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A critical analysis of the Education policies of Pakistan with especial influence to the policy of 1998-2010 and highlight the

important features of secondary education.

Prepared by
Subject: - Education in Pakistan In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Degree of M. Phil in Education Institution of Education & Social Sciences Hamdard University, August 2009

M. Phil (Education)

INTRODUCTION Education is a social function thus it serves the society, which maintains it. Education for an independent sovereign state is almost different from a dominated nation. Just after independence, in 1947, an All Pakistan Education Conference was convened. Need for the Universal Primary Education (UPE) was agreed to by the participants of the conference. The Education Policy 1972-80 reiterated free and universal primary education; financial constraints were the major hindrances to its success. Benchmarks of National Education Policy and Implementation Programme 1979 about primary education were curious, novel and innovative. Mosque Schools, Community Schools were the off shoots of the policy but couldnt be a success. EDUCATION:Virtues are leading purposes of Education. POLICY:A plan or course of action, as a government political party, or business designed to influence and determine decisions, action and other matters. PUBLIC POLICY:Public +policy =public policy Public= masses, government, people living in state Policy= policy is a future and present way of action to follow. Government does many things .they regulate and conflict with in society. They organize society to carry on conflict with other societies. EDUCATION POLICY:Education policy refers to the collection of laws and rules that govern the operation of education systems.
The Policy Process: -

The sequence of steps through conceptualization, startup and evaluation of policy. Steps in the Policy Process: Formulating the policy Adopting the policy Implementation of the policy EDUCATIONAL POLICIES, CONFERENCES, FIVE YEAR PLANS & COMISSIONS IN THE EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN. Landmarks of Development in Education in Pakistan Pakistan Education Conference, 1947:- This Educational conference was held in 1947. This conference emphasize on the following objectives: provision of free and compulsory primary education; opening of pre-primary schools and provision of proper training of teachers. The First Five Year Plan (1955-60):- Govt. of Pakistan (1956) introduced the First Five Year Plan (1955-60) in 1956. The plan noted that 50.3 percent of the children between the ages of 6-11 were in schools. The plan stated the objectives: the provision of universal free primary education, increase enrolment, improvement in the quality of education, provision of need-based curriculum; and training of teachers. Report Of The Commission On National Education 1959:Govt. of Pakistan (1960b) described that the National Education Commission was appointed in December, 1958. The commission recommended: the provision of compulsory primary education; ensure community participation; development of curriculum; provision of in-service teacher training and two years teacher training after matriculation. The Second Five Year Plan (1960-65):- It emphasized: to raise the enrolment; revise curricula; and in-service training of teachers (Govt. of Pakistan, 1960). The target of enrolment was fully achieved, free primary stage was introduced and programmes of in-service training of primary school teachers were started (Govt. of Pakistan, 1965). The Third Five Year Plan (1965-70) :- It envisaged: to

increase enrolment from forty five percent in 1965 to seventy percent in 1970; reduce dropout; and improve the quality of education. The plan realized that examination system encouraged memorization (Govt. of Pakistan 1965). The rate of implementation remained low (Govt. of Pakistan 1970b). The New Education Policy 1970 :- The policy and the Fourth Five Year Plan (1970-1975) remained unimplemented due to war with India. The Education Policy 1972-1980 :- Govt. of Pakistan (1972) emphasized: the nationalization of private education institutions; provision of universal and free primary education; increase enrolment; provision of free textbooks; revision of curricula and teacher training courses; and replacement of annual examination with continuous evaluation. Govt. of Pakistan (1976) observed that in 1972, private institutions were nationalized. Nationalization did not result either in the expansion or qualitative improvement of education (Govt. of Pakistan, 1979). Govt. of Pakistan (1977) asserted that the schemes of studies were finalized and revised curricula were introduced. In-service teacher training was improved. The curriculum for teachers training was changed and examination system was revised. Govt. of Pakistan (1978b) noted that the curriculum of teachers training programme was revised. The plan aimed at: universal enrolment by 1986-87; increase in participation rate from 54 percent to 68 percent by 1982-83; improvement in the quality of instruction and curricula; provision of free textbooks; extension of in-service training facilities; and reformation of examination system (Govt. of Pakistan, 1978a). National Education Policy And Implementation Programme 1979:- According to Govt. of Pakistan (1979), the policy objectives were: to attain universal primary education by 1986-87; improve the quality of education; supply free textbooks; review curricula; improve the quality of teacher education; train educational administrators and supervisors; and improve the examination system. The National Education Council was established to keep an eye on the implementation of

educational programmes. Govt. of Pakistan (1980) described that new curriculum was introduced with emphasis on Islam and ideology of Pakistan. In-service training was arranged. The Sixth Five Year Plan (1983-88):- It emphasized: the universal primary education; increase in participation rate from 48 percent in 1982-83 to 75 percent in 1987-88; utilization of mosques to accommodate classes I to III; provision of separate girls schools; and redesigning of teacher education curricula (Govt. of Pakistan, 1983). Govt. of Pakistan (1988) noted that although the sixth plan achievements were lower than the targets, considerable progress was made in the education sector. Several innovative projects to improve the quality of education were launched on an experimental basis. The Seventh Five Year Plan (1988-1993):- It envisaged: the universalization of primary education by 1992-93; improvement in the quality of education; legislation for compulsory primary education; improvement in textbooks; compulsory in-service training; and establishment of Educational Testing and Measurement Services (Govt. of Pakistan, 1988). Govt. of Pakistan (1993a) analyzed that some of the important policy initiatives proposed in the plan could not be implemented. National Education Policy 1992:- Within one year of the declaration of the policy, the political government was ousted. The Eighth Five Year Plan (1993-1998) :- It emphasized: universal access to primary education; enrolment of additional 5.548 million children; increase participation rate; enactment and enforcement of compulsory primary schooling; encourage private sector; qualitative improvement of the curricula; reformation of teacher training curricula; enhancement of entry qualification of teachers and qualitative improvement of the examination system (Govt. of Pakistan, 1993). Govt. of Pakistan (1994) noted that a project was launched through distance education programme to train untrained teachers. Govt. of Pakistan (1996) further noted that in-service short term and log term training programmes were also conducted. Govt. of Pakistan (1998b) observed that Non-formal Basic Education schools were provided to achieve the target of Universal Primary Education. Social Action

Programme for education was initiated. The quality of education was improved and private sector was encouraged. Compulsory Primary Education Act could not be implemented. National Education Policy 1998-2010 :- Govt. of Pakistan (1998a) stated the objectives: to integrate primary and middle level education into elementary education; to enhance gross participation rate from existing 71 percent to 90 percent by the year 2002-03 and 109 percent by 2010; to reduce disparities; to introduce uniform curricula; to develop new and demanding curricula; to raise entry qualification of teachers; to reform examination system. The Ninth Five Year Plan (1998-2003):- It emphasized: to achieve universal primary education by 2010; increase the participation rate for boys from 89 percent to 100 percent and for girls from 60 percent to 80 percent; expand the involvement of private sector in education; provide free textbooks to girls; ensure the quality of education; legislation for compulsory primary education; and develop curricula (Govt. of Pakistan, 1998b). THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL POLICY 1998-2010 Aims and objectives of Education and Islamic Education:- Education and training should enable the citizens of Pakistan to lead their lives according to the teachings of Islam as laid down in the Qur'an and Sunnah and to educate and train them as a true practicing Muslim. To evolve an integrated system of national education by bringing Deeni Madaris and modern schools closer to each stream in curriculum and the contents of education. Literacy and Non-Formal Education:Eradication of illiteracy through formal and informal means for expansion of basic education through involvement of community. The existing disparities in basic education will be reduced to half by year 2010. Elementary Education :- About 90% of the children in the age group (5-9) will be enrolled in schools by year 2002-03. Gross enrolment ratio at primary level will be increased to 105% by year 2010 and Compulsory Primary Education Act will be promulgated and enforced in a phased manner. Full utilization of existing capacity at the basic level has been ensured by providing for introduction of

double shift in existing school of basics education. Quality of primary education will be improved through revising curricula, imparting in-service training to the teachers, raising entry qualifications for teachers from matriculation to intermediate, revising teacher training curricula, improving management and supervision system and reforming the existing examination and assessment system. Integration of primary and middle level education in to elementary education (IVIII). Increasing participation rate from 46% to 65% by 2002-3 and 85% 2010 at middle level. At the elementary level, a system of continuous evaluation will be adopted to ensure attainment of minimum learning competencies for improving quality of education. Secondary Education:- One model secondary school will be set up at each district level. A definite vocation or a career will be introduced at secondary level. It would be ensured that all the boys and girls, desirous of entering secondary education, become enrolled in secondary schools. Curriculum for secondary and higher secondary will be revised and multiple textbooks will be introduced. The base for technical and vocational education shall be broadened through introduction of a stream of matriculation (Technical) on pilot basis and establishment of vocational high schools. Multiple textbooks shall be introduced at secondary school level. Teacher Education:- To increase the effectiveness of the system by institutionalizing in-service training of teachers, teacher trainers and educational administrators through school clustering and other techniques. To upgrade the quality of pre-service teacher training programmes by introducing parallel programmes of longer duration at post-secondary and post-degree levels i.e. introduction of programs of FA/FSc education and BA/BSc education . The contents and methodology parts of teacher education curricula will be revised. Technical and Vocational Education:- To develop opportunities for technical and vocational education in the country for producing trained manpower,

commensurate with the needs of industry and economic development goals. To improve the quality of technical education so as to enhance the chances of employment of Technical and vocational Education (TVE) graduates by moving from a static, supply-based system to a demand-driven system. A National Council for Technical Education shall be established to regulate technical education. Higher Education:- Access to higher education shall be expanded to at least 5% of the age group 17-23 by the year 2010. Merit shall be the only criterion for entry into higher education. Access to higher education, therefore, shall be based on entrance tests. Information Technology :- Computers shall be introduced in secondary schools in a phased manner. School curricula shall be revised to include recent developments in information technology, such as software development, the Information Super Highway designing Web Pages, etc Library and Documentation Services :- School, college and university libraries shall be equipped with the latest reading materials/services. Private Sector in Education:- Encouraging private investment in education. There shall be regulatory bodies at the national and provincial levels to regulate activities and smooth functioning of privately-managed schools and institutions of higher education through proper rules and regulations. Matching grants shall be provided for establishing educational institutions by the private sector in the rural areas or poor urban areas through Education Foundations. Existing institutions of higher learning shall be allowed to negotiate for financial assistance with donor agencies in collaboration with the Ministry of Education. Curricula of private institutions must conform to the principles laid down in the Federal Supervision of curricula, Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act, 1976. Innovative Programmes:- The National Education Testing Service will be established to design and administer standardized tests for admission to professional institutions. Qualifying these tests will become a compulsory requirement for entry to professional education. Likewise, standardized tests shall be introduced for admission to general education in universities.

Implementation Monitoring And Evaluation:- A comprehensive monitoring and evaluation system has been envisaged from grass-roots to the highest level. The District Education Authority will be established in each district to ensure public participation in monitoring and implementation. The education Ministers at the Federal and Provincial levels will oversee monitoring committees, responsible for implementation at their levels. The Prime Minister and Provincial Chief Ministers will be the Chief of National and Provincial Education Councils respectively which will ensure achievements of targets. Data collected through Provincial EMISs and collated by AEPAM through National Education Management Information System (NEMIS) shall be recognized as one source for planning, management, monitoring, and evaluation purposes to avoid disparities and confusion. The total expenditure of the government on education will be raised from its present level of 2.2% to 4% of GNP by the year 2002-03. SECONDARY EDUCATION Secondary education (IX-XII) is an important sub-sector of the entire educational system. Higher education, which is expected to produce quality professionals in different fields, hinges on the quality of secondary education. This level of education, therefore, needs to be revamped in such a way that it prepares young men and women for the pursuit of higher education as well as prepares them to adjust to their practical lives meaningfully and productively. Secondary education is a stage where a student enters adolescence. In the past, secondary education could not attract attention in terms of efforts and investment. The number of primary schools has crossed the mark of 145,000. It is, therefore, most appropriate to address the problems of secondary education seriously. With increased emphasis on quality of primary education and renewed efforts to check the high dropout rate at primary level, the secondary level of education now needs to be prepared for comparatively heavier influx of aspirants to this level.

6.1.4 Compared to primary and elementary education, the base of secondary education is very narrow. It arises out of the present practice of designating the posts in secondary schools. The ratio of science students at Degree and Master's levels is also not encouraging. Even in townships and cities, the female secondary schools do not have teachers in science and mathematics. ! / 6.1.7 The Education Policy (1979) introduced a 3-tier system of education. Under this system, all the schools were to be upgraded to higher secondary schools having classes XI-XII. Middle sections of high schools were to be linked with primary schools. This system has had limited success. The middle classes (VIVIII) in a large majority of schools still continue to be a part of high schools and upgradation of schools to higher secondary levels could not take place. In Balochistan, for example, only one secondary school was upgraded as higher secondary school, but it had finally to be downgraded. Consequently, agriculture education deserves high priority. During the seventies, the concept of agro-technical education was introduced and technical/vocational subjects were introduced as elective component at Class IX & X level. 6.1.10 Theoretically, the demand for vocational education still persists. With the passage of time, the concept of vocational education has undergone changes. It is now being interpreted as a skill which prepares a student to respond to the call of practical life, if one chooses to work after secondary level of education. 6.1.11 The quality of schooling is linked with the qualifications of teacher, curriculum, educational materials, teaching methodologies, equipment and physical facilities. The performance measure of the students and teachers is based on their examination results only. There is a need to train teachers in test construction and evaluation. 6.1.12 Teachers at the intermediate level are subject specialists. 6.1.13 Training of high school teachers takes place in teacher training institutions but formal training

is not required in order to appear the B.Ed examination. Though reforms in teacher training are urgently required yet they would not succeed without concomitant reforms in other aspects of schooling. 6.1.14 Textbooks for schools are inadequate in many respects. 39National Education Policy 1998-2010 textbook writing skills are rare and need to be further developed through training courses. 6.1.15 Introducing competition into the production of school textbooks in Pakistan will be quite complicated, because of the power the Textbook Boards have acquired, both through legislation and custom. 6.1.16 Learning programs designed to meet the needs of growth and development, in Pakistan, in the future will require good quality textbooks. More and better learning materials will be an essential ingredient in improving the quality of education at these stages. 6.1.17 Physical facilities, such as, classrooms, laboratories, libraries, furniture and equipment are better provided in the higher stages of education. Colleges are better equipped than schools. On the whole, lack of well-designed and well-equipped classrooms and laboratories hinder the proper delivery of the level of education appropriate to secondary and intermediate stages. 6.1.18 The following broad conceptual framework needs to be kept in view while launching the programs of reforms for secondary education: ii. Adequate preparation to enter the world of work as well as pursuit of higher education. iii. Greater access to secondary education, specially for the female population, meeting the requirements of students from elementary education. Improved quality of teachers both in terms of academic and professional accomplishment. This will also imply supply of improved teaching-learning material and improved method of training. vi. Removing existing discrepancies in present secondary and higher secondary schools in terms of staff and budget.

vii. Keeping in view our own past experiences and that of other countries, the whole question of integrating technical and vocational education with secondary education needs to be re-examined. 6.2 Objectives 6.2.1 To prepare the students for the world of work, as well as pursuit of professional and specialized education. 6.2.4 To design a system of recruitment, training and selection of teachers in such a way that well-qualified and trained teachers are available for all subjects offered at secondary level. 6.2.6 To introduce a system of evaluation which emphasizes learning of concepts and discourages rote memorization. 6.2.7 To remove ambiguities and contradictions in the operation of 3-tier system of education and design rules, regulations and practices that ensure smooth functioning of the system. 6.2.8 To adopt a balanced approach towards integration of technical/vocational education and evolve a system, which is cost-effective and practicable. 6.3 Policy Provisions 6.3.1 Setting up one model secondary school initially at each district level. 6.3.2 Introduction of a definite vocation or a career at secondary level. 6.3.3 Revision of curriculum for secondary and higher secondary levels will be initiated. 6.3.4 Multiple textbooks shall be introduced at secondary school level. 6.3.5 The present rigidly compartmentalized scheme of studies at the Secondary School Certificate (SSC)/Higher Secondary School Certificate (HSSC) level will be replaced by a flexible system where a student would be free to choose any subject from a comprehensive list of subjects required. 6.3.7 A comprehensive in-service and pre-service teacher training program shall be launched in the area of assessment and evaluation for the improvement of public examinations.

6.3.8 Project method of teaching shall be initiated at the secondary level of education by emphasizing learning by doing. 6.3.9 The Education Service Commission will be established for the recruitment of teachers. 6.3.12 Education Card shall be provided to the needy students. iSecondary Education 6.4 Physical Targets 6.4.1 The present participation rate at secondary level is 32% which will be raised to 48% by providing new teachers and increasing the number of schools as given in the following table: 6.5 Implementation Strategy To overcome this problem, the proposed District Education Authority will be assigned complete authority for location of new schools. The District Education Offices will prepare list of their annual demands. The authority will develop contact with the communities and prepare feasibility for new schools. Communities demanding schools will have to contribute land and labour for the construction of schools. ii. In order to reduce burden on the government and to utilize non-conventional resources, the work of Education Foundation will be regulated through District Education Authorities. iii. Access to quality education is the basic right of every citizen. 43National Education Policy 1998-2010 one model school at each district headquarter. The concept of model school is based on equitable availability of educational opportunities. Based upon the agreement of the provincial governments, 25% of the districts will be carefully selected, in consultation with the District Education Authorities to open these schools. iv. It is not possible to provide guidance and counselling service in each secondary school. The government has already established National Education Testing Service (NETS). 6.5.2 Curriculum and Learning Materials iv. The Provincial Textbook Boards enjoy complete monopoly over production and distribution of textbooks. 44manner. In order to perform that operation

effectively, the Ministry of Education will design models for evaluation of textbooks in selected disciplines at secondary level and conduct a model trial. v. The concept of competitive textbooks in science and English will be introduced, gradually initially at the secondary level. The approved textbooks will then be supplied to the Ministry of Education. The Ministry of Education will select at least three best textbooks in each discipline. vi. There is a general demand for integrating technical education into general education. In proposed model schools, a limited number of technologies, prevalent in the country will be introduced. Examinations Extensive in-service training programs for teachers shall be conducted in assessment techniques. Teachers i. B.S.Ed. (Bachelor of Science Education) and B.A.Ed. (Bachelor of Arts Education) programs shall be implemented throughout the country parallel to the B.Ed program. ii. Due to a problem in the designation of posts in the provincial budgets, availability of science and mathematics teachers remains an issue. The Provincial Governments will be required to undertake surveys of secondary and higher secondary schools in areas of their jurisdiction, to determine the number of science and mathematics teachers on the basis of operational school time-tables. The budget book from the year 2000 will reflect separate posts for science and mathematics teachers. iii. Anomalies existing between teachers directly recruited by the Public Service Commission with Master degrees and the promotees of the educational institution with Bachelor degrees will be resolved by the Provincial governments. v. An education code of ethics shall be developed and strictiy enforced through legislation. vi. The role of National Education Testing Service (NETS) shall be expanded to cover the entire spectrum of education in a phased manner.

National Survey (Govt. of Pakistan, 1999) reported that private sector was involved for expansion of education. The revised curriculum was based on the needs of the society. Govt. of Pakistan (2000) observed that overall participation rate was 89 percent (boys 99 percent and girls 79 percent). Free textbooks were given to poor girl students of rural areas. Govt. of Pakistan (2001) further observed that the Ministry of Education initiated Education Sector Reforms (ESR) aimed at qualitative and quantitative improvement. National Survey (Govt. of Pakistan, 2002) observed that an ordinance for compulsory primary education was promulgated. The Ministry of Education had launched a project to give free textbooks initially in Islamabad Capital Territory. Govt. of Pakistan (2003) stated that National Education Assessment System (NEAS) was established. Govt. of Pakistan (2005) described that free textbooks were being provided. Govt. of Pakistan (2006) concluded that the Gross Enrollment Rate (GER) for the primary schools (age 5-9) increased from 72 percent in 2001-02 to 86 percent in 2004-05. Two main indicators that show the changes in the primary schooling were Gross Enrollment Rate (GER) and Net Enrollment Rate (NER). That increase from 72 percent in 2001-02 to 86 percent in 2004-05 was a result of targeted and resilient policies of the government. In Pakistan, the education system is three-tiered: elementary (grade 1-8), secondary (grade 9-12), and tertiary or higher education, after 12 years schooling. The elementary education comprises of two distinct stages i.e. Primary (grade 1-5) and middle (grade 6-8) and is offered in primary and middle schools. The secondary education consists of two stages: the secondary and the higher secondary. The secondary education is of two years duration and comprised of grades 9-10 and is imparted in secondary schools. The higher secondary education comprises of two years duration (grade 11-12) and is offered at both intermediate colleges and higher secondary schools. The higher education in Pakistan starts

after the completion of grade 12. The universities, colleges and other such institutions impart higher and professional education (Shami & Hussain, 2006). Education is central to socio-economic development of a country. Secondary

education (IX-XII) is an important sub-sector of the entire education system. In the past secondary education could not attract attention in term of efforts and investment. This study will compare the 1992 policy and 1998 policy. A general overview of education policies since 1947 To understand the policy and its procedure A general comparison of 1992 and 1998 policies Importance of secondary education To compare the secondary educational issues between these two policies
EDUCATIONAL POLICY Definition of Policy: (Policy, Plan, Program and Project)

Public policy is commonly embodied "in constitutions, legislative acts, and judicial decisions." Education policy refers to the collection of laws and rules that govern the operation of education systems.

The Policy Process: Steps in the Policy Process Formulating the policy Adopting the policy Implementation of the policy A GENERAL COMPARISON OF 1992 AND 1998 POLICIES IMPORTANCE OF SECONDARY EDUCATION

Secondary education (IX-XII) is an important sub-sector of the entire education Provides the middle level work force for the economy. Acts as a feeder for the higher level of education. Personality development A stage where a scheme develop Promote technical & vocational training. Creating a balance between middle level work and higher level education. COMPARISON THE SECONDARY EDUCATIONAL ISSUE 1992 POLICY Chapter 8: Technical and Vocational Education Policy Statement Technical and Vocational Institutions will be increased and facilitated Technical and Vocational Institutions will be available at Tehsil level Private Sector will be invited Technical Training Institute, one in each province and link with the National Teaching Training College at the federal level General and Secondary School in Evening Shift One vocational subject will be a compulsory part of general education (computer) Encouraging the private sector in education Emphasis on higher education Vocational education Introduced computer education Operating system, programming and software preparation at secondary / high secondary level Subject of computer science introduced as an optional subject at higher secondary and degree level 1998 POLICY Chapter 6: Secondary Education Policy Provision Setting up one secondary school initially at each district level Introduction of a Vocational or a career secondary level Revision of curriculum for secondary and higher secondary levels will be initiated. The present rigidly compartmentalized scheme of studies at the Secondary School Certificate (SSC) / Higher Secondary School Certificates (HSSC) level will be replaced by a flexible system where a students would be free to choose any subject from a comprehensive list of subjects required. Education cards shall be provided to the needy students Chapter 8: Technical and Vocational Education (Secondary Education) 8.3 Policy Provision

8.3.7 In-service training shall be provided to improve quality of existing teachers and a pre-service teacher training program of B. Ed. (Technology) shall be introduced to provide trained instructors for polytechnics and vocational institutes 8.3.11 Computer education shall be made a compulsory component of the curriculum of technical education and computer laboratories with related facilities shall be established in all the polytechnic institution of technology. 8.3.16 Opportunity for further education shall be provided to the graduates polytechnic institutes / colleges of technology 8.3.18 The base for technical and vocational education shall be broadened through introduction of a stream of Matric (Technical) on pilot basis and establishment of vocational high schools Chapter 10: Secondary Education (Information Technology in Education) 10.3 Policy Provision 10.3.2 Computers shall be introduced in secondary schools 10.3.4 Educational institutions shall be provided internet facilities 10.3.5 The subject of computer education shall be introduced at higher secondary and degree levels in a phased manner 10.3.7 Computer education shall be made compulsory component for all training program in the education sector 10.3.10 Software development competitions shall be launched at the national level for all studies 10.3.15 Centers of advance computer science and information technology shall be established in all universities

Ever since societies developed into states, it has been the obligation of the independent State to recognize education as a right of the citizen. Therefore, States have always encouraged education and provided education directly, as far as possible. The National Education Policy (19982010) has been framed in the perspective of historical developments, modern trends in education. The State of Pakistan, soon after independence, demonstrated its commitment to education by convening the National Conference on Education in November, 1947. Substantial results could not be achieved owing to frequent changes in education policies from time to time. Within one year of the declaration of the policy, the Muslim League government was ousted. Prime Minister, Muhammad Nawaz Sharif directed the Ministry of Education to formulate a new Education Policy. Education is now universally recognized to be the prime key to moral, cultural, political and socio-economic development of a nation. It requires a realistic and pragmatic view of the entire education system. The basic objectives of universal basic education, diversified secondary education and high quality

tertiary education have been emphasized, without affecting the holistic and balanced approach, which forms the basis of this policy.

DATA SHEET SHOWING NUMBER ,ENROLMENT TEACHING STAFF AND STUDENT TEACHERS RATIO (STUDENT PER TEACHER)
Type 1997-98 1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 Number of Primary Schools (Thousand)

Total 156.3 159.3 162.1 147.7 149.1 150.8 155.0 157.2 157.5 158.4 157.9 Female 58.1 53.1 55.0 54.3 55.3 56.1 57.6 58.7 59.8 60.9 64.4 Enrolment in Primary Schools (Thousand) Total 17063 18169 19148 17136 17529 18220 19781 21333 23970 24465 24637 Female 6997 6450 7044 6893 7167 7519 8179 9092 10474 10762 10848 Teachers in Primary Schools(Thousand) Total 397.0 422.6 402.4 408.9 413.9 433.5 432.2 450.1 444.0 445.8 438.8 Female 164.7 173.8 169.8 183.6 183.5 191.7 195.3 206.5 201.0 203.1 205.1
Student Teacher Ratio (Student per Teacher) 43.0 43.0 47.6 41.9 42.4 42.0 45.8 47.4 54.0 54.9 56.1 Teachers per School (Total) 2.5 2.7 2.5 2.8 2.8 2.9 2.8 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.8 Teachers per School (Female) 2.8 3.3 3.1 3.4 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.2 Student per School 109.2 114.1 118.1 116.0 117.6 120.8 127.6 135.7 152.2 154.5 156.0 Percentage of Female Teachers 41.5 41.1 42.2 44.9 44.3 44.2 45.2 45.9 45.3 45.5 46.7 Number of Middle Schools (Thousand)

Total 17.4 18.1 18.4 25.5 26.8 28.0 28.7 30.4 39.4 40.1 40.8 Female 7.5 7.2 7.6 12.0 12.8 13.5 13.9 14.8 19.3 17.5 18.0 Enrolment in Middle Schools (Thousand) Total 4032 4098 4112 3759 3821 3918 4321 4551 5262 5368 5366 Female 1532 1586 1615 1706 1506 1551 1737 1863 2169 2241 2259 Teachers in Middle Schools (Thousand) Total 168.4 178.5 193.9 209.7 230.1 236.3 239.4 246.7 310.8 313.5 320.6 Female 101.0 108.2 117.6 127.8 139.3 145.8 146.6 151.5 201.6 203.3 208.2
Student Teacher Ratio (Student per Teacher) 23.9 23.0 21.2 17.9 16.6 16.6 18.0 18.4 16.9 17.0
16.7

Teachers per School (Total) 9.7 9.9 10.5 8.2 8.6 8.4 8.3 8.1 7.9 7.8 7.9 Type 1997-98 1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 Teachers per School (Femalel) 13.5 15.0 15.5 10.6 10.9 10.8 10.6 10.3 10.4 11.6 11.6 Student per School 231.7 226.4 223.5 147.4 142.6 139.9 150.6 149.7 133.7 133.9 131.5 Percentage of Female Teachers 60.0 60.6 60.6 61.0 60.5 61.7 61.2 61.4 64.9 64.9 64.9 Number of High Schools (Thousand)

Total 11.1 12.4 12.6 14.8 15.1 15.6 16.1 16.6 22.9 23.6 24.0 Female 3.9 3.3 3.4 4.6 4.6 4.8 5.1 5.3 8.1 9.0 9.3 Enrolment in High Schools (Thousand) Total 1658 1703 1726 1565 1574 1589 1800 1880 2133 2315 2436 Female 605 639 653 675 644 658 709 756 882 949 1003 Teachers in High Schools (Thousand) Total 252.9 231.6 247.8 260.3 270.2 278.0 276.9 282.1 362.2 366.6 374.2 Female 112.9 107.5 115.8 125.4 126.1 132.0 134.2 138.6 197.4 200.5 207.0
Student Teacher Ratio (Student per Teacher) 6.6 7.4 7.0 6.0 5.8 5.7 6.5 6.7 5.9 6.3 6.5 Teachers per School (Total) 22.8 18.7 19.7 17.6 17.9 17.8 17.2 17.0 15.8 15.6 15.6 Teachers per School (Female) 28.9 32.6 34.3 27.4 27.2 27.3 26.4 26.0 24.5 22.4 22.3 Student per School 149.4 137.3 137.0 105.7 104.2 101.9 111.8 113.3 93.1 98.3 101.5 Percentage of Female Teachers 44.6 46.4 46.8 48.2 46.7 47.5 48.5 49.0 54.5 54.7 55.3 Number of Sec.Vocational Institutions

Total 574 580 612 630 607 585 636 643 643 652 656

Female 223 228 233 236 239 230 252 255 258 260 267 Enrolment in Secondary Vocational Inst
Total 90256 75093 90829 82714 82879 93921 101106 138186 181667 171247 198430 Female 17611 17131 16798 14068 15401 18916 23469 28871 39573 30998 36490

Teachers in Secondary Vocational Inst. Total 6923 7133 9253 9441 7192 7273 8535 8668 8282 8798 9401 Female 1870 1858 1959 1959 1863 1623 1957 1884 1979 1884 2099
Student Teacher Ratio (Student per Teacher) 13.0 10.5 9.8 8.8 11.5 12.9 11.8 15.9 21.9 19.5 21.1 Teachers per Sec.Voc.Inst (Total) 12.1 12.3 15.1 15.0 11.8 12.4 13.4 13.5 12.9 13.5 14.3 Teachers per Sec.Voc.Inst. (Female) 8.4 8.1 8.4 8.3 7.8 7.1 7.8 7.4 7.7 7.2 7.9 Student per Sec.Voc.Inst. 157.2 129.5 148.4 131.3 136.5 160.5 159.0 214.9 282.5 262.6 302.5 Type 1997-98 1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 Percentage of Female Teachers 27.0 26.0 21.2 20.7 25.9 22.3 22.9 21.7 23.9 21.4 22.3 Number of Arts & Science Colleges

Total 787 840 889 916 939 964 1066 1174 1208 1231 1283 Female 309 339 358 380 394 414 458 515 529 539 566 Enrolment in Arts& Science Colleges Total 795816 779707 791995 762660 750583 801746 905058
100927 9 104724 9 1097036 1076075 Female 334872 351166 372271 373990 369830 395546 441695 49513 5 52190 5 552902 546272

Teachers in Arts Science Colleges Total 27325 26942 27662 27547 26494 27911 29730 30997 32502 33438 34410 Female 10262 10347 10553 10544 10411 11024 12238 12979 13367 13642 13472
Student Teacher Ratio (Student per Teacher) 29.1 28.9 28.6 27.7 28.3 28.7 30.4 32.6 32.2 32.8
31.3

Teachers per College (Total) 34.7 32.1 31.1 30.1 28.2 29.0 27.9 26.4 26.9 27.2 26.8 Teachers per College (Female) 33.2 30.5 29.5 27.7 26.4 26.6 26.7 25.2 25.3 25.3 23.8 Student per College 1011.2 928.2 890.9 832.6 799.3 831.7 849.0 859.7 866.9 891.2 838.7 Percentage of Female Teachers 37.6 38.4 38.1 38.3 39.3 39.5 41.2 41.9 41.1 40.8 39.2

Number of Professional Colleges Total 293 308 324 352 374 382 416 408 432 420 451 Female 19 18 15 18 20 19 20 21 23 19 23 Enrolment in Professional Colleges Total 162239 163445 160985 158828 161349 163852 178835 186802 202716 207420 246757 Female 40659 41078 41036 39580 40540 41932 46377 48340 50323 555882 75055 Teachers in Professional Colleges
Total 7989 8861 9043 9131 9358 9841 10659 9961 11158 12377 13621 Female 1639 1771 1765 1769 2015 2107 2178 2048 2706 3009 3405 Student Teacher Ratio (Student per Teacher) 20.3 18.4 17.8 17.4 17.2 16.6 16.8 18.8 18.2 16.8
18.1

Teachers per Prof.College (Total) 27.3 28.8 27.9 25.9 25.0 25.8 25.6 24.4 25.8 29.5 30.2 Teachers per Prof.College (Female) 86.3 98.4 117.7 98.3 100.8 110.9 108.9 97.5 117.7 158.4 131.0 Student per Prof.College 553.7 530.7 496.9 451.2 431.4 428.9 429.9 457.8 469.3 493.9 547.1 Percentage of Female Teachers 20.5 20.0 19.5 19.4 21.5 21.4 20.4 20.6 24.3 24.3 25.0 Type 1997-98 1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 Number of Universities

Total 26 26 26 26 29 29 52 52 61 61 67 Female 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 5 5 5 Enrolment in Universities Total 93780 91637 114010 124944 117863 126870 218275 234142 227339 296812 318281 Female 24848 25469 27369 36699 39682 43668 83127 89105 93494 111473 121988 Teachers in Universities Total 5515 4911 5914 5988 5160 6180 11404 13208 13967 16245 19099 Female 976 837 1174 1302 1247 1375 3137 3642 4087 4957 5717
Student Teacher Ratio (Student per Teacher) 17.0 18.7 19.3 20.9 22.8 20.5 19.1 17.7 16.3 18.3
16.7

Teachers per University (Total) 212.1 188.9 227.5 230.3 177.9 213.1 219.3 254.0 229.0 266.3 285.1 Teachers per University (Female) 976.0 837.0 1174.0 1302.0 1247.0 1375.0 1045.7 1214.0 817.4
991.4 1143.4

Student per University 3606.9 3524.5 4385.0 4805.5 4064.2 4374.8 4197.6 4502.7 3726.9 4865.8
4750.5

Percentage of Female Teachers 17.7 17.0 19.9 21.7 24.2 22.2 27.5 27.6 29.3 30.5 29.9
Statistics pertaining to Education have been compiled from the data made available to this Bureau by Provincial Bureau's of Statistics and Federal Academy of Educational Planning and Management Islamabad. Time Reference: Data presented in these tables pertain to the academic year mentioned therein. Primary Education covers 1 to 5 Classes, Middle Education includes classes from 6 to 8. Secondary Education covers High Schools and Secondary Vocational Institutions, Whereas, professional Colleges cover Agricultural, Engineering, Medical, Commerce, Law, Home Economics, Education and other (Tibb, Fine Arts, Homeopath and Computers.) Enrolment by subject and level: Data regarding enrolment by subject, level and sex for different courses have been supplied by Allama Igbal Open University, Islamabad. A critical analysis of the Education policies of Pakistan with especial influence to the policy of 1998-2010 and highlighting the important features of secondary education.

DATA SHEET SHOWING NUMBER .ENROLMENT TEACHING STAFF AND STUDENT TEACHERS RATIO (STUDENT PER TEACHER)
Type Number of Primary Schools (Thousand) Total Female Enrolment in Primary Schools (Thousand) Total Female Teachers in Primary Schools(Thousand) Total Female Student Teacher Ratio (Student per Teacher) Teachers per School (Total) Teachers per School (Female) Student per School Percentage of Female Teachers Number of Middle Schools (Thousand) Total Female Enrolment in Middle Schools (Thousand) Total Female Teachers in Middle Schools (Thousand) Total Female Student Teacher Ratio (Student per Teacher) Teachers per School (Total) Type Teachers per School (Femalel) Student per School Percentage of Female Teachers Number of High Schools (Thousand) Total 168.4 101.0 178.5 108.2 193.9 117.6 209.7 127.8 230.1 139.3 236.3 145.8 239.4 146.6 246.7 151.5 310.8 201.6 313.5 203.3 320.6 208.2 4032 1532 4098 1586 4112 1615 3759 1706 3821 1506 3918 1551 4321 1737 4551 1863 5262 2169 5368 2241 5366 2259 397.0 164.7 43.0 2.5 2.8 109.2 41.5 17.4 7.5 422.6 173.8 43.0 2.7 3.3 114.1 41.1 18.1 7.2 402.4 169.8 47.6 2.5 3.1 118.1 42.2 18.4 7.6 408.9 183.6 41.9 2.8 3.4 116.0 44.9 25.5 12.0 413.9 183.5 42.4 2.8 3.3 117.6 44.3 26.8 12.8 433.5 191.7 42.0 2.9 3.4 120.8 44.2 28.0 13.5 432.2 195.3 45.8 2.8 3.4 127.6 45.2 28.7 13.9 450.1 206.5 47.4 2.9 3.5 135.7 45.9 30.4 14.8 444.0 201.0 54.0 2.8 3.4 152.2 45.3 39.4 19.3 445.8 203.1 54.9 2.8 3.3 154.5 45.5 40.1 17.5 438.8 205.1 56.1 2.8 3.2 156.0 46.7 40.8 18.0 17063 6997 18169 6450 19148 7044 17136 6893 17529 7167 18220 7519 19781 8179 21333 9092 23970 10474 24465 10762 24637 10848 156.3 58.1 159.3 53.1 162.1 55.0 147.7 54.3 149.1 55.3 150.8 56.1 155.0 57.6 157.2 58.7 157.5 59.8 158.4 60.9 157.9 64.4 1997-98 1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08

23.9 23.0 21.2 17.9 16.6 16.6 18.0 18.4 16.9 9.7 9.9 10.5 8.2 8.6 8.4 8.3 8.1 7.9 1997-98 1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 13.5 15.0 15.5 10.6 10.9 10.8 10.6 10.3 10.4 231.7 226.4 223.5 147.4 142.6 139.9 150.6 149.7 133.7 60.0 60.6 60.6 61.0 60.5 61.7 61.2 61.4 64.9 11.1 12.4 12.6 14.8 15.1 15.6 16.1 16.6 22.9

17.0 16.7 7.8 7.9 2006-07 2007-08 11.6 11.6 133.9 131.5 64.9 64.9 23.6 24.0

Female Enrolment in High Schools (Thousand) Total Female Teachers in High Schools (Thousand) Total Female Student Teacher Ratio (Student per Teacher) Teachers per School (Total) Teachers per School (Female) Student per School Percentage of Female Teachers Number of Sec.Vocational Institutions Total Female Enrolment in Secondary Vocational Inst Total Female Teachers in Secondary Vocational Inst. Total Female Student Teacher Ratio (Student per Teacher) Teachers per Sec.Voc.Inst (Total) Teachers per Sec.Voc.Inst. (Female) Student per Sec.Voc.Inst. Type Percentage of Female Teachers Number of Arts & Science Colleges Total Female Enrolment in Arts& Science Colleges Total Female Teachers in Arts Science Colleges Total Female Student Teacher Ratio (Student per Teacher) Teachers per College (Total)

3.9 1658 605 252.9 112.9 6.6 22.8 28.9 149.4 44.6 574 223 90256 17611

3.3 1703 639 231.6 107.5 7.4 18.7 32.6 137.3 46.4 580 228 75093 17131

3.4 1726 653 247.8 115.8 7.0 19.7 34.3 137.0 46.8 612 233 90829 16798

4.6 1565 675 260.3 125.4 6.0 17.6 27.4 105.7 48.2 630 236 82714 14068

4.6 1574 644 270.2 126.1 5.8 17.9 27.2 104.2 46.7 607 239 82879 15401

4.8 1589 658 278.0 132.0 5.7 17.8 27.3 101.9 47.5 585 230

5.1 1800 709 276.9 134.2 6.5 17.2 26.4 111.8 48.5 636 252

5.3 1880 756 282.1 138.6 6.7 17.0 26.0 113.3 49.0 643 255 138186 28871

8.1 2133 882 362.2 197.4 5.9 15.8 24.5 93.1 54.5 643 258 181667 39573

9.0 2315 949 366.6 200.5 6.3 15.6 22.4 98.3 54.7 652 260 171247 30998

9.3 2436 1003 374.2 207.0 6.5 15.6 22.3 101.5 55.3 656 267 198430 36490

93921 101106 18916 23469

6923 7133 9253 9441 7192 7273 8535 8668 8282 1870 1858 1959 1959 1863 1623 1957 1884 1979 13.0 10.5 9.8 8.8 11.5 12.9 11.8 15.9 21.9 12.1 12.3 15.1 15.0 11.8 12.4 13.4 13.5 12.9 8.4 8.1 8.4 8.3 7.8 7.1 7.8 7.4 7.7 157.2 129.5 148.4 131.3 136.5 160.5 159.0 214.9 282.5 1997-98 1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 27.0 26.0 21.2 20.7 25.9 22.3 22.9 21.7 23.9 787 309 795816 334872 27325 10262 29.1 34.7 840 339 889 358 916 380 762660 373990 27547 10544 27.7 30.1 939 394 750583 369830 26494 10411 28.3 28.2 964 414 1066 458 1174 515 1208 529

8798 9401 1884 2099 19.5 21.1 13.5 14.3 7.2 7.9 262.6 302.5 2006-07 2007-08 21.4 22.3 1231 539 1283 566

779707 791995 351166 372271 26942 10347 28.9 32.1 27662 10553 28.6 31.1

100927 104724 1097036 1076075 9 9 395546 441695 49513 5 52190 5 552902 546272 801746 905058 27911 11024 28.7 29.0 29730 12238 30.4 27.9 30997 12979 32.6 26.4 32502 13367 32.2 26.9 33438 13642 32.8 27.2 34410 13472 31.3 26.8

Teachers per College (Female) Student per College Percentage of Female Teachers Number of Professional Colleges Total Female Enrolment in Professional Colleges Total Female Teachers in Professional Colleges Total Female Student Teacher Ratio (Student per Teacher) Teachers per Prof.College (Total) Teachers per Prof.College (Female) Student per Prof.College Percentage of Female Teachers Type Number of Universities Total Female Enrolment in Universities Total Female Teachers in Universities Total Female Student Teacher Ratio (Student per Teacher) Teachers per University (Total) Teachers per University (Female) Student per University Percentage of Female Teachers

33.2 1011.2 37.6 293 19 162239 40659 7989 1639 20.3 27.3 86.3 553.7 20.5

30.5 928.2 38.4 308 18

29.5 890.9 38.1 324 15

27.7 832.6 38.3 352 18 158828 39580 9131 1769 17.4 25.9 98.3 451.2 19.4

26.4 799.3 39.3 374 20 161349 40540 9358 2015 17.2 25.0 100.8 431.4 21.5

26.6 831.7 39.5 382 19

26.7 849.0 41.2 416 20

25.2 859.7 41.9 408 21 186802 48340 9961 2048 18.8 24.4 97.5 457.8 20.6

25.3 866.9 41.1 432 23 202716 50323 11158 2706 18.2 25.8 117.7 469.3 24.3

25.3 891.2 40.8 420 19 207420 555882 12377 3009 16.8 29.5 158.4 493.9 24.3 2006-07 61 5 296812 111473 16245 4957 18.3 266.3 991.4 4865.8 30.5

23.8 838.7 39.2 451 23 246757 75055 13621 3405 18.1 30.2 131.0 547.1 25.0 2007-08 67 5 318281 121988 19099 5717 16.7 285.1 1143.4 4750.5 29.9

163445 160985 41078 41036 8861 1771 18.4 28.8 98.4 530.7 20.0 9043 1765 17.8 27.9 117.7 496.9 19.5

163852 178835 41932 46377 9841 2107 16.6 25.8 110.9 428.9 21.4 10659 2178 16.8 25.6 108.9 429.9 20.4

1997-98 1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 26 1 93780 24848 5515 976 17.0 212.1 976.0 3606.9 17.7 26 1 91637 25469 4911 837 18.7 188.9 837.0 3524.5 17.0 26 1 26 1 29 1 29 1 52 3 52 3 61 5 227339 93494 13967 4087 16.3 229.0 817.4 3726.9 29.3

114010 124944 27369 5914 1174 19.3 227.5 1174.0 4385.0 19.9 36699 5988 1302 20.9 230.3 1302.0 4805.5 21.7

117863 126870 39682 5160 1247 22.8 177.9 1247.0 4064.2 24.2 43668 6180 1375 20.5 213.1 1375.0 4374.8 22.2

218275 234142 83127 11404 3137 19.1 219.3 1045.7 4197.6 27.5 89105 13208 3642 17.7 254.0 1214.0 4502.7 27.6

Statistics pertaining to Education have been compiled from the data made available to this Bureau by Provincial Bureau's of Statistics and Federal Academy of Educational Planning and Management Islamabad. Time Reference: Data presented in these tables pertain to the academic year mentioned therein. Primary Education covers 1 to 5 Classes, Middle Education includes classes from 6 to 8. Secondary Education covers High Schools and Secondary Vocational Institutions, Whereas, professional Colleges cover Agricultural, Engineering, Medical, Commerce, Law, Home Economics, Education and other (Tibb, Fine Arts, Homeopath and Computers.) Enrolment by subject and level: Data regarding enrolment by subject, level and sex for different courses have been supplied by Allama Igbal Open University, Islamabad.