAGF Army War College Wash D C ComGenASF War Dept Chief MIS War Dept ChiefofEngrs War Dept ChiefofOrd War Dept ChiefSigOff War Dept Incl: Arlington Hall Station Arlington Va ChiefChemicalWarfare War Dept SurgeonGeneral War Dept ComdtCom&StaffSch Ft Leavenworth Kan ComdtFASch Ft Sill Ofcla COOrdBDCAberdeenProvingGround Aberdeen Md ComdtlnfantrySchool Ft Benning Ga SCAP ClnCAFPAC APO 500 ComGenPACUSA APO 925 ComGenUSAFIK APO 235 ComGenUSAFCTO APO 879 NY ComGenEIGHT APO 343 ComGenMIDPAC APO 958 The EngrMIDPAC APO 958 C030thEngrBaseTopoBn APO 957 C064thEngrTopoBn APO 246 CO AGF APO 246 CO AGF APO' 247 ComGenWesPacBasCom APO 244

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BuAir BuMed BuOrd BuShlps BuDocke The Hydrographer Navy Dept ComdtANSCol Wash D C ComdtNavWarCollege Newport R I ComPhlbTraPac FPO San Diego Calif COTCPac FPO San Diego Calif CONavResLab Bellevue D C USNLO RadiationResearchLabMIT Cambridge Mass USNLORadloLabHarvardU Cambridge Mass USNLOOSRD Wash D C CINCPAC ComAirPac ComBatCruPac ComDe sPac CominPac ComServPac ComPhibsPac AdComPhlb sPac Com5thFleet Com7thFleet OinCSUPRADPAC ComNavJap Chief NavTecJap SNO USSBS PhotoIntelCenter Anacostia D C COInterpronONE COInterpronTWO DivPacDivBuDocks Navy 128 (PH) ComMarJ anas MARINE CORPS

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE
GEOGRAPHY SUMMARY A SHORT HISTORY OF THE MILITARY DEVELOPMENT OF TRUK JAPANESE ORDER OF BATTLE, TRUK ISLANDS PANORAMIC PHOTOGRAPHIC TERRAIN STUDY ARTILLERY AND "ORDNANCE Sources of Information Development of the Defenses Equipment Available Artillery Tactical Control Artillery Fire Control Artillery - General Remarks Artillery Positions On Barrier Reef Islands Description of Individual Batteries Maintenance and Repair Facilities Total Quantities of Fire Control Items Total Quantities of Vehicles Total Quantities of Weapons and Ammunition ENGINEERING Military Engineering Engineer and Construction Troops Organization of the Ground Fortifications Obstacle Construction Types Searchlights Mines, Mine Warfare, Booby Traps, Explosives and Demolitions Camouflage Chemical Warfare Field Utilities General Construction Roads, Trails, and Railroads Wharves and Docks Bridges and Causeways Installations Underground Installations in General Fixed or Permanent Utilities SIGNAL COMMUNICATIONS General Navy Communications Radio Radio Countermeasures Radio Intelligence Radio Direction Finding Wire Radar Summary Power Equipment VIsual Pigeons Codes and Ciphers Air-Ground Communications Meteorlogical Stations Supply and Repair

PAGE NO
1
6
8
9
12
22
22
22
22
22
22
23
23
23
34
36
38
38
46
46
46
46 48
52 58 58 58 58 62 63 67
67
67
70
82
82
86
86
86
86
92
92
92
92
94
98
100
100 100
100 100
100 100

TITLE
Army Communications
Radio
Radio Countermeasures
Radio Intelligence
Radio Direction Finders
Wire; Telephone
Radar
Power Equipment
Visual
Pigeons
Codes and Ciphers
Air-Ground Communications
Meteorlogical Stations
Supply and Repair
NAVAL ACTIVITIES
General
Mine Warfare
Defense of the North and South Passes
Details on Minefields in TRUK Atoll
Obstacles
Vessels
Navy Ships and Boats
Naval Communications
Hydrographic Information
Conditions of the Sinking of Submarine 1-169
The Attack on TRUK by the British Task Force
BEACHES General Beach No. Beach No. Beach No. Beach No. Beach No. Beach No. Beach No. Beach No. Beach No. Beach No. Beach No. Beach No. Beach No. Beach No. AVIATION
General
Construction of Air Facilities
Disposition of Aircraft
Destruction of Japanese Air Power at TRUK MEDICAL & SANITARY CONDITIONS
Introduction General Medical Sanitary Conditions
APPENDIX I
APPENDIX II
APPENDIX III

PAGE NO.

101
101
103
103
103
103
103
103
103
103
103
103
103
103
107
107
116
118
123
124
125
125
126
126
127
127
128

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
9
3 . 0
11
12
13
14

129
129
129
130
131
131
132
133
133
134
134
136
136
137
137
138
138
138
138
139
143
143
143
143
144
145

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF FIGURES IN PART ONE


FIGURE NO.
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.LIST OF ENCLOSURES
TITLE
TRUK ATOLL
CAROLINE - MARIANAS AREA
PANORAMIC PHOTOGRAPHIC STATIONS
ARTILLERY & SEARCHLIGHT POSITIONS (TOL)
ARTILLERY & SEARCHLIGHT POSITIONS (FEFAN)
ARTILLERY & SEARCHLIGHT POSITIONS (UDOT & EOT)
ARTILLERY & SEARCHLIGHT POSITIONS (UMAN)
ARTILLERY & SEARCHLIGHT POSITIONS (DUBLON & ETEN)
ARTILLERY & SEARCHLIGHT POSITIONS (PARAM)
ARTILLERY & SEARCHLIGHT POSITIONS (MOEN)
15 CM GUN POSITION (N. TOL)
155 MM COAST DEFENSE BATTERY (UMAN)
14 CM GUN BATTERY (S. UMAN)
ANTI-AIRCRAFT BATTERY EMPLACEMENT (FEFAN)
ARMY DIVISIONAL COMMAND POST (DUBLON)
3D INFANTRY BATTALION COMMAND POST, 69TH REGT.,(DUBLON)
MT. UBAN, 341ST BATTALION COMMAND POST (FEFAN)
NAVAL BATTLE COMMAND POST CAVES (DUBLON)
ANTI-TANK OBSTACLE
GAS PROOF SHELTER (DUBLON)
LOCATION OF PIERS (TRUK ATOLL)
DUBLON ISLAND SUBMARINE BASE
4TH ShIP REPAIR DEPT. (DUBLON)
4TH COMMUNICATION UNIT TRANSMITTING STATION
NANKO DOCK OR CHARE AREA
FUEL OIL TANK FARM & OIL SUPPLY PIERS
DUBLON ISLAND SEAPLANE BASE
SUPPLY WAREHOUSE AREA
COMMUNICATION UNIT RECEIVING STATION
4TH NAVAL HOSPITAL (DUBLON)
104TH AIR FORCE ARSENAL
AIRFIELD NO. 1 (MOEN)
AIRFIELD NO. 2 4 SEAPLANE BASE
ETEN ISLAND AIRFIELD AND FACILITIES
PARAM AIRFIELD
UMAN ISLAND RADIO STATION
DUBLON ISLAND WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
MOEN ISLAND WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
POWER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM (DUBLON)
POWER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM (MOEN)
PACIFIC AREA RADIO SYSTEM (NAVY)
COMMUNICATIONS: SUBMARINE CABLE, BURIED CABLE,
AND AERIAL CABLE
NAVY TELEPHONE SYSTEM (DUBLON)
RADAR COVERAGE DIAGRAM
PACIFIC AREA RADIO SYSTEM (ARMY)
ARMY TELEPHONE SYSTEM (DUBLON)
DEFENSIVE COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM (DUBLON)
MATSUSHIMA BRANCH (4TH REPAIR DEPT.)
IMPROVISED TORPEDO BOAT
ANTI-TORPEDO NET FOR BATTLESHIPS
1 MAN TORPEDO ATTACK BASE
1 MAN TORPEDO (SIDE VIEW)
MINEFIELDS, SUNKEN SHIPS AND BUOY OBSTACLES (TRUK)
TYPICAL SMALL MINE LOCATIONS
TYPE 2 - UNDERWATER MAGNETIC DETECTOR
DIAGRAM OF INTERIOR OF GUARD STATION (UMAN)
SUSPENDED TYPE MODEL 1 HYDROPHONE (UMAN)
DIAGRAM OF CONTROLLED TYPE 92 MINES IN NORTH PASS
BUOYS USED TO OBSTRUCT SMALL CRAFT (DUBLON)
STEEL RAIL UNDERWATER OBSTACLES AND COCONUT LOG OBSTACLES
LOCATION, OF LANDING BEACHES (TRUK ATOLL)
PROFILE OF BEACH NO. 1 (DUBLON)
PROFILE OF BEACH NO. 2 (DUBLON)
PROFILE OF BEACH NO. 3 (DUBLON)
PROFILE OF BEACH NO. 4 (DUBLON)
PROFILE OF BEACH NO. 5 4 6 (ETEN)
PROFILE OF BEACH NO. 7 (MOEN)
PROFILE OF BEACH NO. 8 (MOEN)
PROFILE OF BEACH NO, 9 (MOEN)
PROFILE OF BEACH NO. 10 MOEN)
PROFILE OF BEACH NO. 12 ;FALA-BEGUETS)
PROFILE OF BEACH NO. 13 ,ULALU)
PAGE NO,
4
5
12
42
43 43 43 44 45 45 53 53 54 54 55
55
56
56
56
59
65
65 66
68
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68
72
73
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80
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91
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114
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122
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128
129
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133
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137
137

PART TWO

m
(A) ENEMY DEFENSIVE INSTALLATIONS, TROOF DISPOSITIONS, AND FACILITIES, DUBLON
ISLAND, SCALE 1:12,500, CONFIDENTIAL.
(B) ENEMY DEFENSIVE INSTALLATIONS, TROOP DISPOSITIONS, AND FACILITIES, MOEN
ISLAND, SCALE 1:25,000, CONFIDENTIAL.
(C) ENEMY DEFENSIVE INSTALLATIONS, TROOP DISPOSITIONS, AND FACILITIES, FEFAN
ISLAND, SCALE 1:25,000, CONFIDENTIAL.
(D) ENEMY DEFENSIVE INSTALLATIONS, TROOP DISPOSITIONS, AND FACILITIES, PARAM,
UDOT AND EOT ISLANDS, SCALES 1:12,500 AND 1:25,000, CONFIDENTIAL.
(E) ENEMY DEFENSIVE INSTALLATIONS, TROOP DISPOSITIONS, AND FACILITIES, ETEN
AND UMAN ISLANDS, SCALE 1:12,500, CONFIDENTIAL.
(F) ENEMY DEFENSIVE INSTALLATIONS, TROOP DISPOSITIONS, AND FACILITIES, NORTH
TOL ISLAND, SCALE 1:25,000, CONFIDENTIAL.
(G) ENEMY DEFENSIVE INSTALLATIONS, TROOP DISPOSITIONS, AND FACILITIES, WEST
TOL AND SOUTH TOL, SCALE 1:25,000, CONFIDENTIAL.
(H) ENEMY DEFENSIVE INSTALLATIONS, TROOP DISPOSITIONS, AND FACILITIES, TRUK
BARRIER REEF, SCALE 1:250,000 CONFIDENTIAL.
(I) LOCATION OF GROUND PHOTOGRAPHS, TRUK ATOLL, SCALE 1:96,585, CONFIDENTIAL.
(J) H. 0. CHART 6046, REPRINTED.

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1
2
3
4
5
6
7 8 9 10 11
12
13
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15
16
17
18
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20
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24
25
26A
26B
27
28
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33
34
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36
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40
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42
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COMMENT

ON T.HE NUMBERING

OF

PHOTOGRAPHS

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Individual photographs, the first of which appears on page 20, are sequentially
numbered to facilitate reference thereto in the written body of the report.
Immediately f 01 lowing th'e sequential number is the "PM" number in par.ent he s is ,
i.e., Picture No. 1 (PM 572), which indicates the basic number of a picture in
APPENDIX III /Ground Photographic Reference Data) and on the map ent it led
"LOCATION OF GROUND PHOTOGRAPHS" in PART TWO. This procedure was adopted in
order to maintain a cross-reference between the 451 photographs appear ing in
this publicat i on and the total of 5 7 5 photographs that were taken and are listed
in APPENDIX III and on the map entitled "LOCATION OF GROUND PHOTOGRAPHS" in
PART TWO. It should be noted that the photographs contained in the panoramic
strips have no sequential numbers since the individual photographs contained-
therein are" not referred to in the written body of the raPort. Aerial Photo-
graphs are given separate numbers, i.e.. Air. Photo No. 1, and appear only in
the sections entitled "BEACHES" and "AVIATION"See APPENDIX III for the lo-
cation of all photographic negat ives in the event copies of phot ographs are
desired.

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JAPANESE DEFENSES ON TRUK ATOLL, CAROLINE ISLANDS. CINCPAC-CINCPOA BULLETIN 3-46, 15 MARCH 1946.

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JAPANESE DEFENSES ON TRUK ATOLL, CAROLINE ISLANDS. CINCPAC-CINCPOA BULLETIN 3-46, 15 MARCH 1946.

GEOGRAPHY

135*

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TRUK ATOLL, Name on C h a r t

Equivalent English-Japanese p l a c e names. J a p a n e s e Name


TORAKKU SHOTO HARU SHIMA NATSU SHIMA AKI SHIMA FUYU JIMA TAKE JIMA GETSUYO TO MAE SHIMA KAYO TO SUIYO TO MOKUYO TO KINYO TO KOYO TO NICHIYO TO KUNTO SHOTO HOSHI SHIMA USU SHIMA KAEIDE SHIMA OTA SHIMA MASU SHIMA U J I SHIMA HANA SHIMA SARA SHIMA UMA SHIMA KITA SHIMA MINAMI SHIMA NE SHIMA A I O I JIMA U JIMA KITA SUIDO NOKUTO SUIDO SARSHIMA SUIDO HANASHIMA SUIDO OTASHIMA SUIDO MINAMI SUIDO N I S H I SUIDO

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OENIWETOK ULITHI * YAP NGULU PALAU -UJELANG NAM<J)NUTO HALL FARAULEP ULUL* E.FAYU SOROL W.FAYU-PIKELOT OLIMAfAO .?OROLUK LAMOTREK.Pi JLAP *:*TRUK WOLEAI .UWAT ELATO PU 4P0NA = > E IFALIK LOSAP MOKIL PULUSUK "PINGELAP NAMOL UK NGATIK oKUSAlE NOMOI NUKUORO GAFERUT

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FIGURE N0.2-CAR0LINE-MARIANAS
1 1 1

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1 1 1

TRUK ATOLL ( I s l a n d s ) MOEN DUBLON FEFAN UMAN ETEN UDOT EOT FALA-BEGUETS TOL PATA (NW p a r t TOL) POLLE (SW p a r t TOL) ONAMUE ULALU KUOP ATOLL . . . . TARIK TSIS PARAM OTTA I . MESAGON I . . . . . UIJEC I* FANAN I . SALAT I . MOR I . PIS I . FALEU I . TONELIK I . OLLAN I . NORTHEAST I , NORTH P a s s - NORTHEAST P a s s SALAT P a s s ULIGAR P a s s OTTA P a s s SOUTH P a s s . . . . PIAANU P a s s

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GEOGRAPHY.
Approximate distances (nautical miles) from TRUK Atoll (ETEN Ancnorage) to:
TRUK Atoll consists of a group of about 84 coral and basaltic islands, A bar rier reef, roughly circular in shape encloses the larger islands in a lagoon about
30 miles in diameter. Six major islands lie within the lagoon. They are DUBLON,
TOL, MOEN, FEFAN, UDOT and UMAN.
The greatest elevation is MT. TUMUITAL, 1,422' high, on the southeast corner
of TOL, Other conspicuous mountains are MT. TOLOMAN on the southwest of DUBLON,
MT. TEROKEN, in the west central area of MOEN and the four summits that extend down
the center of FEFAN. Sand beaches are rare on the large islands, but a few small
beaches are found.
Altogether within the lagoon there are 14 volcanic, basaltic islands and 25
small coral islands. The small islands are surrounded by fringing reefs, and oc casional mangrove growth, but in general have sandy beaches and a low sandy in terior covered with palm trees.
The large islands are fringed by wide reef and mangrove swamps with steeply
rising hills and mountains Just beyond the mangroves. The result is that the
amount of useful land area at TRUK is far less than appears at first glance. Jap anese development fringes the shorelines, considerable areas of the mangroves on
DUBLON and MOEN having been filled for construction purposes. The fill is taken
from the sides of the hills resulting in still steeper hills and cliffs. This is
especially noticeable along the south side of DUBLON, where a cliff rises Just be yond the road.
On the great atoll reef there are almost 50 islets, small and widely separat ed. In the southeast section, there is a group of sand islands which roughly com pare in size and characteristics with islands of the MARSHALL and GILBERT area.
NOMOI PONAPE WOLEAI GUAM SAIPAN KAVIENG RABAUL WEWAK LORENGAU WEATHER.
TRUK lies in the hot, rainy belt of the equatorial Pacific. Temperature aver-
ages 80 with little deviation during the year. Rainfall averages nearly 130" a year. TRUK has a fairly well defined seasonal change from 7" in the driest month (January) to 13" in the rainy summer months. The dry season lasts from January to March and although this period has less precipitation than the summer, rainfall is
still considerable with average amounts of 7 H or 8" and with squalls and overcast
skies not infrequent. The rainy season lasts from June to October.
From December to May the northeast trade blows almost constantly with an aver age velocity of 15 knots, occasionally exceeding 30 knots. During May and June the
northeast trades decrease in frequency and intensity with Increasing winds from
east-southeast. From July to November winds are light and variable with frequent
calms and blowing mostly from directions between east and south. The winds usually
fall off at night and increase again during the morning.

165 370 480 565 590 800 695 820 640

NAURU MARCUS PALAU (KOROR) WAKE TOKYO MOMOTE Airfield ENIWETOK KWAJALEIN HENDERSON Field

1005 1020 1035 1095 1842 635 660 955 1120

PORT MORESBY MAJURO TARAWA (BETIO) ESPIRITU SANTO FUNAFUTI MIDWAY SUVA (VITI LEVU) PEARL HARBOR

1050
1160
1305
1650
1875
2170
2220
3075

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SUMMARY

HISTORY.
On 2 September, 1945, the surrender of all Japanese controlled islands under
the TRUK headquarters was accepted. Prior to November, 1940, TRUK was used chiefly
as an anchorage for the 4th Fleet (organized November, 1939) Little effort was
made to garrison the establishment before January, 1944. At TRUK in June, 1945,
there were 24,061 Navy personnel and 14,299 Army personnel.
The Japanese were engaged in continuous offensive accion from December, 1941,
t ' o February, 1944. After the American task force raid at the latter date, the main
force of the Japanese fleet left TRUK and the naval base was, thereafter, to stand
alone. After the loss of the MARIANAS in June-July, 1944, reinforcement of TRUK
became impossible.
" * * The almost complete isolation of TRUK necessitated the adoption of a defensive
organization to repel any invasion by American forces. The Japanese Army and Navy
exercised a joint command and TRUK was divided into five defense districts. Where
possible, installations were concentrated on the main Islands and in most cases lo cated in caves or bomb-proof structures. In June, 1945, the Japanese reached the
height of their defensive power.
The TRUK garrison lacked adequate quantities of planes, artillery, ammunition
and construction materials, but in spit of this they stated that they were satis fied with their overall situation. They apparently felt their lack of equipment
could be countered by the "Bushldo" spirit.
DEFENSE PLAN,
The Japanese defense plan of TRUK called for a strong defense of MOEN, DUBLON,
FEFAN and UMAN, with units for observation and delaying actions stationed on the
other islands within the lagoon and on the barrier reef. Observations revealed .that
the distribution of men and materiel was carried out in accordance with this plan.
However, the skill with which the organization of the ground and construction work
was carried out depended solely on the ability of individual commanding officers;
apparently the high command allowed considerable latitude for the initiative of
all subordinate echelons.
The guiding principle in defense was to annihilate assaulting forces at the beach. This was virtually dictated by the relatively small land masses involved.
Plans were drawn up to provide for mutual support among the islands by means of
amphibious reserves, and it was highly probable that unless all defending forces
had been pinned down by simultaneous assaults at each island, an assault force
might have found itself under attack on the flank or rear by Japanese troops ar riving by landing craft from nearby islands. Special emphasis was placed on
training in night maneuvers for counter-attack, including the use of landing
craft and tanks, in order to eliminate or contain any airborne attackers who might
land within the defense lines.
A superficial Inspection of the positions and dispositions throughout TRUK
leads to the conclusion that the Japanese had not entirely abandoned the idea of
retaining mobility in order to go underground. It is probable, however, that this
was because they had too little equipment, material and supplies, too few people,
and too little time to complete their underground installations before the end of
hostilities.
ARTILLERY AND ORDNANCE.
TRUK was protected by numerous but relatively light artillery pieces. The
inventory lists 101 Army guns (75 to 105mm.) in 86 battery positions; 85 naval wea pons (75 to 200mm.) in 36 battery positions; and 302 automatic weapons (13 to 25mm.).
Ammunition in varying quantities was on hand for each type of weapon.
Following our air raids of February, 1944, the defensive plan was changed.
Heavy artillery was withdrawn from reef positions and relocated on the principal
inner islands; except for AAA and a few other batteries, most artillery was em-
placed in caves or in cut and cover type emplacements. This program had been cur tailed by lack of time and materials. Only two batteries could fire effectively
beyond the reef. Most of the heavy artillery was for minefield and inshore defense.
General tactical control of artillery was exercised at 4th Fleet and 31st
Army Command Posts on DUBLON, but in the final defense plan each island commander
controlled his own units. Artillery on the various islands was capable of mutual
support.
Modern fire control devices were almost non-existent. There were only four
AAA directors, few range or height finders and no fire control radar. AAA not
equipped otherwise used an improvised forward area sight. Seacoast artillery re lied on registration markers and buoys at known ranges. There were 20 search lights controlled by various gun battery commanders with little central supervision
from the Navy CP on DUBLON.
Ammunition storage was in the battery position cave or in a nearby revetment,
and ready boxes were generally Installed at gun positions.
Intrabattery tactical communication was primarily by telephone supplemented
by buzzer and speaking tube systems. Interbattery communication was principally
by telephone and radio supplemented by runners and carrier pigeons.
Maintenance and repair facilities, until the bombing of 30 April, 1944, were
capable of making very extensive repairs including 5th echelon at the Naval Air force Construction Department and Garrison shops. The bombing reduced these fac ilities to roughly 10 to 20 percent of their former effectiveness.
ENGINEERING.
The Japanese on TRUK, as elsewhere, were trying to conduct a major war with
inadequate military materiel. To this fundamental error they added an unbalanced
sense of proportion which gave all-out backing to naval projects regardless of
their, strategical or tactical value. For example, age old necessities such as
roads were neglected, while heavy weapons were moved over seemingly impassable
terrain into caves.
Organization of the ground, fortifications, and workmanship were generally
excellent, though often lack of attention to routine details such as ventilation,
drainage and personnel safety was apparent. The over-all accomplishment of the
Japanese was but fair in all sorts of fortifications including obstacles, mine
warfare, explosives and demolitions. Camouflage in the tropical terrain was ex-
cellent to superior, though it would be interesting to time the gun crew going
into action against a land target where there were a dozen sturdy banana stalks in
the field of fire of th*ir piece less than 61 from the muzzle.
In offensive chemical warfare the Japanese could do nothing but lay down a
few small smoke screens. Defensively they were only fairly well prepared with
gas masks, collective protectors and properly designed ventilation. Their last-
ditch Installations were located at elevations where it would be very difficult to
achieve lethal concentrations of gafe, and to deliver flame.
Roads, trails and bridges were poor to fair in construction. Traffic circu lation was Inadequate due to poor drainage, narrow widths and ungraded road metal.
The roads oarrying the least traffic were the best and appeared to be the oldest,
indicating that whatever merit the roads did have was of prewar vintage and not a
characteristic of wartime construction.
Utilities, including water supply, power and light, fire fighting, and preven tion, sanitation and refuse disposal were inadequate. Engineer supply was very poor
both in respect to materials furnished and facilities for their receipt, storage
and issue.
Engineer ana construction troops were inadequate in all three essentials:
staff, trained manpower and equipment. The engineers and "pioneers" lacked the
tools and equipment that should have differentiated them from other combat troops.
The naval construction forces were more numerous and better equipped than the eng ineers or "pioneers" but were too few for the Navy's needs alone.
NAVAL ACTIVITIES.
When the primary mission of TRUK changed to the defense, naval units impro vised weapons, such as the one-man controlled torpedo, and the torpedo-carrying
landing craft. The mine-fields in the passes and inside the reef, and small model
beach mines had previously been the main protection against invasion.
Naval shore establishments were never extensive without drydocking facilities
for large ships and with few repair facilities. Larger ships were refueled from
tankers in the harbor, or by oil barges from an oil pier on DUBLON.

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SUMMARY

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BEACHES,
Suitable sites for landing ships were rare. All the large islands lay inside
the barrier reef and are fringed by wide reefs and mangrove swamps, backed by steep
hills and mountains. Sand beaches were rarely found on the larger islands and those
existing were usually inaccessible to landing ships due to reefs. Dispersal areas
on the whole were restricted by swampy, hilly, or wooded ground, and movement of
vehicular traffic was difficult.
Th smaller islands were also surrounded by fringing reefs and occasional man grove gv- vth, but generally had sandy beaches and a low, sandy, wooded interior.
Attempts were made to approach possible beaches in a Japanese landing craft
"DAIHATSU", but normally the craft grounded on passing over the fringing reef.
Average depth of water- over the reef was 2.5 feet.
SIGNAL COMMUNICATIONS. TRUK was primarily a naval installation and as such the major part of the signal communications was operated and controlled by the Navy. Army communications were limited to tactical use in the atoll inner defense.
Long range and internal administrative communications operated efficiently,
but control of subordinate units during tactical operations was not evident in the
existing signal plan.
The communication equipment was, in general, of fairly good construction and reasonably efficient, although the general design was somewhat out of date. No moisture proofing or fungus-proofing was apparent in any of the equipment, and the
Japanese claimed considerable failures due to moisture.
TRUK had fairly good search radar protection, but the equipment was out of date
No fire control or searchlight control radars were installed, and the search radars
could give little more than the general direction of targets.
The isolation of TRUK since June-July, 1944, had caused shortages of most com munication supplies. However, the Navy system could have operated for several
months with little loss of efficiency and considerably longer without being ser iously hampered. Their main shortages were, battery acid, dry batteries and radio
spare parts, (especially tubes).
Army communications were hardest hit by isolation because they depended extensively on supplies furnished by the Navy. The Navy 1 s shortage of materials and
the lack of close cooperation between the services further aggravated the sit-
uation. Since most of the Army radio equipment was small portable sets employing
dry batteries, and all of their telephones were local-battery, their most acute
shortage was dry batteries. They were also short of spare parts and radio tubes.
The Army communication system was not capable of efficient operation at the end
of hostilities.
Our bombing and shelling of TRUK had destroyed or damaged most of the instal lations above ground with the exception of the radars, which were practically un damaged. Virtually all Important installations had been moved underground prior
to our attacks, so little serious damage to the overall efficiency of the system
resulted.
AVIATION.
TRUK was originally a major staging base to the SOLOMONS, RABAUL, the MARSH ALLS and GILBERTS and was well defended by air, but in the carrier strikes of Feb ruary and April, 1944, such damage was done that the base never recovered. Each
raid destroyed nearly all aircraft on hand at the time, and all air facilities
were severely damaged and much material destroyed. Plans for expanding air facilities were given up since they were hard pressed in repairing what was left. After
the capture of the MARIANAS, American planes methodically destroyed practically all
facilities above ground, and the Japanese found it difficult to keep even runways
operational.
Finally nothing operated from TRUK but a few planes for reconnaissance of ULITHI and the MARIANAS, and the base could have been nothing but a staging point
even if aircraft had been available.
MEDICAL.
The Army and Navy at TRUK maintained separate medical facilities. Each had a ' base hospital on DUBLON with branch hospitals on the larger islands, and sickbays
or dispensaries located near military activities scattered throughout the islands.
Supplies were, in general, adequate; X-ray film and carbasone was available
in limited quantities. There were sufficient medical officers and corpsmen, but
the hospitals were dirty, crowded and unsanitary by American standards.
The most prevalent diseases were malnutrition, beri-beri, tuberculosis, amoe bic dysentery, paratyphoid A, ,and WEIL 1 s disease; dengue was sporadic, occasionally
reaching epidemic heights. No malaria, typhus or cholera were evident.
Sanitation control was noted by its absence. There was little central supervision of sewage and waste disposal, fly and rat control, individual water supply,
or prevention of spread of intestinal diseases.

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A SHORT HISTORY OF THE MILITARY DEVELOPMENT OF TRUK ATOLL

On 28 August, 1945, a message was dropped by plane on one of the main islands
of the TRUK Atoll and was followed at 0700, 30 August, 1945, by the arrival of the
USS STACK (DD) and USS OSMUS (DE). The STACK carried Brig. Oen. L. D. HERMLE, USMC,
and a party of 12 officers which informed Rear Admiral SUMIKAWA, Chief of Staff of
the 4th Fleet, and five other Japanese officers of the requirements preliminary to
surrender. This party also handed the Japanese a copy of the Articles of Surrender
which were to be signed at a later date.

TRUK was divided into five defense districtsMOEN, DUBLON, FEFAN, UMAN, and
the Western defense district with Headquarters on TOL Island. The Japanese placed
the stress on the first four of these which were known as the "Season Islands".
The Navy was to take charge of surface and air defense, the stress in the case of
the former being placed on the area inside the atoll. By agreement between the
31st Army and the 4th Fleet, the senior officer on each island was named as the
over-all commander.
DEFENSE DISTRICTS DUBLON (ETEN) MOEN (FALO) UMAN FEFAN PARAM Western(Hq.on S.TOL) S.TOL N.TOL W.TOL UDOT ARMY COMMANDERS
Col.Tameichi SHIBANO
Col.Keizo HAYASHIDA
Maj.Kyuichi KONDO
Maj.Hldeakl MORI
MaJ.Eiji SHIBATA
Maj.Gen.Kanenobu IJUIN
Maj.Jisaku YOSHIDA
Capt.Shigekl MORI
MaJ.Jofuku SAKAMOTO
Capt.Kaneori FUKUTOME
NAVY COMMANDERS
Rear Admiral Hiroshi KOJIMA
Capt. Yoshimitsu IMAZATO
Rear Admiral Tomotaro MIURA
Capt. Furuya YOSHIRO
Capt. Furuya YOSHIRO
Rear Admiral Hiroshi KOZIMA

Aboard the USS PORTLAND on 2 September, 1945, Vice Admiral George D. MURRAY,
USN, Commander MARIANAS, accepted the surrender of all Japanese controlled islands
under the TRUK Headquarters from Lt. G-en. Shunzaburo MUG-IKURA, Vice Admiral
Chuichi HARA, and Mr. AIHIRA, a representative of the South Seas Government sta tioned at TRUK.
Lt. Gen. MUGIKURA, who had assumed command of the 52nd Division in November,
1941, was ranking officer and was appointed commander of the 31st Army on 20 Jan uary, 1945, Vice Admiral Chuichi HARA, Commander-in-Chief of the 4th Fleet, came
to TRUK on 23 February, 1944. The headquarters of the 31st Army and the 4th Fleet
were both on DUBLON.
According to Japanese sources little effort was made to garrison TRUK before
January, 1944, and at the height of its power in June, 1945, the Japanese Navy had
24,061 men and the Army 14,299 men stationed there. The Army and Navy forces were
based as follows:
PERSONNEL Army Navy DUBLON 3,242 4,485 ETEN MOEN 2,962 578 FEFAN 2,914 2,572 PARAM 365 827 UMAN 873 1,417 UDOT 748 1,025

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3 ,150
6 ,220

The Army units on TRUKthe 52nd Division, the 9th Independent Engineer Reg iment and the 51st Independent Mixed Brigadehad the mission of defending TRUK
against the Anglo-American forces by joint action with the 4th Fleet and air forces.
They emphasized the following: anti-tank warfare, well-mined waters and beach ob stacles, strong and persistent delaying actions, strong positions among rocky
cliffs, and steps to make TRUK self-sufficient in food.
The Japanese did not place great reliance on airplanes because of the great
attrition rate and the impossibility of getting more from JAPAN after their com munication lines were cut off. Their plan was to use those planes which were al ready on TRUK until such time as enemy attacks should make it more feasible to
remove them, in which case they would be based at PONAPE, NAMOI and ENDERBY.
In July, 1944, the mounted guns on some of the small islets of the reefs were
removed to the main islands inside the atoll for the following reasons: (1), to
place the batteries in caves, rather than in the open so as to gain more protec tion from bombardment and bomblngj (2), to lay stress on the attack of ships which
might manage to get inside the atoll, and to gain mutual support between batteries;
(3), to protect the main islands as long as possible.
Wire was strung between buoys on the surface at W.MOEN and N.DUBLON. This was
done in front of possible landing points and the aim was to forestall any landing
attempt.
The Japanese expected no great help from their anti-aircraft guns as they were
all short of ammunition. After the loss of the MARIANAS in June and July, 1944,
reinforcement of TRUK became impossible, save by submarine, and the garrison went
on short rations.
The Army and Navy exercised a Joint Commandand the Japanese stated that there
was no serious difference of opinion between the Army and the Navy or between in dividualsbut when land action started, the Supreme Commander was to be Lt. Gen.
MUGIKURA.
In addition to the 9,895 natives scattered over the larger islands there were 793 natives of NAURU, brought to TRUK by the Japanese; 1,590 civilians; 6 Germans; 7 Spaniards; and 1 Swede. They were forbidden to any defense installation. The natives were impressed into semi-slavery used mostly for roadwork.
of TRUK,
Japanese
approach
and were

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The remainder was scattered throughout the lesser islands-


The 4th Fleet Headquarters was established at TRUK on 10 November, 1943. The
31st Army Headquarters was organized on 20 January, 1945. The establishment or
arrival of other Naval and Army units was as follows:
NAVAL UNITS 4th Office of Admin.
and Supply. 4th Munitions Dept. 4th Construction Dept. 41st Naval Guard Force 43rd Naval Guard Force 47th Naval Guard Force
48th Naval Guard Force 49th Naval Guard Force 4th Harbor Department 104th Naval Air Depot 4th Naval Hospital 17th Air Corps DATE
15Dec40
15Dec40
Dec40
Nov40
Dec44
ARMY UNITS
52nd Dlv. Hq.
69th Inf. Regt.
Signal Unit
Field Hospital
Tank Unit
Transportation Unit
Ordnance Serv. Unit
Intendance Serv. Unit
150th Inf. Regt.
9th Ind. Eng. Regt.
2nd & 8th Det.reorg. as
51st 1MB.
11th Ind. Mixed Regt.
DATE
4Jan44
4Jan44
4Jan44
4Jan44
18Feb44
18Feb44
18Feb44
18Feb44
18Feb44
16Apr44
after
16Apr44
18Sep44

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25Aug41
May42
21Aug42
Dec41

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The 17th Naval Air Corps and various other units, which arrived from 1942 to
1944 when the Japanese air arm was virtually inoperative, were combined to form
the EAST CAROLINE Air Unit.
Prior to 15 November, 1940, (the date of the organization of the 4th Defense
Unit on DUBLON) TRUK was used chiefly as an anchorage for the 4th Fleet which had
been organized in November, 1939. The 4th Defense Unit was originally a part of
the 5th Base Unit having headquarters on SAIPAN, and lt had about 850 personnel.
However, in November, 1942, the Defense Unit became the 41st Naval Guard Force,
and was still in existence at the end of the war.
After December, 1941, there was a period of continuous offensive action and
TRUK was used principally as a fleet basethe fleet being engaged in attacks in
the SOLOMONS and MARSHALLS areas. As the advance of the Americans in the SOLO MONS became more and more successful, TRUK was used as a staging area for airplanes
which were to be transshipped into a more active area. After the American task force
raid of 17-18 February, 1944, the main force of the Japanese fleet left TRUK. There after, TRUK was to stand alone.

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The following information on the natives and the history of the Japanese
military activity on TRUK was gathered from an interview with a priest who came to
TRUK in 1927. Some of his statements do not agree with those made by the Japan ese.
The missionaires came to TRUK in 1911 and were followed by the Spanish mis sionaries in 1920. During the war there were about a dozen missionaries scattered
throughout the TRUK Islands and six sisters lived on FEFAN. These sisters, how ever, left in September, 1942, and were thought by the priest to have gone to PO NAPE, followed by two of the brothers.

A SHORT HISTORY (CON'T)

JAPANESE ORDER OF BATTLE

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The priest stated that when he first came to TRUK the only Japanese present
were civilians. The Navy started fortifications in 1931 and 1932 and the Army in
the latter part of 1942 and 1943 by which time, the priest estimated about 10,000
had arrived. By 1940, the natives and missionaries were made to stop all com munication with the outer world.
According to the priest, the first island on which the Japanese concentrated
their attention was ETEN. They told the natives that they were merely fixing up
the islands for fishing purposes. Then followed in turn, DUBLON, FEFAN, and UMAN.
MOEN was one of the last Islands to receive the attention of the.Japanese, but
according to the priest, when the Japanese did get around to MOEN, they made rapid
progress.
The lighthouse on the east tip of MOEN was erected in 1937, the priest said,
and the airfields were built in 1939. It was in 1940 that the main force of the
Japanese Navy came to TRUK, and the Army arrived in 1943.
Coincident with the expansion of the military installations at TRUK, in 1940
the Japanese stopped all communication between the missionaries and their homes.
Henceforth, TRUK"was to be isolated. Until 1940, the missionaries had been free
to go from island to Island as they pleased. About the latter part of 1940, how ever, they were restricted to one island.
Japan's successive reverses in the Pacific, i.e., TARAWA, KWAJALEIN, SAIPAN,
GUAM, etc., resulted in an emphasis being placed on AT warfare at TRUK. Strong
and persistent delaying actions were to be the order of the day, Instead of the
previous tactics of counter-attacking enemy beachheads. Another lesson driven
home by the previous defeats was the necessity for constructing strong positions
among rocky cliffs in order to be able to withstand artillery bombardments. Be cause of the severance of supply lineo (with the loss of SAIPAN) steps were taken
to make TRUK self-sufficient. To this end, all land was put under cultivation, and
sweet potatoes became the food staple.
The Army at TRUK felt that it could repel an American attack for a very long
period, assuming that ten American divisions were brought against it. The Navy
was not so optimistic, feeling that three months would be the time during which it
could hold out. All resolved to die in their places in order to inflict as many
casualties upon the enemy and gain as much time as possible. It does not appear
that the Japanese ever felt that they could permanently hold TRUK.
Although the TRUK garrison lacked adequate quantities of planes, anti-aircraft
and heavy artillery, ammunition, fortress-construction units, and materials for
such construction, they stated that they were well satisfied with their overall
situationapparently feeling that the lack in material could be countered by the
spirit and determination of all the men. The morale of the Japanese on TRUK was,
at all times, very high, it was stated.
The TRUK garrison received information concerning the activities of the UNITED
STATES forces from the Imperial Headquarters. However, it appears that the com plete story of Japanese Naval reverses was not forthcoming from TOKYO. Any in formation received from TOKYO was considered to be reliable. Such news as the
Japanese on TRUK received from UNITED STATES broadcasts was not wholly ignored
neither was it believed. The Japanese did not place too much credence in these
broadcasts, as they considered them to be propaganda. Such information was "Put
aside for reference".
The Japanese on TRUK correctly estimated that the U. S. forces would attack
SAIPAN and IWO JIMA. It appears that at no time did they anticipate TRUK would be
the subject of the next all-out assault. However, at such times as they were under
attack by out task-forces, they seemingly felt that this was the forerunner of the
invasion attempt. After SAIPAN, they assumed correctly that the weight of U. S.
power would fall to the northwest. But they did not know whether FORMOSA, OKINAWA,
the CHINA Coast or a combination of the three would be the precursor of the attack
on JAPAN. Realization that TRUK had been by-passed came when OKINAWA was attacked,
and it was thought that JAPAN proper would be next.
After August, 1944, no ships were able to get to TRUK from the Japanese home land, and the garrison was completely isolated, save for sporadic visits by sub marines.

TOTAL STRENGTH.
OFFICERS ARMY NAVY TOTALS 741 419 1,160

ENLISTED 13,558 9,422 22,980


14,220 14,220

CIVILIAN PERSONNEL

TOTAL
o
14,299 24,061 38,360

ARMY UNITS ON TRUK. UNIT 31st Army Hq # 52nd Div.Hq. 69th Inf.Regt. LOCATION OFF. W.O. DUBLON 31 3 DUBLON 37 10 DUBLON 124 32 (-2 Bn, 2nd Bn on UMAN) MOEN 109 29

NCO

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43 51 100 151 717 1,821

CODE NAME 7920 128 SONAE 4650 298 KASHIWA a 2,694 4654 TOTAL

DATE OF ARRIVAL 20Jan45 4Jan44 4Jan44

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150th Inf.Regt. Tank Unit Signal Unit 9th Ind.Eng.Regt . Transportation Unit Over-sea Transport Unit Ordnance Serv. Unit Intendance Serv. Unit Field Hospital

TOL
DUBLON DUBLON DUBLON DUBLON MOEN DUBLON MOEN FEFAN DUBLON

4 8 15 3 32 3 15

2 1 4 1 6 2 4

828 1,170 58 39 52 180 145 319 30 71 353 34 36

2,136

103 241 483 105

* *
M

" * " "

4656 4672 4662 4812 4673 4674 4664 4675

18Feb44 18Feb44 4Jan44 16Apr44 18Feb44 llMar44 18Feb44 18Feb44

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741 1,132 20 62 59 117

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TOL
MOEN DUBLON UMAN FEFAN

51

176

418

649

"

4676

4Jan44

TOL
51st Ind.Mixed Brig. 11th Ind.Mixed Regt. TOTALS UDOT

244

63 1,695 2,786

4,788 SONAE

17564

TOL
FEFAN PARAM FEFAN DUBLON

24Mar44 16Apr44

o
65 24 420 857
1,366 " 17585 18Sep44 19Jan45 741 185 4,668 8,705 14,299

The 31st Army was organized at TRUK.


The 2nd Detachment arrived on 24 March, 1944 and the 8th Detachment arrived
on 16 April, 1944. These units were reorganized as the 51st Independent Mixed
Brigade.

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The 51st Independent Mixed Brigade was disposed as follows: 336th Ind. Bn. -\ 337th Ind. Bn. - UDOT
338th Ind. Bn. y TOL 339th Ind. Bn. ->__,_.
lst Art. Unit ( 2nd Art. Unit -) FE FAN
51st 1MB Hq. J 340th Ind. Bn. - FEFAN & PARAM.

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The Headquarters and the 1st Battalion of the 11th Independent Mixed Regiment
was on FEFAN; the 3rd Battalion was on DUBLON.

JAPANESE ORDER OF BATTLE

STRENGTH AND DISPOSITION OF ARMY FORCES ON TRUK (INCLUDING MEDICAL PERSONNEL). ISLAND MOEN FEFAN DUBLON PARAM UMAN UDOT ULALU PATA N. TOL S. TOL POLLE OFFICERS 146 116 227 20 36 28 3 9 41 81 35 29 45 17 4 4 26 2 2 129 W.O. 29 38 43 6 10 10 0 2 11 14 15 6 8 1 0 0 1 0 0 16 NCO 735 625 697 127 174 181 10 49 237 327 221 85 92 38 8 10 47 5 2 287 ENLISTED MEN 2,052 2,135 2,275 212 653 529 27 156 538 911 503 193 193 103 25 29 129 15 13 700
TOTAL 2,962 2,914 3,242 365 873 748 40 216 827 1,333 774 313 338 159 37 43
203 22 17

STRENGTH AND DISPOSITION OF NAVY FORCES ON TRUK. UNIT DUBLON ISLAND: 4th Fleet Hq. Judge Advocate 1st Pers. Repl. Dept. 41st Guard Police 4th Comm. Unit 4th Harbor Dept, TRUK Transport Unit E.CAROLINES Naval Air Unit 227th Const. Bn. 4th Naval Stores Dept. 4th Naval Const. Unit 4th Naval Civil Eng.Dept. 4th Naval Hospital 4th Naval Office of Supply and Administration
104th Naval Air Depot 4th Meteorological Unit 10th FPO Unit TOTALS ETEN ISLAND:
41st Naval Guard Force
E.CAROLINES Air Unit 4th Naval Civil Eng.Dept. TOTALS
OFF W t 0. 25 2 2 44 20 4 2 9 16 8 7 11 2 3 1 3 19 2 1 2 4 3 1 1 NCO 104 2 5 567 169 27 6 114 50 14 17 23 2 3 8 EM 69 2 475 153 18 3 110 38 14 8 42 7 5 TOTAL 201 4 9 1,105 344 49 12 235 108 36 35 77 4 14 14 CIVILIAN PERSONNEL 5 8 102 2 30 46 5 4 280 461 974 38 46 190 31 16 2,238 GRAND TOTAL 206 12 9 1,207 346 79 58 240 4 388
497
1,009
115
50
204
45
16
4,485

I cc

CQ

O
CL

KJ

KJ

ARMY MEDICAL PERSONNEL. MOEN DUBLON FEFAN UMAN UDOT TOL POLLE PARAM TOTALS NOTE:

0 z

CO

The T/0 as presented above was obtained from the Japanese Forces at TRUK and no attempt has been made to verify its accuracy.
CIV. PERS. 22 8 155 14 8 1 2 31 158 612 23 GRAND CODE TOTAL NAME 262 U 87 12
u 87 9 1,925 1,075 1,511
1,226 626 534 370 699 2,005
DATE OF ARRIVAL 10Nov43 10Nov43

156

36

1,111

944

a, 247

NAVY UNITS ON TRUK. UNIT OFF W.O. NCO 4th Fleet Hq. 28 7 129 4th Fleet Judge Advocate 2 2 Dept.
1st Pers.Repl.Dept, 2 5 41st Naval Guard Force 61 29 885 43rd Naval Guard Force 28 13 499 47th Naval Guard Force 44 5 546 48th Naval Guard Force 31 13 412 49th Naval Guard Force 21 9 300 4th Comm. Unit 24 5 246 4th Harbor Duty Dept. 11 1 122 TRUK Naval Transp.Dept. 11 2 46 E.CAROLINES Naval Air 50 35 1,033 Unit
227th Const.Bn. 4th Naval Hospital 4th Naval Office of Admin. & Supply
104th Naval Air Depot 4th Meteorological Unit 10th FPO Unit 4th Const. & Repair 4th Const. Dept.
4th Repair Dept.
4th Munition Dept.
85th Submarine Baae
4th Naval Stores Dept. 4th Naval Civ.Eng.Dept. TOTALS 7 24 2 9 2 12 9 43 2 13 17 24 EM TOTAL 76 240 4 2 795 521 908 769 294 228 78 28 864 9 1,770 1,061 1,503 1,225 624 503 212 87 1,982

3 4

1 4 1

37 74 3 114

79 88 167

120 170 4 294

2 166 168

i72

170
462

120

CO
Ul

1 2

4 104 17 10 18

20 172 4 41 29 54

864 96 46 737 64 37 826

884 268 50 778 93 37 880

CO

ui

CO UJ

30 8 100 58 196 1,223 1,419 20 15 53 17 105 9,293 9,398 419 145 4,486 4,791 9,841 14,220 24,061

u u u u u u u u u u u u
u u u u u u
u u u u

225 Dec42
44 15Nov40
504 lDec44
603 20Mar45
624 !May45
625 lMay45
17 14Jan41
88 25Aug41
119 Jul42
453-27 DUBLON
453-53 ETEN
453-222 PARAM
Jul44
389 Mar44 169 21Aug42 59 15Dec40 135 6 " 3 00 60 96 62 146 May42 Uun41 Jan41 Dec40 lDec41 15Dec40 15May42

TONELIK ISLAND:
41st Naval Guard Force
NORTHEAST ISLAND;
418t Naval Guard Force MOR ISLAND:
4th Fleet Hq. 41st Naval Guard Force TOTALS ELI KANIBU ISLAND; 41st Naval Guard Force
SALAT ISLAND: 41st Naval Guard Force OTTA ISLAND: 41st Naval Guard Force FALEU ISLAND: 41st Naval Guard Force FALO ISLAND: 47th Naval Guard Force FALAS ISLAND: 41st Naval Guard Force FANUELA ISLAND; 41st Naval Guard Force

23 3 1 7

41 3 1 5

66
6 3 12 15

66 6
5 -21 26

11

4 8 2 10 16 5 5

2 2 4 20 3

6
10 6 31 20 5 5

6 10 6 31 20 5 5

The 43rd, 47th, 48th and 49th Naval Guard Forces were all formed on TRUK. The 4th Naval Base was established at TRUK in August, 1941. Until May, 1944, the 4th Fleet Headquarters commanded the 4th Naval Base; the 4th Naval Base, in turn, commanded TRUK. When the 4th Naval Base was disbanded, in May, 1944, the 4th Fleet Headquarters directly commanded TRUK.

10

JAPANESE ORDER OF BATTLE

ii

UNIT

OFF W.O.
5 1 23 1 3 1

NCO
530 32 13 664 11 8 4 10

EM
905 27 13 464 2 18 10

TOTAL 1,483 61 27 1,181 14 16 26 27 2,835

CIVILIAN PERSONNEL 8 14 27 15 99 2,145 21 547 7 2,883

GRAND TOTAL
1,491 75 54 1,196 113 2,161 47 574 7 5,718

UNIT TOL ISLAND: PATA. POLLE: 4th Fleet Hq. 4th Naval Guard Force 43rd Naval Guard Force TRUK Transport Unit E.CAROLINES Naval Air Group 227th Const. Bn. 4th Naval Stores Dept, 4th Civil Eng. Dept, 4th Naval Const. Unit 4th Naval Hospital 4th Meteorological Unit 10th FPO Unit ULALU ISLAND: 4th Comm. Unit 4th Civil Eng. Dept.

OFF W.O.
1 1 22 9 2 7 4 5 2
4

NCO

EM

TOTAL 1 102 834 75 53 20 29 24 5 26 15 1.184 53 53 10 73 116 4 7 210 7 1 143 144 6 5 9,629

CIVILIAN PERSONNEL

GRAND
TOTAL
o 1 104 848 641 53 880 439 2, 913 225 54 48 14 6,220 68 227 295 15 73 116 25 796 1,025 246 25 143 168 6 5 I

MOEN ISLAND: 43 47th Naval Guard Force 2 4th Comm. Unit 4th Naval Harbor Duty Unit 30 E.CAROLINES Naval Air Unit 2 4th Naval Stores Dept. 3 4th Naval Civil Eng. Dept. 4 4th Naval Hospital 6 104th Naval Air Depot 10th FPO Unit TOTALS 90 BUET ISLAND: 41st Naval Guard Force FEFAN ISLAND: 2 4th Fleet Hq. 3 41st Naval Guard Force 18 48th Naval Guard Force 4th Harbor Duty Unit E.CAROLINES Naval Air Group 5 4th Naval Stores Dept. 4th Naval Construction 2 4th Civil Eng. Dept. 3 4th Naval Hospital TOTALS 35

2 11 1 3 5

34

1,272 1 ,439

1 22 2 2

61 397 40 24 9 20 12 2 6 9 580 23 23 5 40 35 3 3 86 4

38 404 25 27 4 2 2 1 16 5 524 27 27 5 28 77 1 111 1 1 82 83 4 3

2 14 566 860 410 2,889 220 28 33 14 5,036 15 227 242 5 21 789 815 239 24 24

in

CO

TOTALS 58 4 1 5 5 35 139 731 11 81 207 158 1,178 32 2,572 1 TOTALS


UDOT ISLAND: 4th Fleet Hq. 43rd Naval Guard Force 48th Naval Guard Force 4th Naval Stores Dept. 4th Civil Eng. Dept. FALA-BEGUETS.ISLAND: 4th Naval Stores Dept. EOT ISLAND: 41st Naval Guard Force 43rd Naval Guard Force OLLAN ISLAND: 43rd Naval Guard Force. YAWATA ISLAND: 43rd Naval Guard Force. SUB-TOTALS FOR ABOVE SHIP-BASED PERSONNEL NAME: 41st NAVAL GUARD UNIT: Light Mine Layer #3 Special Mineswpr##5 Fuyo Maru #2 Hosai Maru #2 Kosei Maru Hozan Maru Yamato Maru #5

z
CQ

3 3 11

19 51 264 31 11 8 4 6

1 82 437 50 17 3 2 15

25 139 730 81 33 13 9 24 1,054

10 1 11 174 145 1,169 8 1,518

<

o
CL.

1 18

3 4 1 2 TOTALS 10 2

2 1 3

z
< & . z CO
Q

394

607

PARAM ISLAND: 9 48th Naval Guard Force 5 E CAROLINES Naval Air Group 1 4th Civil Eng. Dept, TOTALS 15

2 5

113 103

255 116

379 229

2 218

1 372

4 612

1 214 215

379 230 218 827

3 TOTALS 3

58 58 2 2

Z
co
U l

TSIS ISLAND: E.CAROLINES Naval Air Group 4th Civil Eng. Det>t. TOTALS

11 11

3 3

14 14 125 125

14 125 139

410 141

4,349 4,729

14,150

23, 779

o <
O

3 2 1 1 7 2

TARIK ISLAND: 4th Civil Eng. Dept,

1 2 1

41 30 10 6 10 1 98 37 1 1

10 13 9 6 4 42 18

55 47 20 13 15 1 151 57 1 3 61 212 9,841

TOTALS
UMAN ISLAND: 21 49th Naval Guard Force 1 4th Comm. Unit 5 4th Harbor Duty Unit E.CAROLINES Naval Air Group 4th Civil Eng. Dept, 4th Naval Hospital 2 TOTALS 29 4th NAVAL HARBOR DUTY: Futakami, FEFAN Tug #3, FEFAN Manshu Maru, DUBLON Dai shin Maru, DUBLON Kotobuki Maru, DUBLON Yachiyo M a ru, MOEN Shinzo, Maru, MOEN

1 1 2 7 7 18

55 47 21 14 17 7 8 169 57 14 11 7 8 10 6 113 282 24, 061

z o
UJ CO

Z
UJ LU UJ UJ CO UJ

9 1 1 1

300 22 43 12 4 4

294 21 27 6 1 13

624 45 75 19 6 19

2 38 588 1 629

12

385

362

788

626 45 113 19 594 20 1,417

2 20 62

TOTALS
SUBTOTALS

2
9

39 4 137

13 11 7 5 10 6 52 70 14,220

ELIKANIBU ISLAND: 4th Naval Stores Dept,

GRAND - TOTALS

419 145

4,486 4,791

ii

A PANORAMIC PHOTOGRAPHIC TERRAIN STUDY ng~the planning stage of this report, prior to the arrival of the Study Group at TRUK, the decision was made to supplement the written report by the maximum use of photography, thereby visually presenting the exlstant conditions and subjects of Interest. In addition to the treatment of specific subjects by this means, the
decision was made that a series of panoramic photographic strips from critical elevations should be prepared to facilitate the presentation of the terrain and associated features. Panoramic strips were photographed on various Islands as indicated: three on MOEN, three on DUBLON, two on FEFAN, one on UMAN, and one on PARAM. These are presented on the following pages. In order to assist the reader in orienting the panoramic strips and individual pictures contained therein, a map (Figure No. 3 ) , locating the camera stations from which the panoramic strips were taken, is presented below. Each photograph, within the panoramic strips, is numbered and is represented
on the map by a numbered ray from the lettered panoramic station, thereby enabling
the reader to rapidly and accurately visualize the area covered by each photograph.
"F", and " I " each have 360 cov Panoramic strips from Stations "C", "D", " E " , "G". "H, and "J" have 185,
erage. The panoramic strips from Stations "A", "B 120, 270, 300, and 170 coverage, respectively, due to obstructed views.
The numbers of the individual photographs contained In the panoramic strips are
preceeded by an abbreviation, "PM M , which Indicates the basic number of a picture
whether on the Outline Map (Figure 3 - PANORAMIC PHOTOGRAPHIC STATIONS), In APPENDIX III (Ground Photographic Reference Data), or on the map entitled "LOCATION OF GROUND PHOTOGRAPHS" in PART TWO. Sea "COMMENT Oil THE NUMBERING O F PHOTOGRAPHS" on page iv.
116,117
115
365
363

366

MAN IS.
FALO IS
o z DUBLON IS. ETEN IS.
361

367

[STATION V

135
134

CO

368

51

CO

275,276
274
372

371
272

o
*:
oc
I

TSIS IS.

o
CO LU CO

433

434

EASTERN ISLANDS OF TRUK ATOLL


CO LU

ELEVATIONS
435
STATION ELEVATION
"A"
M

MAP

REFERENCE - H.O. CHART NO. 6048 SCALE | : 55,600

A'SfVf APPPDY )

"B" 45O'(APPROXJ
C" "D" M "E - 441

440

439

TAR K IS.
720'N

V V
II.

II

FIGURE NO. 3-PANORAMIC

PHOTOGRAPHIC STATIONS

754' 85 31 390 1 1184' 958' 236 1 899 1 880*

A PANORAMIC PHOTOGRAPHIC TERRAIN STUDY

TIP OF FALO ISLAND OUTER REEF LIGHTHOUSE R A D 10 S T A T I O N HILL 810 SOUTH RIDGE OF HILL 1200

. 4 ,
o

PM 293

PM 292

PM 291

PM 290

PM

289

a .
Z

Z
v-/

CO

PANORAMIC PHOTOGRAPHIC STRIP FROM STATION "A" MOEN ISLAND

CO
LU

HILL 1200
_ i

ANCHORAGE

MANGROVE

SWAMP

H LL 700 (STATION

"C")

HQS. , I S.COM.(21ST.MAR)

CAUSEWAY

o
z
o

en

LU
CO

LU

PM

PM 285

PM 286

PM 287

PM 288

PANORAMIC PHOTOGRAPHIC STRIP FRQM STATION "B'VMOEN ISLAND

n^Jr
WWL
13

A PANORAMIC PHOTOGRAPHIC TERRAIN STUDY

HQS. ,

CAUSEWAY SMALL BOAT PIER

LIGHTHOUSE

H ILL 8 0 0

C.G.QUARTERS, N.C.B. CAMP

TRUK

ATOLL

FEFAN

ISLAND

PARAM

ISLAND

FLOATING

CRANE

iHILL 1 2 0 0

o o

5
m

CO

O3

o
Q_

z
CO

PM 278

PM 279

v.

PM 268 & 281


4I

PM 269 CM M O E N ISLAND

PM 270

PANORAMIC PHOTOGRAPHIC STRIP f R O M STATION

CONTINUED

o
on

OUTER

REEF

ROAD

ACROSS CAUSEWAY

HILL 3 9 0 (STATION " E " ) R A D 10 STATION

SIGNAL

LIGHT

(STATION"F")

FEFAN

ISLAND

o (/>
CO

Z
a . <

137

PM 138

PM 139

PM 1U0

/ \
PM 141

PM 143

PANORAMIC PHOTOGRAPHIC STRIP FROM STATION UD"DUBLON ISLAND


14

CONTINUED

A PANORAMIC PHOTOGRAPHIC TERRAIN STUDY


OL ISLAND U.S.N. ANCHORAGE L.S.T. LANDINGS AIRFIELD UNDER CONSTRUCTION FOR U.S.N.

IE

FALO

ISLAND

o
a. Z

PM 2 7 1

PM 2 7 2

PM 273

PM 2 7 4

PM 275

PM 276

PM 277

CONTINUED

PANORAMIC PHOTOGRAPHIC STRIP FROM STATION "C" MOEN ISLAND

Z
CO LU

Z
i

MT.N ISHIKI .(STATION

"I"),FEFAN PARAM

ISLAND

UDOT

ISLAND

ANCHORAGE

SEAPLANE

BASE

HILL

1200tM0.EN HILL

ISLAND 800.MOEN

RADIO ISLAND

STATION

ISLAND

T O L ISLAND

o en
LU CO

Z
UJ

CO LU

PM 1 4 3 |

P M 1 4 2

PM 133

PM 134

PM 135

PM 136

CONTINUED

PANORAMIC PHOTOGRAPHIC STRIP FROM STATION

D" MOEN ISLAND


15

A PANORAMIC PHOTOGRAPHIC TERRAIN STUDY

UMAN ISLAND EATON


(AIR

ISLAND
FIELD)

FEFAN FUEL PIER

ISLAND

en

z
m

PM

115

PM 116 & 117

PM 118

PM 119

PM 120

PM 121

PM 122

to Q

PANORAMIC PHOTOGRAPHIC STRIP FROM STATION U E" DUBLON ISLAND

CONTINUED

z
-I

o
a:

ETEN

ISLAND

(AIRFIELD)
BASE

UMAN

ISLAND AMMUNITION, TORPEDO STORAGE

FEFAN

ISLAND

MT.NISHIKI

(STATION FLOATING

"I") DRY DOCK

T O L ISLAND

SEAPLANE \

z
O
CO ui to

z u .
1

Q U CO

PM 153

PANORAMIC PHOTOGRAPHIC STRIP FROM STATION "F* DUBLON ISLAND


16

CONTINUED

^1

A PANORAMIC PHOTOGRAPHIC TERRAIN STUDY.


SEAPLANE BASE FEFAN SIGNAL ISLAND \ LIGHT (STATION HOSPITAL "F") SIGNAL TOWER (STATION "D") MOEN ISLAND
LIGHTHOUSE (MOEN ISLAND)

ARMY RADIO

STATION

PM 122 PM 123 I

PM 110

PM 1 1 1

PM 1 1 2

PiV, 1 1 3

PM 1 1 4

PM 1 1 5

CONTINUED

PANORAMIC PHOTOGRAPHIC STRIP FROM STATION "E M DUBLON ISLAND

ANTI-TANK

BARRIERS

SEAPLANE

BASE

MOEN

ISLAND

SIGNAL TOWER

(STATION

"D" )

NE. POINT OF DUBLON OUTER REEF

ISLAND

SE. POINT O F DUBLCN

ISLAND

ANCHORAGE

RADIO STATION

LIGHTHOUSE

HILL 3 9 0 (STATION " E " )

PM 1 5 5

PM 1 5 4

PM

PM 1 4 5

PM 1 4 6

PM 147

CONTINUED

PANORAMIC PHOTOGRAPHIC STRIP FROM STATION M F" DUBLON ISLAND

A PANORAMIC PHOTOGRAPHIC TERRAIN STUDY


FEFAN ISLAND RADIO STATION MOEN ISLAND STATION "FW,DUBLON ISLAND
ISLAND OUTER REEF

TEN

o
CL

PM 3 6 9

z z
UJ

PM 3 6 1 j

PM 362

PM 3 6 3

PM 364

PANORAMIC PHOTOGRAPHIC STRIP FROM STATION "G" UMAN ISLAND

CONTINUED

z
-J

o
as < O

STATION

"D"tDUBLQN

ISLAND

STATION

"F".DUBLON

ISLAND

FEFAN

ISLAND

TSIS

ISLAND

z O
CO UJ

in UJ

PM 4 3 3

PM 4 3 4

PM 4 3 5

PM 4 3 6

i
18

taPANORAMIC PHOTOGRAPHIC STRIP FROM STATION *H" PARAM ISLAND

CONTINUED

A PANORAMIC PHOTOGRAPHIC TERRAIN STUDY


SMALL BOAT DOCK

FANEU

ISLAND

OUTER REEF

ISLANDS

o
T

Z
H LU _J -I

O o. Z PM 364 PM 365
PM 366 PM 367 PM 368

CONTINUED

PANORAMIC PHOTOGRAPHIC STRIP FROM STATION " 6 " UMAN ISLAND

CO

Z
CO

o
SMALL BOAT DOCK

T A R IK I S L A N D

PARAM

AIRFIELD

TOL ISLAND

E IOL I S L A N D

UDOT

ISLAND

OS

CO tu CO

z
CO

PM 437

PM 439

PM 440

PM

PM 442

CONTINUED

PANORAMIC PHOTOGRAPHIC STRIP FROM STATION " H " PARAM ISLAND


19

A PANORAMIC PHOTOGRAPHIC TERRAIN STUDY

UMAN SLAND MT. UBUN TSIS ISLAND TAR I K ISLAND T O L ISLAND


PARAM

UDOT
ISLAND

I S L A N D

o
OL

z
PM 375 PM 376 PM 377
PM 378
PM 379 PM 380 PM 381

Z
CO

PANORAMIC PHOTOGRAPHIC STRIP FROM STATION "P FEFAN ISLAND

CONTINUED

UJ

z
I

P i c t u r e N o . i (PM 5 7 2 ) DUBLON: offshore, true-south. P a r t of left backqround.

Seen from point MOEN may b e s e e n

i mile i n t h e

z
o

(/I

CO

UJ

Picture Mo. 2 (PM 571) UMAN: mtle offshore to the south. center of the photograph.

Depicted Mt. URORAS

from position i
is shown in the

JACK STAFF-AV.R 35

For Information regarding the system used in the


numbering of individual photographs, of which the above
individual photographs (Nos. 1 & 2) are the first to
appear in this report out of a total 1 of 351, see "COM MENT ON THE NUMBERING OF PHOTOGRAPHS' on page iv.

A PANORAMIC PHOTOGRAPHIC TERRAIN STUDY


MT.SANREI ANCH0RA6E SEAPLANE BASE MOEN ISLAND LIGHTHOUSE STATION

? "DHtDUBLON D R Y DOCK

'Iff /

ISLAND

SEAPLANE " F " /

BASE OUTER

ETEN REEF

ISLAND A / F

FLOATING

STATION

PM 3 6 9 & 3 8 1

PM 370

PM 3 7 1

PM 3 7 2

PM 3 7 3

PM 37U

KJ

z
CO

CONTINUED

PANORAMIC PHOTOGRAPHIC STRIP FROM STATION " P FEFAN ISLAND

Z
to

SIGNAL

TOWER.DUBLON FLOATING

IS..(STATION DRY DOCK

"D")

SEAPLANE

BASE

ETEN

IS.AIRFIELD

OUTER

REEF

UMAN

ISLAND

MT.

ARASHI

TSIS

ISLAND

STATION "F" (SIGNAL LIGHT)

o
CO UJ CO

CO UJ

PM 387

PM 386

PM 385

PM 384

PM 383

PM 3 8 2

P A N O R A M I C PHOTOGRAPHIC STRIP FROM STATION

J " FEFAN ISLAND 21

ARTILLERY AND ORDNANCE

Final Defense Location


o
X The Information appearing herein was obtained from sources as follows: Conferences with Japanese Army and Navy Staff Officers. Copies of defense plans furnished by the Japanese. Actual reconnaissance with Japanese authorities covering all of the principal Islands within the TRUK Atoll and the reef islands at NORTH and SOUTH Passages. This reconnaissance included visits to praotically all battery positions
mounting guns of 8cm or larger, and about 40 percent of positions which had mounted field and mountain artillery. The reconnaissance .was more than adequate to establish
the fact that the data furnished by the Japanese was accurate, DEVELOPMENT OF THE DEFENSES. Information as to the early development of TRUK was not easily obtainable. Consideration of the information obtained throughout the visit of the group to TRUK leads to the conclusion that comparatively little progress had been made either as to fleet base facilities or as to fortifications prior to 1940. Naval construction and supply units arrived in 1940. The 4th Naval Base Unit was organized In August 1941. The 4th Naval Defense Unit, strength about 850, was organized on DUBLON on 15 November 1941. The 4th Fleet Headquarters, organized at SAIPAN in November 1939, was moved to TRUK in November 1943. The 52nd Division arrived at TRUK beginning in January 1944. The 4th Fleet abandoned TRUK in February 1944. Such heavy armament as might have been emplaced prior to arrival of the 52nd Division was mostly above ground and was in positions on reefs as well as larger interior islands. Following our air raids of February 1944 and departure of the 4th Fleet, the defense plan was changed in that heavy artillery was withdrawn from the reef islands to the inner islands, and artillery on the inner islands, excepting certain anti-aircraft batteries and turreted seacoast batteries, was placed underground. This program of digging in was delayed by lack of equipment, cement, and explosives. It had not been entirely completed when peace was declared. EQUIPMENT AVAILABLE. The following tabulation shows the quantity of principal weapons, ammunition, and fire control equipment; and the disposition of the weapons by islands under the defense plan Initiated in 1944: Legend: A - Guns per Jap Inventory. B - Guns per reconnaissance and Jap plans.
C - Rounds of ammunition, all types w a p Inventory).
C O H O < D
M CO En W W PQ I

ITEM NAVY
20cm Guns. 15,5cm Guns. 15cm Guns. 14cm Guns. 12.7cm Guns AA (dual mount).
12cm Guns, CD. 12cm Guns, DP. 8cm Guns, CD. 8cm Guns, DP. 75mm, AA, Type 88. 25mm, Mult mount, MG, Type 96, 25mm, single mount, MG, Type 96.
20mm, MG, Type 99 MKI. 13mm, MG. Range Finder (4.5m, 3.5m, 2.5m).
Range Finder, 1.5m. Director Type 2. Director Type 95. Searchlights under 110cm. Searchlights 110cm to 150cm. Searchlight Controllers.

B
4 3 28 0 2 6 29 4 9 73 23
91 115 8 7 1 2 6 3 1 6 4 3 25 6 2 6 29 2 8

O 05

1 1 12 3 1 6 9 1 2

946 773

4 9 2 1 11 4

7,144 3,855 2,908 2,780 1,957


609

3 2 4

1 6

CL

2,122 3,237 472,835


47,207 265,064

z
z
CO

Z
CO Ul

14 14

4 2

1 1

ARTILLERY TACTICAL CONTROL. The seacoast and anti-aircraft artillery was supplied and manned almost entirely
by the Navy. Field and mountain artillery was furnished and manned by the Army.
Dispositions were determined by coordination and agreement between Army and Navy
authorities. Dispositions In the final defense plan were designed for a rigid fixed
defense of the mine fields located at entrances to and within the lagoon, and to
rigid inshore defense of the inner islands. So far as was consistent with this plan,
artillery on the various Islands was to be capable of mutual support. Under the general defense plan for the atoll as a whole, separate Navy and Army Commanders were designated for each of the principal islands. Each Naval Commander controlled his own units under the plan until he was no longer capable of performing his mission, then the remnants were to come under Army control. General fire direction of heavy artillery was exercised at the 4th Fleet and 31st Army Command Posts on DUBLON. Communication with island command posts was maintained by means of sub marine telephone and telegraph cable, radio, visual signals and pigeons. General
search radar was available for surface and air targets and was reported to be sat-
isfactory as to results. For details see communications section In this report.
ARTILLERY FIRE CONTROL.

(DC

Final Defense Location

CQ
to

o o

22

CO

M
H O iJ O S3
O

M0E1

CO
Ul
CO

ITEM ARMY

B 2ffl

ooi

qw mw

B<
6 2 9
8
11

8
aE- ^

t i a<

O Ck8 W

& *

E*

U l u. U l
Q

Ul
CO
Ul

6 105mm Army Howitzer. 8cm Armstrong Gun (CD). 7 8 75mm, AA', Type 88.
75mm Mtn. Gun, Type 41.
34 46 75mm Mtn. Gun, Type 94
and 75mm Field Gun
Type 38 & 95.
Heavy Range Finder, 2 8yr Type.
Field Range Finder, 30 Type 93.

6 7 11
34
48

1 7 4
34
40

007 341 2,
306 10, 727 540

I:

2 2 3 17

3 6
5 4 2 2 1 2 2 10
9

All types of seacoast and anti-aircraft heavy artillery were very weak in fire
control equipment. There was no fire control radar. The number of range or height
finder8 available was sufficient to equip but a few batteries. Only four anti-air craft directors were available. Anti-aircraft batteries not equipped with directors
and associated data transmission systems had to rely on improvised forward area
type sights. In the case of seacoast artillery reliance was placed principally on
registration on markers and buoys at known ranges. Horizontal base observation
and plotting or prediction systems were not employed. The Japanese reported that
much fire control equipment had been lost enroute to TRUK. Field artillery generally
was equipped with standard panoramic or telescopic sights.

22

ARTILLERY AND ORDNANCE

Wi *w

ARTILLERY - GENERAL REMARKS.


The long range artillery defense of TRUK was weak. Batteries capable of firing
11 effectively beyond the reef line were limited to one turreted 4-gun 20cm. (8 ) bat tery located on DUBLON, and to one turreted 3-gun 155mm. (6 1 1 ) battery located on
UMAN. The remaining heavy artillery, all of 15cm. or less, was capable only of
mine field and inshore defense.
The entire searchlight defense of TRUK employed only 20 searchlights. Only
4 of these lights employed control stations and no searchlights employed radar
control* The majority of the searchlights were available for use by both anti aircraft and seacoast artillery. Little attempt was made to control searchlights
tactically from the Naval CP on DUBLON, tactical control usually resting with the
battery commander of the nearest gun battery. In general, the searchlight defense
of TRUK was exceptionally weak.
Although our air action had effected practically complete destruction of above-
ground naval and air installations, no damage was sustained by turreted or other
heavy artillery in open emplacements, excepting one anti-aircraft gun battery on
ETEN consisting of two 12.7cm. twin mounts which were destroyed.
Naval bombardment by the British for two days, about 27 June 1945, resulted
in no damage to heavy artillery.
ARTILLERY POSITIONS ON BARRIER REEF ISLANDS.
Artillery and searchlights located on the reef islands were moved after
February 1944, to cave positions on the principal islands Inside the reef.
Artillery and searchlights had been emplaced as follows:
GUNS ISLANDS TONELIK Northeast NUMBER 2 in turret SIZE 14cm. 15cm. 15cm. 15cm. 15cm. 15cm. 15cm. 15cm. 15cm. FIELD OF FIRE 270 to 90 T 360, except for small area blanked by palm tree8. Water area outside reef. Water area outside reef. Water area outside reef. 360 SEARCHLIGHTS NUMBER SIZE 1 1 1 1 1 90 cm. 90cm. 75cm. 75cm. 90cm.
K B

At all batteries personnel were quartered in barracks or shacks made of scrap lumber and galvanized sheet metal. These huts varied in size allowing in most cases accomodation of squads and in a few cases accomodation of 150 men. These in addition to galleys, mess halls, and officers quarters, were located in camouflaged defiladed areas adjacent to the gun positions. During bombing attacks personnel lived in the caves and tunnels of the gun positions*
Ammunition was stored in the emplacement near each gun with exoeption of one or two batteries on TOL and the 12.7cm AA battery on DUBLON. At these excepted positions ammunition was stored both in metal ready boxes placed in niches of the cave or revetment near the gun and in well constructed dumps for reserve ammunition. In almost all caves and tunnels temperatures were moderate and stable. However, the atmosphere was quite humid and in many cases water dripped from the walls and was not well drained from the emplacement. Generally, ammunition storage facilities were very poor. Intra-battery tactical communication systems consisted principally of telephone
circuits employing sound powered or battery powered telephones. Phones were installed
at guns, directors, range or height 1 finders, OP 1 s and CP's in the AA batteries and
at guns, range finders, OP's and CP s in the coast defense and field artillery gun
positions. At many of the battery positions the telephone circuits were paralleled
with voice tube8 and buzzer systems. The communlcation listed in description of
Individual batteries refers to intra-battery type.
Communication between gun batteries and the island artillery tactical commanders, both Army and Navy, was by means of telephone and radio principally and augmented by runner and pigeon. Little emphasis was placed on maintaining this communication. In the following table, position numbers refer to Figures 4 through 10 (artillery
and searchlight positions). The letter prefix denotes the island in accordance with
the following code; M-MOEN, D-DUBLON, F-FEFAN, U-UMAN, E-EOT, UD-UDOT, P-PARAM,
T-TOL.

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Direct fire telescopic sights were employed with all weapons. At TONELIK and
FALEU Islands 2.5 meter range finders were employed and at approximately one half
of the other islands 1.5 meter range finders were employed. The Navy controlled
all batteries located on the reef islands and communication was maintained between
DUBIXJN and all islands by use of underwater telephone and telegraph cable and radio.
Positions were of the open type with log and sand parapets. Gun pedestals were
bolted to reinforced concrete platforms.
The searchlights were employed primarily for illumination of sea borne targets
and secondarily as pick up lights for illumination of aircraft. The lights were
emplaoed on small towers approximately 61 high. The lights at TONELIK and FALEU
were equipped with sound locators and comparators, and were tactically controlled
by searchlight officers; all other lights employed hand control only and were
tactically controlled by the battery commanders of the island gun battery. No
attempt was made to control the searchlights from the Navy CP on DUBLON.
DESCRIPTION OF INDIVIDUAL BATTERIES.
Maximum and minimum effective ranges were obtained for the Navy weapons by
questioning the Japanese battery and battalion commanders and from maps (believed
to be quite accurate) submitted by the Jap Navy Headquarters Staff; those for
the Army were obtained from Army sources similar to the above Navy sources and
also from knowledge of the characteristics of the weapon (characteristics obtained
from CINCPAC - CINCPOA Bulletin No. 152-45, 1 July 1945). Limiting angles of
fields of fire were obtained for practically all of the Navy emplacements and
about 40# of the Army emplacements by actual measurement and for the remaining
emplacements from the maps submitted by the Japanese*

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Mo. 3 ISLAMD

(PM 486) (Reef).

FORMER

14cm

GUM

EMPLACEMENT,

23

ARTILLERY AND ORDNANCE

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M-l M-2 M-3 1 1 1 75mm.Mtn.Gun, T.94 75mm.Mtn.Gun, T.94 75mm.Mtn*Gun, T.94 A A A

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Fire Control
Direct Fire. Direct Fire. Direct Fire. 8,000 900 8,000 8,000 900 (8,000)NE (1,300) (8,000)SE ( 700) 10,900 1,200 No No No M-18 M-19 2 1 M-16 M-17 1 1

Type
8cm.Armstrong type Gun. 75mm.Mtn.Gun, T.94 75mm.Mtn.Gun, T.94 8cm.CD.Gun,3rd yr. type.

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Emplacement

i Fire Control

H 8,000

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Cave* Cave.
3 caves con nected.

Open revetment. Direct; Fire*

No Yes Yes Yes 16 & 17

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M-4

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15cm.,40 cal. N Armstrong Gun. (Some instruc tion plates on gun in Spanish). 1 15cm.,45 cal. N Vickers(B*L.G. Mk H) Gun.

Cave w/gravel Direct Fire;tele filled 55 gal. scopic sights; drum embr.Elev.-telephone & voice tube. 4 to / 20. Cave w/gravel Direct Fire;tele filled 55 gal. scopic sights; RF drum embr.Elev for use of guns at -7 to / 18. positions No.M-5 & M-6,also,which are all connected by telephone. Concrete cover- Direct Fire;tele ed & lined(cut &scopic sights;tele fill type).Elev.phone & voice -7 to / 18. tubes. Cave. Direct Fire. Cave. Cave. Caves w/con crete embrs* Direct Fire. Direct Fire.

Yes
M-20 1 12cm.CD.Gun,3rd N yr. type* 20cm.,40 cal* N Armstrong Tur ret type Gun removed from Jap cruisers IWAMI, IWATE,NISSIN,' KASUGA. 15cm.,40 cal* Naval Gun* 15cm.,45 cal* Naval Guns* 15cm.,40 cal* Naval Guns. N N N

15,400 1,200

Yes

M-21

M-6

15cm.,45 cal* Vickers Gun.

15,400 1,200 8,000


300

Yes
M-22 No M-23 No No M-24 1 2 1

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A A A N

8,000
660

8,000
400

M-ll

75mm.AA guns, T.88

M-12 Z

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75mm.Mtn.Gun, T.94 1 75mm.Mtn*Gun, T.41

A A

Earth revet ment Army guns fired by Navy personnel. Cave*

Direct Fire;tele 18,700 scopic sights; 1,000 3.5m.BF in CP be tween guns;tele phone & voice tube s Direct Fire;3.5m, HF;telephones. Direct Fire. 8,000 450

Yes

M-25 Yes

12cm.DP.Guns, N 10th yr.type. Used forAAfire.

No Yes M-26 Yes Yes M-27 1 1 4 75mm.Mtn.Gun, T.94 75mm.Mtn.Gun, T.94 12cm.DP.Guns, T.10 A A N

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M-14 U-15

75mm.Mtn*Gun, T.41

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Cave w/palm log Direct Fire sights embr. Elev. with known refer -10 to / 40. ence points In field of fire; no communication. Cavo w/palm log Direct Fire sights; embr. Elev. no communication. -15 to / 40. Cave w/concrete Direct Fire sights & steel embr. & lm.RF; no comm. Elev .-15t o/40. Alternate posi tion in a cave 50 yds.W.to give field of fire 295 to 20*

18

M-28

Cave w/palm log Direct Fire sights; embr. Elev. no communication. -15 to / 40. Cut type revet- Direct Fire sights; ment. no communication. Palm log cut & Direct Fire sights; cover type cave no communication. w/concrete embr. Elev.-2oto/5. Concrete cut & Direct Fire sights; 16,500 cover w/concrete no communication. 900 embr* Elev* -7 to / 28. Turrets in open Azimuth & eleva 19,800 revetments*Elev. tion telescopes on 1,540 -5 to / 28. each side of gun; 4.5m.RF;oil gears were on each gun, to move it in ele vation & azimuth; telephone & voice tube. Cave w/concrete Direct Fire sights; 10,900 embr. Elev* 900 no communication* -4 to / 10. Cave. Elev. Direct Fire sight; 15,400 -2 to / 20. 1.5m.RF; voice 1,100 tube. Cave.Elev.-2 Direct Fire sights; 12,000 to/20. Another 4*5m.RF;no oom 1,000 gun of this type muni cat ion. on hand& was to have been em placed. Open revetment. None other than Elev. ? to /750, Btry.Comdr. spot ting with 8cm.bin oculars & calling directions to the guns by voice tubes;guns have open type speed ring sights. A Dir ector & HF.never arrived from Japan. Cave. Direct Fire. 8,000 800 Cave w/concrete Direct Fire only; 5,000 embr. Elev. telephone instal 300 -5 to / 2 led. Guns revetted Speed ring sights AA positions 50 only;complete tele yds.apart on phone system insteel sled bases^talled;Btry.QP.5O Elev./3to/75. yds N.of center of Btry.-had B.C*tel escope; hand wrench fuze cutter.

Yes

11 & 12

Yes

4 thru
10, & #40

Yes Yes Yes 13,14,15

Yes

No Yes

Yes

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JAPANESE DEFENSES O N TRUK A T O L L , C A R O L I N E I S L A N D S . C I N C P A C - C I N C P O A BULLETIN 3-46, 15 M A R C H 1946

ARTILLERY AND ORDNANCE

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Guns,revetted AA positions 20 yds apart;steel sled bases-no concrete.Elev. 0 to / 75. Cave w/2 embrs. 15 yds.apart; gun could be moved to either opening. Elev. -5 to / 10. Connecting caves w/embrs.20 yds. apart & CP .be tween the embrs Elev.-5to/10. Cave. Elev.-3 to / 10.

Fire Control
Speed ring sights
only;no telephones
installed;Section
Chief stood between
guns & shouted;hand
wrench fuze putter.
Direct Fire;lm.RF. 5,000
in S.cave opening; 300
no communication
installed;runner
only.
Direct Fire; communication by runner.
Direct Fire;no telephone installed.
Direct Fire. 5,000
300

Tyue
D-4 3 75mm.AA Gun, T.88 A

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Emplacement

Fire Control

Yes

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M-30

75mm.Mtn.G-un, T.41

Yes
D-5 Yes D-6 2 75mm.AA Gun, T.88 A 1 75mm.Mtn.Gun, T.94 A

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M-31 2 75mm,Mtn,Gun, T.94 A

Each gun in separate cave; mounts tipped forward to permit lower angle of fli*e. Elev. -10to/5.Cave connected E.& central guns. Cave w/cane embr.and steel doors;cave connected to CP. 10m.W.of gun.

Direct Fire;3m.RF. at W.gun;known reference points;Bn. island CP.was at this position,telephone comm.

Yes

Direct Fire;lm.RF. at CPjtelephone to CP.

Yes

Elev.-3W6.
5,000
300
8,000 Yes No Newly completed Direct Fire;lm.RF. cave connecting at S. gun. guns;guns 20m. apart;cave en trance 70m.distance on rever se slope of hill;
electric lights
installed.Elev.
5 to -/5
Cave. Elev*. Direct Fire;lm.HF.
-3 to / 10. & known reference
points in field of
fire;telephone to
OP.
Cut & fill-con- Direct Fire;lm.RFv crete w/earth telephone to OP. cover-2 concrete embrs.firing ports in em placements: Elev. -3 to / 3 6 . Cave connected Direct Fire;lm.RF. by tunnel to OP.on hill between position D-7. positions D-7 & D-9; Elev.-5to/3. telephone to OP. Concrete lined Direct Fire. cave w/concrete embr. Elev. -5 to / 5 . Cave. Direct Fire;tele 4,000 phone to Bn. CP. 200 Cave. Direct Fire;telephone to Btry.CP.

Yes

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M-32 M-33

1 1

75mm.Mtn.Gun, T.94 75mm.Mtn.Gun, T.94 75mm.Mtn.Gun, T.41

A Cave

D-1

A Cave w/concrete Direct Fire;tele B

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D-2

12cm.CD.Gun, 3rd yr.type (1914)fitted w/shield.

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11th yr.type (1922).

D-3

105mm.How.,T.91 A (1931).

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caves;1 gun on scopic sights; 3,000
each side of speaking tube,
hill connected
by caves; cave
entrance on S.
side of hill.
Cave also con nected to OP.on
N.side of hill.
Elev.-6 to/30.
Open cave in Direct Fire;lm.RF. 11,000
cliff;guns could at W. gun;0P.in
be moved to ob- separate cave;tel tain max.elev., ephone to OP.
(45);cave con nected guns.
Elev.-3sto/9 in
cave.

Yes

D-7

75mm.Mtn.Gun, T.94

Yes

Yes

D-8

75mm.Mtn.Gun, T.94

Yes

D-9

75mm.Mtn.Gun, T.94 75mm.Mtn.Gun, T.41

Yes Yes Yes Yes


21

Yes
D-lo 1 A

D-ll D-12

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8cm.,40 cal.CD. A Gun,Armstrong T.,fixed mount. 75mm.Mtn.Gun, A T.94-Gun not emplaced.

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JAPANESE DEFENSES ON TRUK ATOLL, CAROLINE ISLANDS. CINCPAC-CINCPOA BULLETIN 3-46, 15 MARCH 1946

ARTILLERY AND ORDNANCE

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Cave.

F i r e Control

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Type 75mm.Mtn.Gun, T.41

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1 Fire Control

1,500 Yes Yes

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8cm.Armstrong A T.,40 cal.,fix ed mount CD.Gun (Believed to be original Armstrong Vickers rather than a Jap copy. 75mm.Mtn.Gun, A T.41 N

Direct Fire sights; 8,,000 telephone to Bn.CP. 200

Yes

D-25 D-26

1 2

127mm.DP.Gun, N T.89-Twin Mount.

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2. 127ram.DP.Gun, T.89(1929)Twln mount.

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Direct Fire;tele phone between guns & to CP. Concrete revet- T.95 Director,(AA) ment,w/amrao. & T.94,4.5m.Ster ready chests eoscopic RF;dir around perimeter;ect fire sights on director & RF. guns.Two 60kw.gen on concrete erators for power; blocks above re-data transmission serve ammo.stor-system;speaking age;3 revetmentstube & telephone for gun mounts & buzzer for fire (3rd gun was commands, said to be lost on the way from JAPAN to TRUK. Cave. Direct Fire.

Cave.

6,000 Yes 22,23,24 25,27

D-27 D-28

3 1

75mm.AA.Gun, T.88 75mm.AA.Gun, T.88

Direct Fire. Cave w/steel embr. & door. Elev.-2to/3. 1 mount bombed Probably had dirout Feb.44;l ector. mount bombed out Mar45;open revetments. Open revetment Direct Fire, to fire AA;D-27 & D-28 same btry. Open revetment Direct Fire, to fire AA;D-2^ & D-28 same btry. Cave. Cave. Cave in rock cliff.Elev.-2 to / 8 . Cave in rock cliff w/conc rete parapets. Elev.-5to/10 Direct Fire, Direct Fire< Direct Fire

No No

F-l F-2 F-3 F-4 4,000 No Yes F-5 F-6

1 1 2 2

75mm.Fld.Gun, T.95 75mm.Mtn.Gun, T.41 75mm.Mtn.Gun, T.41

A A A

8,800 500 6,600 500 6,600 3,000

No No Yes Yes 35 & 36

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10cm.How.,T.95. A

D-18 D-19

1 1

75mm.Mtn.Gun, T.94

Cave,finished Direct Fire.w/pan 6,000 w/concrete & a oramic sights & 100 concrete embr; reference points in tunnel to rear field of fire. of cave w/palm log re-inforce ment. Proposed cave: Direct Fire w/pan 9,500 One cave com oramic sights:lm. 150 plete w/conRF. crete embr; sec ond partially completed. Cave. direct Fire, 8,000

1 2

15cm.,40 cal., N Guns.Stabili ment o-Armstrong Puzzuoli,1902. Removed from old Battleship KASUGA. A 8cm.Gun,Arm strong type. 8cm.DP .Guns, N 10th yr.type. 8cm.Gun,Arm strong type. 75mm.Fid.Gun, T.95 A A

Direct Fire;tele 10,900 scopic sights; lm. 2,200 RF;voice tube only,

Cave. Concrete revetted AA poslt ions.Elev.O0 to /75O. Cave.

Direct Fire. Direct Firejtele scopes; 1^-m. Stereo scopic RF. Direct Fire. Direct Fire. Type 2 D i r e c t o r w/ 4^-m. s t e r e o s c o p i c RF;data t r a n s m i s sion system i n s t a l l e d ; a l s o speed r i n g sight s ; t elephones.

7,700 2,000

No Yes

29 & 38

Yes
F-7 F-8 1 1 6

500
Cave w/concrete Direct Fire & ref 12,000 emfcr. erence points in 1,000 field of fire; OP w/binoculars;tele phone to OP. Cave. Direct Fire. 6,000

No Yes
19

F-9

15cm.,40 Cal., N T.41 Gun.

Cave in rock cliff. Elev. -3 to / 6. 12cm. DP. Guns, N Revetted AA positions. Elev. 10th yr.type w/ 0 to /75. fuze cutters*

7,700 1,800 8,800 1,300

No Yes

Yes 30 thru
34

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75mm.Mtn.Gun, T.41 1 75mm.Mtn.Gun, T.41 1 75mm.Mtn.Gun, T.41 2 lOcm.How.,T.91. 2 75mm.Mtn.Gun, T.94

A A A A A

No No No No Yes

500
Cave. Cave. Cave. Direct Fire. Direct Fire. Direct Fire. 6,000

F-10

12cm.CD.Guns, 3rd yr.type.

500
6,000

Caves in rock D i r e c t Fire;CP l o - 10,900 cliff w/con cated between g u n s . 3,000 crete embrs; caves not con nected. Elev. 2 caves con Direct Firejpan n e c t e d by t u n oramic s i g h t ; l m . n e l i n which t o RF. emplace t h i s weapon. 6,600 600

Yes

28

500
10,000 1,000 F-ll l Concrete lined Direct Fire;lm.RF. caves;2 guns on at saddle crest; E.side of ter- telephone to OP. rain saddle;1 E.-W. tunnel connecting the 2 guns w/embr. on W.side .Elev. -5 to -f 10. 75mm.Mtn.Gxin, T.41 A

Yes

28

Picture battery

No. on

22 (PM DOBLON.

512) 127mm Position

AA GUN, D-14.

TYPE

89:

AA

Picture 12.7cm

No. 23 (PM 59) DIRECTOR, TYPE 9 5 ; AA battery on DUBLON. Posit ton D-14

Used

in

P i c t u r e N o . 2 4 (PM 5 1 1 ) TYPE 9 4 : Used m 1 2 . 7 c m f o r e g r o u n d c o n t i n u e s up to position near Directo

RANGE FINDER, STEREOSCOPIC ,4 . 5 m , AA b a t t e r y o n DUBLON. Pipe m lower through Range Finder p e d e s t a l a n d also r f o r fire commands, Position D - 1 4 .

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P i c t u r e N o . 2 5 (PM 5 1 0 ) 1 2 . 7 c m AA GUN COMMAND POST: DUBLON. Lower foreground is entranee t o Personnel quarters. R e s e r v e a m m u n i t i o n dump l o c a t e d m cave beneath quarters. Posi tion D-14.

P i c t u r e N o . 2 6 (PM 4 0 8 ) T Y P I C A L gun, tyPe 3 8 . P o s i t i o n F - 1 4 .

FIELD

OF F I R E :

75*

field

Picture battery

No. on

2 7 (PM 108) 12.7cm Pos it 1 on DUBLON.

AA GUN, TYPE 89: D-14.

AA

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Picture No. 28 (PM 409) GUN POSITION 3rd yr type gun, position F-10.

IN CAVE

12cm,

Picture No. 29 (PM 417) 8cm, D.P.. In c oncrete AA position F-6.

10th YR TYPE

GUN:

Picture No. 30 Posit 1 on F-9.

(PM

402) 12cm, D.P.

10th YR TYPE GUN,

29

ARTILLERY A N D ORDNANCE

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15cm.,40 cal*, Gun.Stabilimento Armstrong Puzzuoli. 75mm.Fid.Gun, T.38 75mm.Mtn.Gun, T.94 12cm.,45 cal., 3rd yr.type CD.Gun. 75mm.Mtn.Gun, T.94 75mm.Mtn.Gun, T.41 75mm.Mtn.Gun, T.41 8cm.Gun,Armstrong. 75mm.Mtn.Gun, T.41

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F-14 F-15 F-16

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M m s: Cave lined w / Direct Fire w/tele- 9,000 reinforced con- scopic sights;range 1,200 crete; concrete to target estimated; embr. Elev. telephone & voice tube to CP. -5 to /14. Cave lined w/ Direct Fire w/tele- 9,000 reinforced con- scopic sights;range 1,200 crete; concrete to target estimated embr. Elev, telephone & voice -5 to / 1 4 5 . tube to CP. Cave. Direct Fire w/pan- 8,000 oramic sight. 300 Direct Fire. 8,000 Cave. 600 Cave w/concrete Direct Fire;tele- 10,900 embr. Elev. scopic sights; tel- 2,500 -3 to /13. ephone and voice tube. 8,000 Cave. Direct Fire. 500 Direct Fire. Cave, 6,000 500 Cave. Direct Fire, 6,000 600 Cave. Direct Fire. 8,800 300 Open emplaceDirect Fire. 6,000 ment on Tsis I ) 300
Direct Fire. 6,000

Emolacement

Fire Control

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Fire Control Direct Fire.

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6,000 8,000

d M

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Yes

1 1 2

Yes

75mm.Mtn.Gun, T.41
75mm. Mtn. Gun-, T.94 14cm,,50 cal. Gun,3rd yr. type.Turret mount 15.5cm.,60 cal* Gun.Turret type (From Cruiser NAGAMI)

A A N

No

Yes
Yes

Direct Fire sighta

-3 to /35.

Caves connected Direct Fire sights; 18,700 Elev.-5Oto/24. 3.5m.RF.& spotting 1,700
telescope in CP;
comm.by voice tube
& telephone.
On concrete pe- Direct Fire tele- 30,000 destals level scopic sights;3.5m. 1,000 w/ground. Elev. RF;20 power 12cm.
binoculars for
-5 to /55. spotting;comm.by
voice tube,tele phone & buzzer.
Direct Fir*e sights; 8,000 Caves(it was planned to con-lm.RF;communi800
nect the caves). cation between
Elev.T.41,-5to guns by runner.
/40;T.94,-10
to /45.
Caves connected Direct Fire sights; 18,700 1,000
Elev.-3to/23. 2.5m.RF;comm.by voice tube between
guns & to CP.

U-9 Yes No Yes


U-10

26

Yes

41 thru
46,& 48

75mm.Mtn*Gun, (1-T.41;1-T.94)

Yes

No No No No No
E-l 4
12cm.DP.Guns, 10th yr.type. U-ll

14cm.,50 cal., N 3rd yr.type Gun.

Yes

37 & 39

N Concrete revet- T.2 Director w/2m.


ted AA positions. Elev.0 to/75.Excellent installation. stereoscopic RF.
data transmission
system installed;
12cm.scope at B.C.
station;telephone
& voice tube comm.

Yes

o
<

^%

U-l
U-2

1 75mm.Mtn.Gun, 1
T.41 15cm.,40 cal* Gun.Stabilimen-

A Cave. N Open revetted


position.Elev.

No Yes

to,Armstrong Puzzuoli*Ser.
745 made in 1900.Pointing & Training accomplished by one man Init ial muzzle velocity 700m. per sec.

Direct Fire using 10,900 1 telescope;range 200 scale on sight; cal-2 to /20. Loading machine ibrated to 10,000m,;
adjacent to em-CP.directly in rear
placement . of gun;no communication..

UD-1

12cm.DP.Gun, 10th yr.type.

N Cave in rock

Direct Fire sights; 13,200 cliff,loose rock no comraunlcation. 2,000


parapet;steel
plate base not
set in concrete.

Yes

Elev.-5to/15.

U-3
CO
LU

Rocket Launchers for 60kg* rockete.Local- ly manufactured on Dublon I* 15cm.,40 cal* Gun.Stabilimen-

A In open pit.

None;direct laying; no communication.

350

Yes

20

UD-2 UD-3 UD-4

1 1 1

CO LU LU LU

Z
Q

U-4

N Open revetted
position.Elev.

to Armstrong PuzzuoliSer. U-5 1


819. 75mm.Mtn*Gun, T.41

-2 to /20.

Direct Fire using telescope; no communication.

10,900 500

Yes
UD-5

75mm.MtA.Gun, T.94 75mm.Mtn.Gun, T.94 75mm.Mtn.Gun, T.41

A A A

Cave. Cave.

Direct Fire. Direct Fire.

2 caves connec- Direct Fire. ted for firing the 1 weapon. 2 caves connec- Direct Fire. ted for firing the 1 weapon.

1 75mm.Mtn*Gun,
T.41

CO
LU

A Cave w/concrete Direct Fire only;


deck connected to CP. Elev. communication by

2,000 300

Yes

8,000 770
8,000 660
6,000 (6,000)
500
(880)
6,000 (6,000)
800
(600)

No
No
No

No

runner.

-3 to 0.

'i >

30

I
4.

"3

10

% *

">i

I o

JAPANESE DEFENSES O N TRUK A T O L L , C A R O L I N E I S L A N D S .

C I N C P A C - C I N C P O A BULLETIN 3 - 4 6 , 15 M A R C H 1946;

ARTILLERY A N D ORDNANCE

Army or Navy

Effective
Ranges (Yds)
Max.-Min.

Inspected

Number 1

ICH 1946

(Position
Number

Inspected

Weaoons
iNumber

Wearons

Army or Navy

Effective
Ranges (Yds)
Max.-Min.

Pioture
No,

ition
ber

Type.

Emplacement

Fire Control

Li.

Type,

Emplacement

Fire Control

P-1

in

5 12cm.,45 cal,, DP.Gun,10th yr. type.

en

Z
t
UJ

P-2

_i

1 12cm.,45 cal., DP.Gun,10th yr. type. 3 75mm.AA Gun, T.88 2 75mm.Mtn.Gun, T.94

00 <

P-3 P-4

N A

O a.
Mm %

z
a

P-5 P-6

1 75mm.Mtn.Gun, T.41 1 75mm.AA Gun, T.88 1 12cm.DP.Gun, 10th yr.type. 1 75mm,Mtn*Gun, T.94 1 75mm.Mtn.Gun, T.94 3 15cm.,40 cal, mento,Armstrong Puzzuoli,elec tric firing cir^
WrUnS, uuaDj.ll
P
n r i

A N

Cut type revet- T.2 Director & dirments lined w/ ect fire sights; palm logs. 2m.RF w/altitude convertor;data transmission sys tem; powered by 2 3kw,generators;tel ephone & voice tube comm. Cave-lined w / Locally manufac 10,900 corrugated sheet tured direct fire 2,200 sights;no comm. metal. Elev. -4 to /15. Open revetment. Direct Fire sights; 2m.RF;telephones. Open emplace Direct Fire, 8,000 200 ment (caves pro posed); field of fire to N.by swinging 1 gun around. Cave(on Tarik Direct Fire, 6,000 I.) Open revetment Direct Fire, to fire AA. Cave, Cave, Cave, Direct Fire, Direct Fire* Direct Fire. 13,200 1,000 2,180 330 2,180 435 14,300 2,500

Ye 8

49

T-14

1-15 T-16 T-17

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4

Yes

47 T-18 T-19

Yes
T-20 No T-21 T-22

No No No No

N Cave* 15cm.,40 cal* Direct Fire tele- 12,100 Gun8.Stabiliscopic sightBjl-^m. 1,500
mento Armcoincidence RF* strong Puzzuoli, 75mm.Mtn.Gun, Direct Fire* 7,600 A Cave* T.94 330 76mm.Mtn*Gun, Direct Fire* 2,300 A Cave* 660 T.41 75mm.Mtn.Gun, Direct Fire* 3,300 A Cave* T.41 190 75mm.Mtn.Gun, Direct Fire* A Cave* 2,500 T.41 165 75mm.Mtn,Gun, Direct Fire* 2,200 A Cave, T.41 165 75mm.Mtn.Gun, A Cave, Direct Fire, 2,600 T.41 165 75mm.Mtn.Gun, Direct Fire* A Cave, 2,100 T.41 770 15cm,,40 cal* N Caves w/concrete Direct Fire:tele 10,900 A c rook embrs. scopic eights*3m. 2,000 Gune.Stabili Elev*-4to/17 coincidence RF;tel mento Anastrong Puzzuoli ephone & buazer.

No

No No No No No No No Yes *

T-1 T-2 T-3 T-4

z <
ir#

N A A

LU

Z _ i r\ \j

N Connecting caves Direct Fire;tele


w/concrete & scopic sights; 3m, rock embrs'tun coincidence RF; nel to CP.Eiev, telephone,voice tube & buzzer. -4 to /L7* A Cave connecting Direct Fire. w/alternate po sition. Cave. Cave, Cave, Direct Fire. Direct Fire* Direct Fire*

Yes
m

Q * -j t V> O

on i ^

-i ^%

T-5

75mm.Mtn.Gun, T.41

T-6

z o
CO 111 UJ

T-7 T-8 T-9 T-10 T-11 T-12

z
UJ
I a

to

1 75mm.Mtn.Gun, T.41 1 75mm.Mtn.Gun, T.41 1 75mm.Mtn.Gun, T.94 1 75mm.Mtn.Gun, T.94 1 75mm.Mtn.Gun, T.94 1 1
-J

A A A A A A A A

UJ

O
UJ
CO

UJ

75mm.Mtn.Gun, T.94 c
7 5nm V*~n G u n

Cave connecting Direct Fire* w/alternate position. Cave connecting Direct Fire* w/alternate po sition. Cave, Direct Fire,
C A VP _ vll cw U C -Lie.

2,180 330 Alternate Pos 550 2,180 200 3,000 440 1,600 330 7,600 870 7,600 1,950 7,600 1,100
DjUUU

No

No
No No No No

No
Nn JNO

<

T-13

T.41* 1 75mm,Mtn,Gun, T.94

WLWm
Picture Mo. do (PM 333) PARTIAL VIEW OF FIELD OF FIRE 2ocu GUM r. MOEM: Position M-ai.

Cave,

Direct Fire.

440 7,600 330

No

32

Pioture
No*

on

>-. J

-a
CO

C5

I o

CD

C5 >. I CD O

ts
U)

a io

'JV

3 3

o o

CD

CO CO

JAPANESE DEFENSES ON TRUK ATOLL, CAROLINE ISLANDS. CINCPAC-CINCPOA BULLETIN 3-46, 15 MARCH 1946

ARTILLERY AND ORDNANCE

MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR FACILITIES.


In general, maintenance and repair facilities according to our standards did
not exist in the Japanese Army at *his installation. Apparently no maintenance
organization existed as such. The using units performed their own first and
limited second echelon maintenance. Early in the war, third echelon assemblies
were shipped to JAPAN and new or rebuilt assemblies were shipped to TRUK. Later
in the war, the ^ m y depended on the Navy for such higher echelon maintenance as
was required and which could be performed by the Navy shops.
Up to 30 April 1944, when its shops were bombed out, the Navy had very
adequately manned and equipped repair facilities which were capable of malting very
extensive repairs on a wide varlbwy of materiel.

Picture No.
1 - Universal grinder, 8" swing X 24" between centers, Br^wn &
Sharpe No. lu.
1 - Radial Drill, 48 w radius X 48" vertical olearance, Minoura & Co., Ltd., individual motor drive.
1 - Shaper, vertical (or Keyway cutter) 26 M dla table, 14" stroke, Kubooho, Tokyo, Individual motor drive.
1 - Pipe threader, i-3/8" diameter capacity, equipped with bolt
thread fly cutters only, Landis Machinery Co., Waynesboro,
Pa., belt drive.
1 - Lathe, 14" swing X 48" between centers, heavy duty, turret type tool holder. J.F.K. Mfg., Osaka, individual motor drive.
2 - Lathe, 16" swing X 28" between centers, gap bed, Japanese manufacture, belt drive.
1 - Lathe, 16" swing X 48" between centers, with taper attaoh ment, Amerioan Tool Works Co., Cincinnati, Ohio. Navy Yard
No. 9-77, Purchased 1931, Cost $3,161.
1 - Boring Machine, horizontal, 51" spindle head to support bearing, the Fairbanks Co., Navy Yard No. 9-5, purchased 1909,
cost $1,125.
1 - Turret lathe, 22" swing X 72" between centers, gap bed, the Rahn Larmon Co., Cincinnati, Ohio, Navy Yard No. 340B-8,
purchased 1921. Property of the U. S. Army, P4299.448C, No.
124 Ordnance Department, belt drive,
1 - Planer, open side, bed 28" X 120", Petrick and Harvey Machine Co., belt drive.
1 - Drill press, sensitive type, 12" swing, floor type.
2 - Lathe, 6fl swing X 12" between centers, bench type, precision,
with turret attachment, not installed to operate motor drive.
1 - Punch and shear, Yamokawa Press Mfg. Co., Individual motor drive.
1 - Sheer, gate, 5 1 capacity 3/8" stock. 1 - Hammer, individual motor drive. 1 - Furnace, heat treating, 18" wide X 24" deep X 12" high.
1 - Forge, anvil, blacksmith vioe, hand tools.

66
61

60
62

UJ
_i CQ

In addition, prior to January, 1944, three Japanese repair ships - a part of


the Grand Fleet - assisted island personnel in the maintenance of materiel.
A map showing the extent of the Navy maintenance facilities before and after
the bombing of 30 April 1944, ana subsequent shops constructed, is included as a
part of the Engineer's Annex to this report.
Following the bombing of 30 April 1944, shop equipment which was still service-
able, or could be made so, was in most cases moved underground. The principal
underground machine shop is indicated on the above-mentioned annex. The floor is
rock-dirt and very wet, requiring a pump to control the water level in the shop.
Due to the extremely damp conditions, all machine and hand tools are In a very poor
state of preservation.
The blacksmith shop consisted of a small open shed.

63
64

65

CO

The foundry was reduced to one medium-sized oil-fired cupula (see picture No.
67) from which small xron castings could be produced. It was found at approximately
its original position.
The welding shop, while in its original position, was damaged. Due to the
lack of proper welding rod, soft iron wire cut to proper length and dipped In an
asbestos paste was used. The gasoline-driven direct-current machines were still
in operation. Acetylene welding was stopped with the destruction of the oxygen
and acetylene plants.
Partial destruction of the carpenter shop reduced the production of pattern-
making and carpentry to a hand operati-on.
The above shops each had well-equipped tool rooms with an adequate supply of
micrometers (both inside and outside), verniers, scales, calipers, electric drills,
taps and dies, planes, chisels, carpentry and blacksmith tools.
Following is a list of the principal machine tools with which the above shops
are now equipped and which were in operating condition:
1 - Shaper (Asano-Jyuko) 16" stroke, 1 6 " horizontal and 1 4 W vertical travel table. Individual motor drive.
1 - Lathe, 16" swing X 48" between centers, Monarch Machine Tool
Co. Navy Yard Number 9-104, Back geared, individual motor
drive.
1 - Lathe, 16 l! swing X 60fl between centers, quick change gears,
individual drive, taper attachment, South Bend.
1 - Lathe, 8 I ! swing X 24" between centers, Japanese manufacture,
WSK-3, back geared, taper attachment, turret type tool
holder, Individual motor drive.
3 - Lathe, 8 H swing X 26" between centers, precision type, complete with collet set, Japanese manufacture, individual motor
drive.
2 - Drill press, 22" swing, floor type, movable table, Individual motor drive, power feed, Minoura & Co., Ltd.
1 - Universal Milling Machine, The Kempsmlth Mfg. Co., Milwaukee,
Wisconsin., Navy Yard No. 9-78, year purchased 1921, cost
Si.793. individual motor drive.
Picture No.
57

66
68
69

CO

The 104th Alrforce Arsenal (Navy), prior to 17 February, 1944, was laid out
as indicated in the plan included as a part of the Engineer's annex to this report.
At the time indicated, it was destroyed by bombing. At present, the power-plant
building is standing. Machines in the shops were destroyed and have been removed.
The only indication of the machine tools is the "Wooden Shop" (Carpenter Shop).
The following machinery is in that location but is unserviceable:
2 - bandsaw 36"
1 - Joiner
1 - 1 4 " planer
1 - 1 8 " planer
1 - 16" swing X 36" between centers, lathe
1 - Circular saw and Joiner

z o
CO UJ
CO

The 4th Construction Department Repair Shop (Civil Engineering Department of


the Japanese Navy) has a machine and repair shop which was evidently used for the
repair of its equipment and for such manufacture as was required. The machine tools
and other equipment were in good condition but of very old manufacture (possibly
before 1900) The machine shop was powered by a single cylinder horizontal YANMAN
Diesel Engine, all machines being driven from overhead pulleys and line shafts.
Shop equipment included the following:

58
59

CO LU

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Lathe, 18" X 96", gap bed, turret type tool holder, back geared.
Lathe, 18" X 30", gap bed, turret type tool holder, back geared.
Lathe, 16" X 30", gap bed, turret type tool holder, back geared.
Drill press, 22" swing -Tloor type, hand feed.
Milling machine, table 7 W X 29", with dividing head.
Shaper, 18" stroke, with vice.
Grinder, pedestal type, 10" wheels.

PiT r

34

afei.

VV

z
Picture ENGINE No. 50 (PM 25) i.oookv GENERATOR l.yoohp DIESEL Picture ENGINE. No. 51 (PM 26) 74kw GENERATOR g-ohp DIESEL Picture lQohp No. diestl 52 (PM 39) engine. 6$kva(ac)

- 65ku>(dc) GENERATOR

o z

z
UJ

o
ac

P i c t u r . * ^ o . 5 3 (PM40) die set engine

iookva(ac) (unserviceable).

GENERATOR:

150HP

Picture from

No. e nt ranc

54 W e.

35) UNDERGROUND

MACHINE

SHOP:

View

Picture No. from inside

55 (PM 36) the shop.

UNDERGROUND MACHINE SHOP:

View

in UJ

Picture No. 5 6 (PM 30) RADIAL vert ical c Learance, indiv idua Co., ltd.

DRILL: I motor

48" radius X 48" drive, Mtnoura and

Picture stroke, indiv

No. 5 7 (PM 27) SHAPER: table travel 16" horizontal idua I motor drive.

(Ansano Jyuko X 14"

16" vertical,

Picture centers, individual

No. 58 precision motor

(PM 28) type, drive.

LATHE: comtlete-

8" sum? with $E ^A

X 26" col

ftTi
35

ARTILLERY AND ORDNANCE

A email blacksmith shop, with two forges and two anvils, located adjacent to the machine shop is presently used to store kafir corn. One of the lathes listed
above was equipped with attachments for threshing, and there was a grist mill for grinding this corn. A two-stall garage-type shop was used to repair Construction Department
vehicles, air compressors, bicycles, etc.

TOTAL QUANTITIES OF FIRE CONTROL ITEMS.


The following inventory was compiled by the Japanese and is believed to be
quite complete and accurate. The inventories do not include such items as binoculars
end compasses which were used by the Japanese Naval Air Unit on TRUK.

A saw-mill was operated to make rough lumber for construction purposes. A


4 1 diameter band-saw mounted with a cradle for passing and handling the logs, was
driven by a diesel engine.
The above installations were equipped with limited hand tools, such as:
micrometers, calipers, verniers, scales, blacksmith and mechanic's hand tools.
The 41st Garrison Machine Shop and Warehouse had evidently been a small
combination shop for general repairs and maintenance. It had some permanent equip ment installed as follows:

Navy Fire Control Items:


Quantity 2 1 1 1 1 2 5 2 2 1
57 22 3 2 42 31 10 8 1 1 22
1 461 19 33 48 11
38 45 25 3 170 7 Item Type 94, 4.5m Range Finder. Type 93, 4.5m Range Finder.
BU Type, 4.5m DP Range Finder.
BU Type, 3.5m Range Finder.
BU Type, 2.5m Range Finder.
Waterproof, 3.5m light Range Finder.
Range Finders.
Range change.
Type 13 Range Clocks.
15cm binoculars.
12cm binoculars.
12cm high angle binoculars.
12cm observation glasses.
12cm binoculars, Type 97 waterproof.
8cm binoculars.
8cm high angle binoculars.
6cm high angle binoculars.
Model 3 observation glasses.
66cm range finder.
3cm binoculars, high angle.
Prismatic binoculars, Model I.
10 power prismatic binoculars.
7 power prismatic binoculars.
6 power prismatic binoculars.
Wall clock, weekly wind, luminous.
Wall clock, dally wind, luminous.
Wall clock, weekly wind.
Wall clock, daily wind.
Wall clock.
Stop watch, model 1-B.
Stop watch, model 3.
Stop watch.
Ordinary binoculars.
Army Fire Control Items:
1
595
43
603 13 38
83 30 2 1 17 1 1 1 15 Type 96 Searchlight Instrument.
13th yr type Binoculars.
Type 89 Binoculars.
Type 93 Binoculars.
Type 37 Artillery glasses.
Type 93 Artillery glasses.
Type 93 50cm observation glasses.
Type 93 Field range finder.
8th yr type Heavy range finder.
Type 89 AA binoculars.
7 power periscope binoculars.
8cm binoculars.
12cm binoculars.
12cm high angle binocular range finder.
Type 98 Light ground fire control instrument.
Picture Number
24

CQ

a . Z

to
Q

1 - Lathe, 18" X 36", quick change gears, heavy duty, Jap manufacture
similar to a modern South Bend Lathe, taper attachment, of very modern type, individual motor drive. Picture No. 71. 1 - Grinder, pedestal type, 12" wheels. 1 - Drill press, 22" swing, floor type, hand and power feed. 1 - Saw, band, 36" diameter wheels (woodworking) Individual motor drive. 1 - Circular saw, 12" diameter blade, tilt top, table type, with complete set dado heads (woodworking) individual motor drive. 1 - Planer, 16" blades (woodworking) individual motor drive.
1 - Sharpener for woodworking band saws.
1 - Lathe, 16" X 40" (woodworking) individual motor drive.
1 - Bla.cksmithing outfit complete with forge, anvil, shear, vices and hand
tools.
1 - Furnace (in ground) oil-fired for producing iron castings.
In addition, the shop was equipped for both acetylene and arc welding. A
complete supply of hand tools for use with the above machine tools was on hand.
Evidently a number of machine tools was received from JAPAN which it was
thought best not to install for operation. These were stored in caves and recently
had been moved to this shop for storage. These machines of very recent manufacture
and very modern design are listed as follows:
1 - Lathe, 18" X 48" between centers, heavy duty type, quick change gears,
(similar to Reed-Prentice), individual motor driven.
1 - Lathe, 18" X 30" between centers, heavy duty type, quick change gears,
(similar to Reed-Prentice), Individual motor drive.
1 - Shaper, 20" stroke, with vice, (similar to Cincinnati) Individual motor
drive. Picture No. 72.
1 - Circular saw 12" blade, tilt top table type complete with dado heads,
individual motor drive.
1 - Drill press 22" swing, power and hand feed floor type, individual motor
drive.
3 - Welders, electric, AC transformer type.
It is felt that prior to the bombing of 30 April 1944, the maintenance and
repair facilities of TRUK were such that very extensive repairs, including fifth
echelon, were possible and had been accomplished. Probably the most serious
handicap was the difficulty encountered with procurement of supplies from supply
bases In JAPAN due to the distance to be traveled. This lack of supply became more
serious as our attacks reduced the tonnage of Japanese shipjjing of manufactured and
raw materials which was getting through to TRUK. After the bombing of 30 April 1944,
the maintenance facilities were curtailed to a large extent, until they were re located and re-established as indicated in the above paragraphs. However, they were
never able to approach the capabilities which were formerly enjoyed. It is felt
that their facilities are roughly 10 to 20 per cent of what they previously had
been. By observation and conversation with Japanese officers, it is concluded that
maintenance was practically at a standstill due to the lack of fundamental supplies.
Little or no stock of major items, assemblies, sub-assemblies or raw materials
existed at the cessation of the war.

to
LU

_
i

o
<

z o

en

Ul
to

LU

LU
to
LU

36

/M

m Z

P i c t u r e N o . 5 9 (PM 2 9 ) D R I L L P R E S S : 2 2 "s w m ? , f l o o r t y p e , ntoi/aHe t a b l e , i n d i v i d u a l m o t o r d r i v e , p o w e r f e e d M m o t i r a a n d C o . , l t d .

P i c t u r e N o . 6 0 (PM 3 2 J L A T H E : 1 4 " s u m ? X 4 8 " b e t w e e n c e n t e r s , h e a v y d u t y t u r r e t t y p e t o o l h o l d e r , m di v i d u a I m o t o r d r i v e , J.F.K. M f g . . OSAKA.

P i c t u r e N o . 6 1 (PM 3 1 ) cutter.) 2 6 " d t a . t a b l e d r i v e , K u b o c h o , Tokyo.

VERTICAL SHAPER: (on keyway X 1 4 " s t r o k e , t n i i v idud I m o t o r

o
a.

z
z

P i c t u r e N o . 6 2 (PM 3 3 ) L A T H E : *6 " s w i n g c e n t e r s , g a p b e d , Japanese m a n u f a c t u r e ,

X 2 8 " b e t w e e n bel't d r i v e .

P i c t u r e N o . 6 3 (PM 3 4 ) B O R I N G M A C H I N E : h o r i z o n t a l , 5 1 " b e a n n f . The F a i r b a n k s C o . , Navy s p i n d l e head t o s u p p o r t Yard N o . 9 - 5 , p u r e h a s e d igog. Cost $ 1 , 1 2 5 .

P i c t u r e N o . 6 4 (PM 3 J ) T U R R E T L A T H E : 2 2 " s w t n f X 7 2 " b e t w e e n c e n t e r s , g a p b e d . The Rahn Larmon C o . , C i n c i n n a t i , Ohio, Navy Yard N o . 3 4 0 B - 8 . p u r c h a s e d 1 9 2 1 , P r o p e r t y of U.S.Army P4299. 448C, N o . 1 2 4 Ordnance D e p a r t m e n t .

o
to to

LU CO LU

Z a

P i c t u r e N o . 6 5 (PM 3 8 ) P L A N E R : Open 120", b e l t d r i v e , P e t n c k a n d Harvey

s i d e , b e d 2 8 " X Machine C o .

P i c t u r e ,1,0. 6 6 d r i v e , Yanojawa a r e a .

(PM 4 2 ) P U S C h AND S H E A R : P r e s s M f g . C o . , o l d fiavy

I n l i v i l u a l r e p a i r

m o t o r

Picture area.

No.

67

(PM

41)

COPULA:

Oil

S civ y

r e p a i r

shop

37

ARTILLERY AND ORDNANCE

o
I

Quantity 3 2 1 1 1 5 4 1 8 13 2 752 3 3 9 15 5 15 1 2 4

Item
Gunner's slide rule.
Calculating boards.
Type 98 Fire calculating board.
Type Mark I Plotting board.
Type Mark II Plotting board.
Goniometer.
Protractor.
Trajectory and wind plotting board.
Stop watch.
Portable thermometer.
Type 93 Height finder.
Type 98 Night compass.
Type 1 Plane altitude measuring instrument.
Type 2 Plane altitude measuring instrument.
Type 97 Rifle type stereoscopic sight.
Type 97 Stereoscopic sight.
Type 98 Target range finder.
Gun sight direction block.
Clinometer.
Clinometer spectacles.
Mil slide rule.

TOTAL QUANTITIES OF WEAPONS AND AMMUNITION.


The following Inventory was complied by the Japanese and is believed to be
quite complete and accurate insofar as weapons are concerned. The ammunition
inventory is of unknown accuracy since all ammunition had been dumped at sea prior
to the arrival of the Study Group. These inventories do not include bombs and bomb
fuzes, aircraft machine guns nor the ammunition for these guns which were used by
the Jap Air Unit on TRUK, nor the ammunition stored at TRUK for the Imperial Fleet.
Navy Ordnance Equipment:
QUANTITY AMMUNITION
(ROUNDS)

Ul

TYPE
Safety 3rd yr. Safety Safety

CALIBER

WEAPON 20cm Gun 15,5cm Gun 15cm Gun 15cm Gun 15cm Gun
14cm Gun 12cm Gun 12cm Gun 12.7cm Multiple Mount DP Gun 12cm AA Gun 8cm AA Gun 8cm AA Gun 7cm AA Gun 8cm Mortars 47mm Mobile Gun 37mm Anti-Tank Gun 30mm MG, fixed 20mm MG
20mm MG 25mm Multiple Mount MG
25mm Single Mount MG 13mm Multiple Mount MG
13ram Single Mount MG 13mm Quad. Mount MG
7.7mm Single Mount MG
7.7mm Flex, Mount MG 7.7mm MG
7.7mm Flex. MG
Heavy MG Light MG

PICTURE NO.

4
3 13

4 4
0

41
3rd yr.

45 60 40 45 40 50 40 40 45 40
Short

946
773

3,103
3,706
3,855
2,780

<

7
3

2
29
3

41 89
10th yr. 3rd yr. 5th yr.

262

TOTAL QUANTITIES OF VEHICLES (NO TACTICAL VEHICLES WERE FOUND ON TRUKK

KJ

The following inventory was compiled by the Japanese. Two Inventories were
submitted, one showing total quantities at TRUK, the other showing quantities on
each island. Discrepancies exist in comparing the two. The following is believed
therefore to be only fairly complete and accurate.
Navy Vehicles;
Quantity 196 34 15 13 Vehicle
Trucks.
Personnel carriers.
Fire trucks.
Motorcycles with side cars
(believed to be motor tricycles).
Sidecar (with motorcycle).
Machine gun carts.
Tractors.
Three-wheeled fire cart.
Trucks equipped with crane.
Fuel oil trucks.
Ambulances.
Air charging truck (torpedoes).
Ditchers.
Sprinkler truck.
Trucks for transporting torpedoes.
Oxygen generating truck.
Searchlight truck.
Water supply trucks.

1
9 23 2 2 1 1 91 73 23 3 89

CD
AA
AA
609 CD
2,122 AA

2,908 7,337 1,957

132

3,237
3,957

3 1 94 2
99 MK 1

272

1,984
1,700
47,207
472,835
265,064
1,137,094
272,928
51,100

96 96 93 93
Hotchkiss

1
140 28 1 8 31 177 1 15 3
6,567 1,214

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1 7 11
1
5
11
2
2
5
1
2
1
1
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Army Vehicles;
Quantity
75
3
1
7
3
1
94

92 92
Lewis Model 1

92 99
3rd yr.

96 11 99 38

MG

Light MG
Light MG
Rifle Rifle Rifle Pistol Pistol Automatic Pistol Very Pistol
Flame Throwers
Flame Throwers Bomb Rocket Launchers Bomb Rocket Launchers
for land use.
Heavy Grenade Dischargers Grenade Launcher
AA MG for land use.
AA MG for land use.
1,369,197
1,120,401
9 W
189,443

Vehicle
Trucks.
Type 96 Trailer car.
Ambulance.
Passenger car.
Type 95 wheel drive passenger car,
Light repair truck.
Type 39 Trucks.

27 325 45 56 25 10 7 26 11

I
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85
78
20, 82

7,064

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100
Large Model Locally Manuf.

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JAPANESE DEFENSES ON TRUK ATOLL, CAROLINE ISLANDS. CINCPAC-CINCPOA BULLETIN 3-46, 15 MARCH 1946

ARTILLERY AND ORDNANCE

The Navy had the following a d d i t i o n a l e x p l o s i v e s on hand:


X

Army Ordnance Equipment; (Continued) TYPE QUANTITY TYPE 3rd yr. CALIBER 81mm Mortar WEAPON AMMUNITION (ROUNDS) PICTURE NO,

EXPLOSIVE OR ROUNDS 20 6,000 6 1,042 40 61 109 61 660


48 243

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210 152 25 20 921,769 48,033 11,133 6,133 11,000 14,500 1,500 kg. 208 954 644 m. 590 m. 84 Army Ordnance Equipment:
QUANTITY TYPE CALIBER

15cm How. (4th yr) Type 97 Automatic Gun, HE shells Type 92 Infantry Gun Sound Shells Experimental Sound Sphere Type 90 Booster Charges Type 91 Smoke Shells Type 89 Smoke Shells Mod. 1 Signal Shells Torpedo Firing Charges Signal Lights (flares) Slow Fuzes Smoke Shells Signal Rockets Launching Charges All types of Fuzes All types of Primers Types 91 and 96 Booster Charge Cylinders All types of Booster Charges Ordinary Primers Electric Primers Type 88 Explosive Charge MK 2 Demolition Hooks Land Demolition Charges Land Fuze Safety Fuze Type #6 Land Explosive Charges

12 15 23 42 81 37 41 34 9 18 3 3 2 6 7 8 46 27

97 97 92 94 1 94 41 98 99 98 38 95 91
Armstrong

90mm 20mm 70mm 37mm 47mm 75mm 75mm 37mm 81mm 20mm 75mra 75miu 105mm 8 cm 75mm

Mortar Automatic Gun Infantry Gun Anti-Tank Gun Anti-Tank Gun Mountain Gun Mountain Gun Anti-Tank Gun Small Mortar Automatic Cannon Improved Field Gun Field Gun I'^witzer 8cm 40 cal. Gun
AA Gun Flame Thrower Flame Thrower

4,680 (also for type 99) 5,557 57,646 (also for auto cannon) 21,003 40,568 17,590 77,516 10,727 6,334 4,680 (also for type 3) 57,646 (also for auto gun) 3,031 3,067 3,341 2,306 5,474 Cartridges

88 93 100

The Army had the following additional explosives on hand:

QUANTITY
1,272 63,900 63,763 7,045 2,585 2,945 2,677

TYPE

DESCRIPTION Hand Grenade For hand throwing Hand Grenade and grenade dischargers TI and Grenade and launchers. Small Smoke Candle Large Smoke Candle Floating Smoke Candle Self-projecting Smoke Candle Training Smoke Candle Experimental Smoke Grenade Incendiary Grenade Frangible Incendiary Grenade For Bomb-throwing Mortar Yellow Explosive Block Yellow Explosive Stick Anti-Tank Mine Anti-Personnel Mine Bangalore Torpedo Yardstick Mine Demolition Can Fine grained Powder Explosive Can Improved Land Mine Dynamite Karitto Powder Incendiary Powder Primacord Signal Shell Flare Hand-launched Molotov Cocktail

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Infantry Rifle Cavalry Rifle Short Rifle Pistol Pistol Pistol Pistol Grenade Discharger Grenade Discharger Rifle Grenade Launcher Grenade Discharger Barrage Mortar Light MG Light MG Light MG Heavy MG Heavy MG AA Machine Gun Fixed Machine Gun Flexible MG Mobile Heavy MG Single Mount MG Mortar

AMMUNITION
(ROUNDS) PICTURE NO

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421 66 11,699 100 811 243 159 21 1,110 1,192 475 4 3 50 739 376 388 5 8 19 18 5 58

38th yr. 38th yr. 99 26th yr. 14th yr. 94 Various 10th yr. 89 100 2 11th yr. 96 99 92 92 92 92 92 97 93 97

6.5mm 6.5mm 7.7mm


8mm 8mm 8mm 6.35 to 7.65mm 50mm 50mm 7cm 6.5mm 6.5mm 7.7mm 7.7mm 7.7mm 7.7ram 7.7mm 7.7mm 13mm 13mm 81mm

660,125 3,887,222 (also for L.MG) 4,819 41,718 3,038 Listed In next paragraph

211
1,392 2,155 2,458

91 97 99 94 94 94 99 94

43
2,147

60 Kilo

15
7,120 5,657

97 97 93 99
1 Kg

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3,887,222 (also for rifles) 134,244 4,485,489

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6,000 Kg 247 Kg

140
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JAPANESE DEFENSES ON TRUK ATOLL, CAROLINE ISLANDS. CINCPAC-CINCPOA BULLETIN 3-46, 15 MARCH 1946.'

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42

POSITIONS

SEARCHLIGHT ARMY ARTILLERY AND FIELD OF FIRE NAVY ARTILLERY AND FIELD OF FIRE

URE NO. 7

ISLAND

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ALL SCALES = r.25,000

ARTILLERY AND SEARCHLIGHT POSITIONS


SHOWING FIELDS OF FIRE SEARCHLIGHT ARMY ARTILLERY AND FIELD OF FIRE NAVY ARTILLERY AND FIELD OF FIRE OBSTRUCTION IN FIELD OF FIRE

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FIGURE N 0 . 8 ARTILLERY AND SEARCHLIGHT POSITIONS


SHOWING FIELDS OF FIRE

-1:25,000

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SEARCHLIGHT ARMY ARTILLERY AND FIELD OF FIRE NAVY ARTILLERY AND FIELD OF FIRE OBSTRUCTION IN FIELD OF FIRE

JAPANESE DEFENSES ON TRUK ATOLL, CAROLINE ISLANDS. CINCPAC-CINCPOA BULLETIN 3-46, 15 MARCH 1946

MILITARY ENGINEERING

ENGINEER AND CONSTRUCTION TROOPS.


o
The staff engineer of the Japanese 52nd Division was Major Satoichl TANABE,
whose duties were to advise, coordinate and supervise fortification work performed
by infantry units vithln the division. No Army engineer troops existed at TRUK
as far as numerical designations were concerned. However there was evidence that
some individuals and units had received engineer training before.departure from
JAPAN. One officer interrogated on UMAN stated that he was the engineer officer
for tnat island and that he had a "pioneer" platoon of forty men. This officer
stated further that his men had been a part of an engineer regiment in JAPAN and
that one battalion departed for TRUK with engineer equipment. However the ship
bringing the equipment was reported to have been sunk en route. Upon arrival this
battalion's personnel were distributed among the Infantry units and lost their ef fectiveness as engineers for any sizeable construction project. The one platoon
which appeared to remain together on UMAN was assigned the primary- mission of con structing offshore obstacles, using local materials and hand labor, and some work
In preparing gun emplacements. In the event of a US attack, this platoon was to
become a suicide unit to stop US tanks with improvised charges and magnetic type
anti-tank mines. The engineer officer stated his equipment was meager and con sisted of picks, shovels, a few explosives, and simple carpentry hand tools. In
written replies to questions on engineer organization, the Japanese stated they
had also a warrant officer and a civilian technician to help supervise the build-
of huts and shacks.
Table A-l shows the Naval Construction Staff and Troop Organization.
TABLE A-l

TABLE A-l (Cont.)


227TH CONSTRUCTION CORPS ORGANIZATION

+3 O
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4-3 H

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Officer Senior Civilian Junior Civilian Petty Officer Seaman Workers Total (Branch)

7
Q

1 7
6

4 12
860 884

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160 163

559 564

109 109

4 4

4 4

11 11

11
19

2 10

Engineer supply for both Army and Navy was lumped with other supplies under
one supply service for each.
In general, craftsmanship was excellent. However, the very limited amount of
construction machinery handicapped any large construction program. To construct
the airfields, thousands of laborers moved large quantities of earth by hand. An
unbalanced sense of the relative strategic or tactical importance of things led the
the Japanese to place emphasis on novel installations and to neglect commonplace
essentials. Army officers stated that, under an agreement witn higher headquarters,
the 4th Naval Construction Unit performed Army work upon request. There was some
evidence of a lack of cooperation between the Navy'and Army with respect to this
agreement. For example: A Japanese Army officer reported than an Army request for
tools with which to.expedite completion of the Army underground divisional CP was
denied because the tools were needed on the Navy1s nearby underground CP. It ap pears that there \reve other naval needs for the tools after the Navy CP was finish ed. The Army CP is still far from completed.
ORGANIZATION OF THE GROUND.
ply

CO

NAVAL CONSTRUCTION ORGANIZATION - STAFF AND TROOPS


CONSTRUCTION COMMAND

O Z

C O
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[NAVAL MINISTER!

CHIEF CONSTRUCTION HEADQUARTERS,JAPAN [CHIEF 4TH CONST RUCTION DEPT [CHIEFS OF BRANCHES!

COMMANDER IN CHIEF]
4TH FLEET
ICHIEF 227TH CONSTRUCTION CORPS!

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4TH CONSTRUCTION DEPT. ORGANIZATION

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After the loss of the MARIANAS and the consequent cutting-off of incoming
supplies, the Japanese plans for the defense of TRUK called for a long term, pro tracted resistance* The defense aimed at: minimizing damage from our air attacks
by use of the terrain and protective shelters; annihilating our Invading force at
the beaches; and maintaining the defense as long as possible. Defensive positions
were selected to take advantage of the terrain against all forms of attack and to
annihilate the assaulting force at the beach. How well these plans would have succeeded is, of course, a matter of conjec ture, but, in view of the types of emplacements constructed, it is considered
likely that naval and air bombardment would have taken a heavy toll of the defen sive positions on and near the beaches. Troop dispositions, as indicated on the
maps in PART TWO, provided generally for a defense in depth based upon the four
main islands, MOEN, DUBLON, UMAN, and FEFAN, and token resistance or delaying
action on the remaining islands. Considerable emphasis was placed on the ability
of the beach defenders to withdraw should our initial assaults succeed. Final re sistance lines or areas were to be near the summits of mountains on each island.
However at the end of the war these last-ditch strong points were Incomplete. For
example: only a portion of the division battle CP at the summit of MT. TOLOMEN,
DUBLON, had been excavated and the post in actual use was at RARA, roughly in the
center of DUBLON and only a few feet above sea level. The Navy battle CP near the
peak of MT. TOLOMEN, DUBLON, was completed in July, 1945.

Officer Senior Civilian Junior Civilian Petty Officer Seaman Workers Total (Branch)

8 4 5 11

11 6 11
29

1
0

0 1

0 0 0 0 668 668

11 2
105 14 855 987

4
6 1 16

35 21 128 78

1 2
0

2
5 718 726

2
3 107

CO UJ

1028 1056

4981 5038

13 16

22
49

8392 8654

113

46

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P i c t u r e Mo. 86 (PM
DCBLOM: Mote view
of fire along shore
of P i l l b o x removed

1 0 4 ) 9 7 m m GUN PILLBOX, MORTBEAST B E A C H ,


t h r o u g h e m b r a s u r e s s h o w i n g g r a z i n g f i e l d
line. Dirt and earth c o v e r c a v e s on roof
at time P i c t u r e was t a k e n .

P i c t u r e Mo. 87 (PM 1 0 5 ) HEAVY MACHIME GUM P I L L B O X , EAST BEACH,


DUBLON: Walls of this p i l l b o x were 5' thick. Note f i g u r e .
Major S. TAMABE, Staff E n g i n e * - , J a p a n e s e *>2nd D i v . , for com paring size. R o c k c o v e r has been r e m o v e d from r o o f .

Picturt Closeup natural

Mo. 88 (PM 1 0 6 ) 9 7 m m GUM


PILLBOX. of e m b r a s u r e . Mote e a r t h
and rock c a m o u f l a g e .

EAST BEACH, c o v e r on roof

DUBLOM,
and

a.

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i c t u r o . M o . 8 9 (PM 2 6 6 ) AT MOEN AIRFIELD MO. 1 : to water's edge. Earth moved.

HEAVY Note cover

MACHINE GUN PILLBOX ON BEACH d o u b l e e m b r a s u r e and pr.oximity and camouflage have been re-

P i c t u r e N o . g o (PM 1 5 2 ) 37mm AT GUN P I L L B O X , SOUTH BEACH,UMAN: Interior, view. Note d o u b l e e m b r a s u r e and l i m i t e d headroom. W a t e r a n d mud on f l o o r s h o w p o o r d r a i n a g e . Note also -oof support. G r a s s b l o c k e d f i e l d of g r a z i n g fire.

P i c t u r e N o . 9 1 (PM 1 2 6 ) EMBRASURE C R 0 S S . R 0 A D , DUBLON: The baffled r e d u c e t h e n u m b e r of s m a l l a r m s emp l a c erne n t .

47mm GUN P I L L B O X , 4TH FLEET


or stepped e m b r a s u r e was t o
r i c o c h e t s e lane m e into t h e

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P i c t u r e No. 9 2 (PM 4 0 5 ) 12cm GUN, MT. MISHIKI, FEFAN: Typical naval a r t i l l e r y cave emplacement. E n t r a n c e to p o s i t i o n is by t u n n e l to r e a r . R o c k wall at f r o n t a f f o r d s some p r o t e c t ion f r o m s n a i l arms fire but a l s o limits d e p r e s s i o n of g u n .

Picture No. 9 9 (PM 4 4 3 ) 12cm AA GUN IN CAVE, PARAM: Originally gun was part of 6 - g u n b a t t e r y with AA m i s s i o n , later emplaced to fire on s u r f a c e c r a f t n o r t h of PARAM. Note use of s t e e l rails and sheet m e t a l for roof re m f crement and protection.

Picture. No. 9 4 (PM n o ) 14cm NAVAL GUM CAVE EMPLACEMENT; UMAN One of a p a i r of CD gun c ove ring SOUTH Pass. Gun originally on a s h i p . Half drums c o n t a m e d growing native vegetation to camouflage position.

47

MILITARY ENGINEERING

I
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P i c t u r e M o . 9 5 (PM 3 3 7 ) 1 4 c m GUM, UMAM: Mo. 2 ? n of 2 - f u n b a t t e r y c o v e r i n g SOUTH Pass M o t e u s e of r e i n / o r e m g s t e e l to Prevent caving o r s p a l l m ? fr^m muzzle blast. Picture M o .9 6 UMAM: Mote rea s t r a t a . Close about 1 ' thick r (PM 3 3 1 ) 1 4 c m GUM CAVE EMPLACEMEMT, YUKOKA, rock of t u r . r . e t , b r e e c h ( c o v e r e d ) a n d t y p i c a l "dyke" i n s p e c t i o n will reveal a h o r i z o n t a l j u s t b el o w c ei l i n g line. P i c t u r e M o . 9 7 (PM 4 8 3 ) ' i a c m AA GUM IM CAVE EMPLACEMEMT, UDOT: T h i s w e a p o n i s t h e o n l y l a r g e a r t 1l l e r y w e a p o n l o c a t e d o n UDOT t o fire o n surface craft t o t h e north. Trees p r o Mission: f o r P o s i t i o n b u twere removab It b y f i l l i n g . v i d e i camouflage

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Plans called for each island to be self sufficient defensively. However,


mutually supporting artillery fires were planned between adjacent islands. A part
of each island1s forces was to be held out specifically as a mobile reserve for
island-to-island amphibious movement and counterattack* Indications are that the
Japanese would have made a concerted effort to defend strongly only the four "Season
Islands" but the general plan recognized also the importance of movement of forces to
meet any possible landing.
No general distinctions were noted in the organization of the ground in com paring the defenses of DUBLON, MOEN, UMAN, and FEFAN. Weapons were placed to pro vide a concentration of fire from divisional weapons on all possible landing beach es. Beaoh pillboxes provided bands of interlacing grazing fire, usually in two
directions from each along the beach. These beach positions provided also the
automatic weapons coverage for the inshore minefields and for Inshore and beach ob-
stacles. In general, observation from the beach positions was adequate for the wea pons emplaced. Concealment was achieved by natural growth, transplanted as neces sary, and the use of wire screens garnished with natural materials. As one pro-
gressed inland, the difficult terrain offered many problems to weapons placement.
The Japanese recognized the dead spaces in fields of fire of automatic weapons and
also their limited fields of view in the abundant tropical growths. In most in-
stances they attempted to cover these defiladed areas by rifle and mortar fire. In
comparison with the Japanese defenses found on CHICHI JIMA, TRUK defenses had less
fortification of inland areas, less excavation work and less connecting of positions.
Wooden platforms were constructed for OPs atop the principal mountain peaks but their
complete lack of cover and concealment would have limited their use considerably as
soon as hostile planes and surface craft approached within effective ranges.
The primary missions of the 250 men placed on the reef islands were obser vation and the construction of dummy positions. Their communications were by under-
water cable and radio to the main islands.
On the whole, organization of the ground for the defense of airfields followed
accepted US doctrine. At the typical MOEN No. 1 Field and the adjacent MT. KONGO
hill mass, the defense force consisted of about 500 Army personnel and 300 Naval
personnel of a special navy landing party. The Naval unit provided grazing MG fire
over the airfield, its dispersal areas, and over the beaches adjacent to the field.
Army 47mm. auto-cannon in pillboxes covered possible road approaches and, in two
places, alternate positions were noted. Two platoons were held in reserve in caves

naif way up the slope* Caves and dugouts provided cover for nearly every weapon.
A large number of small air raid shelters were found scattered throughout the area.
Battalion officers stated that even with these many shelters, some 20 men were
killed there as a result of US bombing. Extensive communication trenches in ex cellent condition linked positions on the lower slope. In the rocky areas near
the summit, tunnels connected the cave positions. Some of the machine guns were
placed so as to fire from caves on low flying aircraft only. No anti-aircraft
artillery was located in the immediate vicinity but batteries on adjacent islands
could provide ack-ack support. Unit officers stated also that, seventy knee-mor tars were available in the MT. KONGO area in addition to those weapons shown on the
weapons disposition map.
FORTIFICATIONS.
Permanent: Lt Col YAMAMOTO, Chief of Staff, Japanese 52nd Division, stated
there were no permanent fortifications when his unit arrived at TRUK in January,
1944. An extensive fortification program was started then with the construction
of pillboxes and blockhouses on the seashore as first priority. For concrete con struction they used a 1:2:4 mix with beach sand and crusher-run basalt rock. Steel
reinforcing bars 20 mm in diameter were placed 25 cm apart in the conventional
right angled grid* Typical pillboxes found on the beaches are shown in Picture
Nos. 86, 87, 88, 89, and 90* Picture No. 91 shows an ant1-ricochet type embrasure
noted at several emplacements. The idea was to reduce the number of email arms
ricochets glancing into the emplacement. Some pillboxes were constructed so near
the water, or so low in it, that seepage or flow through the embrasures flooded
the interiors. Eventually the lack of cement halted concrete construction* At
the time of the inspection several stockpiles of reinforcing steel remained at
various locations on several islands*
Nearly all of the larger naval artillery pieces, except anti-aircraft batteries,
were placed in caves or dugouts typical examples of which are shown In Picture Nos.
92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, and 101. Figures 11 and 13 show details of typical con nected cave emplacements. Picture Nos. 98 and 105 show an exception to the usual
emplacement in that this weapon was located only 50* from the seashore on LIGHTHOUSE
Hill, MOEN. Typical accessories, such as observation posts and ammunition storage
facilities, for artillery pieces located in caves are shown in Picture Nos. 99, 100,
102, and 104.

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Picture No. 98 (PM 261) 12cm GUN EMPLACEMENT, LIGHTHOUSE HILL MOEN: Mission: to Provide supporting fire on troops assault' and rear in? DUBLOh. Note angle embrasure exit. Re xnf or.ced concrete roof, 2 thick, catuouf lagei with native grass.

Picture figure phone posit

No. 9 9 (PM 333) OP, 14cm GUN BATTERY, UMAN: Note of G-eneral DAVIS for size. C ommun ic at i on was by teleand voice tubes (1 to left, 9 to right) to the gun 1ons.

No. 100 (PM 332) RANGE FINDER, 14cm GUN BATTERY, Picture finder Range in operating position with canvas cover in Cave provided cover while m storage Position. Retraction propelled cart on small railway track. hand

UMAN, place by

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Picture s-gun forcing prevent

No. 101 (PM 336) 14cm GUN(U-8), UMAN: No. 2 gun of battery. Note rear of turret and use of steel reinr.ods and mesh to prevent caving and wooden shield to spalls falling from overhead during firing.

Picture No. 102 (PM 444) ENTRANCE, 12cm GUN EMPLACEMENT, Note coconut log shoring an.' use of steel railway rails beams. Entrance gives access to tunnel to gun position no. 93. in picture

PARAM: as roof shown

Picture Timber

No. 103 (PM 446) 6" ARMSTRONG CD BATTERY, P4LLE in niche off tunnel c onnect magazine ing pieces-

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P i c t u r e N o . 1 0 4 (PM 3 3 ^ ) AMMUNITION UMAN: T y p i c a l cave s t o r a g e p o s i t u n d e r s u r r e n d e r t e r m s .

STORAGE, 1 4 c m GUN B A T T E R Y , 1o n . Powder c a n s e m p t i e d

P i c t u r e N o . 1 0 5 (PM 2 6 2 ) ENTRANCE TO 1 2 c m GUN EMPLACEMENT, LIGHTHOUSE HILL. MOEN: Note c o c o n u t l o groof s u p p o r t , s h a l l o w e a r t h o v e r h e a d c o v e r , and d r ym a s o n r y s i d e w a l l r e v e t m e n t .

P i c t u r I n c l i n a z i n e s s e e p a g

e V o . 1 0 6 (PM e d shaft l e a d i . T o r i g h t o e t o b e d e l i v e

447) 6 " ARMSTRONG CD GUN B A T T E R Y , POL n g from t u n n e l c o n n e c t i n g a n d p i e c e s f man's f e e t t h e r e w a sa s u m p f o r c o l l r e d b y h o s e , c e n t e r , t o lower. L e v e l s . :

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P i c t u r e tfo. 107 (P# 258-/ 20cm CO G M , MOEM: One of f o u r s i m i l a r heavy c r u s i e r t u r r e t s a n d puns i n open p i t emplacements T u r r e t of 1 " a r m o r p l a t e p r o t e c t e d p u n c r e w a n d a p o r t i o n of the ammunit 1 on.

P i c t u r e N o . 1 0 8 (PM 2 5 9 ) battery. Note odd shape h i i e s b a s e of t u r r e t .

2 0 c m CD GUN, MOEN: N o . 2 g u n of t h e P i c t u r e N o . l o g (PM 2 5 7 ; O P , 2 0 c m CD B A T T E R Y , LIGHTHOUSE HILL, of t h 1 s t u r r e t . Earth embankment MOEN: N o t e s t e e l p i p e c o l u m n s u p p o r t i n g roof, sodand earth Entrance was by roof cover, and banana trees f o r camouflage. e i t h e r of t w o t u n n e l s f r o m m a n h o l e s a b o u t 5 y d s a w a y .

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P i c t u r e N o . 1 1 0 (PM 2 6 0 ) AMMUNITION MOEN: Note c o n c r e t e c o n s t r u c t i o n , cover on roof a n d ends.

S T O R A G E , 2 0 c m CD B A T T E R Y , st-iel doors, a n d earth

P i c t u r e N o . 1 1 1 (PM 3 4 5 ) AMMUNITION STORAGE, B A T T E R Y , UMAN: N o t e h e a v y c o n c r e t e a r c h e d roof, cessed doorway, elevated deck, andearth cover.

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r e N o . 1 1 2 (PM 3 5 > O P , l ^ m m B A T T E R Y , UMAN: This er housed t h e battery's BC s c o p e . Steel anqle c o l support 1 4 " t h i c k c o n c r e t e roof. Entrance by cov Pas sage way from rear.

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# * v r . i r $ r 7 t t ' M 3 4 4 ) l ^ ^ m m CD GUN EMPLACEMENT, open p i t Emplacement of q - g u n b a t t e r y .

UMAN Shore-

Tirffc; t-. bac k? round.

P i c t u r e N o . 1 1 4 (PM 3 4 6 ) AMMUNITION STORAGE, l ^ ^ m m BATTERY. UMAN: I n t e r i o r of i n s t a l l a t i o n s h o w n m P i c t u r e N o . 1 1 1 . Excellent handcraft shown i n timber, storage shelving a t right. Note overhead e l e c t r i c lighting.

Pictu Note lead groun

r e N o . 1 1 5 (t> M rock and earth t o nearby cave d i s observat t

1 5 1 ) RANiit. P l N U b K , 1 5 5 m m B A T T E R Y , UMAS: w a l l ar o u n d o p e n p i t e m p l a c e m e n t . Tracks s h e l t e r f o r range finder. Mound i n b a c k o n post shown m Picture No. 1 1 2 .

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P i c t u r e N o . 1 1 6 (PM 4 0 1 ) 6 - G U N , 1 2 c m AA of t h e 6 g u n s a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d easily; emplacement locations. Individuals are munications room. BATTERY, FEFAN: 2 cleared area shows standing over com Picturfi No. n y (PM 4 0 2 ) 1 2 c m AA GUN, FEFAN: Gun mounted on t rune a t e d c o n e - s h a p e d s t e e l f o u n d a t i o n pedestal 1 met e r high. Underground s h e l t e r d i r e c t l y behind e lev at ing gear. P i c t u r e N o . 1 1 8 (PM 4 0 4 ) AIR RAID SHELTER, 1 2 c m AA BAT TERY, FEFAN: Timbers for support ing roof appeared to b e of m s u f f ic lent s t r e n g t h and P o o r l y s e l e c t e d . Note cover. r o c k a n d e a r t h o v e r he a d

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Pic ture No. n g (PM 480) BTRY CONTROL, 12cm AA, EOT: Type
open pit (observer); 2 f ire director (foreground); r e m o t e
controls for 150cm searchlight (bac kground); BC 's post
and scope (left bac kground).

Picture DUBLON:

No. 120 (PM 63) ENTRANCE DIVISION BATTLE CP,


Note inter 1 or baffle wall and steel door.

Picture No. 121 (PM 265)


LIGHT MG PILLBOX ON BEACH, A/F NO. 1: Pillbox c onst
ruct i on of cemented stones filled
drums. Roof reinforcement of steel angle Deterioration indicates poor construction.

MOEN over members.

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Picture No. 122 (PM 61) CG's AIR RAID SHELTER, ISION BATTLE CP, DUBLON: Photo shows the niche General reclined during air raids. Excavation rock approximately 20 meters underground.

52ND DIVwhere the m solid

Picture No. 123 (PM 62) DIVISION BATTLE CP, DUBLON: Interior view. Debris marks end of uncomp letei tunnel Form nails imbedded in ceiling a definite overhead hazard.

P i c t u r e N o . 1 2 4 (PM 4 8 1 ) 1 2 c m AA GUN, EOT: A l l 4 g u n s of t h i s b a t t e r y were emplaced m open p i t s with c o n c r e t e r e v e t t e d w a l l s . Vails had numerous s h e l v e s f o r "ready" ammunit 1o n .

51
1 V.

MILITARY ENGINEERING

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PILLBOX,

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overhead coconut l o g roof support a t entrance a n d l o g blast b a r r i e r p r o t e c t i n g e n t r a n c e . This j o r t 1 f 1 c a t t o n h a d h e a v y c o v e r of e a r t h a n d s t o n e .

P i c t u r e N o . 1 2 6(PM 357,1 OBSTACLE, wa II (appr ox 5 ' 101 de and 3 ' above landing of "alligator" type craft. lading small arms fire from two

SOUTH BEACH, water) was to ifa 11 covered directions.

UMAN: This obstruct by e n f i -

Picture NISHIKI, trance support

No. 127 (PM 3q6) INTERIOR OF AIR RAID SHELTER, MT.


FEFAN: Note notched timber construction and en in backg round. Except1ona I ly heavy timbers used to
sleeping mats.

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Typical of the coastal defense gun emplacements found at TRUK are those for
the 4-gun battery of 20cm. pieces on LIGHTHOUSE Hill, Picture Nos. 107, 108, 109,
110, and the 3-gun, 155mm. battery, south UMAN, Figure 12 shown also in Picture
Nos. Ill, 112, 113, 114, and 115.
Figure 14 shows a 6-gun, 12cm., This battery position was landscaped of a public park. Picture Nos. 116, ilar 4-gun, 12cm. AA battery located AA battery located on MT. NISHIKI, FEFAN.
very neatly and gave the over-all appearance
117, and 118 are of the same battery. A sim on EOT is shown in Picture Nos. 119, and 124.

Figure 16 shows the plan of a battalion command post near the summit of MT.
FUOUKANAN, DUBLON. Again the excavation was in solid rock with thick overhead
protection. Figure 17 shows a battalion command post found on MT. UBUN, FEFAN.
Field Fortifications: In general no unusual field fortifications were found
at TRUK. Many of the coconut log and earth emplacements and shelters were de stroyed after the surrender and prior to arrival of the Study Group. Picture Nos.
121, 125, and 127 are typical examples. Infantry units constructed their own
fortifications from local materials and, generally, by hand labor. Picture No.
129 of the interior of a 47mm. AT gun emplacement at the 4th Fleet Road crossing,
DUBLON, shows where a portion of the roof has collapsed by reason of the rotting
of the coconut logs used to shore it. Entrenchments noted were of good design.
No revetment work was needed to prevent cave-ins on the two communication trenches
observed.
OBSTACLE CONSTRUCTION TYPES. (For locations see Maps in PART TWO.)

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Figure 15 depicts the permanent type battle CP of the Japanese 52nd Division
on DUBLON. Picture Nos. 120, 122, and 123 are of this same installation. It was
used during the periods of actual US air and British naval attacks only. In gen eral the tunnel is 10 meters underground in solid rock with an arched concrete
roof. Living quarters for the commanding general ana his staff are provided in
the shelter and storage and communication facilities in rooms off the main tunnel.
Overhead electric lighting provided illumination. One hundred men labored daily
for six months to construct this CP.
Figure 18 shovrs the Navy battle command post at the summit of MT, TOLOMEN,
DUBLON. The parallel tunnels have exits on both sides of MT. TOLOMEN. The en-
trances are roughly 20 meters underground with overhead cover of solid rock in-
creasingly thicker as one proceeds towards the center of the mountain. Work was
started in July, 1944, and completed in July, 1945. Some 31,000 man hours of
labor were required to excavate the 2,100 cubic meters of solid rock. For this
excavation of a 380 cfm-lOO# compressor, belt driven by a vertical diesel engine,
was located 100 down the slope. The air was piped uphill to three rock drills
at the worksite. About 6,300 kilograms of dynamite were required for blasting the
rock. Spoil was carted by hand from the tunnel in small cars or wagona on indus trial railway track. Extensive communication facilities were provided in the in stallation. The reported capacity of the two tunnels was 600 men. The use of
power tools when available to speed construction is typical of all naval forti fication work at TRUK.

No inshore obstacles were observed, they were removed shortly after the sur render, but It was reported that various steel rail anti-tank and anti-boc?.t ob stacles had been emplaced. These obstacles were not completed when hostilities
ceased.
The only type of beach obstacle observed was a rock wall, anti-personnel and
anti-walliator"~, approximately 51 high and 8 1 wide at the base. Picture No. 126
shows an example of tills type obstacle. Pillboxes were placed so as to cover with
enfilade machine gun fire both faces of the wall.
No anti-personnel or anti-tank mines were found inland and it was reported that
there had been none there. However various anti-tank obstacles, located to take
maximum advantage of the terrain, such as walls and trenches, were found. Figure
19, and Picture No. 128 show an anti-tank wall constructed of earth and faced with
rock-filled oil drums across a low flat area near DUBLON Town.

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FIGURE NO.II 15 CM GUN POSITIONS,NORTH SECTION OF TOL ISLAND


"E"
3T0N WATER TANKS I 'i * O < I GENERATOR \ 25KVA GUN'S AMMUNITION DUMP

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FIELD OF FIRE 160* MAX RANGE- 3000 M.

FIRE CONTROL

AMMUNITION*1 DUMP

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TYPE 4 1 - 15 CM. GUN


MAX. RANGE- 13,600 METERS FIELD OF FIRE-45*

120*

25MMx2 MAX. RANGE-3000 M FIELD OF FIRE-135 \ l3MMxl MAX. RANGE-2500 M. FIELD OF FIRE-135" SEARCHLIGHT SIZE-90 CM MODEL-TYPE-96

SEE DETAIL NO. I

RESERVE AMMUNITION DUMP SEE DETAIL NO. 2 RANGE FINDER TYPE 14 3.50 M. Q.

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PROTECTIVE CAVE FOR RANGE FINDER

3RD YEARl MODEL 15 CM.GUN 140'

FIRE CONTROL CENTER

TYPE 41-15 CM GUN


7.7 MM x I MAX.RANGE-2004 M FIELD OF FIRE'14

25 MM D.P. GUN SEARCHLIGHT A 0-~ -


l3MMxl FIELD OF FIRE
160

CAVE FOR SEARCH LIGHT

TYPE 96,110 CM SEARCH LIGHT

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RESERVE AMMO DUMP

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3 CAVE ENTRANCE
230 7.7MMxl ^ FIELD OF FIRE 120'

FIGURE NO 12 155MM COAST DEFENSE BATTERY UMAN ISLAND


MAIN AMMUNITION1 DUMP FRONTAGE DEPTH HEIGHT THICKNESS OF CONCRETE EARTH MOUND GUN'S 'A SECONDARY FRONTAGE DEPTH ^MUNITION DUMP 0.8 M 6.4 M 25 M. 3.0 M 2.0M 0.8 M 2.0 M

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INDIVIDUAL AMMO. DUMP "C" 3.0M FRONTAGE DEPTH HEIGHT THICKNESS OFCONCRETE EARTH MOUND I.OM I.7M 0.2 M 0.5 M GENERATOR
ROOF 5M THICK SECTION- CC

HEIGHT 1.8 M THICKNESS 0 .3M OF CONCRETE 1.0 M EARTH MOUND FIRE CONTROL CENTER "D" FRONTAGE DEPTH HEIGHT THICKNESS OF CONCRETE EARTH MOUND CHAMBER "E" 1.6 M 3.0 M 2.3 M 3.3 M I.6M 0.3M 2.0M

FRONTAGE DEPTH

2.8M 8.8M

HEIGHT THICKNESS OF ROOF

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FIGURE NO. I4-(FEFAN ISL) 5TON WATER COOLING TANKS O VENTILATION OPENING 25 KVA GENERATORS 90 CM SEARCHLIGHT

ANTI-AIRCRAFT BATTERY EMPLACENTS


ANTI-AIRCRAFT GUN MACHINE GUN (13mm) V777\ BURIED BUILDINGJUNNEL

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AMMUNITION STORAGE

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FIGURE NO. 13

14 CM GUN BATTERY-(SOUTH) PART OF UMAN ISLAND)


SHALLOW DRAIN x Y DRAINAGE DITCH TELEPHONE LINE VOICE TUBE

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AMMUNITION STORAGE

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SWITCHBOARD

PLANNING AND OPERATION

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COMMUNICATIONS

I6MM-25CM C.TOC 0 = I2MM 25CM C.TOC

WATER TROUGH CROSS SECTION A-A

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FIGURE NO. 15- ARMY DIVISIONAL COMMAND POST

(DUBLON ISLAND)

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BATTALION COMMANDING OFFICER

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FIGURE NO. 16 3RD INFANTRY BATTALION COMMAND


ISL POST ( 6 9 T H R E G I M E N T ) - D U B L 0 N

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NOTE : LIVING CAPACITY 100 MEN-WOODEN PLATFORMS FOR SLEEPING. ALL DIMENSIONS IN METERS

55

NOTE- TO IS 35 METERS

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NOTE-DOTTED LINES INDICATE PROPOSED PLAN OF CONSTRUCTING ROOMS.END OF THE WAR DISMISSED ALL PLANS.

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FIGURE NO. 17
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34IST BN. C. P. MT. UBAN-FEFAN ISLAND ELEVATION 550 FT

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FIGURE N0.I8

NAVAL BATTLE C.P CAVES, DUBLON SCALE-HOOO

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FIELD KITCHEN 280 M. '' 2 5 M M MACHINE GUN ^GENERATOR ROOM BATTE FUEL ST ONS COMMliN I CATION^ ARSENA OPERATIONS a STAFF RM. CHIEF OF STAFF 1.5 M

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FOOD STORAGE 2 8 0 M. FOOT TRAIL

FIGURE NO. 19 ELEVATION OF TUNNEL ENTRANCE 880'

TYPICAL ANTI-TANK OBSTACLE


NOT TO SCALE

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In a l o w a r e a
P i c t u r e N o . 1 2 8 (PM 1 0 3 ) AJT W A L L , D U B L O N : at
approx. 100 yds m length, 8' a c r o s s at t o p a n d 2 0 ' e a r t h
base. S l o p e g r a d e d t o 1 on 1 on o p p o s i t e s i d e of f \ lied d r u m s .

P i c t u r e N o . 1 2 9 (PM 125) 4 7 m m GUN EMPLACEMENT, F L E E T


4 T H CR. DUBLON: S h o w i n g c a v i n g of o v e r h e a d w h e n c o c o n u t l o g s
used as s h o r i n g r o t t e d a w a y .

Picture No. 130 2 5 y d s . s h o w s ab around gun. On and-black mottle

(PM 3 4 8 ) 155mm CD GUN, UMAN: Picture taken at


u n d a n t n a t u r a l c a m o u f l a g e g r o w t h on rev e t m e n t
direct observation, green gun barrel and g r e e n
d t u r r e t b l e n d e d w e l l i n t o g r e e n b a c k g r o u n d .

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P i c t u r e S o . 1 3 1 (PM 449) 90cm SEARCHLIGHT, TOL: T y p i c a l


hand car m o v e m e n t f r o m cave s h e l t e r to o p e r a t i n g p o s i t i o n
Note track fitting flush with concrete floor also v o i c e
tubes and telephone on c a v e w a l l s .

P i c t u r e N o . 1 3 2 (PM 256) 150cm SEARCHLIGHT SHELTER, LIGHT HOUSE HILL, MOEN: S e a r c h l i g h t w a s m o v e d to o p e r a t i n g po sition shown m P i c t u r e N o . 1 3 5 by h a n d c a r on n a r r o w g a u g e
track. H ot e c o n c r e t e r o o f a n d r o c k s i d e w a I I f a c i n g .

Picture No. Search light

1 3 3 (PM 558) NORTH PASS, fONELIK s h o t o u t by U S s t r a f i n g f i r e .

9 0 c m

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P i c t u r e N o . 1 3 4 (PM 997; 75cm SEARCHLIGHT, MT. NISH1KI, FEFAN: P l a t f o r m f o r m s r o o f of p e r s o n n e l s h e l t e r directly b e n e a t h a n d of t h e s a m e s i z e . Note exce I lent h a n i c r a f t m p l a t f o r m rail c o n s t r u e 1 1 on.

Picture No. HILL, MOEN: CD battery. Picture No.

1 9 5 (PM 255) 150cm SEARCHLIGHT, LIGHTHOUzb T h i s s e a r c h l i g h t w a s l o c a t e d at t h e 20cm Light was r e t r a c t a b l e into cave shown m 112Note seashore m background.

P i c t u r e N o . 1 3 6 (PM 445) 150cm SEARCHLIGHT, PARAM: p l a c e m e n t of c o c o n u t logs housed searchlight which u.as r e m o t e l y c o n t r o l l e d f r om p o s i t i o n c^o y d s a u ; a y . Steel rails support camouflage net.

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P i c t u r e No. 1 3 7 (PM 3 3 4 ) R A N G E F I N D E R , 14cm B A T T E R Y , UMAN: Natural camouflage. A b u n d a n t g r o v t h of v i n e s f r o m v e r t i c a l c l i f f c o n c e a l e d cave mou+h. Vines were pushed aside easily to P e r m i t i n s t r u m e n t to be r o l l e d into ope rat ing p o s i t i o n .

P i c t u r e N o . i 3 8 (PM 3 5 3 ) E X T E R I O R VIEni 3 7 m m AT GUN P I L L B O X , UMAN: C l o s e i n s p e c t 1 on r e v e a l s e m b r a s u r e i n d i c a t e d by marginal arrows. Excellent natural camouflage. See P i c t u r e N o . go for i n t e r i o r v i e w .

S h o w i n g one of
P i c t u r e N o . 2 3 9 (PM 2 3 9 J S E A P L A N E B A S E , M O E N : s e v e r a l c a r s m o u n t ing p a i n t e d e a r t h f i l l e d b o x e s s u r m o u n t e d by
gas d r u m s s p r o u t i n g n a t u r a l c a m o u f l a g e . Cars c o u l d be r o l l e d
a c r o s s cave e n t r a n c e
on i n d u s t r i a l r a i l w a y t r a c k .

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SEARCHLIGHTS.
The only army searchlight unit on TRUK was the 4th Battery, 25th AA Unit.
Five Type 93, 150cm, searchlights were utilized, four of them were emplaced in
open pits on DUBLON and one on FALO. For location of these searchlights see
Artillery Disposition Map, Power for searchlights was furnished by truck mounted
generators. One Type 90, sound detector, was used in conjunction with the search-
lights.
Table A-2 shows the type and number of Navy searchlights at TRUK, Picture
Nos.
131, 132, 133, 134, and 135 show typical searchlight emplacements. The Artil-
lery Disposition Map shows the location of the naval searchlights on the various
islands,
TABLE A-2 Inventory of Searchlights on TRUK (Nav.v) Island MOEN
MOEN
MOEN
MOEN
DUBLON
FEFAN
FEFAN
UMAN UMAN S. TOL N. TOL
POLLE
FALO
TONELIK
EOT
PARAM
PARAM
PARAM
PARAM
Battery 7cm, AA
12cm. AA
12cm, AA
20cm. CD
12.7cm. AA
12cm, AA
8cm, AA
15.5cm. CD
14cm. CD 15cm. CD 15cm, CD
15cm. CD
12cm. AA
7cm. AA
7cm. AA
12cm. AA
12cm. AA
Type

MINES. MINE WARFARE. BOOBY TRAPS. EXPLOSIVES AND DEMOLITIONS.


Inshore and beach mine fields are shown on Maps in PART TWO. Mines have been
removed in accordance with surrender instructions. No inland mines were noted.
(See Obstacles)
The usual dynamite explosives were used while stocks lasted. After exhaustion
of the normal types, explosive charges from aerial bombs were used to continue
blasting work in connection with fortifications and quarries. (See Picture No, 163
for preparation of improvised charges for quarrying). Indications are that dyna-
mite and dynamite caps were often poor and faulty. Very probably this was due to
damp storage.
CAMOUFLAGE. No attempt was made to conceal the larger permanent service Installations, Army or Navy, by camouflage. Field units utilized terrain, natural materials, and camouflage nets for concealment. The general policy was to cover the tops of pill boxes with earth and sod as shown in Picture No. 138. Picture No. 130 shows a 155cm, gun at 25 yds. Entrances to positions were hidden by planting trees, usual ly banana, and by hanging camouflage nets. Communication trenches and barracks
roofs were covered with coconut palm fronds. Some disruptive painting was noted
around embrasures. The Japanese said they planned to use logs In the construction
of dummy gun positions along the beaches but had not done so by the cessation of
hostilities. In the event of attack it was planned to use the limited supply of
chemical smoke (See Army Ammunition Inventory) to draw fire to unimportant areas
and to cover local counterattacks. Picture No. 137 shows natural camouflage of
the entrance to a tunnel containing the range finder for the 14cm. guns on UMAN.
See Picture No. 139 for ambitious scheme for concealing an entrance to a cave used
as a hangar.
CHEMICAL WARFARE.
The Japanese insisted they had no plans or equipment for offensive chemical
warfare.
In defensive chemical warfare they emphasized the use of Individual equipment
such as gas masks and gas clothing. Only one gas proof shelter was completed
though four others were in process of construction. Figure 20 shows detailed plans
for the one shelter they finished. The active purifying chemical was copra char coal. Tables*A-3, and A-4 show chemical warfare equipment on hand at the end of
the war.

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Diameter(in cm.) 110 150

Number 2 1 1 1 1 1 1
1
1 1 1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

96 96(w/truck

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w/o controller) Su 75 Tsulbi 150 92 150 96(w/truck 150

& controller) Su
96 92 92 9 2
96
96(w/truck)
Su
96(w/con troller)
96(w/con troller)
92(w/
troller)
Su
92

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75 110 90 90 90 110 150 90 150 150 110 110 150

58

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r~ > <

IEW
HEL

mo -n
xo o-n oil 2o

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JAPANESE DEFENSES ON TRUK ATOLL, CAROLINE ISLANDS. CINCPAC-CINCPOA BULLETIN 3-46, 15 MARCH 1

MILITARY ENGINEERING

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Picture yo. 140 ff# 4 0 6 ; J/4rffJ? COLLECT

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ION, FEFAN: Example of the e f f o r t the


Japanese made to c o l l e c t all a v a i l a b l e
water. Small metal troughs c o l L e c t e i
the seepage from the t u n n e l i n t e r i o r
and c a r r i e d it to a c o n c r e t e s t o r a g e
tank in t u n n e l f l o o r .

Picture No. 141 (PM 3 9 8 ) 2 $ k v a G E N E R A T O R ,


FEFAN: This d i e s e l d r i v e n g e n e r a t o r fur nished power for one T^cm s e a r c h l i g h t
and a p p e a r s to be the s t a n d a r d power
unit at TRUK for t h i s s e a r c h l i g h t .

Picture

No. 142 (PM 4 0 3 )

C O M M U N I C A T I O N

CENTER SHELTER, 6-GUN AA BATTERY, FEFAN:

U n d e r g r o u n d room contained i n t r a b a t t e r y
telephone switchboard, data t r a n s m i s s i o n
e q u i p m e n t , and r a d i o for c o m m u n i c a t i o n
L a d d e r s lead t h r o u g h 24"
to D U B L O N . c o n c r e t e .

P i c t u r e No. 143 (PM 4 8 2 ) 4 O k v a G E N E R A T O R


EOT: This i i e s e l d r i v e n g e n e r a t or fur n i s h e d power for one 150cm s e a r c h l i g h t ,
t r a n s m i s s i o n
one fire d i r e c t o r and d a t a s y s t e m for f o u r 12cm AA G u n s . Switch m b a c k g r o u n d .
board

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CO

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Picture No. 144 (PM 33SJ TYPICAL LATRINE


UMAN: L a t r i n e c o n s 1 s t e d of two simple
frame s t r u c t u r e s , one h o u s i n g the u r i n a l
and the other for f e c a l m a t t e r (Picture
No. 1 4 6 ) . Small w o o d e n box was for d i s i n f e c t a n t used to wash hands after urin a t i n g .

P i c t u r e No. 145 (PM 3 3 9 J I N T E R I O R OF


URINAL, UMAN: I n t e r i o r of latrine shown
m Ptctur". No. 1 4 4 . Wooden t r o u g h em ptied into a m e t a l t r o u g h which ran
d o w n h i I I for 6' where the und 1 luted
urine s p i l l e d over the open g r o u n d .

P i c t u r e No. 146 (PM 3 4 0 ) T Y P I C A L LATRINE


UMAN: Note complete lack of s c r e e n i n g .
C h i n a " s q u a t t e r " for e xc r.eme nt was p r o vided with loose fitting wooden c o v e r
(barely discernible leaning a g a i n s t far
w a l l ) .

P i c t u r e No. 147 (PM 3 4 2 ) PERMANENT TYPE


L A T R I N E , UMAN: This latrine was used
by e n l i s t e d men of the 155mm gun battery
located on S o u t h UMAN. Note s m o o t h c o n -
c ret o. f i n i s h on u r i n a l at r i g h t . Doors
at left led to i n d i v i d u a l box s e a t s
over a p i t .

60

; 4

P i c t u r e N o . 1 4 8 (PM i 9 9 ) WATER STORAGE TANKS, MT. NISHIKI, FEFAN: These t w o tanks f o r c o l l e c t i n g rainwater had a stcr a g e c a p a c i t y of > t o n s e a c h . Tanks had sheet-metal linings and roofs.

Picture No. s i s t e d of s i and co r r u g a t storing clot

1 4 mpl ed hin

9 (PM 4 8 4 ) TROOP SHELTER, UDOT: Structure c o n e wooden framing with thatched grass s idewaI Is sheet metal roof. Note overhead s h e l v e s f o r g and equipment . Reported occupancy 1 0m e n .

P i c t u r e N o . 1 ^ 0 (PM 4 5 2 ) NAVY GUN CREW BARRACKS, Barrac ks f o r 1 4 0 m e n . This area had n o t been US bombing.

NORTH disturbed

TOL, by

a.

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Picture No. 151 (Pm 14?) Note grass floor sleeping I tght ing, and, a rarity,

TROOP mats, glass

SHELTER, mosquit0 windows.

155mm nets,

BATTERY, electric

UMAN:

P i c t u r e No. 2 5 2 (PM 4 5 0 ) G E N E R A T O R CAVE. TOL: Prime mover, and g e n e r a t or. r i g h t ; w o r k b e n c h , l e f t .

CD B A T T E R Y , suitchboard,

NORTH
c e n t e r ;

P i c t u r e No. 1 5 9 (PM 4 5 1 ) G E N E R A T O R CAVE, T O L : Gene rat ing unit m f ore g r o u n d and b e y o n d .

CD B A T T E R Y , cooling water

NORTH
t a n k s

z
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LU
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Picture FEFAN:

No. Note

1^4 (PM "ready"

394) 8cm ammunition

AA

GUN EMPLACEMENT, concrete shelf

MT. >n

NISHIKI, revetment.

P i c t u r e N o . 1 5 5 (PM 4 0 7 ) 1 3 m m MG C A V E P O S I T I O N , M T . UBUN, FEFAN: W e a p o n ' s m i s s i o n w a s t o f i r e on s e a s h o r e t 1 r g <> t s on E a s t F E F A N b e a c h f r o m c a v e p o s i t i o n at 5 5 0 ' e l e v a t i o n .

P i c t u r e N o . 1^6 (PM 1 4 9 ) 1 5 0 c m S E A R C H L I G H T , 155m* UMAN: Se a r c h l i g h t w a s u s e d t o 1 I l u m m a t t targets a n d to a i d s h i p s in e n t e r i n g S O U T H P a s s at n i g h t . a n d t r a c k a r e in b a c k g r o u n d , M n n < * * * " > "1

CD BATTERY, for CD guns Shelter

Tff

61

MILITARY ENGINEERING

o ^* o I Equipment: ARTICLE Small sound alarm Portable sound alarm Simple meteorological apparatus Type 95 decontamination powder Type 98 Unit Gas Mask Testing Machine, Mk 1 and Mk 2 for personnel Gas Masks for personnel Canisters (for exchange) Type 96 Complete Gas Protective Clothing
Type 96 Light Gas Protective Clothing Gas-Protective Shoe Cover (A) Gas-Protective Shoe Cover (B) Substitute GasProtective Clothing Gas-Protective Coat Observation Eye-Glasses Anti-dim Plate Repair Kit for GasProtective Clothing Unit Gas Medicine Pannier Medical Unit Gas Pannier Hospital Gas Medical Pannier Gas Medical Treatment Kit A Gas Medical Treatment Kit B Gas Medical Treatment Kit C Mark 1 First Aid Kit Mark 2 First Aid Kit Gas First Aid Kit Gas Masks for wounded Personnel decontamination Pouch Decontamination Pouch A Medical prescription B Medical prescription Eye lotion Nose lotion Chlorine suction tube UNIT Item Item Set Can

TABLE A-5
. Lj.st of Army Chemical Warfare Materiel
ARTICLE QUANTITY 40 210 18 450 NOTE Gas Masks Containers and Fittings for Gas Masks Light Gas Clothing Gas Clothing Gas Detector Gas Covers Mk-3 Decontamination Kit Mk-4 Decontamination Kit Mk-5 Decontamination Kit Oxygen Gas Masks Oxygen Generator Air Filter

TABLE A-4
List of Navy Chemical Warfare Materiel
UNIT Each Kit Each Each Each Each Kit Kit Kit Each Each Each QUANTITY
11,071
79
2,064
161
90
9,941
159
395
100
5
20
7

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LU

A number of hygrothermographs are broken.


A large amount is deliquescent;
round numbers are given.

=3
0Q

Set
Item Item Set

40

15,617
487
1,105
14,481

Z
CO

FIELD UTILITIES.
Except where dispersed Army units had rainwater cisterns, springs, or shallow
wells, water supply was primarily a Navy function. (See General Construction).
Rainwater was collected by means of systems of troughs, gutters and pipes from
nearly every roofed building, hut, and shack. Normal precipitation in this area
is sufficient to supply small isolated groups but inadequate for such concentrated
installations as the"battle CPs on MT. TOLOMEN, DUBLON. There, water supply would
have become a serious problem In the event that hostile troops held the surrounding
lowlands. The caves were too near the relatively small peak or summit to tap sub-
terranean basins or flows. By collecting rainwater, the Japanese reduced consider ably their need for filtering and purifying equipment. Boiling was prescribed as
the approved standard method for purifying water for drinking. The army had 472
cases of amoebic dysentary in 1944 and 266 cases in 1945. In view of the widespread
use of night soil for fertilizing, these cases should not be attributed exclusively
to impure drinking water. Picture No. 148 shows two typical 5 ton capacity rain water storage tanks at an anti-aircraft battery on MT. NISHIKI, FEFAN. Picture No.
140 shows collection of water dripping from the interior of a cave on FEFAN. The
Japanese claimed that US bombings interfered with their search for additional water
sources and with their further exploitation of those they had.
The main installations were dependent upon a central source of electrical
power. Smaller units, such as anti-aircraft troops, had standard 17.5, 25, and
40kva dlesel engine driven generators. Picture Nos. 141 and 143 show typical equip-
ment. In nearly all cases these generators were in unprotected frame buildings lo-
cated near searchlights. Some truck mounted generators were available for use with
searchlights.
In general, there were no enforced sanitation or refuse disposal regulations.
Individuals relieved themselves wherever they pleased. Flies were everywhere in
abundance and especially near latrines. Picture Nos. 144, 145, and 146 show a
latrine used by naval officers of the 155mm. gun battery on south UMAN. The most
elaborate field latrine found was that for the 155mm. gun crews on UMAN. (See Picture
No. 147). Fecal matter from oil drum type latrines was used freely as "night soil"
or fertilizer and any remainder was buried.
Housing for dispersed units and small groups was, by our standards, highly
unsatisfactory. Overcrowded shacks of salvaged materials with twigs and branches
for flooring were standard. No screening was observed on any of the islands. Some
mosquito bars were noted however. Picture Nos. 149 and 150 show some of the better
type of shelters observed.

Set Set Set Set


Set Set Set Set

150 420
1,935 47 896 410 10 Since most of these have deteriorated and cannot be used, only the reserves are shown.

CO

o
o

Set Set Set Set Set Set Set Set Set


Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item

49

2 7
31 32 208 102 287 29
38
18,000 About 25,000 Since their use has been discontinued it is difficult to give accurate figures*

z o

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LU
CO

Hi CO
UJ

UJ u.
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550
2,300
1,100
1,100

500

This table gives the total of all chemical warfare material for the various
Army units at TRUK.
This table is based on reports for July, 1945. Because of bombing, depreciation,
etc., the present totals will be somewhat different.
Usually the shelters for signal communications facilities were rooms off the
main tunnel In a cave. Picture No. 142 shows a signal communication center room
for AA battery.

62

l
o
< *

oc

P i a l t h f o

N o . 1 5 7 (PM 9 3 ) DUBLON: O n e o f t h e t w o -'<-cu y l c a r r y c t u r e no t r a c t o r s a r r i v e d . They s i t w h e r e l s n e v e r used b e c a u s e e y were u n l o a d e d . A l l t i r e s were " s a l v a g e d " w i t h k n i v e s r u s e o t h e r w i s e .

P i c t u r e

Ho.

1 5 8

(PM

1 0 2 )

DUBLON:

T y p i c a l

r o c k

c r u s h e r

P i c t u r e s h o w i n g

N o . 1 5 9 (PM 2 3 4 ) MOEN: View of d i e s e l e n g i n e Prime m o v e r , l e f t ,

r o c k a n d

c r u s h i n g c r u s h e r ,

p l a n t r i g h t

CD

UJ

oc

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P i c t u r e N o . 1 6 0 (PM 235J MOEN: m o v e r of p l a n t s h o w n in P i c t u r e

45 HP diesel No. i<yg

engine

p r i m e

P i c t u r e N o . 1 6 1 (PM 2^6) MOEN: R o c k C r u s h e r of p l a n t s h o w n


in P i c t u r e No. 159. Note concrete f o u n d a t 1 on p i e r s f o r c r u s h
er proper. M e n on platform handle narrow gauge cars a r r i v i n g
f r o m q u a r r y t o t h e r i g h t a n d f e e d c r u s h e r by h a n d .

Picture N o . 1 6 2 (PM 237) MOEN: shown m Picture No. 159. Crush on narrow gauge track which are of ptctur.e) for hand Ioading m t

" O u t " e n d of c r u s h i n g ed r o c k is c h u t e d into p u s h e d by hand to left 0 t r u c k * .

p l a n t
c a r s
( o u t

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Picture No. 163 (PM 238) MOEN: This blasting cartridge f a c -


t o r y w a s o p e r a t ing w i t h i n 7 5 y d s of t h e c r u s h e r s h o w n in P i c -
t u r e N o . 1 f) g. Soldiers are shown Pulverizing and sacking t h e
picric acid e x p l o s i v e .

One of t h e P i c t u r e No. 164 (PM 72) DUBLON: engine driven narrow gauge locomotives used for hauling rock, supplies, etc.

50 as

HP gasoline prime movers

D U B L O N :
P i c t u r e N o . 1 6 5 (PM 82) 4TH SHIP REPAIR BASE, Mobile unit for shtpside^ repairs; a 100-ton barge w i t h
40 HP c o m p r e s s o r and 45kw g e n e r a t o r for arc w e l d i n g .

63

GENERAL CONSTRUCTION

ROADS. TRAIL3. AND RAILROADS.


Roads: All roads on the islands of TRUK were found to be narrow (91 to 10'
wide) and were constructed, reportedly, mainly of a 6" to 10" layer of poorly
graded machine crushed volcanic rock (basalt) with a clay-soil binder. Our obser vations corroborated the report. In general, all roads followed the natural con-
tour of the ground; cuts or fills being used only where unavoidable, as sidehill bench-sections on steep slopes. Meager attention was paid to drainage in the east ern islands of the atoll. The more sparsely peopled western islands had fairly well drained roads, where there were any roads at all. The Seaplane Base and a few of the streets in DUBLON Town on DUBLON Island were paved with concrete but this was but a small fraction of the total road mileage. The equipment used for road construction consisted of rock crushers (See Picture
No. 158), trucks, hand carts, and hand tools. No graders, dozers or motor-patrols
were to be found anywhere on TRUK, Two 6 cu. yd, carryalls (See Picture No, 157)
were in the Transport Department1a storage yard east of DUBLON Town but the Jap anese claimed they never used them because they had no tractors. The crushers were
hand fed from narrov? gauge railway cars loaded at the quarries and pushed by hand to crushers. Crushers were elevated with chutes to trucks or other narrow gauge railway ears. The capacity of each crusher was approximately 2 cubic meters per
nour. All quarry drilling was done by hand, A typical rock crusher installation
is s h c v . ' f i in Picture Nos, 159, 160, 161, and 162.
lifter the Japanese exhausted their supply of dynamite, they drew picric acid
explosive fillers from aerial bombs, crushed it by hand (See Picture No.163), pour ed hap-hazzard quantities into homemade paper sacks and used the variable car tridges thus formed for blasting in their quarries, caves and tunnels.
Trails: Military installations, in the islands1 hills, as lookout posts, gun
positions, air raid shelters and, later, barracks areas, were accessible by well
secluded primitive trails, taking full advantage of natural cover and concealment.
Trails were simple paths following easy ground contours. The steeper grades were
overcome by means of crude stepd dug into the rocky earth.
Railroads: Narrow gauge railroads were used extensively for moving rock and
spoil from quarries and tunnels or caves. Numbers of 3 cu, yd. tipple cars were
used. Initially, these cars were drawn in trains of 12 by 50 HP gasoline loco motives, (See Picture No. 164), After the loss of the locomotives to US bombings,
hand power prevailed but advantage was taken of gravity grades for loaded cars
wherever possible.

o o

O
a.

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Q

Z
to

o
a: P i c t u r e No. 166 (PM 7 0 ) SUBMARINE BASE, DUBLON: Interior of cxygen g e n e r a t i n g e q u i p m e n t cave showing distilling tank, left, ani r e c e i v e r t a n k , r i g h t . Note s h o r i n g of c o r r u g a t e d sheet iron canopy p r o t e c t i n g e q u i p m e n t from seepage. P i c t u r e No. 167 (PM 7 1 ) SUBMARINE
of oxygen g e n e r a t i n g e q u i p m e n t
l e f t , and c ompre ss or, r i g h t .
cave BASE, DUBLON: Interior showing purifier tanks P i c t u r e No. 168 (PM 6 6 ) SUBMARINE loading pier. Note n a r r o w gauge leg d e r r i c k and f l o a t i n g I r y d o c k BASE, DUBLOS: Torpedo railway, 2&-ton stiff(background, right).

O
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P i c t u r e tfo. 1 6 9 ft* tj)' e rated winches fof2-ton t orpedoes. [ -1 \64

S&BMAR flg ^ s t i f f - . l k g * ie rr 1 c ,,
rVt^1 ' ft.

Hand ophandling

P i c t u r e No. 170 (PM 6 8 ) SUBMARINE BASE, DUBLON: Torpedo loading pier. Note 2 ^ - t o n s t i f f - l e g d e r r i c k for h a n d ling torpedoes. Only two l i g h t e r s could be b e r t h e d here at a t i m e .

P i c t u r e No. 171 (PM 6 4 ) SUBMARINE f JLC e of North Pier .

BASE, DUBLOS:

North

x
KJ

^ >

ACID STORAGE

^ 300 Ton WATER TANK BATTERY CHARGING EQPT for ELECTRIC TORPEDOS

DISPENSARY

TORPEDO ADJUST ING BUILDING TORPEDO EXPORT PIER 5 Ton CRANE

O
Q-

z
Q_

z
SUB REPAIR PARTS D STORAGE AREA 1 |OXYGEN GENERATORS TORPEDO WARHEAD STORAGE FUSE STORAGE

300 Ton WATER TANK

BARRACKS AREA

MACHINE SHOP'

o
a:

FOOD STORAGE TORPEDOS WARHEAD STORAGE AREA

MACHINE SHOP
J I SUPPLY CAVES

WARHEAD STORAGE

POLICEMANS STATION

FIGURE N 0 . 2 2 DUBLON ISLAND SUBMARINE

BASE

NAKAMURA SHIRAHAMA

BATTERY WATER SERVICE

.TORPEDO STORAGE CAVES

|CD| AIR RAID SHELTER WATER TANKS ANTI -TANK OBSTACLES EARTH MOUND-BARRICADE

ORE NORTH\(~~~^i\

/TAKAO MARU

/ \

V ^ F U J I MARU

\JI>\

^-UDOT /URIKAI

^
HOZAN-MARlfl < NETON

j T O L / EBISO-MARU -T ^ X V-AMACHIYAN J) \\? FUKASON \J> JUHO HOZAN

YASAI ^CHUZAI
PAF

FLEET. TORPEDO SHIP REPAIR, CHARE\DUBLON \ SOUTH TRANSPORT AIR GROUP CHURCH WATA\AIR DEPOT SEAPLANE BASE

30 t

30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240

BATTERY

Y /

~V

/ ^-^

FIGURE NO.21

LOCATIONS OF PIERS (TRUK ATOLL)

BATTERY

65

100 a 65 KVA / v GENERATORSX/" 1


! !

TORPEDO ORDNANCE REPAIR SHOP 45 KVA GENERATO Oe GAS

DISPENSA

4TH SHIP REPAIR OFFICE

TELEPH0N

E REPAIR SHOP

/ ^ A R P E N T E R SHOP

\y\STORE

3 0 0 T MARIN
RAILVi^Y
(NOT COMPLETED)

FIGURE N0.23

4TH SHIP REPAIR


DEPARTMENT

DUBLON ISLAND,TRUK
CAROLINE ISLANDS
0
10 20 30 40 B O 60 70 10 90

FLOATING DRY DOCK LENGTH - 117 M BREADTH-16.7 M


HT. OF SIDE WALL 9.2 M
DISPLACEMENT IN LIGHT CONDITION 2027 T

ATOLL

==
SCALE IN METERS

66

GENERAL CONSTRUCTION

\r
: fc

WHARVES AND DOCKS.


Information on wharves and docks is found in Table A-5. All facilities were
capable of accommodating small craft only (5-ton lighters and 10-ton sampans).
There was no storage on the wharves. Cargo was unloaded directly into trucks or
carts and removed to warehouses or open storage.
There was no evidence of dredged docks. Apparently, the wharves (jetties,
piers, quays, landing stages) were built out to where the water was deep enough
for small craft and no attempt was made to berth large vessels alongside them. See
Figure 21.

BRIDGES AND CAUSEWAYS.


Bridges: Simple stringer bridges of timber construction and limited span, 101
to 12', spanned drainage ditches and tidal openings through causeways.
Causeways: A 600' causeway, 2' above high tide, of rock and earth fill con struction crossed the shallow bay indenting the east shore of DUBLON. The exposed
faces were protected by rip-rap walls. Another causeway crossed the swampy re-en trant on the northeastern shore of MOEN.
o o X

Z
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CQ

TABLE A-5
DEPTH ALONGSIDE (METERS) NUMBER OF CAN IT CARRY LIGHTERS ACCOMMOTOR MODATED VEHICLES? DUBLON
KOHATSU TRANSPORT JETTY CHARE AIR DEPOT NAICAI SEAPLANE BASE SHIP REPAIR TORPEDO PIER GARRISON FLEET CARGO
HANDLING
EQUIPMENT DEPTH ALONGSIDE (KST2RS)

TABLE A-5 (Cont'd.)


TYPE OF
CONSTRUCTION
NUMBER OF CAN IT LIGHTERS CARRY ACCOMMOTOR MODATED VEHICLES? UDOT
2 - 3-ton stiff leg
derricks
12 w concrete slab on ro
Earth fill with wood en
YASAI JETTY CHUZAI JETTY URIKAI CARGO
HANDLING
EQUIPMENT

o
TYPE OF
CONSTRUCTION

NAME OF WHARF OR PIER

NAME OF WHARF OR PIER

a. v Z

2.5 3.5 4.0 2.0 4.0 1.7 6.5 1.5 4.6 4.0

4 3 4 2 1 1 4 1 2 4

Yes

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes


MOEN

1.5 1.5 1.0

1 2 1

No No Yes TOL

Piled Rock.
Piled Rock.
Piled Rock.

CO

Concrete slab on rock


fill.
1 - 10-ton Concrete slab on rock
crane fill.
Concrete face around
rock fill.
Concrete on rock.
Heavy timber.
2-1-ton stiff- Rock fill and concrete
leg derrick wall.
Iron plate over timber,
bents and deck.
Rock fill wood end.

Piled Rock.
Piled Rock.
Piled Rock.
Piled Rock, wood end.
Concrete slab.
Concrete slab.
Piled Rock.
Piled Rock.
Piled Rock.
Piled Rock.

CO
UI

HMACHIYAN

FUKASON JUHO HOZAM

ORE
BATTERY NET ON 31SU MARU FUJI MARU TAKAO MARU

4.0 2.5 3.0 2.0 3.0 2.5 3.0 1.5 1.2 0.8

1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1

No No No No No Yes No Yes No No
ULALU

KJ

NO. 2 BASE JETTY NAKAMURA KAMENKO BATTERY SHIRAHAMA POLICEMAN'S STA. WATER SERVICE

2.0 1.5 2.0 1.5 1.5 4.0 5.0

2 3 2 1 1 1 5

Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes


FEFAN

COMMUNICATION JETTY 1.5 Heavy timber.


Heavy timber.
Piled rock.
Concrete slab on rock
fill.
Rock fill.
Rock fill.
Concrete slab on rock

No
ETEN

Piled Rock.

oc
H

TAKESHIMA

4.0

Yes
UMAN

Concrete slab on rock


fill.

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Water discharge

fill.

BATTERY JETTY SCHOOL RADIO

2.0

2 1 1

Yes Yes No
PARAM

Z Concrete slab on rock


fill.
Rock fill.
Wood.

UI

u.
UI

2.1
3.0

WATA JETTY KATSUO SABOTA KUKKU CHURCH

3.0 2.0
2.0
1.0
0.6

Concrete slab on rock


fill.
1 Yes Narrow gauge Piled rock.
track
1 No Light wood.
1 (too narrow) Rock fill.
None (too narrow) Rock fill.

Yes

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3.0

Yes

Timber.

67

-V

FUEL OIL TANK FARM AND OIL SUPPLY PIERS .NOT TO SCALE
NOTE I OPERATION OF TANK FARM CEASED APRIL 1944, DUE TO EXTENSIVE DAMAGE FROM BOMBING 2 IO>UNDERGROUND OIL LINE 3 EARTH OYKES AROUND ALL TANKS 4. ALL TANKS RIVETED, STEEL PLATE CONSTRUCTION

FIGURE NO. 26A

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NANKO

DOCK

CHARE AREA, DUBLON INSTALLATIONS OF 4TH MUNITION DEPT 30 JUNE .943

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SUPPLY OFFICE - 4th MUNITION DEPT OFFICE-NANKO SUlSAN CO @REFRIGERATOR BUILDING SUPPLY STORES BARRACKS

FIGURE NO. Z5

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32 OIL-TANK (CONCRETE) 54 4 5 M MAST 63

72

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45 M MAST

WARE HOUSE (RICE)

GENERATING ROOM ( 6 0 KVA)

351

TRANSMITTING

ROOM NO 2

4th COMMUNICATION UNIT TRANSMITTING STATION


DUBLON IS, TRUK ATOLL, CAROLINE ISLANDS NOTES I.NOT TO SCALE ? ALL BUILDINGS WOOD CONSTRUCTION 3 BUILDING AREAS INDICATED IN SO METERS 194

BARRACKS TOILET

TRANSMITTING ROOM

COOKING HOUSE '0 36 BATHING ROOM

FIGURE NO 2 4

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JAPANESE DEFENSES ON TRUK ATOLL, CAROLINE ISLANDS. CINCPAC-CINCPOA BULLETIN 3-46, 15 MARCH 1946.'

GENERAL CONSTRUCTION

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No. 181 (PM 86) NANKO DOCK Picture showing dry rtorage Left, and cold Photo shows 1 / 9 of former m s t a LLat able after US bombing.

AREA, DUBLON: View storage, center and ion whirb remained

inland
right.
oper

Picture So. 182 (PM H4) NANKO


DOCK filled pier shown was major
supply TRUK.
at

AREA, DUBLON: receiving

Rock facility

Pictur.e No. 183 (PM 85) NANKO DOCK from pier, showing slip, foreground, structed timber wharf, middleground,

AREA, DUBLON: and poorly for smaller

View con craft,

INSTALLATIONS.
DUBLON;

The 45, 65, and lOOkva generators were removed from their respec tive base site buildings and Installed in caves in the adjacent hillside. A typ ical underground installation is shown in Picture Nos. 172 and 173.
Two small sawmills were operated by the base personnel cutting 24"
imported hard wood logs and local soft wood breadfruit trees.
The 300-ton marine railway, 36* wide, 250' long, built on a 1 to 15
slope of 4 1 thick concrete slabs, was never completed. (See Picture Nos. 174 and
176).
A floating drydock, 117 meters in length and 18*7 meters in breadth,
lay inshore at the base and was reported to have been used for docking destroyers,
submarine and small craft* The dock could be sunk 4*8 meters below normal dis placement* (See Picture Nos* 177, 178, 179, and 180)*
4th Communications Unit Transmitting Station-The layout of this stacion
is shown in Figure 24* All buildings were of frame construction* The two-story
barracks were set on concrete piers* After US bombing began these facilities were
salvaged and crude open barracks built for them in the adjacent wooded areas*
The two power plant buildings with concrete decks, 4 1 high sill walls
and wooden superstructures were totally destroyed by US bombing* The Japanese had
anticipated severe bombing attacks and had removed all machinery and transmitting
equipment to a prepared underground site and so suffered little interruption to
their signal communications.
The ruins of the former transmitting rooms showed evidence of hand
rubbed finish on the Interior of the concrete walls as well as on the interior
wood trim. Glass sash had been provided*
Three steel 45-meter masts set in concrete foundations supported the
antennae.
The newly prepared underground site Included a power house, two
transmitting caves and provided only the bare essentials. The entrance to one of
the transmitting caves is shown in Picture No. 184.
The power house sheltering the 65 and 60kva generators was of heav ily reinforced concrete construction with 18" walls, 36" roof slab, and concrete
deck. The entire building was oovered with earth and sodded. No ventilation was
provided and the air inside was hot and smelled of grease. The two cut-and-cover
transmitting shelters, of reinforced concrete construction and of horseshoe cross
section, were 601 long, 12* wide, 81 high and had walls 12" thick. A 12" X 12"
combination ventilation duct and escape hatch made these units quite habitable.

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Submarine Base-The submarine base layout is shown in Figure 22. It was


equipped fully to provide supplies, munitions and extensive repairs to a sizeable
submarine force* Base working crews were quartered in two-story frame barracks
with additional housing facilities for four submarine crews* Both compressed air
and electric torpedoes were adjusted here at the rate of 18 to 36 man-days per tor pedo. Torpedoes were stored then in a frame building surrounded by an earth revet ment. Complete machine shops were established in typical frame buildings. After
the initial US bombings caused serious loss of equipment, all remaining shops,
storage and working areas were removed to and installed in an extensive cave system
nearby. Work in the caves was hampered by adverse working conditions, dampness,
standing water, and foul air, Equipment for generating oxygen and storing it in
cylinders Is shown in Picture Nos. 166 and 167. Torpedoes were transported by nar row gauge rail cars from cave storage to submarine base pier (See Picture No. 168)
and there loaded aboard lighters by a 2^-ton stiff-leg derrick. The pier and fac-
ilities are shown in Picture Nos. 169 and 170. The floating drydock of the adjacent
ship repair base was used for major submarine repairs also. Picture No. 171 shows
$h north pier of the submarine base.

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4th Ship Repair Base-This base was equipped to make minor repairs to all
ships and major repairs and adjustments to vessels up to and including the destroy-
er and submarine classes. The base was operated by 1,000 workers of all required
skills, trades and crafts. All structures, Including one-story barracks, shops and
warehouses, were of wood construction on concrete decks or sill walls. Only the
two-otory barracks had wood decks on concrete piers elevated for dryness. All ship
repairs were accomplished while vessels were anchored in the lagoon. This required
the use of many tugs, barges, cranes and lighters. Two 100-ton barges, one equipped
with a 40 HP compressor and a 45kw generator for electric welding machines shown in
Picture No. 165, the other a deck barge used for transporting heavy loads (as gun tur rets), were available. A 30-ton self-propelled floating crane was used in con-
Junction with the drydock which lacked crane facilities of its own. The other com-
ponent parts of the base are shown in Figure 23. The principal items were:
A substantial machine shop was reported to have been equipped fully
with 20 engine lathes, several heavy duty drill presses, moulding and punching
equipment, milling machines, shapers, oxygen generating equipment and all pertinent
hand tools. After US bombing attacks, about one fourth of this equipment was sal vaged and installed in a nearby cut-and-cover shelter which provided the usual ex tremely poor working conditions. (See Picture No. 172). Lathe operators and mach inists stood on duck boards to keep out of the standing water. The atmosphere was
stale and damp in spite of the ventilation ducts or pipes to the air above.

70

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JAPANESE DEFENSES ON TRUK ATOLL, CAROLINE ISLANDS. CINCPAC-CINCPOA BULLETIN 3-46, 15 MARCH 1946

TO
BRANCH
OFFICES

RADIO EQUIPMENT MOVED TO CAVE SINGLE


MAST

II
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OFFICERS OFFICERS

WAREHOUSE COMMANDAN w M A I N MAST w QUARTER i 1


I
SINGLE MAST I i CIVIL RADIO STATION L_J MAIN MAST GENERATOR

NL6L I OFFICE I
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RECEIVING ROOM N02 i NO.3 _]

BARRACKS
l

FIGURE NO. 28 COMMUNICATION. UNIT RECEIVING STAT (DUBLON ISLAND)


NOTE: DASHED BUILDINGS DESTROYED DRAWING NOT TO SCALE

BARRACKS

1 1 II

ii

HEADQUARTERS OFFICE

COOK" BATHTOILET HOUSE


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SHELTER NO. I
SHELTER NO. 2 TO SEAPLANE_BASE WORKER'S BARRACKS

7 , 0 0 0 ton

OIL STORAGE TANKS

WAREHOUSES

BARRACKS WAREHOUSES

FIGURE NO. 27 SUPPLY WAREHOUSE AREA


(4th MUNITION DEPOT)

CD

FACTORY
10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
SCALE I N METERS

73

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BACILLUS RESEARCH ROOM!

WC O

STORE ROOM TUBERCULOS WARD WATER

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DISEASE WARD WATER

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WATER DISEASE WARD

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OFFICER S AREA

WATER

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WC
BATH HOUSE

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STORAGE

FOOD STORE BOILER

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DENTISTRY^ T OFFICER'S ROOM

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GARAGE

STORAGE

FIGURE NO.29 4TH NAVAL HOSPITAL (DUBLON ISLAND)

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DUBLON

FIGURE NO. 31 AIRFIELD NO.I(MOEN ISLAND)


200 400 600 800
ETEN

LZTZI

GALLEY BARRACKS

nmfm
OIL TANKS

DISPENSARY PROPOSED EXTENSION BOMB STORAGE PLANE HANGER BOMB STOREHOUSE OIL TANK WELDING SHOP I I

=1

[ ] BARR/
COAL TORE

GARAGE |J

CARPENTER SHOP SHOP OIL STORAGE PLANE REPAIR LZH WELDING I I REPAIR PARTS

ORDNANCE

ORDNANCE AERO MACHINE REPAIR AERO-GAUGE REPAIR

REPAIR PARTS

OIL STORE

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(ZH BARRA

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FIGURE N0.30 104TH AIR FORCE ARSENAL (NAVY)


DRAWING-NO SCALE

10 TON CRANE

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FIGURE N0.32 AIRFIELD N 0 . 2 A N D SEAPLANE BASE


200100 0
--ZZZ: 20 CONCRETE PAVING GRAVEL PAVING LEGEND SAME AS FIG.3I 200 400 600

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UNDERGROUND HANGER-I PLANE CAPACITY
LU CO LU

ALL DIMENSIONS IN METERS

75