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- Chuong VII -

Chng 7
iu ch tn hiu s
iu ch (modulation) noi chung la lam bin i cac c tnh cua mt tn hiu theo mt tn
hiu khac. Trong h thng thng tin, tn hiu b bin i goi la song mang (carrier) va tn
hiu gy ra s bin i o goi la tn hiu mang tin (information signal). Co th nh ngha
iu ch la s bin i cac thng s cua song mang theo tn hiu mang tin.
Chng nay trnh bay v iu ch trung tn IF (Intermediate Frequency) hoc iu ch cao
tn RF (Radio Frequency) (goi chung la iu ch) vi song mang la tn hiu sin co cac thng
s la bin , tn s va goc pha.
Muc ch chnh cua iu ch la gn tn hiu mang tin (th ng la bng gc baseband) vao tn
hiu song mang co ph thch hp hn, tao thanh tn hiu thng dai (bandpass signal) :
- Lam cho tn hiu mang tin tng xng vi cac c im cua knh truyn
- Kt hp cac tn hiu lai vi nhau (s dung ghep knh phn tn s) ri truyn i qua mt
mi trng vt ly chung.
- Bc xa tn hiu dung cac antenna co kch thc phu hp thc t.
- nh v ph v tuyn nhm gi cho giao thoa gia cac h thng di mc cho phep.
bn thu, qua trnh din ra ngc lai so vi bn phat: tach lai tn hiu mang tin bng gc t
tn hiu thng dai. Qua trnh nay c goi la giai iu ch (demodulation) hay ta ch song
(detection). Phn u cua chng se gii thiu s lc v ly thuyt quyt nh. ng thi gii
thiu c ban v vn thu ti u. y la nhng kin thc cn thit tm hiu v giai iu
ch trong phn sau.
Tip theo se m ta cac ky thut iu ch nh phn (binary modulation), bao gm: iu ch
khoa dch bin ASK (Amplitude Shift Keying), iu ch khoa dch tn s FSK (Frequency
Shift Keying), iu ch khoa dch pha PSK (Phase Shift Keying).
so sanh cac s iu ch khac nhau, ta da vao hiu sut ph va hiu sut cng sut.
Hiu sut ph (spectral efficiency) la s o tc truyn tin trn bng thng s dung, n v
la bit/s/Hz. Mt yu cu t ra i vi ky thut thng tin la truyn tin vi tc ti a trn
mt bng thng ti thiu co th c. iu nay c bit ung i vi thng tin v tuyn, v
ph tn v tuyn rt han hep, va do o, no la mt tai nguyn thng tin quy gia.
Hiu sut cng sut (power efficiency) lin quan n ty s E
b
/N
O
i vi mt xac sut li
bitcho trc. Trong thc t, iu nay ngha la so sanh cng sut tn hiu yu cu bi cac s
iu ch khac nhau gi c BER xac nh ng vi mt tc truyn tin xac nh.
Cui chng se gii thiu mt s ky thut iu ch tng hiu sut ph va ky thut iu ch
tng hiu sut cng sut.

- 160 -
- Chuong VII -
7.1 S lc v ly thuyt quyt nh
Vic quyt nh co anh hng quan trong n cht lng cua h thng thng tin s. V c
ban, i vi dong tn hiu nh phn co hai kiu quyt nh chnh la:
- Quyt nh mm (nhiu mc)
- Quyt nh cng (hai mc)
Hinh 7.1 so sanh hai loai b thu quyt nh mm va cng. B thu quyt nh mm (hinh
7.1a) thc hin lng t hoa tn hiu tc thi cng vi nhiu, s dung cac mc lng t hoa
cho trc, mi mc c biu din bng mt t vai bit. Hinh 7.1c minh hoa qua trnh quyt
nh mm 8 mc (3 bit) in hnh. Mi quyt nh mm cha thng tin v kha nng ky t nao
c truyn i nhiu nht (000 dn 011 ch nh ky t truyn la 0 va 100 n 111 ch nh ky
t truyn i la 1) va thng tin v tnh hp ly cua quyt nh. Quyt nh mm co th c
chuyn thanh quyt nh cui cung (la quyt nh cng) bng cach xem xet day t ma PCM
lin tip ri a ra quyt nh v mc ma t o biu din, kt hp vi giai ma iu khin li.
Quyt nh cng (hinh 7.1b) ph bin hn quyt nh mm. Hai chun quyt nh chnh s
dung trong trng hp nay la Bayes va Neyman-Pearson. Chun Bayes c dung nhiu
trong thng tin s va chun Neyman-Pearson c dung nhi u trong cac ng dung radar.
im khac nhau c ban gia hai chun nay la chun Bayes gia s bit trc s thng k v s
xut hin cua s 1 va s 0, con chun Neyman-Pearson th ngc lai. Do vy, chun
Neyman-Pearson thch hp vi ng dung radar v thng th s xut hin cua muc tiu la
khng bit trc.

S & H
Luong
tu hoa 8
muc
Kt hop quyt djnh mm/
Giai ma diu khin li
(a)
Quyt nh cng Quyt nh mm



Q/ mm
000 010 100 110
001 011 101 111
0 1
Q/ cng
S & H
Luong
tu hoa 2
muc
Giai ma diu
khin li
Quyt nh cng
(c)
(b)
S 1 S 0









Hinh 7.1 So sanh b thu quyt nh cng va quyt nh mm
- 161 -
- Chuong VII -
7.2 C ban v qua trnh thu ti u
Trong muc 6.4 va 6.5, ta a xet qua trnh khi phuc tn hiu s. o chnh la qua tnh so sanh
gia tr cua tn hiu thu vi mt mc ngng tai thi im ly mu gia bit. Qua trnh nay
con c goi la ly mu im gia (centre point sampling). T y nay sinh ra mt cu hoi la
nu ta ly mu tn hiu tai nhiu thi im khac nhau trong mt bit th co th tng c
tin cy cua quyt nh hay khng? Cu tra li la Co. Hinh 7.2 minh hoa cho giai phap nay.
Ta thc hin ly mu tn hiu thu tai n thi im khac nhau, sau o cng cac kt qua lai vi
nhau va so sa nh vi n ln mc ngng, ri a ra quyt nh cui cung. Nu th tng
ri rac nay se tr thanh tch phn. Ngng quyt nh sau khi ly tch phn tr thanh:
n
) dt v dt v (
0 0
T
0
1
T
0
0
2
1

+
y v
0
va v
1
ln lt la in ap biu din cho s 0 va s 1. Sau mi bit, u ra cua b tch
phn c reset v 0 chun b cho bit tip theo. Ky thut nay c goi la tach I+D
(integrate and dump detection). Tach I+D la mt trng hp ring cua mt ky thut tach ti
u goi la loc phi hp (match filtering)
Cc thi im ly mu
Ngng q/nh
1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1
1 0 1 1
1 0 1 1
S liu pht
Q/ cui cng
Tn hiu
thu

Hnh 7.2 Ly mu ti nhiu thi im
7.2.1 Loc phi hop
B loc ng trc mach quyt nh trong b thu c goi la phi hp vi mt xung nao o
nu no lam cho ty s SNR at gia tr ln nht tai thi im ly mu khi xung o co mt u
vao b loc.
ap ng bin va ap ng pha cua b loc phi hp c xac nh nh sau:
Gia s h thng thng tin s truyn i cac xung co dang v(t) nh hinh 7.3a, mt ph nng
lng chun hoa ESD nh hinh 7.3b. Nu nhiu trong h thng la nhiu trng th mt ph
cng sut cua nhiu la NPSD co th c biu din bng ESD khng i trong mt chu ky
xung nh hinh 7.3c. Nu chia ph ra cac bng con th t hnh ve ta thy co nhng bng nh
bng j co SNR ln va co nhng bng nh bng r co SNR nho hn nhiu. Bt ky bng con nao
co cha nng lng tn hiu u co th tham gia vao qua trnh quyt nh. Tuy nhin, d th y
rng nhng bng con co SNR cao th se anh hng n qua trnh quyt nh nhiu hn nhng
bng con co SNR thp. Do NPSD la hng s nn SNR ty l vi
2
) f ( V . Ta cung bit rng
- 162 -
- Chuong VII -
mt cng sut hay nng lng qua mt b loc th ty l vi
2
) f ( H . iu nay dn n yu
cu v ap ng bin cua b loc phi hp vi gia thit nhiu trng nh sau:
Bnh phng cua ap ng bin cua b loc phi hp phai co dang ging vi dang cua mt
ph nng lng cua xung ma no phi hp, ngha la:
2
2
2
) f ( V k ) f ( H =



T
0
-1/2T
0
1/2T
0
NPSD x T
0
r j
2
) f ( V
(c)
v(t)
(b) (a)
V(f)

Hnh 7.3 (a) Xung truyn (b) Ph in p ca xung tn hiu
(c) Mt ph nng lng ca xung tn hiu v ca nhiu trng
By gi ta xem nh ph cua xung trn hnh 7.3 c tao thanh t nhiu vach ph gn nhau.
Theo Fourier, xung truyn i co th c phn tch thanh tng cua v s song cos. Nu co th
sp xp tt ca cac song cos ng thi at cc ai tai mt thi im th in ap cua tn hiu
(va la cng sut cua tn hiu) se la gia tr cc ai tai thi im o.
B loc, mun at c iu nay, phai co ap ng pha i du vi ph pha cua xung truyn i.
Nh vy, xung sau khi loc se co ph pha bng 0 va cac song cos thanh phn se cung at cc
ai tai cac thi im t = 0, T
0
, 2T
0
... Trong thc t, co th thc hin c b loc, phai
thm vao ap ng pha cua b loc mt dch pha tuyn tnh la ( am bao cho b loc
nhn qua). iu ny dn n yu cu v p ng pha ca b lc phi hp nh sau:
0
T j
e

p ng pha ca b lc phi hp i du vi ph pha cua xung ma no phi hp cng thm
mt lng dch pha tuyn tnh la
0
fT 2 , ngha la:
0 v
fT 2 ) f ( ) f ( =
Tom lai, ap ng tn s cua b loc phi hp la:
0
fT 2 j *
e ) f ( kV ) f ( H

=
Co th m rng ap ng bin cua b loc phi hp cho trng hp nhiu bt ky nh sau:
) f ( G
) f ( V k
) f ( H
n
=
- 163 -
- Chuong VII -
vi G
n
(f) la PSD cua nhiu
7.2.2 B tach tuong quan
Ap dung cng thc bin i Fourier ngc va cng thc v ap ng tn s cua b loc phi
hp, ta tm c ap ng xung cua b loc phi hp nh sau:
) t T ( kv ) t ( h
0
*
=
Co th din giai cng thc nay nh sau: ap ng xung cua b loc phi hp la ao ngc xung
ma no phi hp, b tr i mt khoang thi gian bng rng cua xung. T y ta cung thy
rng: co th tm xung ra cua b loc phi hp trc tip t u vao.
Nu xung vao la thc, theo cng thc tch chp, ta tnh c tn hiu ra nh sau:
) ( kR ) t ( v
in in
v v out
=
Vy tn hiu ra cua b loc phi hp la t tng quan cua xung vao.
Hinh 7.4 la b thu trong h thng thng tin s dung c ch tach song tng quan. y, tn
hiu vao co khac vi tn hiu tham chiu mt lng, o la nhiu. u ra cua b tng quan se
at cc ai tai im cui cua xung vao, tc la sau T
0
giy. Do o, nu thi im ly mu
chnh xac th se dn n SNR ti u.





Hinh 7.4 B thu tng quan
v
in
(t) =v(t) +n(t)
v(t)


0
0
kT
T ) 1 k (
dt
kT
0
7.3 iu ch nh phn
iu ch nh phn la kiu iu ch n gian nht va rt ph bin trong thc t. y la trng
hp tn hiu mang tin bng gc la tn hiu nh phn. Phn nay se trnh bay chi tit cac kiu
iu ch nh phn c ban.
7.3.1 Diu ch khoa djch bin d nhj phn (BASK)
Trong h thng BASK, bin cua song mang tn s f
c
c chuyn i gia hai gia tr tuy
thuc vao tn hiu bng gc, bin cua song mang gm hai mc A
0
va A
1
biu din cho hai
ky t 0 va 1 tng ng. Trong thc t, dang song BASK gm cac xung "mark" biu din ky
t 1 va "space" biu din ky t 0. Luc nay BASK con c goi la iu ch khoa on-off OOK
(On-Off Keying) va tn hiu BASK c biu din nh sau:
( )


=
0 , 0
1 , t f 2 cos T / t A
) t ( f
c 0 1
s cho
s cho

- 164 -
- Chuong VII -
B iu ch OOK co th c thc hin nh la mt khoa chuyn mach n gian, khoa song
mang on hay off tuy tn hiu mang tin la 1 hay 0 hoc la mt b iu ch cn bng, nhn
song mang vi vi tn hiu OOK n cc bng gc. Hinh 7.5 trnh bay s iu ch OOK
kiu cn bng. Tn hiu iu ch OOK co ph in ap va PSD cn bng quanh tn s song
mang .
c
f
B tach song OOK co th la kt hp (coherent) hay khng kt hp (noncoherent). Trnghp
tach song kt hp co th dung mt b loc phi hp (matched filter) n gian (hinh 7.6a), u
ra cua b loc phi hp at cc ai khi u vao co tn hiu va bng 0 khi u vao khng co tn
hiu. Hoc dung b tach song tng quan (hinh 7.6b), yu cu la phai co b khi phuc song
mang CR (Carrier Recovery). Tn hiu sau o c ly mu va quyt nh ngng vi ng
h ly ra t b khi phuc ng h STR (Symbol Timing Recovery).









Hnh 7.5 iu ch on-off: dang song, b iu ch, ph
(e)
(d) (c)
(b)
- f
c
f
c
-1/T
0
1/T
0
T
0
1
0
(a)
0
(a) Tn hiu bng gc (b) Ph in ap cua tn hiu bng gc (c) B iu ch OOK
(d) Tn hiu OOK thng dai (e) Ph in ap cua tn hiu OOK thng dai
Kiu tach song khng kt hp c s dung ph bin hn, v du dung b tach song ng
bao (envelope detector) khi phuc tn hiu bang gc, sau o tach song I+D. Trc b tach
song la b loc thng dai tng ty s C/N (hinh 7.6c). Mt cach khac, b tach khng kt hp
co th c cu truc thanh hai knh tng quan tach thanh phn ng pha (I) va vung
pha (Q) cua tn hiu, sau o bnh phng thanh phn I va Q ri cng lai (hinh 7.6d). S sp
xp nay khc phuc c yu cu v ng b pha song mang. Kiu nay co ve phc tap nhng
vi s phat trin cua cng ngh VLSI, chung tr nn nho, nhe va re hn so vi b loc va tach
ng bao trong cac thit k truyn thng.
Thi im quyt nh b quyt nh bn thu la f(nT
0
) va in ap quyt nh la:

=
0 , 0
1 cho , kE
) nT ( f
1
0
s cho
s

- 165 -
- Chuong VII -
trong o E
1
la nng lng chun hoa cha trong ky t 1 va k la hng s, co th t bng 1.
Trng hp s dung b loc phi hp, xac sut li c tnh nh sau:

=
2 / 1
0
1
e
N
E
2
1
erf 1
2
1
P
Trong o N
0
la PSD cua nhiu, erf(x) la ham li (cho sn trong bang hoc tnh).
t ) E E (
2
1
E
0 1
+ = la nng lng trung bnh theo thi gian trn mt ky t, lu y vi
OOK th E
0
0, ta c:

=
2 / 1
0
e
N
E
2
1
erf 1
2
1
P
(d)
(c)
(b)
OOK
t sin
c

t cos
c

OOK
OOK
OOK
Loc phi
hp
STR
CR

0
T
0
dt
STR
STR
BPF

0
T
0
dt

0
T
0
dt
( )
2
( )
2
STR
(a)

Hinh 7.6 B thu OOK kt hp va khng kt hp
(a) B thu dung b loc phi hp (b) B thu tng quan (c) B thu tach song ng bao (d) B thu 2 knh
S dung cac quan h:
- 166 -
- Chuong VII -
N / BC T N / E
) V ( B N N
) V ( T / E C
0 0
2
0
2
0
=
=
=

y C la cng sut song mang thu ly trung bnh trn tt ca cac ky t va N la cng sut
nhiu chun hoa trong mt bng thng B (Hz). T cac quan h trn ta c:

=
2 / 1
2 / 1
0
e
N
C
2
) B T (
erf 1
2
1
P
Tach khng kt hp nhay vi s thay i pha trong ky t thu. iu nay se lam giam CNR thu,
nhng khng ang k. Do o trong thc t, hu ht s dung tach OOK kiu khng kt hp
7.3.2 Diu ch khoa djch pha nhj phn BPSK (khoa dao pha)
Trong h thng iu ch BPSK, tn hiu bng gc c gn vao song mang bng cach thay
i pha cua song mang tuy thuc vao tn hiu bng gc, ngha la:
( )
( )

=
0 ), t f 2 cos( T / t A
1 , t f 2 cos T / t A
) t ( f
c 0
c 0
s cho
s cho


V nguyn tc, co th chon bt ky nhng thng chon trang thai ngc pha, tc la
. Kiu iu ch nay con c goi la iu ch khoa ao pha PRK (Phase Reversal
Keying). Hinh 7.7 trnh bay b phat PRK, dang song tn hiu va ph.

0
180 =

(e)
(d) (c)
(b)
- f
c
f
c
-1/T
0
1/T
0
T
0
1
-1
(a)
0









Hinh 7.7 iu ch PRK: dang song, b iu ch, ph
(b) Tn hiu bng gc (b) Ph in ap cua tn hiu bng gc (c) B iu ch PRK
(d) Tn hiu PRK thng dai (e) Ph in ap cua tn hiu PRK thng dai
- 167 -
- Chuong VII -
Tach song PRK la kiu tach song kt hp, co th thc hin bng b loc phi hp hoc tng
quan. V ky t 0 va 1 ngc pha nhau nn ch cn b thu mt knh nh hinh 7.8.
Mc in ap quyt nh sau khi loc la:

=
0 , kE
1 cho , kE
) nT ( f
0
s cho
s

OOK
STR

0
T
0
dt
CR



Hinh 7.8 B thu tng quan PRK
Xac sut li trong b thu nay c tnh la:

=
2 / 1
0
e
N
E
erf 1
2
1
P
Biu din xac sut li theo ty s CNR se co dang nh sau:

=
2 / 1
2 / 1
0 e
N
C
) B T ( erf 1
2
1
P
7.3.3 Diu ch khoa djch tn nhj phn BFSK
BFSK biu din s 1 va s 0 bng cac xung song mang vi hai tn s la f
1
va f
2
, ngha la:
( )
( )

=
0 , t f 2 cos T / t A
1 , t f 2 cos T / t A
) t ( f
2 0
1 0
s cho
s cho


Hinh 7.9 biu din b phat BFSK, dang song tn hiu va ph. Trong thc t, b iu ch
BFSK thng la mt b dao ng iu khin s. Co th thy tn hiu BFSK la xp chng cua
hai tn hiu OOK (hnh 7.9d), do vy ph in ap cua tn hiu BFSK la xp chng cua hai
ph in ap OOK (hnh 7.9e), mt biu din cho tn hiu OOK tn s f
1
va mt biu din cho
tn hiu OOK tn s f
2.
Lu y ph tn hiu BFSK co vung b chng ln, nu khoang cach gia
f
1
va f
2
ln th s chng ln nay coi nh khng dang k.
B tach song BFSK co th kt hp hay khng kt hp. Tach song khng kt hp co ty s
CNR khng tt bng tach song kt hp ging nh trong h thng OOK. Hinh 7.10 la b thu
BFSK kt hp va khng kt hp. B thu khng kt hp (hinh 7.10c) tng t nh b thu
OOK hai knh trn hinh 7.6d
Nu cac ky t nh phn trong h thng BFSK trc giao nhau, ngha la:
- 168 -
- Chuong VII -
0 dt ) t f 2 cos( ) t f 2 cos(
2
T
0
1
0
=


th khi u ra cua mt knh trong b thu kt hp la ti a th u ra cua knh kia se ti thiu.
Sau khi tr cac tn hiu cho nhau th in ap quyt nh trong b thu BFSK trc giao se ging
nh trng hp PSK















f
2
f
2
0
1
f
2
f
1
f
2
f
1
(f
1
+f
2
)/2
(e)
(d)
(c)
f
1
f
2
-1/T
0
1/T
0
T
0
1
0
0
(a)
f
1
(b)
Hinh 7.9 iu ch BFSK: dang song, b iu ch, ph
(a)Tn hiu bng gc (b)Ph in ap cua tn hiu bng gc (c) B iu ch BFSK
(d) Tn hiu BFSK (e) Ph in ap cua tn hiu BFSK

Xac sut li trong b thu kt hp i vi BFSK trc giao c tnh la:

=
2 / 1
0
e
N
E
2
1
erf 1
2
1
P
Biu din xac sut li theo ty s CNR se co dang nh sau:

=
2 / 1
2 / 1
0
e
N
C
2
) B T (
erf 1
2
1
P
Trng hp BFSK khng tng quan th gia hai ky t BFSK se co mt s tng quan nao
o. Ky hiu cp ky t BFSK la f
1
(t) va f
2
(t), h s tng quan chun hoa c nh ngha nh
sau:
- 169 -
- Chuong VII -
2
2
2
1
2 1
) t ( f ) t ( f
) t ( f ) t ( f
=


























BFSK
(b)
(a)

BFSK
LPF
Mach quyt
nh
BPF
VCO
@ f
1
LPF
VCO
@ f
1

(c)
BFSK
t sin
1

t cos
1

0
T
0
dt

0
T
0
dt
( )
2
( )
2
t sin
2


t cos
2

0
T
0
dt

0
T
0
dt
( )
2
( )
2
Mach quyt
nh
BPF
Mach quyt
nh
Hinh 7.10 B thu BFSK
(a) B thu kt hp dung PLL (b) B thu khng kt hp (c) B thu khng kt hp hai knh
tnh toan thc t, co th vit lai h s nh sau:
- 170 -
- Chuong VII -

= =
0 0
T
0
2 1
2 1
T
0
2 1
0 RMS 2 RMS 1
dt ) t ( f ) t ( f
E E
1
dt ) t ( f ) t ( f
T
1
f f
1

Trong h thng BFSK, ta co E
1
= E
2
= E, do o:
0 1 2
0 1 2 0 1 2
T
0
2 1
0
T ) f f (
T ) f f ( cos[ ] T ) f f ( sin[
dt ) t f 2 cos( ) t f 2 cos(
T
2
0


= =




Hinh 7.11 la th cua h s theo 2(f
2
- f
1
)T
0
. Cac im 0 biu din cho h thng BFSK
trc giao va im 1.43 biu din cho h thng BFSK ti u. Ti u y theo ngha la tit
kim c 0.8dB ty s CNR so vi BFSK trc giao.

1
2(f
2
-f
1
)T
0
1.43

3
2










Hinh 7.11 th cua
7.3.4 Khi phuc song mang
Tach song kt hp trong cac b thu va xet yu cu phai co mt tn hiu tham chiu trung
pha vi pha cua song mang trong tn hiu. V du vi b thu PRK, ta co th thc hin khi
phuc song mang theo mach vong bnh phng nh hinh 7.12.
PRK
2PLL
LPF
fx2 VCO
2 /
LPF
Giai /ch
( )
2







Hinh 7.12 Vong binh phng khi phuc song mang
- 171 -
- Chuong VII -
Trc tin ta bnh phng tn hiu PRK, se thu c tn s gp i tn s song mang ma
khng b dch chuyn pha. Tip n dung vong khoa pha nh la mt b chia i tn s tao
ra tn hiu tham chiu. Vong khoa pha tao ra tn hiu tham chiu vt 90
0
so vi tn hiu vao,
do vy cn mt mach dch pha 90
0
trong vong va gia vong vi b giai iu ch, tn hiu
tham chiu co pha chnh xac nhm giai iu ch chnh xac.
Mach khi phuc nay co th cho ra song mang trung pha hoc ngc pha so vi song mang
phat. iu nay se lam cho ky t trong d liu giai iu ch b ao ngc.
khc phuc, co th s dung phng phap ma hoa vi sai trc khi iu ch PRK va c goi
la iu pha vi sai DPSK. Mach ma hoa vi sai c trnh bay trn hinh 7.13a. Theo cach nay,
s 1 c biu din bng mt s dch pha con s 0 th khng dch pha.
giai iu ch, ta co th dung m t ky t lam tham chiu cho ky t tip theo (hinh 7.13b).
Kiu giai iu ch nay co u im la n gian , re tin. Tuy nhin, v tn hiu tham chiu
cung b nhiu nn so vi PSK kt hp th xac sut li y se ln hn.



Day bit vao Ti iu ch
DPSK
T
0
LPF
STR
T
0

(a)
(b)

Hinh 7.13 (a) Ma hoa vi sai (b) Giai iu ch DPSK
7.3.5 So sanh cac ky thut diu ch khoa nhj phn
V hiu sut cng sut, cn c vao cng thc tnh xac sut li, ta nhn thy OOK va BFSK
co cung hiu sut cng sut, ngha la co cung xac sut li vi cung ty s <E>/N
0.
PRK cho
hiu sut cng sut tt hn, ngha la P
e
thp hn vi cung <E>/N
0
. Noi cach khac, PRK tit
kim c cng sut ngun. Nu so sanh cng sut nh th FSK trc giao yu cu cng sut
ln hn PRK nhng nho hn OOK v tt ca nng lng truyn dn OOK u dn vao
truyn mt kiu ky hiu.
Bang 7.1 tom tt quan h v hiu sut cng sut cua ba loai iu ch k trn.

OOK BFSK trc giao PRK
0
1
N
E

4 2 1
0
N
E > < 2 2 1





Bang 7.1 Quan h v hiu sut cng sut cua ba loai iu ch
- 172 -
- Chuong VII -
V nguyn tc, nu dang tn hiu la xung vung th hiu sut ph la 0 bit/s/Hz. Bi v b
rng ph cua xung vung la v han. Tuy nhin, ta co th nh ngha hiu sut ph danh nh
da vao bng thng danh nh. Bng thng danh nh la b rng cua bup song chnh cua ph
cua tn hiu. Bang 7.2 tom tt cac hiu sut ph danh nh cua ba h thng iu ch trn.

BASK BFSK trc giao BPSK
Tc d liu (bit/s) 1/T
0
1/T
0
1/T
0
Bng thng danh nh (Hz) 2/T
0
(n+4)/2T
0
2/T
0
Hiu sut ph danh nh (bit/s/Hz) 1/2 2/(n+4) 1/2




Bang 7.2 Quan h hiu sut ph cua cac kiu iu ch khoa nh phn
(n la s im 0 trn th hnh 7.11)
T y ta nhn thy: trong cac phng phap iu ch nh phn trn khng co phng phap
nao s dung bng thng c bit hiu qua., noi cach khac la hiu sut ph thp. Phn sau se
trnh bay v cac phng phap iu ch lam tng hiu sut ph.
7.4 iu ch tng hiu sut ph
Nh a gii thiu t u chng, hiu sut ph, ky hiu
s
, c nh ngha la tc truyn
tin trn mt n v bng thng chim dung. Ngha la co th tnh c hiu sut ph nh sau:
) Hz / s / bit (
B
H R
s
s
=
y R
s
la tc ky hiu, H la entropy, tc la lng tin trung bnh cha trong mt ky hiu
va B la bng thng chim dung.
Tc ky hiu la:
0 s
T / 1 R =
Entropy trong h thng co M ky hiu c lp va ng xac sut la:
M log H
2
=
Do vy, hiu sut ph la:
) Hz / s / bit (
B T
M log
0
2
s
=
T y ta thy, mun tng hiu sut ph, ta tng s lng ky hiu M ln va giam tch T
0
B
xung. y chnh la cach c s dung trong cac ky thut iu ch tng hiu sut ph.
Ta bit bng thng ti thiu la:
0
T / 1 B= . Do vy tch T
0
B ti thiu la bng 1.
Thc t hin nay a co cac h thng iu ch vi M ln n 64, 128, . . ., 1024
- 173 -
- Chuong VII -
7.4.1 Diu ch khoa djch pha M muc
iu ch khoa dch pha M mc, goi tt la MPSK, la trng hp m rng cua PSK 2 mc,
tng s trang thai pha t 2 ln 4, 8, 16, . . ., 2
i
. Gian pha (con goi la chom sao) cho trng
hp M 16 nh trn hinh 7.14, y co 16 pha phn bit.








Hinh 7.14 Gian pha cua PSK 16 mc
Xac sut li trong h thng MPSK vi c xp x bi Stein va Jones nh sau: 4 M

=
2 / 1
0
e
N
E
M
sin erf 1 P


Co th vit lai theo ty s CNR, vi quan h C = E/T
0
va N = N
0
B nh sau:

=
2 / 1
2 / 1
0 e
N
C
M
sin ) B T ( erf 1 P


iu ch nhiu mc y co th xem nh la qua trnh sp xp n bit nh phn vao trong mt
ky hiu M mc, mi ky hiu la mt xung IF. Do o, li tach song trong mt ky hiu chnh la
mt vai li bit trong day bit ma hoa tng ng. Vy xac sut li bit P
b
khng ch phu thuc
vao xac sut li ky hiu P
e
va entropy H ma con phu thuc vao s sp xp bit va kiu li xut
hin. V du nh, trong h thng PSK 16 mc nh hinh 7.14, kiu li hay xay ra nht la nhm
ln gia hai trang thai pha ln cn. Nu dung ma Gray sp xp cac ky hiu nh phn th ch
co mt li bit n khi co li ky hiu. Trong trng hp nay, xac sut li bit la:
M log
P
P
2
e
b
=
Ta co quan h gia nng lng ky hiu va nng lng bit la:
- 174 -
- Chuong VII -
M log
E
E
2
b
=
T y co th biu din P
b
theo E
b
/N
0
nh sau:

=
2 / 1
0
b
2
2
b
N
E
M log
M
sin erf 1
M log
1
P


hoc theo ty s CNR nh sau:

=
2 / 1
2 / 1
0
2
b
N
C
M
sin ) B T ( erf 1
M log
1
P


V cac ky hiu trong tn hiu PSK nhiu mc u co ph bin nh nhau nn b rng ph
cua tn hiu ch phu thuc vao tc ky hiu (goi la tc baud) va dang xung ch khng
phu thuc vao M. i vi dang xung vung, bng thng danh nh cua tn hiu PSK M mc
la 2/T
0
Hz. Trong trng hp nay, hiu sut ph la:
M log 5 . 0
2 s
= (bit/s/Hz)
Hiu sut ph ti a co th c la trong trng hp bng thng c tnh cho mt bn 1/T
0
,
ngha la:
M log
2 s
= (bit/s/Hz)
Bang 7.3 so sanh mt vai thng s cua cac h thng PSK.

E
b
/N
0
yu cu cho
P
b
=10
-6
Bng thng ti
thiu
Hiu sut ph
ti a
CNR yu cu cho bng
thng ti thiu
PRK 10.6 dB R
b
1 10.6 dB
QPSK 10.6 dB 0.5R
b
2 13.6 dB
8-PSK 14.0 dB 0.33R
b
3 18.8 dB
16PSK 18.3 dB 0.25R
b
4 24.3 dB
Bang 7.3 So sanh cac ky thut iu ch PSK
7.4.2 Diu bin cu phuong QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation)
i vi b phat, ta co th kt hp iu bin vi iu pha cai thin s phn b trang thai
pha trong chom sao. Phng phap nay c gii thiu ln u tin vao nm 1960 vi 2 mc
bin (tng ng 2 vong) va 8 mc pha trn mi vong (hinh 7.15a). V y la s kt hp
gia iu bin va iu pha nn no c goi la iu ch khoa bin /pha APK
- 175 -
- Chuong VII -
(Amplitude/Phase Keying). Sau o ngi ta nhn thy rng nu s im vong trong giam
con 4, s im vong ngoai tng ln 12 (hinh 7.15b) th cac im trn chom sao cach u
nhau hn. n nm 1962, ngi ta a ra mt cach chon bin va pha khac (hinh 7.15c).
Ngi ta nhn thy kiu nay d thc hin hn va P
e
co c cai thin i chut. V tn hiu
APK nay co th xem la cp ASK nhiu mc c iu ch trn cac song mang vung goc
nn no thng c goi la iu bin cu phng QAM. Nh vy QAM la mt trng hp
ring cua APK. Tuy nhin, thc t i khi ngi ta dung thay i gia hai thut ng APK va
QAM.







(c) (b) (a)
Hinh 7.15 Chom sao cua cac tn hiu iu ch
(a) APK 16 (8,8) (b) APK 16 (4,12) (c) QAM 16 (4 x 4)
Gia s ca M trang thai u c lp thng k va ng xac sut, Carlson a tnh xp x xac sut
li trong h thng QAM vi nhiu Gauss nh sau:

> <


=
2 / 1
0
2 / 1
2 / 1
e
N
E
) 1 M ( 2
3
erf 1
M
1 M
2 P
y < E > la nng lng trung bnh trn mt ky hiu QAM. Nu dang xung la hnh ch
nht th:
0
2
T ) 1 M (
2
v
3
1
E

>= <
y la sai khac in ap gia hai mc bin canh nhau va T v
0
la dai mt ky hiu
Vit theo ty s CNR, ta c:


=
2 / 1
0
2 / 1
2 / 1
e
N
C
) 1 M ( 2
B T 3
erf 1
M
1 M
2 P
Nu dung ma Gray sp xp cac bit doc theo cac truc ng pha va vung pha trn chom sao
QAM, xac sut li bit se la:
- 176 -
- Chuong VII -


=
2 / 1
0
b 2
2 / 1
2 / 1
2
b
N
E
) 1 M ( 2
M log 3
erf 1
M
1 M
M log
2
P
Hoc vit theo ty s CNR la:


=
2 / 1
0
2 / 1
2 / 1
2
b
N
C
) 1 M ( 2
B T 3
erf 1
M
1 M
M log
2
P
Cung nh PSK nhiu mc, tt ca cac ky hiu trong APK hoc QAM u chim cung mt dai
tn s nh nhau, do vy hiu sut ph cua tn hiu iu ch APK/QAM (danh nh va ti a)
cung ging PSK nhiu mc. Tuy nhin, vi cung mt xac sut li, ty s CNR va do o la ty
s E
b
/N
0
yu cu trong iu ch QAM thp hn so vi PSK nhiu mc. V du nh, vi
th CNR va E 1 B T , 10 P
0
6
b
= =

b
/N
0
c lit k trong bang 7.4

Diu ch CNR (dB) E
b
/N
0
(dB)
PRK 10.6 10.6
QPSK 13.6 10.6
4QAM 13.6 10.6
16PSK 24.3 18.3
16QAM 20.5 14.5






Bang 7.4 So sanh cac kiu iu ch khac nhau
7.4.3 Diu ch khoa pha cu phuong QPSK (Quadrature Phase Shift Keying)
iu ch QPSK co th xem la 4PSK vi bin song mang la A hoc la xp chng cua hai
tn hiu BASK vi bin la 2 / A va song mang la t f 2 cos
c
va (chnh la
4QAM). Hinh 7.16 la gian chom sao cua tn hiu QPSK. Cac mui tn kem theo ch ra
rng tt ca cac chuyn i gia bn trang thai u co th xay ra. Hinh 7.17 la s b phat
va hinh 7.18 la s b thu QPSK.
t f 2 sin
c









Hinh 7.16 Chom sao cua tn hiu QPSK kem vi cac chuyn i trang thai co th co
- 177 -
- Chuong VII -
B phat QPSK co th thc hin t hai b phat PRK c sp xp trn hai knh la knh I va
knh Q, mi knh hoat ng tc bit bng mt na tc cua toan b h thng QPSK.

t f 2 sin
2
1
c

t f 2 cos
2
1
c


t f 2 cos
c

Knh I
R
s
= R
b
/2
Knh Q
R
s
= R
b
/2

Ni tip/
song song
2 /
D liu
nh phn
R
b
=1/T
b
QPSK
R
s
= R
b
/2









Hinh 7.17 S b phat QPSK







Hinh 7.18 S b thu QPSK
) 4 / t f 2 cos(
c

Q/ ngng
QPSK
R
s
= R
b
/2
) 4 / t f 2 cos(
c
+
D liu
nh phn
R
b
=1/T
b
Song song
Ni tip/
Tch phn Q/ ngng
Tch phn

Hiu sut ph cua QPSK cao gp i so vi PRK. Bi v cac ky hiu trong mi knh chim
cung dai tn s va co bng thng bng mt na so vi PRK cung tc .
Xac sut li P
e
trong h thng QPSK ro rang se xu hn PRK, bi v min quyt nh trn
gian chom sao giam t mt na mt phng xung con mt phn t. Tuy nhin xac sut li
P
b
th lai ging nhau, v mi knh I hay Q trong h thng QPSK u c lp vi nhau (trc
giao nhau). V nguyn tc, co th truyn tn hiu knh I trc knh Q, do o ban tin tng se
mt thi gian truyn gp i. Tuy nhin trong thc t, mi ky hiu trn knh I hoc knh Q
chim thi gian gp i va nng lng giam i mt na so vi ky hiu trong PRK nn nng
lng cua ban tin tng (va do o la nng lng trn mt bit E
b
) trong QPSK va PRK la nh
nhau (hinh 7.19). Xac sut li bit P
b
la:
- 178 -
- Chuong VII -

=
2 / 1
0
b
b
N
E
erf 1
2
1
P
Vit theo ty s CNR la:

=
2 / 1
2 / 1
b b
N
C
) B T ( erf 1
2
1
P
y T
b
la mt na dai ky hiu QPSK, T
0.
y la ly do noi rng BER cua QPSK va
PRK la nh nhau.
Xac sut li ky t P
e
c tnh t xac sut bit trn knh I b li, hay bit trn knh Q b li, hay
ca hai bit trn hai knh b li, ngha la:
2
b b b b b e
P P ) P 1 ( ) P 1 ( P P + + =













A
0
-A
2 4 6 8
E
s
=E
b
1 3 5 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
E
s
=E
b
E
b
2 / A
0
2 / A
2 / A
0
2 / A
T/h nh phn
T/h knh I
T/h knh Q
Hinh 7.19 Dong bit vao, dong bit knh I va Q tng ng va s phn b nng lng bit
7.5 iu ch tng hiu sut cng sut
Co mt s h thng thng tin lam vic trong mi trng sn co bng thng rng nhng lai b
han ch v cng sut tn hiu. Nhng h thng nh vy cn phai da vao cac ky thut iu
ch tng hiu sut cng sut at c mt ty l li va mt tc d liu nao o. Noi
chung, co th cai thin tc d liu bng cach tng s lng ky hiu b phat (tng M).
vic tng s lng ky hiu khng lam giam khoang cach gia cac im trn chom sao va
khng lam tng cng sut phat, co mt phng phap la s dung tn hiu nhiu hng- a
thm cac truc trc giao nhau vao gian chom sao.
- 179 -
- Chuong VII -
iu ch khoa dch nhiu tn s MFSK (Multi-frequency Shift Keying) la mt trng hp cua
iu ch nhiu hng nhm tng hiu sut cng sut. Cac ky hiu c thit k sao cho trc
giao nhau tng i mt. Hinh 7.20 ch ra rng ph in ap cua tn hiu MFSK trc giao la
xp chng cua ph tn hiu OOK.


=








Hinh 7.20 Ph cua tn hiu MFSK trc giao
f
1
f
2
f
3
Tc d liu tng ln hoan toan la do bng thng tng ln. V mi ky hiu cha lng tin la
(bit) nn hiu sut ph danh nh cua MFSK trc giao la: M log H
2
2 ) 1 M )( 2 / n (
M log
2
s
+
= (bit/s/Hz)
y n la s im 0 trn th hnh 7.11. Vi n = 2, hiu sut ph la:
1 M
M log
2
s
+
= (bit/s/Hz)
Tn hiu nhiu hng cung co th at c bng cach dung cac mu bit ma hoa trc giao
(hinh 7.21). Ly tng th mi ky hiu ma hoa mang lng tin la M log H
2
= (bit), nhng
at c s trc giao tng i mt, cac ky hiu phai co chiu dai bng M s nh phn (xem
hnh 7.21). Bng thng danh nh cua cac ky hiu nay la M/T
0
(Hz) i vi tn hiu bng c
ban va la 2M/T
0
Hz i vi tn hiu thng dai, y T
0
/M la khoang thi gian cua mt s nh
phn. Nu cac ky hiu ng xac sut th hiu sut ph danh nh cua tn hiu thng dai ma
hoa trc giao la:
M 2
M log
2
s
= (bit/s/Hz)
Va hiu sut ph ti a (vi T
0
B M) la:
M
M log
2
s
= (bit/s/Hz)
- 180 -
- Chuong VII -
Trong trng hp tach song kt hp ti u co nhiu Gauss, cac ky hiu ng xac sut va co
nng lng bng nhau, xac sut li ky hiu c gii han bi:


0
e
N 2
E
erf 1 ) 1 M (
2
1
P
y E la nng lng ky hiu. Nng lng trong mt bit la: M log / E E
2 b
=
T hnh 7.21 ta thy i vi mt bit bt ky trong mt ky t cho sn, ch co M/2 li ngoai tng
s M-1 li ky hiu se dn n bit o b li. Do o xac sut li bit trong tn hiu MFSK trc
giao la:
e b
P
1 M
) 2 / M (
P

=

000
001
Tp ky hiu trc giao Cac bit tin tng ng
111
110
101
100
011
010
Hinh 7.21 Tp ma trc giao gm 8 ky t
ng dung chnh cua h thng MFSKla trong h thng in bao Piccolo, co 32 tn s va tc
ky hiu la 10 ky hiu trong 1 giy, mi ky hiu la 100 ms.
Mt ng dung khac cua MFSK hin ang c trin khai rt rng rai la FDM trc giao
(OFDM) dung nhiu trong truyn hnh v tinh, trong LAN khng dy. . .
TOM TT CHUONG
1. iu ch IF hoc RF c s dung trc ht la dch ph cua tn hiu s ln mt dai tn
s phu hp. iu nay giup cho bng tn ma tn hiu chim phu hp vi bng thng cua
ng truyn, ghep knh theo tn s hoc la cho phep tn hiu c bc xa bng cac
anten co kch thc thc t.
- 181 -
- Chuong VII -
2. so sanh cac kiu iu ch khac nhau, dung hai thng s la hiu sut ph va hiu sut
cng sut. Hiu sut ph co n v la bit/s/Hz, va hiu sut cng sut lin quan n gia tr
E
b
/N
0
yu cu i vi mt xac sut li bit cho trc.
3. Co ba ky thut iu ch chnh cho tn hiu nh phn. o la ASK, FSK va PSK. Trong cac
phng phap nay, bin , tn s va pha cua tn hiu song mang b thay i theo tn hiu
nh phn vao.
4. ASK va FSK u s dung tn hiu trc giao. B thu ASK va FSK co th dung loai khng
kt hp, vi u im la s n gian trong thit k. PSK yu cu phai tach song kt hp,
phai khi phuc song mang, do o kho thc hin hn va t hn. Tuy nhin co th tranh
vic nay bng cach ma hoa vi sai trc khi iu ch- goi la DPSK H thng DPSK khng
at c xac sut li tt nh PSK nhng bu lai kinh t hn.
5. PSK yu cu cng sut tn hiu thp hn so vi ASK va FSK vi cung mt xac sut li.
6. Trong truyn thng, ngi ta s dung ph bin ba phng phap iu ch la PSK, DPSK
va FSK khng kt hp.
7. M-PSK, APK, QAM la cac ky thut iu ch tng hiu sut ph. c im chung cua cac
kiu iu ch nay la s lng ky hiu iu ch nhiu hn 2.
8. APK yu cu cng sut tn hiu thp hn MPSK vi cung mt xac sut li. Hiu sut ph
cua APK va MPSK nh nhau. QAM la mt trng hp ring cua APK, d thc hin hn
va co xac sut li c cai thin i chut.
9. MFSK la kiu iu ch tng hiu sut cng sut. Cng sut phat tit kim la v tng b
rng ph vi mt xac sut li cho trc.













- 182 -
- Chuong VII -





- 183 -