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REGULATIONS AND PROCEDURES

FOR

SEED CERTIFICATION SYSTEM IN PAKISTAN


(In terms of Section 29(1) of Act No. XXIX of 1976)

Muhammad Boota Sarwar

Federal Seed Certification Department Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Cooperatives (Food & Agriculture Division) 4 - Lytton Road, Lahore

______________________________________________________________________________
PRINTED BY THE MANAGER, PRINTING CORPORATION OF PAKISTAN PRESS, LAHORE

1984

CONTENTS PAGE 1. Rules and directions .. .. 2. Acceptance of cultivars .. .. 3. List of eligible cultivars .. .. 4. Designation of categories of seed .. .. 5. Production of pre-basic, Basic, Certified and Approved seed 6. Control of production of Basic and Certified seed .. 7. Pre- & Post-Control Tests of Pre-basic, Basic and Certified seed 8. Sampling and Sealing .. .. 9. Identification of contents of seed containers .. 10. Re-labelling and Re-sealing .. 11. Department responsible for implementation .. 12. Minimum requirements for the production of different classes of seed Previous cropping history .. Isolation . . . . .. .. Seed-borne diseases .. .. Weeds .. .. Field inspection .. .. Specification for the Labels or marking of seed containers Specimen certificate and Analysis results .. Procedures and methods for drawing of samples .. Requirements and procedures for registration of growers and crop Inspection .. .. .. Procedure for Pre- & Post-Control plots .. Field inspection. .. .. Rejections .. .. PARTII 13 Minimum seed certification standards Wheat .. Cotton .. Paddy .. Maize (hybrids) .. Maize (composite) .. Gram .. .. .. Rape & Mustard .. Potato .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 15 17 19 21 23 26 28 29 31 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 6 7 9 10 11 12

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PARTIII Page Vegetables Cabbage Cauliflower Chinese cabbage Knol-kohl Ash gourd White gourd Bitter gourd Bottle gourd Cucumber Long melon Musk melon Pumpkin Squash gourd Red gourd Ridged gourd Sponge gourd Tinda Vegetable marrow Water melon Lettuce .. 41 Fenugreek Beet root Garden pea Cowpea Lobia Dolichos bean French bean Cluster bean Turnip Radish Carrot Pepper Tomato Brinjal Okra Onion Coriander Spinach .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 43 .44 45 .46 46 46 46 46 47 47 49 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 37 37 37 37 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 .39

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RULES AND DIRECTIONS: General: The Pakistan Seed Certification system shall cover the seed of cultivars/varieties of all crops grown and approved for seed production, labeled and sealed in accordance with the rules and directions which form the subject of the following paragraphs and which are regarded as the minimum requirements. The system shall be implemented by the Federal Seed Certification Department. II. ACCEPTANCE OF CULTIVARS: (a) Cultivars shall be accepted into the system only if satisfactory results have been obtained by official tests (including comparative field tests by an official agency). (b) For all cultivars, the tests must establish that the cultivar is distinct and that its generations used for further seed production have distinct, uniform and stable characters. An accurate description including essential botanical and Physiological characters must be available. (c) The tests must also establish that the cultivars have an acceptable agronomic value. III.LIST OF ELIGIBLE CULTIVARS: (a) A National list of cultivars eligible for the system shall be published and revised periodically. (b) Only registered and listed cultivars/ varieties shall be eligible for certification. (c) Cultivars shall not be maintained on the list if the conditions of acceptance are no longer fulfilled. IV. DESIGNATION OF CATEGORIES OF SEED: The following categories of seed, as defined in Seed Act 1976 are recognised in the Scheme : Pre-basic seed. Basic seed. Certified seed.

Approved seed.
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V. PRODUCTION OF PRE-BASIC, BASIC, CERTIFIED AND APPROVED SEED: (a) Pre-basic seed shall be produced under the responsibility of the breeder who will decide in consultation with the Federal Seed Certification Department, the number of generations from parental material before Pre-basic seed is released and will maintain a sufficient supply of seed for sowing to produce Basic seed. The breeder shall ensure to preserve the characters of the cultivar. A sample/samples of Pre-basic seed shall be supplied to the Federal Seed Certification Department for Pre- & Post-Control Trials. (b) Basic seed is produced in a manner prescribed by and acceptable to the Federal Seed Certification Department. (c) Certified seed is produced in a manner prescribed by and acceptable to the Federal Seed Certification Department. Technical conditions must be approved by the Federal Seed Certification Department which must decide after consulting the breeder, whether more than one generation of Certified seed should be permitted. (d) Approved seed is the progeny of certified seed grown in quarantined and isolated areas, to be produced and distributed by various agencies so designated and approved by the Federal Seed Certification Department. VI. CONTROL OF PRODUCTION OF BASIC AND CERTIFIED SEED: (a) The Federal Seed Certification Department shall be responsible for implementing the system. (b) The requirements for the production of Basic and Certified seed, approved under the regulations and procedures for the Seed Certification System in Pakistan, considered satisfactory for trueness to cultivar and varietal purity, shall be officially published. The Federal Seed Certification Department must satisfy itself by inspection of the processing plants at an appropriate stage or stages during processing that the seed lot is within the specified standards. (c) The Federal Seed Certification Department must take all practicable steps to ensure that the identity and varietal purity of the seed during harvesting, processing, sealing and labeling has been maintained. (d) An official sample shall be drawn in the prescribed manner from each cleaned lot of Basic and Certified seed submitted for certification and the seed containers sealed and made identifiable or labeled in accordance with Rules

VIII and IX. This sample shall be sufficient to meet the requirements outlined in this rule and rule VII.
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(e) One part of each such sample shall be available to meet the requirements of Rule VII. (f) Another part of each sample shall be submitted to an official laboratory for tests and analytical purity and germination, according to laid down standards. (g) For Basic seed a third part of each sample shall be stored for as long a period as possible for comparison in control plots with future samples of Basic seed. For Certified seed the third part of each sample shall be stored for at least one year for reference. (h) The Federal Seed Certification Department is entitled to make any other test appropriate to the cultivar concerned and to obtain any information required for the certification of each seed lot. (i) The Federal Seed Certification Department may issue certificates for each lot of Basic and Certified seed approved under the Seed Certification System in Pakistan. (j) Two or more lots of the same generation of Certified seed of one cultivar may be blended in accordance with the regulations of the Federal Seed Certification Department. VII. PRE- & POST-CONTROL TESTS O PRE-BASIC, BASIC AND CERTIFIED SEED: (a) A part of every sample of seed except as provided for in Rule VII-b under, shall be grown in post-control plots in the season immediately following receipt of the samples. (b) When a control plot is a pre-control, the Federal Seed Certification Department is not entitled to certify seed derived from the lot concerned if the results from the plot tests show that trueness to cultivar or varietal purity has not been achieved. (c) Subject to compliance with all prescribed conditions, which may include payment of a prescribed fee, the owner of any lot of seed, certified in accordance with the system shall be entitled to receive from the Federal Seed Certification Department in respect of that lot, a statement of the results of any test carried out. VIII. SAMPLING AND SEALING: (a) All samples referred to in the system shall be drawn from the seed lots by an authorized representative of the Federal Seed Certification Department and in accordance with the prescribed methods.

(b) Seed lots offered for sampling under these Rules must be as homogeneous as possible. The Federal Seed Certification Department may refuse to certify any lot where there is evidence that it is not sufficiently homogeneous. (c) One seed lot, at a maximum, shall not exceed 20,000 kg. (d) The seed containers shall be sealed and the contents identified in accordance with these Rules at the time of sampling by the official, taking the sample. (e) Seed Containers shal1 be sealed in such a way that the seed cannot be removed or changed without damaging beyond repair, either the container or the sealing device. A sealing device which cannot be removed and re-attached shall be used. IX. IDENTIFICATION OF CONTENTS OF SEED CONTAINERS: The contents of each container shall be indicated by : (a) A label issued by the Federal Seed Certification Department or marking indelibly on the outside of the container with all the information required to be printed on the label. X. RE-LABELLING AND RESEALING: (a) (b) When re-labeling and resealing take place, there must be no blending of different seed lots except under Rule VI (j). The original seals and labels shall be removed and all operations conducted in the presence of an authorized representative of the Federal Seed Certification Department who will also attach new labels and seals.

(c) Each seed lot shall be sampled at the time of re labeling and re-sealing and tested by the Federal Seed Certification Department. XI DEPARTMENT RESPONSIBLE FOR IMPLEMENTATION: (a) The Government of Pakistan have designated the Federal Seed Certification Department for the purpose of implementing the system in Pakistan. MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF DIFFERENT CLASSES OF SEED 1. PREVIOUS CROPPING HTSTORY: (a) The Federal Seed Certification Department shall require the grower to furnish particulars concerning the previous cropping history of each seed field.

(b) The fields shall be rejected where the previous cropping history is not in accordance with the regulations published by the Federal Seed Certification Department. There shall be a minimum true interval of at least one year between successive crops of the same species. Successive crops of the same cultivar and
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category of seed may be grown on the same field without any time interval provided satisfactory varietal purity is maintained. 2. ISOLATION: Seed crops shall be isolated from other seed crops by a definite barrier or a space sufficient to prevent cross pollination and admixture during harvest. Where specific requirements regarding isolation are prescribed for various species, distances may be reduced by the Federal Seed Certification Department, if there are natural or artificial barriers between crops. 3. SEED-BORNE DISEASES: Regulations shall be published by the Federal Seed Certification Department, subject to approval of National Seed Council to provide for the rejection of seed which is infected with seed-borne diseases. Seed-borne diseases shall be assessed as under : (a) Field inspection to assess percentage of infection. (b) Pre-control plots of samples of seed lots which contain more than a prescribed proportion of a seed-borne disease. (c) Laboratory tests showing more than a prescribed proportion of a seed borne disease. 4. WEEDS: Crops containing an excessive number of weed plants, inseparable in nature shall be rejected. No field having objectionable weed plants more than the prescribed standards shall be eligible for certification. 5. FIELD INSPECTION: (a) Seed Certification Officers shall be specially trained and responsible only to the Federal Seed Certification Department. (b) There shall be the prescribed number of field inspections of each crop. (c) The Seed Certification Officer shall check that the minimums laid down requirements have been satisfied.

(d) At field inspection the Federal Seed Certification Department shall reject field, where varietal purity/species purity is below the specified standards. The crop must be in a fit state to permit these determinations to be made accurately.

(e) When determining the number of off-types and other crop plants presence, the Seed Certification Officer shall work according to the approved procedures. (f) Pre- & Post-Control plots grown from samples of the seed lot/lots, used to sow the Crop shall also be examined. (g) The Federal Seed Certification Department shall decide for each field whether or not approval can be given to the field after inspection, and issue a certificate accordingly. 6. SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE LABELS OR MARKING OF SEED CONTAINERS: Description: (a) Type: Labels may be either adhesive or non-adhesive. (b) The information may be printed on one or both sides. (c) Labels shall be rectangular with square corners. (d) The colours of the labels shall be as follows : (i) Pre-basic seed : (ii) Basic seed : (iii) Certified seed 1st generation : (iv) Certified seed 2nd generation : White with a diagonal violet line White Blue Red.

(e) The following information shall be printed in block type on the label. Federal Seed Certification Department. Species (Latin name). Cultivar name. Category. Reference No. (f) Additional information may be added if so desired by the Federal Seed Certification Department. 7. SPECIMEN CERTIFICATE AND ANALYSIS RESULTS: (a) Specimen certificate:

Certificate must contain all the information outlined below: Federal Seed Certification Department. Reference No. Species. Cultivar. Number of containers and declared weight of lot.
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The seed lot bearing the reference number has been sampled in accordance with the Seed Certification System in Pakistan and is approved as : (i) Basic seed. (ii) Certified seed (iii) Certified seed. (b) Analysis Results: The results of Laboratory analysis shall be according to the prescribed Rules and Procedures. 8. PROCEDURES AND METHODS FOR DRAWING OF SAMPLES: (a) Seed lot shall be well mixed and homogeneous. (b) When in sacks or in other similar sized containers, the procedure shall be as follows :-No. of Containers Number to be sampled 1 to 5 6 to 14 15 to 30 31 to 49 50 or above Each container, portions being taken from at least five positions. Not less than 5 containers. At least 1 container in 3. Not less than 10 containers. At least 1 container in 5. 1st generation 2nd generation

When there are more than 5 containers in the lot the containers to be sampled shall be taken at random. (c) For sampling seed lots in containers weighing less than 50 kg, a 100 kg. wt. of seed is taken as the basic unit. Containers are combined to form sampling units weighing a maximum of 100 kg (i.e. 5 containers each of 20 kg. from one unit). (d) Samples shall be taken in the following manner :

(i) Where the seeds are in sacks they shall be sampled at random and samples taken from the top, middle and bottom of each selected sack. The position from which the seeds are taken shall be varied from sack to sack and seeds shall be taken from different horizontal positions. Wherever practicable, seeds shall be sampled with a metal spear, trier or probe with a solid point which shall be of sufficient length to reach beyond the middle of the sack when inserted from the side and shall have an oval aperture so placed that the instrument removes
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portions of seeds of equal volume from each part of the sack through which it travels. The instrument should be inserted into the sack in an upward direction at an angle of approximately 300 to the horizontal, with its aperture downward until the aperture reaches the centre of the sack. It shall than be rotated so as to bring the aperture upper most and withdrawn at once at a decreasing speed so that the quantity of seed obtained from the successive locations increases progressively from the centre to the side of the sack. Alternatively, a longer instrument should be inserted until the aperture reaches the farther side of the sack, rotated in the manner described above and withdrawn at a uniform speed. A stick sampler may be used in place of the instrument above. It may be used horizontally or vertically. If the stick sampler has more than one aperture it must have transverse partitions so that such aperture opens into a separate compartment. It should be inserted diagonally into the sack in the closed position, then opened, gently agitated to allow it to fill completely, closed again, withdrawn and emptied. Seeds in containers other than sacks, wherever, practicable shall be sampled with an instrument as aforesaid which shall be used as already prescribed. When it is not practicable to sample seeds in sacks or other containers in the manner already prescribed, portions may be taken by hand, care being taken to keep the fingers tightly closed about the seeds so that none may escape as the hand is withdrawn. If necessary, in order to reach the lower levels, part of the contents shall be emptied into another sack or other container. (ii) Seeds in a partly filled container: The seeds shall be thoroughly mixed by hand and small portions then taken from at least five different positions. (iii) Seeds in Bulk Portions of seeds shall be taken with a stick sampler from at least the number of positions indicated as below:Size of Lot. Upto 50 kg. 51 to 1500 kg. Number of Positions to be sampled Not less than 3. Not less than 5.

1501 to 3000 kg. At least I for each 300 kg. 3001 to 5000 kg. Not less than 10. 5001 to20,000 kg. At least 1 for each 500 kg. Sampling positions must be selected at random, both vertical and horizontal positions.
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If the stick sampler has more than one aperture it shall have transverse partitions so that each aperture opens into a separate compartment. (iv) Seeds in cleaning, mixing or dressing machines: Portions of seed shall be drawn during the cleaning, mixing or dressing process, so that the entire cross section of the seed stream is uniformly sampled at regular intervals throughout the whole process. The frequency shall be as indicated in the table below : Size of Lot. Upto 50 kg. 51 to 1500 kg. 1501 to 3000 kg. 3001 to 5000 kg. 5001 to20,000 kg. Number of times to be sampled Not less than 3. Not less than 5. At least I for each 300 kg. Not less than 10. At least 1 for each 500 kg.

(v) When the individual portions, taken from the lot already exceed the amount required, they shall be put together in a clean receptacle and well mixed. The composite sample so obtained shall be reduced by halving method using hands. (vi) Portions of seed for moisture test shall be drawn in such a way as to prevent exposure to the atmosphere. Samples shall be packed in air tight containers. Seeds for moisture test shall be kept separate from seeds on which other determinations are to be made. (vii) Samples drawn shall be tested in the Seed Testing Laboratories and results conveyed to the Director, Federal Seed Certification Department for action. The whole process carried out in the processing plants shall be under the supervision of the staff of the Federal Seed Certification Departments Seed Testing Laboratories which are situated at each plant. (viii) After final processing further samples shall be drawn from the seed lots and tested. Subject to the samples passing the required standards, labeling and sealing shall be carried out again under supervision of the Federal Seed Certification Departments staff. Certificates stating the quality of each seed lot will then be issued. The seed is then suitable for further multiplication.

9. REQUIREMENTS AND PROCEDURES FOR REGISTRATION OF GROWERS AND CROP INSPECITON: Submission of lists of growers: (a) The details of growers selected and registered by the Seed Corporations/ Procurement Agencies, according to the criteria laid down by the Federal Seed
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Certification Department shall be submitted to the Federal Seed Certification Department for record purposes. (b) Lists of stocks of the various seed lots that the Seed Corporations/Procurement Agencies are intending to utilize in their current production programme, are to be sent to the Federal Seed Certification Department for checking. The following information should be included in these lists: (i) Crop species and variety. (ii) Categories and numbers of the seed lots. (c) Following the approval of the lists of stocks, the Seed Corporations/ Procurement Agencies must then submit to the Federal Seed Certification Department full details of crops to be sown during the current season. The information should include :(i) Crop species and variety. (ii) Category and registration/lot number of seed. (Pre-basic, Basic or Certified). (iii) Growers Name and Address etc. (iv) Area to be sown. (d) This information can then be checked against preceding details to ensure that the stock seed is eligible for certification at the required grade/ category and that the grower is registered. When this procedure is complete, the Federal Seed Certification Department will then arrange for the necessary field inspections to be carried out by the qualified Seed Certification Officers of the Department. After the completion of each inspection, the relevant Seed Corporations/ Procurement Agencies shall be informed of the results and action if any i.e. rouging etc. On completion of the final inspection the result will be communicated to the Seed Corporations/Procurement Agencies and arrangements made for the first sampling to take place after harvest. Concurrent with field inspection the Pre- & Post-control plots will be used to estimate the purity of the seed crops. Procedure for pre-& post control plots is laid down as under : 10. PROCEDURE FOR PRE- AND POST-CONTROL PLOTS:

(a) The Federal Seed Certification Department shall lay down a procedure for preand post-control trials. Standard sample obtained from the originator is the official sample against which all other samples of seed of the cultivar will be judged. (b) Samples have to be drawn from each .lot of pre-basic, Basic and Certified seed produced. These samples are divided into three parts:
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(i) One part for Laboratory analysis. (ii) One part for Pre- & Post-control trials. (iii) One part stored for reference. (c) Samples drawn from all seed lots, eligible for certification must be submitted to the agency responsible, in time, for its programme. Seeds will be grouped together according to variety and category and sown in blocks on suitable land as Pre-basic, Basic and Certified. The Pre-basic and Basic will act as a Precontrol and the certified as a Post-control. (d) Requirements: (i) Suitable clean land. (ii) Agriculture machines designed for plot work : The only essential piece of equipment is a small tractor and a seed drill which can be thoroughly cleaned after sowing of each individual plot. (iii) Trained personnel for plot recording : This can be carried out by Seed Certification Officers and Assistants. (iv) Adequate variety descriptions: Ideally these should be prepared by the National Seed Registration Agency and form part of the National list of cultivars and supplied to the Federal Seed Certification Department. (v) Method of growing the plots: Plots should be sown on land free from ground-keepers, other species and weeds and in appropriate fertility. The aim should be to produce a clean standing crop. Plots of each cultivar should be grouped together in the field, subdivided according to seed lots with appropriate standard samples. (vi) Methods for making observations on plots : Plots are examined throughout the growing season, with particular emphasis on the period from flowering to harvesting. The plot is examined for off- types in accordance with a standard procedure and with reference to the botanical descriptions published by the National Seed Registration Agency for the distinguishing characters of the appropriate cultivar. 11. FIELD INSPECTION:

Procedure for field Inspection: The purpose of Field Inspection is to determine whether or not the crop is suitable for the production of seed of the standard, required and: (a) Determine that the field contains the cultivar which is supposed to be there.
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(b) Check that the field location and reference number of the seed sown is correct. (c) Check the previous cropping history. (d) Check that the isolation distances are correct. (e) Check variety and seed lot reference number with the labels and seals which must be maintained by the Registered growers. Check that the identity of the field to be inspected is correct. (f) Check that the crop condition and development of the crop is adequate to allow a sufficient check of identity and varietal purity, and state of health plus the provision that the crop must not be so poor, weedy, diseased or damaged that proper inspections are impossible. (g) If all the above conditions are found satisfactory then proceed to a detailed examination of the crop for: (i) Admixture with other cultivars. (ii) Admixture with other species. (iii) Presence of Seed-borne diseases. (iv) Presence of weeds especially those likely to contaminate the crop seed particularly objectionable weed plants. The results of the crop inspection should be noted on the prescribed forms and a final decision be taken of the crop about the standard attained. (h) Inform grower as to the recommendations and whether roguing or any other measures are necessary. Give instructions as to what, how and when these have to be carried out. (i) Seed Corporations/Procurement Agencies can then be informed as to the final outcome of that crop. A special procedure shall be laid down by the Federal Seed Certification Department and approved by the National Seed Council for field inspections. All Seed Certification Officers must show their proficiency in varietal recognition and field inspection techniques. 12. REJECTIONS:

The Federal Seed Certification Department shall have the authority to reject for certification any field crop or any seed lot that does not meet the minimum standards prescribed for that particular crop or seed or for both. Such rejection shall be subjected to any appeal made to Appellate Authority, whose decision shall be considered as final.

APPLICATION OF THE RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR SEED CERTIFICATION SYSTEM IN PAKISTAN FROM PAGE 1 TO 17,ARE BASIC AND TOGETHER WITH THE SPECIFIC STANDARDS GIVEN IN THE FOLLOWING PAGES FOR LAND, CROP INSPECTION, ISOLATION, FIELD AND SEED CONSTITUTE THE STANDARDS FOR CERTIFICATION.
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PARTII MINIMUM SEED CERTIFICATION STANDARDS


(15)

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MINIMUM SEED CERTTFICATTON STANDARDS WHEAT (Triticum spp) I. CROP STANDARDS: (a) Land requirements: A crop of wheat, shall not be eligible for certification as Pre-basic, Basic and Certified if planted on land on which the same kind of crop was grown n the previous season unless the crop in the previous season was of the same variety and of a higher grade and was approved by the Federal Seed Certification Department. (b) Crop Inspection : A minimum of two inspections shall be carried out as follows : The first at the time the crop completes flowering, The second when it changes color. II. CROP PURITY STANDARDS: A. General requirements: 1. Isolation. (a) An isolation distance of at least 10 meters for Pre-basic and Basic and 3 meters for Certified class shall be provided all around a seed field to separate it from fields of other varieties and fields of the same variety not conforming to varietal purity requirements for certification. (b) Pre-basic, Basic and Certified seed of varieties susceptible to loose smut must be treated with an appropriate fungicide.

(c) An isolation distance of at least 150 meters in case of Pre-basic, Basic and Certified crops shall be provided from a source of loose smut.

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B. Specific Requirements: Factor Off-types Other crop plants (Barley & Oats etc.) * Objectionable weed plants ** Plants affected by seed-borne diseases
*

Pre-basic None None None None

Maximum permitted (%) Basic Certified 0.50 0.10 None 0.05 None None 0.02 0.20

Objectionable weed plants shall be: Lehli (Convolvulus arvensis) Pohli (Carthamus oxyacantha) Piazi (Asphodelus spp). Wild Oat (Avena fatua).

**

Seed-borne disease shall be: Loose smut (Ustilago nuda f.sp. tritici).

III.SEED STANDARDS: Factor Pure seed (minimum) Other distinguishable varieties (maximum) Inert matter (maximum) Other crop seeds (maximum) Total weed seeds (maximum) Germination (minimum) Moisture (maximum) Pre-basic (%) 99.99 None 0.01 None None 85 12 Basic (%) 98.00 0.05 2.00 None None 85 12 Certified (%) 98.00 0.20 2.00 0.05 5/kg 85 12

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MINIMUM SEED CERTIFICATION STANDARDS COTTON (Gossypium spp.) I. CROP STANDARDS: (a) Land requirements: Land to be used for production of seed must be free of volunteer plants of cotton. (b) Crop inspection: A minimum of three inspections shall be made from the time of flowering to picking/harvesting. II. CROP PURITY STANDARDS: A. General requirements: 1. Isolation A minimum isolation distance of 50 meters on seed farms between two varieties for Pre-basic and Basic and 10 meters for Certified seed class shall be provided from fields of other varieties of the same species, fields of the same variety not conforming to varietal purity requirements for certification, and fields of other species. B. Specific requirements: . Factor Off-types Pre-basic None

Maximum permitted (%) Basic 0.10 Certified 0.20

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III.SEED STANDARDS: Factor (a) American Cotton Seed Standards Pure seed (minimum) Other varieties (maximum) Desi varieties (maximum) Inert matter (maximum) Germination (minimum) (b) Desi Cotton Seed Standards: 1. seed (minimum) 2. varieties (maximum) 3. matter (maximum) 4. ination (minimum) Note :1. In case of Sind Province the germination percentage for American cotton seed and Desi cotton seed shall be 75%, 70% and 70% for Pre-basic, Basic and Certified classes, respectively. 2. The Federal Seed Certification Department shall check the ginning plants for cleanliness before ginning every new cultivar. Germ 80 75 70 Inert 0.10 2.00 2.00 Other None 0.10 0.20 Pure 99.99 None None 0.10 80 99.99 98.00 0.10 None 2.00 80 98.00 98.00 0.20 None 2.00 75 98.00 Pre-basic (%) Basic (%) Certified (%)

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MINIMUM SEED CERTIFICATION STANDARDS PADDY (Oryza sativa) I. CROP STANDARDS (a) Land requirements: A crop of paddy shall not be eligible for certification if planted on land on which the same kind of crop was grown in the previous season unless the crop in the previous season was of the same variety and of a higher grade and was approved by the Federal Seed Certification Department. (b) Crop inspection: A minimum of two inspections shall be carried out when the crop approaches flowering until it is ready for harvest. II. CROP PURITY STANDARDS: A. General requirements: 1. Isolation An isolation distance of at least 10 meters for Pre-basic, Basic and 3 meters for Certified class shall be provided all around a seed field to separate it from fields of other varieties and fields of the same variety not conforming to varietal purity requirements for certification B. Specific requirements: Factor Off-types Objectionable weed plants (red rice or wild rice, oryza sativa var fatua). Plants affected by diseases None None 0.10 Pre-basic None None Maximum permitted (%) Basic 0.05 None Certified 0.10 0.02

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III.SEED STANDARDS: Factor Pure seed (minimum) Other distinguishable varieties (maximum) Inert matter (maximum) Total weed seeds (maximum) Germination (minimum) Moisture (maximum) Pre-basic (%) 99.99 None 0.01 None 80 12 Basic (%) 98.00 0.05 1.00 None 80 12 Certified (%) 98.00 0.10 1.50 None 80 12

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MINIMUM SEED CERTIFICATION STANDARDS

MAIZE (Zea mays) HYBRIDS I. CROP STANDARDS: (a) Eligibility requirements: A hybrid is one to be planted for any use except seed production. (b) Seed requirements A hybrid to be certified must be produced from certified Basic seed or seed stocks approved by the Federal Seed Certification Department. (c) Land requirements There are no requirements as to the previous crop, but the land must be free of volunteer maize plants. (d) Crop Inspections: A minimum of three inspections shall be made in such a way that the first is done before flowering and the remaining two, during flowering. Rows that function to provide isolation shall not be harvested for seed purposes, and their removal must be confirmed by the Federal Seed Certification Department. II. CROP PURITY STANDARDS: General requirements: 1. Isolation: (a) A specific hybrid must be so located that the seed parent is not less than 200 meters from any maize crop with kernel color and texture the same as that of the parent and not less than 300 meters if the color of kernel and texture differs with the parent. (b) Distance less than 200 meters may be modified by Planting border rows of the male parent, if the kernel color and texture of the contaminating maize is the same as that of the seed parent. (c) Number of border rows to.be planted.to modify isolation distance, less than 200 meters, is to.be determined in consultation with the Federal Seed Certification Department.
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2. Border rows:

(a) Must be planted on land controlled by the producer. (b) Must shed pollen simultaneously with the pollen (male) parent and silk emergence of the seed (female) parent. (c) Must be planted all along and opposite to the contaminating maize. (d) Must be planted using the seed rate and spacing adopted for the seed crop. (e) Must be planted with seed used for planting male rows in the seed field. Seed saved from male rows of the previous crop of the same cross cannot be used for planting of border rows or for planting within the isolation distance. (f) The isolation distance continues to be 300 meters if the kernel color or texture of the contaminating maize is different from that of the seed parent or if the contaminating field is planted with sweet or pop-corn. In this case modification of isolation distance by planting border rows will not be permitted. (g) Differential blooming dates are permitted for modifying isolation distances, provided 5.0 % or more of the seed parent plants do not have receptive silks when more than 0.5% of plants in the field within the isolation distance are shedding pollen. (h) If two hybrid seed fields with different pollinator plants are within the isolation distance of one another, border rows are necessary for each of them in order to check contamination of the respective seed parent. 3. Detasseling: The following applies only when 5.0 % or more of the seed parent plants (female) have receptive silks. (a) A crop will not be eligible for certification if on any one inspection more than 1% of seed parents possess tassels which have shed pollen or are shedding pollen, or if the total for three inspection on different dates exceeds 2%. (b) Sucker tassels, portions of tassels or tassels or main plants will be counted as shedding pollen only when two inches or more of the central stem, the side branches, or a combination of the two have their anthers exerted from their glumes and are shedding pollen.
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B. Specific requirements: There shall not be more than 0.50% off-types at the time of final inspection.

III. SEED STANDARDS: After harvest, seed ears shall not contain more than 0.50% off-type ears or more than 1% of ears with off-colored kernels. Factor Pure seed Other varieties Inert matter Weed seeds Germination Moisture (minimum) (maximum) (maximum) (maximum) (minimum) (maximum) Standard (%) 98.00 0.50 2.00 None 90 12

Note :Shelling of the seed ears shall be done only after obtaining approval from the Federal Seed Certification Department.

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MINIMUM SEED CERTIFICATION STANDARDS MAIZE (Zea mays)

COMPOSITE AND OPEN-POLLINATED VARIETIES I. CROP STANDARDS: The General Standards for composites and open-pollinated varieties of maize shall be as under: (a) Land requirements: There are no specific requirements as to the previous crop, but the land must be free of volunteer maize plants. (b) Crop inspection: A minimum of two inspections shall be carried out : the first before flowering and the second during flowering. (c) Eligibility requirements: A composite or an open-pollinated variety to be eligible for certification must have a known source and approved by the Federal Seed Certification. Department. (d) Store inspection: Composite and open-pollinated varieties of maize shall be ear-inspected after maturity by the Federal Seed Certification Department. II. CROP PURITY STANDARDS: A. General requirements: 1.A minimum isolation distance of 400 meters for Pre-basic and Basic and 200 meters for Certified seed class shall be provided from fields of other varieties and fields of the same variety not conforming to varietal purity requirements for certification. B. Specific requirements: A field which contains at any one inspection more than 1% off-type plants that have shed or are shedding pollen when 5%, or more of the plants in the field have receptive silks, shall not be certified.
27

III.SEED STANDARDS: There shall not be more than 1%off-types (ears) or 2% of ears with off-colored kernels.

Factor Pure seed Inert matter Other varieties Weed seeds Germination Moisture (minimum) (maximum) (maximum) (maximum) (minimum) (maximum)

Pre-basic (%) 99.99 0.01 None None 90 12

Basic (%) 98.00 2.00 0.50 None 90 12

Certified (%) 98.00 2.00 1.00 None 90 12

Note: (Shelling of the cobs is to be done after getting approval from the Federal Seed Certification Department).

28

MINIMUM SEED CERTIFICATION STANDARDS GRAM (Cicer arietinum) I. CROP STANDARDS:

(a) Land requirements: A crop of gram shall not be eligible for certification if planted on land on which the same kind of crop was grown in the previous season, unless the crop in the previous season was of the same variety and was certified. (b) Crop inspection: A minimum of three inspections shall be made, the first before flowering, the second at flowering and the third at edible pod stage. II. PURITY STANDARDS: A. General requirements: 1. Isolation: An isolation distance of 20 meters for Pre-basic and Basic and 10 meters for Certified class shall be provided all around a seed field to separate it from other fields having different varieties and fields of the same variety not conforming to varietal purity requirements. I B. Specific requirements: Factor Off-types Plants affected by diseases III.SEED STANDARDS: Factor Pure seed Other varieties Other crop seeds Weed seeds Inert matter Germination Moisture (minimum) (maximum) (maximum) (maximum) (maximum) (minimum) (maximum)
29

Pre-basic None None

Maximum permitted (%) Basic Certified 0.10 0.50 0.50 1.00 Basic (%) 98.00 0.10 None None 2.00 75 9 Certified (%) 98.00 0.50 None None 2.00 75 9

Pre-basic (%) 99.99 None None None None 75 9

MINIMUM SEED CERTIFICATION STANDARDS RAPE AND MUSTARD (Brassica spp) I.CROP STANDARDS:

(a) Land requirements: A crop of rape and mustard shall not be planted on land which has grown these crops during the preceding year unless the crop in the previous season was grown from Certified seed of the same variety. (b) Crop Inspection: A minimum of three inspections shall be made, the first before flowering, the second from flowering to fruiting and the third from fruit maturity to harvesting. II CROP PURITY STANDARDS: A. General requirements: 1. Isolation: A minimum isolation distance of 400 meters for Pre-basic, Basic and 200 meters for Certified seed class shall be provided from fields of other varieties of the same and other species. B Specific requirements: Factor Off-types Objectionable weeds plants (Argemone mexicana) Plants affected by seed borne diseases (Alternaria spp.) Pre-basic None None None Maximum permitted (%) Basic 0.05 None 0.10 Certified 0.20 0.01 0.20

30

III.SEED STANDARDS Factor Pure seed Other varieties Inert matter Other crop seeds (minimum) (maximum) (maximum) (maximum) Pre-basic (%) 99.99 None 0.10 None Basic (%) 98.00 0.05 2.00 0.05 Certified (%) 98.00 0.20 2.00 0.20

Weed seeds Objectionable weed seeds Germination Moisture Moisture for vapourproof containers

(maximum) (maximum) (minimum) (maximum) (maximum)

None None 85 8 5

None None 85 8 5

35/kg. 0.01 80 8 5

31

MINIMUM SEED CERTIFICATION STANDARDS POTATO (Solanum tuberosum) TYPE OF SEED POTATO: There shall be two types of seed potatoes, namely the Hill and Plain-grown. Hill grown seed potatoes shall be raised in the hills 2500 meters above sea level, or in situations found technically suitable for seed production. Plain grown

potatoes shall be raised in only such plains where aphid infestation is low and which are technically suitable for seed production. I.CROP STANDARDS: (a) Land requirements: 1. Seed potatoes shall not be grown on land where potatoes were produced within previous 2 years. 2. Production of seed potatoes shall not be done on land, where potatoes infected by brown rot, wart, nematode or black leg were produced within the previous three years. 3. Areas declared by the Plant Protection Adviser to the Government of Pakistan or the Provincial Government, unfit for seed potato production shall not be eligible for certification. II CROP INSPECTION: A minimum of three inspections shall be carried out as under : The first at about 45 days after sowing, The second just before haulm cutting; & The third after haulm cutting. While conducting first and second inspections, the certifier shall verify the presence of off-types and occurrence of disease infection. During second inspection it must be ensured that the severe mosaic and leaf roll infected plants1ts have been uprooted along with the tubers. While conducting third inspection it must be ensured the haulms have been cut in time and that no regrowth has come up. III CROP PURITY STANDARDS: A. General requirements: 1. Isolation: Crop (i) Summer crop.

Optimum isolation distance 500 meters between the seed potato crop and the ware potato crop.
32

(ii) Autumn crop

300 meters between seed potato crop and ware potato crop.

Note : It is not advisable to grow spring crop for seed potatoes production due to very high aphid population. B. Specific requirements: 1. A crop of seed potatoes shall conform to the standards as given below :

(a) All haulms must be cut as close to the ground as possible before the date specified by the Federal Seed Certification Department. Failure to cut haulms in time shall make the crop liable for rejection. (b).All diseased plants and off-types must be uprooted along with the tubers, and destroyed. Factor Off-types Mild mosaic Severe mosaic & leaf roll Root not nematodes Wart Brown rot Scab Black leg Stage Just before haulm cutting About 45 days after sowing Just before haulm cutting Just before haulm cutting Just before haulm cutting Just before haulm cutting Just before haulm cutting (i)About 45 days after sowing. and (ii) Just before haulm cutting Maximum permitted (%) Pre-basic Basic Certified None 0.20 0.50 None 1.00 2.00 None None None None None None None None None None 0.10 None 1.00 None None None 0.50 None

33

IV. SEED STANDARDS: 1. The size of the seed potatoes shall be 2.50 cms, in average diameter or 30 grams in weight. 2 The tubers shall be reasonably cleaned, healthy and firm with color and shape distinct for the variety. 3. Free from cuts, injuries, bruises, crackes or any other mechanical damage, If not free, 1% by weight tubers permissible. 4. The tubers shall be free from visible symptoms caused by wet/dry rot, late blight, rhizoctonia spp etc.

PARTIII MINIMUM SEED CERTIFICATION STANDARDS (VEGETABLES)


(35)

37

(VEGETABLES) MINIMUM SEED CERTIFICATION STANDARDS CABBAGES


CABBAGE CAULIFLOWER CHINESE CABBAGE KNOL-KOHL (Brassica oleracea var capitata). (Brassica oleranea var botrytis). (Brassica pekinensis and Brassica chinensis). (Brassica oleracea var gongylodes).

I.CROP STANDARDS:

(a)Land requirements: (a) The crop shall be grown on fallow land or preceded by any other crop. The crop shall not be eligible for certification if planted on land on which the same kind of crop or any other cole crop was grown within the previous one year unless the last crop was of the same variety and certified for an equal or higher seed class. (b) Crop inspection: (i) Cabbage, knol-kohl and chinese cabbage. A minimum of three inspections shall be made: the first before marketable size; the second when head/knobs have formed; the third at flowering stage (ii) Cauliflower A minimum of four inspections shall be made: __ the first before marketable size; the second when curd formation starts; the third when most plants have formed curds; the fourth during flowering. II CROP PURITY STANDARDS: A. General requirements: 1. Isolation (a) Cabbage, cauliflower and Knol-kohl A minimum of 1600 meters for Pre-basic and Basic and 1000.meters for Certified class shal1 be provided all around a seed field to isolate it from fields of other varieties, fields of the same variety not conforming to varietal purity requirements for certification and from all other cole crops.
38

(b) Chinese cabbage. An isolation distance of 1600 meters for Pre-basic and Basic and 1000 meters for Certified seed shall be provided all around the seed field to separate it from the fields of other varieties, fields of the same variety not conforming to varietal purity requirements for certification and from fields of rape, mustard, turnip and radish. B Specific requirements: Factor Pre-basic Maximum permitted (%) Basic Certified

Off-types (at and after flowering)

None

0.10 0.10

0.50 0.50

Plants affected by seed borne diseases None like leaf spot, Black leg, Black rot and Soft rot Plants affected by phyllody III SEED STANDARDS: Factor Pure seed Other crop seeds Weed seeds Other distinguishable varieties Inert matter Germination Moisture Moisture for vapour-Proof Containers (minimum) (maximum) (maximum) (maximum) (maximum) (minimum) (maximum) (maximum) None

0.50

1.00

Pre-basic (%) 99.99 None None None 0.10 75 7 5

Basic (%) 98.00 0.05 0.05 0.10 2.00 70 7 5

Certified (%) 98.00 0.10 0.20 0.50 2.00 70 7 5

39

MINIMUM SEED CERTIFICATION STANDARDS CUCURBITS ASH GOURD OR WHITE GOURD BITTER GOURD BOTTLE GOURD CUCUMBER LONG MELLON MUSK MELLON PUMPKIN, SQUASH GOURD RED GOURD RIDGED GOURD SPONGE GOURD TINDA (Benincasa hispida) (Momordica charantia) (Lagenaria siceraria) (Cucumis sativus) (Cucumis melo var flexuosus) (Cucumis melo) (Cucurbita maxima) (Cucurbita moschata) (Luffa acutangula) (Luffa cylindrica) (Citrullus lanatus var fistulosus)

VEGETABLE MARROW WATER MELON I.CROP STANDARDS: (a) Land requirements:

(Cucurbita pepo) (Citrullus lanatus)

The crop must be preceded by a crop of any other kind in the plains and no crop shall be grown on the same land for two years in the hills. (b) Crop inspection: A minimum of three inspections shall be carried out: the first before flowering, the second during flowering and at immature fruit stage and the third at mature fruit stage. II.CROP PURITY STANDARDS: General requirements: Isolation: A minimum isolation distance of 800 meters for Pre-basic and Basic and 400 meters for Certified class shall be provided all around a seed field to separate it from fields of other varieties and fields of the same variety not conforming to varietal purity requirements for certification.

40

A. Specific requirements: Factor Off-types (At and after flowering) Objectionable weed plants (Wild cucurbit spp.) Pre-basic None None Maximum permitted (%) Basic Certified 0.10 0.20 None 0.10 0.10 None 0.20 0.50

Plants affected by seed borne diseases 0.01 like Mosaic (in musk-melon only) Plants affected by virus diseases (Affected plants must be removed) None

III. SEED STANDARDS: Factor Pure seed Other crop seeds Weed seeds Objectionable weed seeds Other distinguishable varieties Inert matter Germination Moisture Moisture for vapour-proof containers *Note :In case of sponge gourd, Cucumber, Long melon, Musk melon, Water melon and Pumpkin the minimum germination percentage for Pre-basic, Basic and Certified seed shall be 75%, 70% and 70%, respectively. (minimum) (maximum) (maximum) (maximum) (maximum) (maximum) (minimum) (maximum) (maximum) Pre-basic (%) 99.99 None None None None 0.10 65 7 6 Basic (%) 98.00 0.05 None None 0.10 2.00 65 7 6 Certified (%) 98.00 0.10 None None 0.20 2.00 60 7 6

41

MINIMUM SEED CERTIFICATION STANDARDS LETTUCE (Lactuca sativa) I.CROP STANDARDS: (a) Land requirements: The crop shall not follow the same kind of crop unless the crop in the previous season was of the same variety and was certified. (b) Crop inspection: A minimum of three inspections shall be made: the first before head formation; In case of non-heading types, before full grown stage;

the second after head formation; In case of non heading types at full grown stage; the third at flowering. II. CROP PURITY STANDARDS: A. General requirements: Isolation An isolation distance of 50 meters for Pre-basic and Basic and 25 meters for Certified class shall be provided all around a seed field to separate it from fields of other varieties and fields of the same variety not conforming to varietal purity requirements for certification. B. Specific requirements: Factor Off-types (At final inspection) Objectionable weed plants (Wild lettuce ) Plants affected by seed-borne diseases (Mosaic and yellow mosaic)
42

Pre-basic None None None

Maximum permitted (%) Basic Certified 0.10 0.20 None 0.10 0.10 0.20

III. SEED STANDARDS: Factor Pure seed Other crop seeds Weed seeds Other distinguishable varieties Inert matter Germination Moisture Moisture for vapour-proof containers (minimum) (maximum) (maximum) (maximum) (maximum) (minimum) (maximum) (maximum) Pre-basic (%) 99.99 None None None 0.10 75 8 6 Basic (%) 98.00 None None 0.10 2.00 70 8 6 Certified (%) 98.00 None 0.10 0.20 2.00 70 8 6

43

MINIMUM SEED CERTIFICATION STANDARDS FENUGREEK (Trigonella foenum-graecum Trigonella cornicu1ata) I. CROP STANDARDS: (a) Land requirements: The crop shall not follow the same kind of crop unless the crop in the previous season was of the same variety and was certified. (b) Crop inspection. A minimum of two inspections shall be made the first before flowering and the second at flowering and fruiting stage. II. CROP PURITY STANDARDS: A. General requirements: Isolation An isolation distance of 50 meters for Pre-basic and Basic and 25 meters for Certified class shall be provided all around a seed field to separate it from fields of other varieties and fields of the same variety not conforming to varietal purity requirements for certification.

B. Specific requirements : Factor Off-types (At final inspection) Objectionable weed plants (Sainji) III. SEED STANDARDS: Factor Pure seed Other crop seeds Weed seeds Objectionable weed seeds Other distinguishable varieties Inert matter Germination Moisture Moisture for vapour-proof containers (minimum) (maximum) (maximum) (maximum) (maximum) (maximum) (minimum) (maximum) (maximum)
44

Pre-basic None None

Maximum permitted (%) Basic Certified 0.10 0.20 0.01 0.10

Pre-basic (%) 99.99 None None None None 0.10 70 8 7

Basic (%) 98.00 0.05 0.10 0.01 0.10 2.00 65 8 7

Certified (%) 98.00 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.20 2.00 65 8 7

MINIMUM SEED CERTIFICATION STANDARDS BEET ROOT (Beta vulgaris) I. CROP STANDARDS: (a) Land requirements: The crop shall be planted on land on which the preceding crop was of another kind or of the same variety of a certified class of equal or higher status. (b) Crop inspection: A minimum of three inspections shall be made the first during early seedling stage, the second when lifted and replanted and the third at flowering stage. II. CROP PURITY STANDARDS: A. General requirements: Isolation: A minimum isolation distance of 1600 meters for Pre-basic and Basic and 1000 meters for Certified class shall be provided all around a seed field to

separate if from fields of other varieties and fields of the same variety not conforming to varietal purity requirements for certification. B. Specific requirements: Factor Off-types III SEED STANDARDS: Factor Pure seed Other crop seeds Weed seeds Other distinguishable varieties Inert matter Germination Moisture Moisture for vapour-proof containers (minimum) (maximum) (maximum) (maximum) (maximum) (minimum) (maximum) (maximum)
45

Pre-basic None

Maximum permitted (%) Basic Certified 0.10 0.20

Pre-basic (%) 98.00 None None None 2.00 70 9 8

Basic (%) 96.00 0.10 0.10 0.10 4.00 70 9 8

Certified (%) 96.00 0.20 0.20 0.20 4.00 65 9 8

MINIMUM SEED CERTIFICATION STANDARDS GARDEN PEA (Pisum sativum) I. CROP STANDARDS: (a) Land requirements: A crop of garden pea shall not be grown on land on which the same kind of crop was grown in the previous season unless the preceding crop was of the same variety and was certified. (b) Crop inspection: A minimum of three inspections shall be carried out, the first before flowering, the second during flowering and the third at edible pod stage. II. CROP PURITY STANDARDS: A. General requirements: Isolation: A minimum isolation distance of 30 meters for Pre-basic and Basic and 20 meters for Certified class shall be provided all around a seed field to separate

it from fields of other varieties and field of the same variety not conforming to varietal purity requirements for certification. B. Specific requirements: Factor Off-types Plants affected by mosaic III SEED STANDARDS: Factor Pure seed Other crop seeds Weed seeds Other distinguishable varieties Inert matter Germination Moisture Moisture for vapour-proof containers (minimum) (maximum) (maximum) (maximum) (maximum) (minimum) (maximum) (maximum)
46

Pre-basic None None

Maximum permitted (%) Basic Certified 0.10 0.50 0.50 1.00

Pre-basic (%) 99.99 None None None 0.10 75 9 8

Basic (%) 98.00 None None 0.10 2.00 70 9 8

Certified (%) 98.00 None None 0.50 2.00 70 9 8

MINIMUM SEED CERTIFICATION STANDARDS


COWPEA, LOBIA DOLICHOS BEAN FRENCH BEAN CLUSTER BEAN (Vigna sinensis) (Dolichos lablab) (Phaseolus vulgaris) (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba)

I. CROP STANDARDS: (a) Land requirements: A seed crop shall not be grown on land on which the same kind of crop was grown in the previous season unless the preceding crop was of the same variety and was certified. (b) Crop inspection: A minimum of two inspections shall be made: the first before flowering and the second at flowering and fruit stage. II. CROP PURITY STANDARDS: A. General requirements: Isolation: Distance adequate to prevent mechanical mixture of varieties is necessary. B. Specific requirements:

Factor Off-types (At final inspection) Plants affected by seed-borne diseases like Ashy stem blight, Anthracnose, Ascochyta blight (for hilly areas only) and mosaic III. SEED STANDARDS: Factor Pure seed Other crop seeds Weed seeds Other distinguishable varieties Inert matter Germination Moisture Moisture for vapour-proof containers (minimum) (maximum) (maximum) (maximum) (maximum) (minimum) (maximum) (maximum)
47

Pre-basic None None

Maximum permitted (%) Basic Certified 0.10 0.50 0.50 1.00

Pre-basic (%) 99.99 None None None 0.10 75 9 8

Basic (%) 98.00 None None 0.10 2.00 75 9 8

Certified (%) 98.00 None None 0.50 2.00 75 9 8

MINIMUM SEED CERTIFICATION STANDARDS TURNIP (Brassica rapa) RADISH (Raphanus sativus) I. CROP STANDARDS: (a) Land requirements: The crop must be preceded by any other kind of crop or of the same variety of an equal or higher class which had been certified. (b) Crop inspection: A minimum of four inspections shall be made: __ the first three to four weeks after sowing; the second at the time of lifting and replanting; the third at the time of flowering; the fourth at the time of maturity.

II. CROP PURITY STANDARDS: A. General requirements. Isolation: An isolation distance of 1600 meters for Pre-basic and Basic and 1000 meters for Certified class shall be provided all around the seed field to separate it from fields of other varieties and fields of the same variety not conforming to varietal purity requirements for certification. B. Specific requirements: Factor Off-types Plants affected by seed-borne diseases like Black rot, Black leg & leaf spot Plants affected by phyllody
48

Pre-basic None None

Maximum permitted (%) Basic Certified 0.05 0.20 0.10 0.20

None

0.10

0.20

III. SEED STANDARDS: Factor Pure seed Other crop seeds Weed seeds Other distinguishable varieties Inert matter Germination Moisture Moisture for vapour-proof containers (minimum) (maximum) (maximum) (maximum) (maximum) (minimum) (maximum) (maximum) Pre-basic (%) 99.99 None None None 0.10 70 6 5 Basic (%) 98.00 0.05 0.05 0.05 2.00 70 6 5 Certified (%) 98.00 0.10 0.10 0.20 2.00 70 6 5

49

MINIMUM SEED CERTIFICATION STANDARDS CARROT (Daucus carota) I. CROP STANDARDS: (a) Land requirements: The carrot crop must be preceded by any other kind of crop or by the same variety of an equal or higher seed class which had been certified. (b) Crop inspection: A minimum of three inspections shall be made: the first before lifting of the crop; the second at the time of lifting and replanting; the third at flowering. II. CROP PURITY STANDARDS: A. General requirements: Isolation: An isolation distance of 1600 meters for Pre-basic and Basic and 1000 meters for Certified class shall be provided all around the seed field to separate it from fields of other varieties and fields of the same variety not conforming to varietal purity requirements for certification. B. Specific requirements:

Factor Off-types permitted at and after flowering III. SEED STANDARDS: Factor Pure seed Other crop seeds Weed seeds Other distinguishable varieties Inert matter Germination Moisture Moisture for vapour-proof containers (minimum) (maximum) (maximum) (maximum) (maximum) (minimum) (maximum) (maximum)
50

Pre-basic None

Maximum permitted (%) Basic Certified 0.10 0.20

Pre-basic (%) 98.00 None None None 2.00 65 8 7

Basic (%) 97.00 0.05 0.05 0.10 3.00 60 8 7

Certified (%) 95.00 0.10 0.10 0.20 5.00 60 8 7

MINIMUM SEED CERTIFICATION STANDARDS PEPPER (Capsicum spp) I. CROP STANDARDS: (a) Land requirements: The crop must be preceded by a crop of any other kind or the same variety of an equal or higher class which had been certified. (b)Crop inspection: A minimum of three inspections shall be made: the first before flowering; the second at flowering and fruiting stage; the third at mature fruit stage. II. CROP PURITY STANDARDS: A. General requirements: Isolation: A minimum isolation distance of 400 meters for Pre-basic and Basic and 200 meters for Certified class shall be provided to isolate seed field from fields of

any other variety or fields of the same variety not conforming to varietal purity requirements for certification. B. Specific requirements: Factor Off-types Plants affected by seed-borne diseases (Anthracnose) Plants affected by virus diseases (affected plants must be removed) Pre-basic None None None Maximum permitted (%) Basic Certified 0.10 0.30 0.10 0.05 0.50 0.20

51

III. SEED STANDARDS: Factor Pure seed Other crop seeds Weed seeds Other distinguishable varieties Inert matter Germination Moisture Moisture for vapour-proof containers (minimum) (maximum) (maximum) (maximum) (maximum) (minimum) (maximum) (maximum) Pre-basic (%) 99.99 None None None 0.10 70 8 6 Basic (%) 98.00 0.05 0.05 0.10 2.00 70 8 6 Certified (%) 98.00 0.10 0.10 0.30 2.00 65 8 6

52

MINIMUM SEED CERTIFICATION STANDARDS TOMATO (Lycopersicon esculentum) I. CROP STANDARDS: (a) Land requirements: Tomato shall be grown on land on which the last crop grown was of another kind or planted with seed of the same variety and was of a certified class. (b) Crop inspection: Three inspections shall be carried out: the first before flowering; the second during flowering and at immature fruit stage. the third at mature fruit stage. II. CROP PURITY STANDARDS: A. General requirements: Isolation: A minimum isolation distance of 60 meters for Pre-basic and Basic and 10 meters for certified class shall be provided to isolate seed field from fields of any other variety and fields of the same variety not conforming to varietal purity requirements for certification.

B. Specific requirements: Factor Off-types Plants affected by seed-borne diseases (Early blight. Leaf spot and mosaic) Pre-basic None None Maximum permitted (%) Basic Certified 0.20 0.50 0.10 0.50

53

III. SEED STANDARDS: Factor Pure seed Other crop seeds Weed seeds Other distinguishable varieties Inert matter Germination Moisture Moisture for vapour-proof containers (minimum) (maximum) (maximum) (maximum) (maximum) (minimum) (maximum) (maximum) Pre-basic (%) 99.99 None None None 0.10 70 8 6 Basic (%) 98.00 0.05 None 0.20 2.00 70 8 6 Certified (%) 98.00 0.10 None 0.50 2.00 70 8 6

54

MINIMUM SEED CERTIFICATION STANDARDS BRINJAL (Solanum melongena) I. CROP STANDARDS: (a) Land requirements: The crop shall be preceded by a crop of another kind or by the same variety of an equal or higher seed class which had been certified. (b) Crop inspection: A minimum of three inspections shall be made the first before flowering; the second at flowering and fruiting stage; the third at mature fruit stage; II. CROP PURITY STANDARDS: A. General requirements: Isolation: An isolation distance of 400 meters for Pre-basic and Basic and 200 meters for Certified class shall be provided all around a seed field to separate it from fields of other varieties and fields of the same variety not conforming to varietal purity requirements for certification. B. Specific requirements:

Factor Off-types Plants affected by seed-borne diseases like Phomopsis blight Pre-basic None None

Maximum permitted (%) Basic Certified 0.10 0.20 0.10 0.50

55

III. SEED STANDARDS: Factor Pure seed Other crop seeds Weed seeds Other distinguishable varieties Inert matter Germination Moisture Moisture for vapour-proof containers (minimum) (maximum) (maximum) (maximum) (maximum) (minimum) (maximum) (maximum) Pre-basic (%) 99.99 None None None 0.10 70 8 6 Basic (%) 98.00 None None 0.10 2.00 70 8 6 Certified (%) 98.00 None None 0.20 2.00 70 8 6

56

MINIMUM SEED CERTIFICATION STANDARDS OKRA (Ablemoschus esculentus) I. CROP STANDARDS: (a) Land requirements: Okra shall be grown on land on which the preceding crop was of another kind or was planted with certified seed of the same variety. (b) Crop inspection: A minimum of three inspections shall be carried out: the first before flowering; the second during full flowering and fruiting; the third at mature fruit stage. II. CROP PURITY STANDARDS: A. General requirements: Isolation: A seed field must be isolated 400 meters in case of Pre-basic and Basic and 250 meters in case of Certified class from fields of any other variety or fields of the same variety not conforming to varietal purity requirements for certification. B. Specific requirements: Factor Off-types Pre-basic None Maximum permitted (%) Basic Certified 0.10 0.20

Note :Plants affected by yellow vein mosaic must be removed.

57

III. SEED STANDARDS: Factor Pure seed Other crop seeds Weed seeds Other distinguishable varieties Inert matter Germination Moisture Moisture for vapour-proof containers (minimum) (maximum) (maximum) (maximum) (maximum) (minimum) (maximum) (maximum) Pre-basic (%) 99.99 None None None 0.10 70 10 8 Basic (%) 98.00 None None 0.10 2.00 65 10 8 Certified (%) 98.00 0.05 None 0.20 2.00 65 10 8

58

MINIMUM SEED CERTIFICATION STANDARDS ONION (Allium cepa) I. CROP STANDARDS: (a) Land requirements: Onions shall be grown on land on which the preceding crop was of another kind or of the same variety of an equal or higher class which had been certified. (b) Crop inspection: There shall be two crop inspections, the first at the time of lifting of bulbs and the second after the seed heads are formed. When the crop is raised from seed to seed method the first inspection shall be made before flowering and the second at seed maturity. II. CROP PURITY STANDARDS: A. General requirements: Isolation: A minimum distance of 1600 meters shall be provided for Pre-basic and Basic and 800 meters for Certified class to separate it from fields of other varieties and fields of the same variety not conforming to varietal purity requirements for certification. B. Specific requirements: Factor Off-types Pre-basic None Maximum permitted (%) Basic Certified 0.50 1.00

59

III. SEED STANDARDS: Factor Pure seed Other crop seeds Weed seeds Other distinguishable varieties Inert matter Germination Moisture Moisture for vapour-proof containers (minimum) (maximum) (maximum) (maximum) (maximum) (minimum) (maximum) (maximum) Pre-basic (%) 99.99 None None None 0.10 70 8 5 Basic (%) 98.00 0.05 None 0.50 2.00 70 8 5 Certified (%) 98.00 0.10 0.20 1.00 2.00 70 8 5

60

MINIMUM SEED CERTIFICATION STANDARDS CORIANDER (Coriandrum sativum) I. CROP STANDARDS: (a) Land requirements: The crop must be preceded by any other kind of crop or the same variety which was field inspected and certified for an equal or higher seed class. (b) Crop inspection: A minimum of three crop inspections shall be made: __ the first before peduncle formation; __ the second during flowering; the third at mature fruit stage. II. CROP PURITY STANDARDS: A. General requirements: Isolation: To separate the seed field from fields of other varieties and of the same variety not conforming to varietal purity requirements, the isolation distance shall be 1000 meters for Pre-basic & Basic and 500 meters for Certified class. B. Specific requirements: Factor Off-types Pre-basic None Maximum permitted (%) Basic 0.10 Certified 0.20

61

III. SEED STANDARDS: Factor Pure seed Other crop seeds Weed seeds Other distinguishable varieties Inert matter Germination Moisture Moisture for vapour-proof containers (minimum) (maximum) (maximum) (maximum) (maximum) (minimum) (maximum) (maximum) Pre-basic (%) 98.00 None None None 2.00 65 9 8 Basic (%) 96.00 0.10 0.10 0.10 4.00 60 9 8 Certified (%) 96.00 0.20 0.20 0.20 4.00 60 9 8

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MINIMUM SEED CERTIFICATION STANDARDS SPINACH

(Spinacea oleracea) I. CROP STANDARDS: (a) Land requirements: The seed crop shall not be planted on land on which the same kind of crop was grown in the previous year unless the previous crop was field inspected and certified for an equal or higher class. (b) Crop inspection. A minimum of 3 crop inspections shall be made. The first at vegetative stage and the second during flowering and the third at mature fruit stage. II. CROP PURITY STANDARDS: A. General requirements: Isolation: The minimum isolation distance of 400 meters for pro-basic and basic and 300 meters for certified class shall be provided to separate the seed field from fields of other varieties and un certified fields of the same variety. B. Specific requirements: Factor Off-types Objectionable weed plants* Other crops plants III. SEED STANDARDS: Factor Pure seed Other crop seeds Weed seeds Other distinguishable varieties Inert matter Germination Moisture Moisture for vapour-proof containers (minimum) (maximum) (maximum) (maximum) (maximum) (minimum) (maximum) (maximum) Pre-basic (%) 99.00 None None None 1.00 70.00 9 8 Basic (%) 96.00 0.05 0.10 0.10 3.50 65.00 9 8 Certified (%) 96.00 0.10 0.20 0.20 3.50 65.00 9 8 Pre-basic None None None Maximum permitted (%) Basic Certified 0.10 0.20 None 0.05 None 0.10