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C U S TO M E R T R A I N I N G PT6T-3/6TRAININGMANUAL
C U S TO M E R T R A I N I N G PT6T-3/6TRAININGMANUAL
C U S TO M E R T R A I N I N G PT6T-3/6TRAININGMANUAL
C U S TO M E R T R A I N I N G PT6T-3/6TRAININGMANUAL
C U S TO M E R T R A I N I N G PT6T-3/6TRAININGMANUAL
C U S TO M E R T R A I N I N G PT6T-3/6TRAININGMANUAL

PT6T-3/6TRAININGMANUAL

MARCH2001

R
R

Pratt & Whitney Canada

PT6T-3/6 Series TRAINING MANUAL

February 2001

Pratt & Whitney Canada Corp.

© 2001 Pratt & Whitney Canada, Corp. Printed in Canada

Student:

Instructor:

INTRODUCTION

PT6T-3/6

TRAINING USE ONLY

INTRODUCTION

II

PRATT & WHITNEY CANADA

This manual is issued by the Pratt and Whitney Canada (P&WC) Customer Training Department, Longueuil, Quebec, Canada and should be used for TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY. The data contained herein does not replace or supersede the information contained in the appropriate airframe or engine maintenance manuals or other official publications.

For information concerning P&WC Customer Training, contact :

Tel : 1-450-468-7774, Fax : 1-450-468-7834, or Email : training.st-hubert@pwc.ca

For technical queries, contact the P&WC Help Desk (24 Hour Service) :

Tel :

USA & Canada International Other Fax

* International Access Code

1-800-268-8000

(IAC*)+8000-268-8000

1-450-647-8000

1-450-647-2888

Visit the P&WC web site at: http://www.pwc.ca (From the home page, select Customer Support and then select Customer Training on the left-hand margin.)

PT6T-3/6

TRAINING USE ONLY

INTRODUCTION

III

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction :

CHAPTER 3 : Hot Section

Scope of course

VI

Combustion chamber liner

3.4

Courses Syllabus

VII

Small and large ducts

3.6

Abbreviations

XI

Compressor turbine area

3.8

PWC publications

XII

Power turbine area

3.18

Engine covered

XVI

Turbine cooling and air-bleed system

3.22

 

Hot section sealing

3.26

CHAPTER 1 : Engine Overview

Compressor turbine wash

3.28

Features

1.6

CHAPTER 4 : Gearbox

Bearings

1.8

Engine operation

1.12

Reduction gearbox

4.2

Stations

1.14

Clutch-gear sealing

4.6

Externals

1.15

Accessory gearbox

4.10

CHAPTER 2 : Cold Section

CHAPTER 5 : Oil System

Inlet case and compressor

2.4

Power section oil system

5.2

Bleed valve

2.6

Bearing sealing

5.14

BOV closing point check

2.8

Breather system

5.16

Gas generator case

2.10

Reduction gearbox oil system

5.18

Compressor wash

2.12

 

CHAPTER 6 : Engine Indicating System

 

Inter Turbine Temperature system (ITT)

6.4

EGT

system

6.8

Torque system

6.12

Chip detector

6.20

PT6T-3/6

TRAINING USE ONLY

INTRODUCTION

IV

TABLE OF CONTENTS (cont'd)

CHAPTER 7 : Ignition System

CHAPTER 10 : Maintenance Practices

Ignition

7.2

Periodic Inspections

10.2

 

Borescope Inspection

10.4

CHAPTER 8 : Performance

First stage blade inspection

10.6

Oil

filter

cleaning

10.7

Performance check

8.2

P3 filter cleaning

10.8

Engine condition trend monitoring

8.10

Fuel pump and filter inspection

10.9

Operating limit

8.14

AGB Lip seal replacement

10.10

HSI & TBO interval

8.15

Carbon seal replacement

10.12

Rotor service life

8.16

Fuel nozzles Inspection

10.13

 

Gas Generator case Inspection

10.14

CHAPTER 9 : Fuel System

Special tools

10.15

Activity report

10.19

Schematic

9.3

Fuel heater

9.4

Fuel pump

9.6

MFCU

9.8

Flow divider

9.14

Fuel nozzles

9.16

AFCU

9.20

N2 governor

9.24

TCU

9.28

FCU adjustments

9.32

Troubleshooting chart

9.36

PT6T-3/6

TRAINING USE ONLY

INTRODUCTION

V

SCOPE

This training manual contains information pertaining to the description, operation, maintenance and troubleshooting of the PT6T-3 /-3B /-3BE /-3BF /-3BG /-3D /-3DE /-3DF /-6 and -6B engines. This training manual is intended for classroom use only and includes cross section drawings, schematics and text.

A basic understanding of jet engine principles would be an asset. This manual may be used for Line Maintenance, Hot Section Maintenance or Heavy Maintenance training.

Line Maintenance : Includes engine description, operation and "on-aircraft" maintenance.

Hot Section Inspection : Includes removal, inspection, refurbishment of hot section parts as per Maintenance Manual procedures. Due to the commonality between PT6T and PT6B, hot section, the course is common for these two engine models.

Heavy Maintenance : Is a combination of the Line Maintenance and the Hot Section Inspection courses.

PT6T-3/6

TRAINING USE ONLY

INTRODUCTION

VI

LINE MAINTENANCE

Course Schedule:

Lubrication System:

Courses duration :

5 days (30 hours) class time

General. Power section oil system. Oil filter and by-pass

Breaks :

15 minutes at 10:00 and 14:00

valve. Oil pressure regulation. Scavenge system. Bearing

Lunch period :

12:00 to 12:45

compartment sealing. Reduction gearbox oil system. Oil system troubleshooting.

Course Objectives:

To teach the fundamentals and skills necessary to maintain the engine. At the end of the course, the student should be able to perform all Line Maintenance operations covered during the course.

Course Syllabus

Introduction:

Registration and orientation. Video presentation

Engine Overview:

Introduction to the engine. Main features Glossary of terms (abbreviations). Bearing locations. Stations and flanges. External views

Engine Construction:

Compressor inlet case. Compressor. Compressor bleed valve. Gas generator case. Combustion chamber liner. Compressor turbine vane ring. Turbine support case. Power turbine vane ring. Power turbine. Turbine cooling. Exhaust section. Reduction gearbox. Accessory Gearbox. Accessory Gearbox breather. Cold section trouble- shooting. Hot section troubleshooting. Compressor wash.

Indicating System:

General. Engine temperature. Trimming. Torque system. Chip detector. Indicating system Troubleshooting.

Ignition System:

General. Ignition exciter unit. High tension leads. Igniter plugs

Engine Performance:

HECTM description. Engine operating limits. Cycle life calculation.

Fuel System:

Description and features. Fuel system general. Fuel pump. Automatic/Manual Fuel control units. Flow divider. Fuel nozzles. Fuel system Troubleshooting.

Maintenance Practices:

During this phase every trainee will have the opportunity to perform maintenance, inspection and repair included in the engine Maintenance Manual. This portion of the course is done in the training centre shop on a production like engine.

PT6T-3/6

TRAINING USE ONLY

INTRODUCTION

VII

LINE MAINTENANCE (cont’d)

The Following is a List of Areas Covered :

Oil and fuel filters inspection. Oil pressure adjustment. Chip detector inspection. Lip seals and Carbon seals replacement. Removal and installation of external accessories. Fuel nozzles removal and inspection, Fuel control adjustments. Borescope inspection

HOT SECTION INSPECTION

Exams:

Four comprehensives multiple choice exams are administered during the course and the student must maintain an overall average of 70% on each exam to obtain a Line Maintenance certificate.

Course Schedule:

The Following is a List of Areas Covered:

Courses duration :

3 days (18 hours) class time

Removal and installation of external accessories.

Breaks :

15 minutes at 10:00 and 14:00

Borescope inspection. Power section removal. Hot

Lunch period :

12:00 to 12:45

section inspection. Turbine tip clearance calculation. Sealing of hot section components. Grinding procedure.

Course Objectives:

To teach the fundamentals and skills necessary to maintain the engine. At the end of the course, the student should be able to perform all Hot Section Inspection and maintenance operations covered during the course.

Course Syllabus

Practical Training:

During this phase every trainee will have the opportunity to perform Hot Section Inspection maintenance and repair included in the engine Maintenance Manuals. This portion of the course is done at different times in the training centre shop on a production like engine.

Exam:

One comprehensive multiple choice exam is completed at the end of the course and the student must have at least 70% to obtain a Hot section inspection certificate.

This certificate and the line maintenance certificate are equivalent to the previously issued Heavy maintenance certificate.

PT6T-3/6

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INTRODUCTION

VIII

HEAVY MAINTENANCE

Course Schedule:

Lubrication System:

Courses duration :

7 days (42 hours) class time

General. Power section oil system. Oil filter and by-pass

Breaks :

15 minutes at 10:00 and 14:00

valve. Oil pressure regulation. Scavenge system. Bearing

Lunch period :

12:00 to 12:45

compartment sealing. Reduction gearbox oil system. Oil system troubleshooting.

Course Objectives:

To teach the fundamentals and skills necessary to maintain the engine. At the end of the course, the student should be able to perform all heavy Maintenance operations covered during the course.

Course Syllabus

Introduction:

Registration and orientation. Video presentation

Engine Overview:

Introduction to the engine. Main features Glossary of terms (abbreviations). Bearing locations. Stations and flanges. External views

Engine Construction:

Compressor inlet case. Compressor. Compressor bleed valve. Gas generator case. Combustion chamber liner. Compressor turbine vane ring. Turbine support case. Power turbine vane ring. Power turbine. Turbine cooling. Exhaust section. Reduction gearbox. Accessory Gearbox. Accessory Gearbox breather. Cold section trouble- shooting. Hot section troubleshooting. Compressor wash.

Indicating System:

General. Engine temperature. Trimming. Torque system. Chip detector. Indicating system Troubleshooting.

Ignition System:

General. Ignition exciter unit. High tension leads. Igniter plugs.

Engine Performance:

HECTM description. Engine operating limits. Cycle life calculation.

Fuel System :

Description and features. Fuel system general. Fuel pump. Automatic/Manual Fuel control units. Flow divider. Fuel nozzles. Fuel system Troubleshooting.

Maintenance Practices:

During this phase every trainee will have the opportunity to perform the maintenance, inspection, repairs, and to perform Hot Section Inspection, included in the engine Maintenance Manuals. This portion of the course is done in the training centre shop on a production like engine.

PT6T-3/6

TRAINING USE ONLY

INTRODUCTION

IX

HEAVY MAINTENANCE (cont’d)

The Following is a List of Areas Covered:

Oil and fuel filters inspection. Oil pressure adjustment. Chip detector inspection. Lip seals and Carbon seals replacement. Removal and installation of external accessories. Fuel nozzles removal and inspection, Fuel control adjustments. Borescope inspection. Power section removal. Hot section inspection. Turbine tip clearance calculation. Sealing of hot section components. Grinding procedure.

Exams:

Four comprehensives multiple choice exams (15 questions each) are administered during the course and the student must maintain an overall average of 70% on each exam to obtain a Heavy Maintenance certificate.

PT6T-3/6

TRAINING USE ONLY

INTRODUCTION

X

ABBREVIATIONS

AGB

Accessory Gearbox

Pb

Fuel Pressure by-pass (returned to pump)

AFCU

Automatic Fuel Control Unit

Pg

Pneumatic Pressure to N2 Governor and

BS CW

Built Specification Clockwise

Pm

Torque Control Unit Fuel Pressure metered (to Fuel Nozzles)

CCW

Counter Clockwise

PPH

Pounds Per Hour

CSU

Controlled Service Use

Pr

Regulated Pneumatic Pressure

CT

Compressor Turbine

PRV

Pressure Regulating Valve

EGT

Exhaust Gas Temperature

Ps

Fuel Pressure supply (Pump outlet)

FOD

Foreign Object Damage

Psi

Pounds Per Square Inch

HSI

Hot Section Inspection

Psia

Pounds Per Square Inch Absolute

IGE

In Ground Effect Hover

Psid

Pounds Per Square Inch Differential

ITT

InterTurbine Temperature (or T5)

PT

Power Turbine

MFCU

Manual Fuel Control Unit

P3/Px

Pneumatic Pressure (AFCU)

N1 or Ng

Compressor Rotor Speed

Py

Pneumatic Pressure (AFCU)

N2 or Nf

Power Turbine Speed

RGB

Reduction Gearbox (CGB)

Nr

Main Rotor Speed

SB

Service Bulletin

Ns

Output Shaft Speed

SFC

Specific Fuel Consumption

OAT

Outside Air Temperature

SHP

Shaft Horse Power

OEI

One Engine Inoperative

T1

Temperature at air inlet

P2.5/2.8

Compressor Interstage Air Pressure

T5

Gas temperature at station 5

P3

Compressor Discharge Air Pressure

TBO

Time Between Overhaul

Pa

Ambient Air Pressure

TCU

Torque Control Unit

PAV

Pressure Ajusting Valve

Wa

Air Mass Flow

 

Wf

Fuel Flow

Note:

For Clarification, the following will be used in the manual

N1

For gas generator speed

N2

For Power turbine speed

ITT

For Turbine temperature

PT6T-3/6

TRAINING USE ONLY

INTRODUCTION

XI

P&WC PUBLICATIONS :

Pratt and Whitney Canada publish various documents and manuals to support all the engines in service.

Illustrated Parts Catalogue (IPC) :

Contains all part numbers and parts history information along with identifying drawings for an engine series. To be used for ordering parts.

Maintenance Manual (MM) :

The manual defines all the line and heavy maintenance tasks that can be done on the engine as well as various tests and adjustments.

Service Bulletin (SB) :

Service bulletins are published to introduce new parts, modify existing parts to improve the product.

Spare Parts Bulletins (SPB) :

Spare parts bulletins are published to advise for new parts, fully interchangeable with existing parts.

Commercial Support Program Notification (CSPN) :

Program issued to assist operators in the accomplishment of SB’s.

Airworthiness Directive (AD) :

Issued by Governmental Aviation Regulatory Agencies. Requires compliance to rectify potential problems affecting the airworthiness of the aircraft. AD’s refer to applicable SB’s for accomplishment instructions.

Special Instruction (SI) :

Special instructions are produced by Customer Support to provide specific maintenance information to specific customers.

Service Information Letter (SIL) :

Service information letters are produced by Customer Support to inform all operators on new techniques, new products and other general information.

Training Manual :

Training manual are published by the Customer Training Centre to assist the instructors in class.

Publication Price List :

The publication price list contains the prices of all P&WC publications and training material available to customers.

For more information on Pratt & Whitney Canada publications contact :

Supervisor, Publications Customer Services (01CA4) 1000 Marie Victorin Longueuil, Quebec Canada J4G 1A1 Telephone : 1-450-647-2705 Fax : 1-450-647-2702 Email : publications@pwc.ca

PT6T-3/6

TRAINING USE ONLY

INTRODUCTION

XII

PUBLICATION STANDARDS

General:

The engine manuals are published following the ATA 100 revision 15

Chapters:

In relation with the documentation used on an aircraft the chapter 71 is the POWERPLANT Chapter, and chapter

72 is the ENGINE Chapter.

The basic engine chapters are :

71

- 00

POWER PLANT (Ground Operating Limits, Ground Testing Procedures)

72

- 00 ENGINE (General, Tools, Consumable Materials, Periodic Inspections)

72

- 10

REDUCTION GEARBOX

72

- 30

GAS GENERATOR

72

- 50

POWER TURBINE AND EXHAUST

72

- 60

ACCESSORY GEARBOX

Component Parts:

Component

number as follows :

parts

are

treated

under

engine

section

72

– 00 - 01 & …

ENGINE EXTERNALS

72

– 10 - 01 & …

RGB COMPONENTS

72

– 30 - 01 & …

GAS GENERATOR COMPONENTS

72

– 50 - 01 & …

POWER TURBINE AND EXHAUST COMPONENTS

72

– 60 - 01 & …

AGB COMPONENTS

Example:

A basic Chapter will be identified as 72 - 00 - 04 Indicates engine chapter Indicates engine general

Indicates fuel nozzles

chapter Indicates engine general Indicates fuel nozzles Pages: The pages block number inside each chapter is
chapter Indicates engine general Indicates fuel nozzles Pages: The pages block number inside each chapter is
chapter Indicates engine general Indicates fuel nozzles Pages: The pages block number inside each chapter is
chapter Indicates engine general Indicates fuel nozzles Pages: The pages block number inside each chapter is

Pages:

The pages block number inside each chapter is used for breaking the subjects within the manual to small topics for ready reference and ease of use.

The standard page blocks are as follows :

Description and Operation

1

to 99

Fault isolation

101

to 199

Maintenance Practices

201

to 299

Servicing

301

to 399

Removal/Installation

401

to 499

Adjustment/Test

501

to 599

Inspection/Check

601

to 699

Cleaning/Painting

701

to 799

Approved Repairs

801

to 899

Example:

On

Maintenance practice of the fuel nozzles.

page

72

-

00

-

04, page 201

you will

find the

PT6T-3/6

TRAINING USE ONLY

INTRODUCTION

XIII

SERVICE BULLETIN COMPLIANCE CODES

Category 1

Do before the next flight.

 

Category 7

Do this SB when the supply of superseded parts is fully used.

Category 2

Do

the

first

time

the

aircraft

is

at

a

line

station or maintenance base that can do the procedure.

Category 8

Do this SB if the operator thinks the change is necessary because of what he knows of the parts history.

Category 3 Do before xxx hours or xxx cycles. This Category may be expanded as required, to specify a minimum and/or a maximum and/or repetitive interval/inspection.

Category 9 Spare parts information only. Old and new parts are directly interchangeable and operators can mix old and new parts.

Category 4

Do this SB the first time the engine or module is at a maintenance base that can do the procedures, regardless of the scheduled maintenance action or reason for engine removal.

Category CSU: Used to evaluate new parts before final introduction in commercial service. Operators who participate should include this SB at the next maintenance or overhaul of the engine.

Category 5

Do

this

SB

when

the

engine is

disassembled and access is available to the necessary sub-assemblies. Do all spare part assemblies.

Category 6 Do this SB when the sub-assembly is disassembled and access is available to necessary part.

NOTES

PT6T-3/6

TRAINING USE ONLY

INTRODUCTION

XV

ENGINES COVERED IN THIS MANUAL

ENGINE MODEL

CERTIFICATION

TAKE-OFF RATING (SHP)

INSTALLATION

DATE

     

BELL 212

PT6T-3

1970

1800

AGUSTA BELL AB 212 SIKORSKY S-58T

PT6T-3B

1979

1800

BELL 212 BELL 412 & 412 SP AGUSTA BELL AB 212 & 412

PT6T-3BF

1998

PT6T-3BE

1990

1800

BELL 412 HP AGUSTA BELL AB 412 HP

PT6T-3BG

1998

PT6T-3D

1993

1800

BELL 412 HP & 412 EP BELL CFUTTH CH-146 “Griffon” AGUSTA BELL AB 412 HP/EP

PT6T-3DE

1995

PT6T-3DF

1996

1800

BELL 412 EP

PT6T-6

1974

1875

AGUSTA BELL AB 212 & 412 SIKORSKY S-58T

PT6T-6B

1992

1875

AGUSTA BELL AB 412

T400-CP-400

1970

1800

USN, USAF, CF MILITARY BELL AH-1J, UH-1N, CUH-1N

T400-CP-401

1972

1800

US ARMY MILITARY BELL VH-1N

T400-WV-402

1975

1970

US NAVY MILITARY BELL AH-1J, AH-1T

MAJOR ENGINE MODEL DIFFERENCES

The Twin-Pac engines covered in this manual can be divided in three major groups :

Group 2:

The T-6 engines differ from the T-3 engines by the EGT temperature measuring system in lieu of an ITT system.

1-

PT6T-3 /-3B /-3BE /-3BF /-3BG /-3D /-3DE /-3DF

2-

PT6T-6 /-6B

PT6T-6 :

Up-rated version of PT6T-3 with hot section

3-

T400-CP-400 /CP-401 /WV-402

improvements to accommodate higher power.

Group 1:

PT6T-3 : Reference model

PT6T-3B : Similar to PT6T-3 with PT6T-6 hot section components for higher output during OEI operation. PT6T-3BE : Similar to PT6T-3B except for a new torque control unit (deletion of torque sharing) and new of Nos. 16 and 17 bearing housing sleeve in RGB.

PT6T-3BF :

Similar to PT6T-3B with increase in the 30

minute OEI rating. PT6T-3BG : Similar to PT6T-3BE with increase in the

30 minute OEI rating.

PT6T-3D/-3DE : Similar to PT6T-3BE with improved hot section hardware, Duplex Fuel Nozzles & upgraded RGB. Continuous OEI rating (-3D)

30 minutes OEI rating (-3DE).

PT6T-3DF : Similar to PT6T-3D, New Power Turbine components, 30 minutes OEI rating.

Refer to SB 5352 for details.

PT6T-6B : Similar to PT6T-6 except for a new torque control unit (deletion of torque sharing).

Group 3:

The T400 engine series listed below is for reference only, military engines not for commercial use.

T400-CP-400 : US Navy, US Air Force and Canadian Forces version of the PT6T-3 with reduction and accessory gearboxes made of aluminium Housing.

T400-CP-401 : US Army designation for the T400-CP- 400 with features similar to the PT6T-3.

T400-WV-402: US Navy designation for an up-rated T400-CP-400 with hot section hardware improvements and Duplex Fuel Nozzles to accommodate higher power and the addition of a power turbine overspeed protection system.

NOTES

PT6T-3/6

TRAINING USE ONLY

INTRODUCTIONXVIII

ENGINE OVERVIEW

PT6T-3/-6

TRAINING USE ONLY

ENGINE OVERVIEW

1.1

TWIN PAC INSTALLATION

The Twin-Pac ® is installed in the commercial Bell Helicopter / Agusta-Bell 212 and 412 or in the Sikorsky S58 T

The engine is secured in the aircraft by 4 engine mounts :

1 at the bottom of each accessory gearbox.

2 at the bottom of the reduction gearbox.

PT6T-3/-6

TRAINING USE ONLY

ENGINE OVERVIEW

1.2

TWIN PAC INSTALLATION

TWIN PAC INSTALLATION PT6T-3/-6 TRAINING USE ONLY ENGINE OVERVIEW 1.3

PT6T-3/-6

TRAINING USE ONLY

ENGINE OVERVIEW

1.3

LEFT FRONT VIEW

LEFT FRONT VIEW PT6T-3/-6 TRAINING USE ONLY ENGINE OVERVIEW 1.4

PT6T-3/-6

TRAINING USE ONLY

ENGINE OVERVIEW

1.4

RIGHT FRONT VIEW

RIGHT FRONT VIEW PT6T-3/-6 TRAINING USE ONLY ENGINE OVERVIEW 1.5

PT6T-3/-6

TRAINING USE ONLY

ENGINE OVERVIEW

1.5

PT6T-3 TURBOSHAFT

The Twin-Pac engine has 3 modules, 2 power section (PS) modules and 1 reduction gearbox (RGB) module.

References:

SHP :

1,800

shp

Length :

66

inches

Width :

44

inches

Height :

33

inches

Dry Weight :

690

lbs

100% N1 speed

38,100

rpm

100% N2 speed

33,000

rpm

100% Output shaft (Ns)

6,600

rpm

Main Components and Features Accessory gearbox (AGB)

Power Turbine

Single stage turbine, turns counterclockwise (CCW). Independently of compressor turbine (free turbine).

Extract the energy to supply necessary power to the aircraft main transmission.

Reduction Gearbox (RGB)

Two stage reduction gearbox with idler gear.

Built in torque measurement system.

Reduce the power turbine speed to a speed satisfactory for the aircraft main transmission.

Supply the power for two oil cooler blowers.

Supply

governors.

the

power

for

two

power

turbine

(N2)

Support the engine accessories.

Fuel and Control System

Driven by the compressor rotor.

Separate and identical hydro-pneumatic fuel control systems for each power section.

Compressor

· Two fuel heater

3 axial stages plus 1 centrifugal impeller.

· Two fuel pump

Supply the necessary air pressure and flow, for

· Two automatic fuel control unit (AFCU)

combustion and cooling of hot section components.

· Two manual fuel control unit (MFCU)

 

· Two N2 governor

Combustion Chamber

 

·

One common torque control unit (TCU)

Annular, Reverse flow (for shorter and lighter engine).

Two operating modes

Area for the combustion of the air-fuel mixture.

· Automatic (normal flight)

 

· Manual (Emergency, Troubleshooting)

Compressor Turbine

Governing function

Single stage turbine, turns clockwise (CW).

Torque limiting

Supply the power to drive the compressor.

Torque sharing (except 412HP/EP and Post SB5267)

PT6T-3/-6

TRAINING USE ONLY

ENGINE OVERVIEW

1.6

PT6T CROSS SECTION

PT6T CROSS SECTION PT6T-3/-6 TRAINING USE ONLY ENGINE OVERVIEW 1.7

PT6T-3/-6

TRAINING USE ONLY

ENGINE OVERVIEW

1.7

BEARINGS

Function:

Holds major rotating assemblies.

Ball Bearings

Absorb axial and radial loads.

Roller Bearings

Absorb radial load only Permit thermal expansion

Description:

The Twin-Pac has a total of 33 main bearings, which does not include accessory gearbox bearings.

Power-Section Bearings Bearings Nos. 1 to 4 are installed in each power section:

No 1

Ball

Front compressor

No 2

Roller

Rear compressor

No 3

Roller

Front power turbine shaft

No 4

Ball

Rear power turbine shaft

Gearbox Bearings

Bearings Nos. 5 to 17 inclusively are installed in the reduction gearbox.

No 5

Ball duplex Front input drive shaft

No 6

Roller

Rear input drive shaft

No 7

Roller

Front idler gear

No 8

Ball duplex Rear idler gear

No 10

Ball

Torquemeter piston

No 10.5 Roller

Rear clutch gearshaft / housing

No 11

Ball

Rear clutch gear / 2 nd stage gearshaft

No 12

Ball

Front clutch gear / 2 nd stage

No 12.5 Roller

gearshaft Front clutch gearshaft / housing

No 13

Roller

Center 2 nd stage gearshaft

No 14

Roller

Front 2 nd stage gearshaft

No 15

Roller

Rear output shaft

No 16

Roller

Front output shaft

No 17

Ball

Front output shaft

Bearings 1 to 8 are lubricated by the power-section oil system. Bearings 10 to 17 are lubricated by the reduction gearbox oil system.

Maintenance :

No scheduled field maintenance on bearings.

PT6T-3/-6

TRAINING USE ONLY

ENGINE OVERVIEW

1.8

BEARINGS

 
 

12

12

2 1 15

13

16

17

 

11

10

1

2

10

 

14

8

6

7

5

4

3

2

1

PT6T-3/-6

TRAINING USE ONLY

ENGINE OVERVIEW

1.9

MAJOR ASSEMBLIES AND FLANGES POWERSECTIONMODULE POWERTURBINE STATORHOUSING POWERTURBINE NO. 3&NO. 4BEARING
MAJOR ASSEMBLIES AND FLANGES
POWERSECTIONMODULE
POWERTURBINE
STATORHOUSING
POWERTURBINE
NO. 3&NO. 4BEARING
SUPPORTHOUSING
B
D
A
C
EXHAUSTDUCT
REDUCTION
GEARBOX
MODULE
A
POWERTURBINE

SHAFTHOUSING

RGB, POWERTURBINE&EXHAUSTSECTION

MAJOR ASSEMBLIES AND FLANGES

ACCESSORY GEARBOX G INLETSCREEN INLET CASE F F C E COMPRESSOR COMPRESSORTURBINE COMPRESSOR GASGENERATORCASE
ACCESSORY
GEARBOX
G
INLETSCREEN
INLET
CASE
F
F
C
E
COMPRESSOR
COMPRESSORTURBINE
COMPRESSOR
GASGENERATORCASE
SHROUDHOUSING
TURBINEVANERING

GASGENERATORSECTION

BASIC TURBOSHAFT OPERATION

The PT6T (Twin-Pac ) engine series is a lightweight free turbine engine. It drives one output shaft via a two-stage reduction gearbox. The power section consists of two major assemblies :

The Compressor rotor assembly The Power Turbine rotor assembly.

The Compressor Rotor assembly has a compressor and a compressor turbine. The Power Turbine rotor assembly has a power turbine and a power turbine shaft. The two assemblies are not connected together. They turn at different speeds and in opposite directions. This design is referred to as a "Free Turbine Engine". It permits the power turbine and the rotor to turn at a constant speed, while the fuel control system schedules any compressor speed (N1) as necessary. Starter cranking torque is low, since only the compressor rotor rotates on start. Engaging the accessory gearbox mounted starter/generator starts the Power Section.

The compressor pulls air in the engine via an annular plenum chamber (inlet case). The pressure increases across 3 axial stages and one centrifugal impeller. The air is directed into the combustion chamber.

Air enters the combustion chamber via small holes and at the proper compressor speed, the fuel is sprayed in the combustion chamber by 14 fuel nozzles. Two spark igniters located in the combustion chamber ignite the air- fuel mixture.

The generated hot gases are then directed to the turbine area.

At this point, ignition is turned off since a continuous flame exists in the combustion chamber.

The hot expanding gases accelerate through the compressor turbine vane ring and cause the compressor turbine to rotate. The gases leaving the compressor turbine are accelerated again as they flow through the power turbine vane ring. The power turbine provides rotational energy to drive the main rotor via the reduction geartrain. Gases leaving the power turbine are expelled into the atmosphere by the exhaust duct.

The reduction gearbox reduces the power turbine speed

to a suitable speed for the aircraft geartrain (6,600 rpm).

The engine oil supply is contained in three integral oil tanks, which provide oil to lubricate and cool all bearings and gears.

A hydro-pneumatic fuel control system installed on the

Accessory Gearbox regulates fuel flow to the fuel nozzles

in response to power requirements and flight conditions.

The fuel system controls the main rotor speed by varying the engine's output power as a function of the load demand set by the pilot.

Engine shutdown is accomplished by cutting the fuel going to the fuel nozzles.

TURBOSHAFT ENGINE

TURBOSHAFT ENGINE PT6T-3/-6 TRAINING USE ONLY ENGINE OVERVIEW 1.13

STATIONS (GRAPH)

C 1200
C
1200

900

600

300

0

PSIA 120 90 T 60 30 P P T 0 7 6 5 4 3
PSIA
120
90
T
60
30
P
P
T
0
7
6
5
4
3
2.
8
2.5
2
1

STATIONS

TEMPERATURE

PRESSURE

NOTE: ATTAKE-OFFPOWER, STANDARDDAY, SEALEVEL

LEFT FRONT VIEW

TACHOMETERGENERATORPAD(N1) FUELFILTER FUELSYSTEMINLETPORT REDUCTIONGEARBOXOUTPUTSHAFT T5SYSTEMTERMINALBLOCK
TACHOMETERGENERATORPAD(N1)
FUELFILTER
FUELSYSTEMINLETPORT
REDUCTIONGEARBOXOUTPUTSHAFT
T5SYSTEMTERMINALBLOCK
OILFILLERCAP
FUELACCUMULATOR
POWERSECTION
NO.2BEARINGOIL
OILLEVELSIGHTGLASS
SCAVENGEPUMP
POWERSECTIONOILPRESSUREPORT
ACCESSORYGEARBOX
POWERSECTIONOIL
CHIPDETECTOR
TEMPERATUREPORT
POWERSECTIONOILTANKDRAIN

RIGHT FRONT VIEW

REDUCTIONGEARBOXOILPRESSUREPORT

RIGHT FRONT VIEW REDUCTIONGEARBOXOILPRESSUREPORT OILTOFUELHEATER FUELCONTROLUNIT(AFCU+MFCU) FUELPUMP P.S.OILPRESSURE

OILTOFUELHEATER

FRONT VIEW REDUCTIONGEARBOXOILPRESSUREPORT OILTOFUELHEATER FUELCONTROLUNIT(AFCU+MFCU) FUELPUMP P.S.OILPRESSURE PgLINE

FUELCONTROLUNIT(AFCU+MFCU)

OILTOFUELHEATER FUELCONTROLUNIT(AFCU+MFCU) FUELPUMP P.S.OILPRESSURE PgLINE SENSINGLINE
FUELPUMP P.S.OILPRESSURE PgLINE SENSINGLINE OILPRESSURELINE P.S.OILPRESSUREREGULATINGVALVE No.3TO8BEARING
FUELPUMP
P.S.OILPRESSURE
PgLINE
SENSINGLINE
OILPRESSURELINE
P.S.OILPRESSUREREGULATINGVALVE
No.3TO8BEARING

SCAVENGELINE

P.S.OILPRESSUREREGULATINGVALVE No.3TO8BEARING SCAVENGELINE P.S.OILLEVELSIGHTGLASS NO.2BEARINGSCAVENGELINE PyACCUMULATOR

P.S.OILLEVELSIGHTGLASS

NO.2BEARINGSCAVENGELINE

PyACCUMULATOR

STARTERGENERATORPAD

RIGHT REAR VIEW

P.S.OILPRESSURE

COMPRESSORWASH

AGBOILBREATHER

ADJUSTMENTVALVE RINGFITTING CARBONSEAL P3AIRCABINBLEED CHECKVALVE AIRINLET SCREEN FUELNOZZLES N2GOVERNOR
ADJUSTMENTVALVE
RINGFITTING
CARBONSEAL
P3AIRCABINBLEED
CHECKVALVE
AIRINLET
SCREEN
FUELNOZZLES
N2GOVERNOR
SPARKIGNITER
P.S.OILINLET
P.S.OILOUTLET
(FROMAIRFRAMEOILCOOLER)
(TOAIRFRAMEOILCOOLER)
T5TRIMCOMPENSATOR

BACK VIEW

RGBBREATHERPORT RGBSTATICAIRPRESSUREPORT (TOTORQUETRANSDUCER) TORQUECONTROLUNIT TORQUEMETEROIL PRESSUREOUTLET (TO
RGBBREATHERPORT
RGBSTATICAIRPRESSUREPORT
(TOTORQUETRANSDUCER)
TORQUECONTROLUNIT
TORQUEMETEROIL
PRESSUREOUTLET
(TO TRANSDUCER)
BLOWER
DRIVE
COVER
RGBCHIP
RGBOILLEVEL
NO.1P.S.OIL
TACHOMETER
NO.2P.S.OILFILTER
RGBOIL
DETECTOR
SIGHTGLASS
FILTER
NO.1P.S.CHIP
GENERATORPAD(N2)
BYPASSVALVE
FILTER
COVER
DETECTOR

LEFT SIDE VIEW

METERINGTEEORIFICE PgACCUMULATOR P3LINETOR.G.B. CARBONSEAL P3LINETOAFCU P3AIRFILTER DRAINVALVE OILPRESSURELINE
METERINGTEEORIFICE
PgACCUMULATOR
P3LINETOR.G.B.
CARBONSEAL
P3LINETOAFCU
P3AIRFILTER
DRAINVALVE
OILPRESSURELINE

COMPRESSOR

FLOWDIVIDERVALVE

BLEEDVALVE

NOTES

COLD SECTION

PT6T-3/-6

TRAINING USE ONLY

COLD SECTION

2.1

COLD SECTION

Function:

Operation:

Supply the necessary mass of air at the right pressure to

The

compressor

draws

air

into

the

engine

and

the combustion chamber and all the supporting systems.

compresses

it,

before

delivery

to

the

combustion

chamber area.

Transmit the rotational energy from the compressor turbine to drive the accessories mounted on the accessory gearbox.

Compressed Air:

Topics Covered in this Chapter:

Sustains combustion in order to produce the energy necessary to drive the compressor and the power

Inlet case

turbines. Provides cooling air for hot section components.

Compressor assembly

Provides air to seal bearing cavities.

Bleed valve

Assists in the operation of the fuel control unit.

Gas generator case

Controls bleed valve operation.

Cold section cleaning

Provides heating for cabin use.

PT6T-3/-6

TRAINING USE ONLY

COLD SECTION

2.2

COLD SECTION

COLD SECTION INLETCASE COMPRESSOR GASGENERATOR BLEEDVALVE PT6T-3/-6 TRAINING USE ONLY COLD SECTION 2.3

INLETCASE

COMPRESSOR GASGENERATOR BLEEDVALVE
COMPRESSOR
GASGENERATOR
BLEEDVALVE

PT6T-3/-6

TRAINING USE ONLY

COLD SECTION

2.3

COMPRESSOR AND INLET CASE

Function:

Compressor

Inlet Case

 

Three stages of axial rotors consisting of bladed disks,

Directs air into the compressor

separated by stator vanes (1

rd

st

stage Titanium blades,

Supports No. 1 bearing

2 nd

and 3

stages, stainless-steel blades).

 

One

stage

centrifugal

consisting of a centrifugal

Compressor

 

impeller (Titanium).

Provides the combustion chamber with the correct airflow at the required pressure.

All the rotating components are held in place with tie rods that extend through the four stages.

 

The No 1 bearing flexible housing absorbs compressor

References:

 

rotor vibrations.

 

The compressor discs and the impeller are limited in

Compression ratio :

7.3 : 1

cycles (refer to chapter Performance).

Maximum airflow (Wa) :

6.60 lbs/sec

Maximum N1 speed :

(PT6T-3) :

100% (38,100 rpm)

(PT6T-3B’s/-6’s) :

103.4% (39,400 rpm)

(PT6T-3D’s) :

109.2% (41,600 rpm)

Construction:

Inlet case

One

piece

aluminum

casting

protected

against

corrosion. Anti-ice protection by heat from oil tank.

Inlet screen (1/4 inch mesh) prevents objects from entering the compressor.

Maintenance:

Scheduled Check compressor inlet area for corrosion, dirt deposits and erosion and check first-stage blades and vanes every 300 hours or 1 year and whenever condition of inlet screen warrants its removal. Inspect inlet screen cleanliness and condition of mesh and rubber sealing rims for damage every 150 hours. Wash / rinse compressor at regular intervals.

PT6T-3/-6

TRAINING USE ONLY

COLD SECTION

2.4

COMPRESSOR AND INLET SECTION

AIRINLETSCREEN INTERSTAGEAIR(P2.5) INTERSTAGEAIR(P2.8) IMPELLER COMPRESSOR STUBSHAFT BLEEDVALVE
AIRINLETSCREEN
INTERSTAGEAIR(P2.5)
INTERSTAGEAIR(P2.8)
IMPELLER
COMPRESSOR
STUBSHAFT
BLEEDVALVE

TIEROD

COMPRESSORAIRINLETCASE

IMPELLERHOUSING

NO.1BEARING

FLEXIBLEHOUSING

PT6T-3/-6

TRAINING USE ONLY

COLD SECTION

2.5

COMPRESSOR BLEED VALVE

Function:

Prevent compressor stalls and surge below 91% N1, due to different efficiencies between the axial compressor and the centrifugal compressor.

Description:

A piston sliding on a guide pin inside the housing controls the amount of interstage pressure (P2.5/P2.8) bled off from the compressor. A rolling diaphragm mounted on the valve piston prevents leakage between P2.5/P2.8 and the piston chamber.

Operation:

Two forces act on the bleed valve piston :

pushes to close the bleed valve. P2.5/P2.8 pressure, from the interstage compressor area, pushes to open it. P3 air flows through the valve and across 2 orifices (primary and secondary). The valve closing point is achieved during engine acceleration when the pressure acting on the piston (modified P3) is sufficient to overcome the compressor interstage pressure

(P2.5/P2.8).

Modified P3 air pressure, inside the bleed valve,

As the compressor speed increases, modified P3 increases higher than P2.5/P2.8, thus increasing the pressure acting on the piston and gradually closes it. The N1 speed at which the valve closes is a function of the primary and secondary orifice sizes.

A larger secondary orifice requires more N1 speed (more P3 pressure) to make the valve close.

Maintenance:

Unscheduled

Perform Bleed valve closing point check.

Check for evidence of air losses at sealing faces and

mating surface. Replace diaphragm if leaking.

Clean orifices.

Check for bleed valve sticking or seat/piston damage.

Note:

Refer to SB 5394 for bleed valve assembly / des-

assembly. P2.8 bleed for PT6T-3D’s and post SB 5351 Power Sections

Compressor Efficiencies

Wa Bleed Centrifugal Valve Axial opened Bleed Valve closed N1 %
Wa
Bleed
Centrifugal
Valve
Axial
opened
Bleed Valve
closed
N1 %

91

PT6T-3/-6

TRAINING USE ONLY

COLD SECTION

2.6

COMPRESSOR BLEED VALVE

COMPRESSOR BLEED VALVE PISTON GASGENERATORCASE OPENPOSITION CLOSEDPOSITION P2.5/P2.8 P2.5/P2.8 GUIDEPIN P3 P3
PISTON GASGENERATORCASE OPENPOSITION CLOSEDPOSITION P2.5/P2.8 P2.5/P2.8 GUIDEPIN P3 P3 GUIDE TUBE DISCHARGETO
PISTON
GASGENERATORCASE
OPENPOSITION
CLOSEDPOSITION
P2.5/P2.8
P2.5/P2.8
GUIDEPIN
P3
P3
GUIDE
TUBE
DISCHARGETO
DISCHARGETO
ROLLING
ATMOSPHERE
ATMOSPHERE
DIAPHRAGM
PRIMARY
ORIFICE
Pa
Pa
SLEEVE
SECONDARY
ORIFICE
COVER

PT6T-3/-6

TRAINING USE ONLY

COLD SECTION

2.7

BLEED VALVE CLOSING POINT

Purpose:

Verify that the bleed valve closes within an acceptable N1 range.

Operation:

Install the bracket assembly as per maintenance

manual instructions Start engine and accelerate slowly while watching air

bubbles forming in the water container. As N1 speed increases more bubbles will appear. Keep accelerating until the bubbles stop. Record N1 speed where bubbles stop. Repeat the procedure to confirm closing point. Plot closing point of bleed valve on graph. Closing point must be within the gas generator speed band for the indicated outside air temperature (OAT).

Adjustment:

(Post SB 5380)

The compressor bleed valve contains different sized orifices, which control the closing point on individual engines. If the closing point is not within the specified limits, replacement of the secondary orifice is permitted.

If closing point speed is above the limit, install an orifice

of a smaller size (smaller dash number).

If closing point speed is below the limit, install an orifice

of a bigger size (higher dash number).

A one size change will shift the valve closing point by

approximately 1% N1.

Orifices P/N : ST 3268-xxx (range from –067 to –090) Baseline orifice : ST 3268-073

Note:

The bleed valve closing point limits apply to all bleed valve configurations.

PT6T-3/-6

TRAINING USE ONLY

COLD SECTION

2.8

BLEED VALVE CLOSING POINT CHECK

A BLEEDVALVE BRACKET ASSEMBLY
A
BLEEDVALVE
BRACKET
ASSEMBLY

DETAIL"A"

PT6T-3/-6

TRAINING USE ONLY

N1% 98 PERFORMANCELOSSE S 96 94 AREA " B " REJECT 92 90 88 86
N1%
98
PERFORMANCELOSSE
S
96
94
AREA
" B
" REJECT
92
90
88
86
84
82
AREA
" B
" REJECT
80
COMPRESSOR
STALL
-40
0
+40C
BAND" A" ACCEPTABLE

OUTSIDEAIRTEMPERATURE(OAT)

COLD SECTION

2.9

GAS GENERATOR CASE

Purpose:

Houses and supports various engine components. The diffuser pipes change the high velocity pressure into static pressure and cause the compressor air to turn 90 .

Construction:

Welded assembly of steel alloy machine parts and sheet metal with an aluminide corrosion resistant coating. 21 brazed diffuser pipes.

The case provides :

Support for the compressor stator parts

Support for the No. 2 bearing

14 bosses for fuel nozzles

2 bosses for igniter plugs

2 bosses for drain valves

1 boss for P3 air (to Automatic Fuel Control Unit)

1 boss for P3 air (to clutch gear carbon seals)

1 boss for P3 air (airframe bleed)

1 boss for the ITT harness

Two drain valves are provided on the gas generator case to drain fuel from the combustion chamber in the event of a false start or following power section shutdown.

Maintenance:

Scheduled

Verify drain valve for security and leaks at each engine

periodic inspection. Inspect gas generator case for cracks (around fuel

nozzles, ports and spot welds), distortion, corrosion and evidence of overheating every 150 hours or 6 months. For Pre-SB 5239 only (PT6T-3/3B), Longitudinal seam welds inspection every 600 hours (no inspection if post SB and all helical weld configuration).

Unscheduled

Cleaning and touch-up of protective coating.

Repair of fuel nozzle pad threads using "Keensert"

inserts. During HSI, visually inspect case and diffuser pipes for

wear and cracks. Replacement of shanknuts.

GAS GENERATOR CASE P3PRESSURETORGB IGNITERPORT P3BLEEDPORT FLANGE"F" CLUTCHGEARCARBON TOCABINHEATER SEALS
GAS GENERATOR CASE
P3PRESSURETORGB
IGNITERPORT
P3BLEEDPORT
FLANGE"F"
CLUTCHGEARCARBON
TOCABINHEATER
SEALS
P3PRESSURETUBETO
AUTOMATICFUEL
FLANGE"C"
CONTROLUNIT
DRAINVALVE
P3PRESSURE
TOBLEEDVALVE
NO.2BEARING
SCAVENGE
OILTUBE
STRAIGHTENINGVANE
NO.2BEARING
NO.2BEARING
PRESSURE
IGNITERPORT
COMPRESSOR
PRESSUREOILTUBE
OILTUBE
BLEEDVALVEPORT
DIFFUSERPIPE

DRAINVALVEPORT

COMPRESSOR WASH

Function:

Restore the compressor efficiency by removing salt and dirt deposits from the compressor gas path.

Type of Washes:

Desalination wash

Performance recovery wash

Desalination Wash (Rinse):

This method of washing consists of motoring the engine with the starter while injecting water into the compressor via the wash ring to remove salt deposits. The wash is done with normal drinking water.

Performance Recovery Wash:

This method of washing consists of motoring the engine with the starter while injecting a cleaning solution into the compressor via the wash ring. Approved cleaning agents are used to remove dirt deposits, which cannot be removed using water only.

A

15-30 minute period is allowed for the cleaning agent

to

soak in, followed by one or two rinse cycles (water).

A drying run should follow the compressor wash.

Wash Frequency:

It is recommended that compressor washes be carried out depending on the operating environment. Desalination wash should be performed daily if operating frequently in salt laden environment or weekly if operating occasionally in salt laden environment. Performance recovery wash should be performed every 50 hours, weekly or as required depending on the operating environment.

When the temperature is below 2 C (36 F), methanol must be added to the water to prevent freezing. Note:

Prior to washing, make sure that :

Engine had a minimum of 40 minutes cooling period. Aircraft bleed air system is “OFF”. Flow divider/dump valve line is disconnected. Ignition is turned “OFF” (circuit braker). P3 filter is removed on PRE SB 5309 engines. RGB P3 filter is removed (post SB 5174/5320), P3 line disconnected at elbow fitting or cap removed on Tee fitting (post SB 5423). Fuel Boost Pump and Fuel valve "ON".

Refer to the maintenance manual 72-00-00 page block 700 for compressor wash procedure. Caution:

Do not motor engine for more than 30 seconds. Observe starter-cooling period (ref. Aircraft Maintenance Manual)

COMPRESSOR WASH

COMPRESSOR WASH TURBINEWASH PRESSURE CLEANING GAUGE SOLUTION SHUTOFF VALVE WATER SPRAY RING REGULATED AIRPRESSURE
TURBINEWASH PRESSURE CLEANING GAUGE SOLUTION
TURBINEWASH
PRESSURE
CLEANING
GAUGE
SOLUTION
SHUTOFF VALVE
SHUTOFF
VALVE

WATER

SPRAY RING
SPRAY
RING
CLEANING GAUGE SOLUTION SHUTOFF VALVE WATER SPRAY RING REGULATED AIRPRESSURE PT6T-3/-6 TRAINING USE ONLY COLD

REGULATED

AIRPRESSURE

COLD SECTION TROUBLESHOOTING

PROBABLE CAUSE

SYMPTOMS AT CONSTANT POWER

ACTION REQUIRED

N1

ITT

Restricted inlet screen

Ý

Ý

Clean and/or remove obstruction

Dirty compressor

Ý

Ý

Perform compressor wash /revise schedule

Damaged compressor blades

Ý

Ý

Return to an authorized overhaul facility if damage is beyond limit

P3 leaks

Þ

Ý

Ý

Check for external leaks on gas generator. At HSI verify sealing surfaces.

Excessive loading of starter generator or other AGB mounted accessories.

ß

Ý

Replace faulty accessories.

     

Ensure P3 is not leaking between bleed

Bleed valve stuck open

Ý

Ý

valve and gas generator case. Inspect, repair, replace bleed valve.

Bleed valve closing point out of limit

Loss of power (Closing too late) or compressor stalls (Closing too early)

Remove and clean valve orifices or change orifice to get proper closing point.

Bleed valve stuck closed

Compressor stalls

 

Remove and clean valve orifices or change orifice to get proper closing point.

Hooting/Rumbling noise

Bleed valve flutters

 

Check/replace bleed valve

Humming sound

Compressor rotor out of balance

If humming disappears above 60% N1, no further action. If present above 60% N1 borescope inspection of compressor and compressor turbine for damage.

Note:

Generally, cold section problems cause N1 and ITT to increase. However, the above list includes some that will make the engine react differently.

PT6T-3/-6

HOT SECTION

TRAINING USE ONLY

HOT SECTION

3.1

HOT SECTION

Purpose:

Extract energy from the hot expanding gases to :

Drive the compressor turbine

Drive the power turbine and the reduction gearbox

Topics Covered in this Chapter:

Combustion chamber

Compressor turbine vane ring

Compressor turbine

Power turbine vane ring

Power turbine

Exhaust duct

Sealing of the hot section

Compressor turbine wash

Operation:

The hot section of the engine comprises of components down stream of the gas generator. Hot expanding gases leaving the combustion chamber are directed towards the compressor turbine vane ring and hit the compressor turbine blades. The energy extracted by the compressor turbine will drive the compressor and the Accessory Gearbox.

Thereafter, gases travel across the power turbine vane ring and hit the power turbine blades. The power turbine rotation is transmitted to the output shaft via the power turbine shaft and the reduction gearbox.

Gases leaving the power turbine are expelled to the atmosphere through the exhaust duct.

PT6T-3/-6

TRAINING USE ONLY

HOT SECTION

3.2

HOT SECTION COMPONENTS

HOT SECTION COMPONENTS PT6T-3/3B's/6's PT6T-3/-6 TRAINING USE ONLY HOT SECTION 3.3

PT6T-3/3B's/6's

PT6T-3/-6

TRAINING USE ONLY

HOT SECTION

3.3

COMBUSTION CHAMBER LINER

Purpose:

Provide an area for combustion of the fuel/air mixture. The reverse flow feature provides for a shorter and lighter engine.

Construction:

Annular, reverse flow type combustion chamber made

of nickel alloy sheet metal 14 fuel nozzle adapter bosses

2 spark igniter bosses

Cooling rings maintain a layer of cooling air to protect

the combustion chamber walls from the flame On PT6T-3D’s power section, the small exit duct is an integral part of the liner and it is covered with ceramic coating as thermal barrier.

Operation:

P3 air enters the combustion chamber through holes in the inner and outer liner walls. The shape, size and location of these holes provide the correct fuel/air ratio for all operating conditions.

The combustion chamber combined with the large and small exit ducts form an envelope that turns the gas 180 (reverse flow). This configuration permits location of the turbines closer to the compressor and within the combustion chamber area, thus making the engine shorter and lighter.

Cooling rings direct P3 air into the combustion chamber, close to the walls, to form a flame barrier.

Maintenance:

Unscheduled

Borescope inspection through fuel nozzle bosses.

During Hot Section Inspection:

Inspect

Liner

for

evidence

of

burning,

cracking,

buckling, etc. Regap cooling rings if they are distorted.

Some damage is acceptable.

Note:

Local damage to the combustion chamber is most likely related to fuel nozzle spray pattern problem.

PT6T-3/-6

TRAINING USE ONLY

HOT SECTION

3.4

COMBUSTION CHAMBER LINER

COMBUSTION CHAMBER LINER PT6T-3/3B's/6's PT6T-3/3B's/6's IGNITERBOSS FUELNOZZLEPORT WITHSUPPORTBRACKET
PT6T-3/3B's/6's PT6T-3/3B's/6's IGNITERBOSS FUELNOZZLEPORT WITHSUPPORTBRACKET IGNITERBOSS
PT6T-3/3B's/6's
PT6T-3/3B's/6's
IGNITERBOSS
FUELNOZZLEPORT
WITHSUPPORTBRACKET
IGNITERBOSS
FUELNOZZLEPORT
WITHSUPPORTBRACKET
PT6T-3D's
PT6T-3D's

PT6T-3/-6

TRAINING USE ONLY

HOT SECTION

3.5

SMALL AND LARGE EXIT DUCTS

Purpose:

Change direction of the airflow 180 (reverse flow).

Maintenance:

During Hot Section Inspection:

 

Inspect the small and large exit ducts for evidence of

Construction:

burning, cracking or coating loss.

 

On the small exit duct only stop drill cracks up to 1

The small exit duct (except PT6T-3D’s) and large exit duct are made of two layer of heat resistant nickel alloy, air cooled by P3 air, and coated with aluminide coating.

inch long (1/16” drill size).

On PT6T-3D’s the large exit duct is partially coated with a ceramic compound to act as thermal barrier.

Operation:

Hot expanding gases are re-directed towards the compressor turbine vane ring.

P3 air for cooling flows between the double skin configuration and cools the two ducts. Via the small exit duct P3 air is routed to the compressor turbine vane ring for internal cooling of each vane.

PT6T-3/-6

TRAINING USE ONLY

HOT SECTION

3.6

SMALL AND LARGE EXIT DUCT

SMALLEXITDUCT

(EXCEPTPT6T-3D's)

PT6T-3/-6

COMBUSTIONCHAMBERLINER

TRAINING USE ONLY

CERAMICCOATING

(PT6T-3D'sONLY)

LARGEEXITDUCT

HOT SECTION

3.7

COMPRESSOR TURBINE VANE RING (AND ASSOCIATED PARTS)

Vane Ring:

Shroud Segments:

Direct the gases toward the compressor turbine at

Make close tolerance compressor turbine blades tip

optimum angle and speed Convergent vanes change the static pressure into

clearance, to reduce hot gases leakage. Machined from nickel alloy steel, thickness is classed

velocity Cobalt or nickel alloy casting, coated using a diffused

to fit different compressor turbine wheel diameters.

aluminide process. Air-cooled core passages allow P3 air to flow through each vane.

Baffle (All Except PT6T-3):

Exit area is classed.

Create an area to insulate the turbine vane ring and No.2 Bearing area.

Shroud Housing:

Support the shroud segments and interstage sealing

ring. Slots in the shroud housing match with corresponding lugs on the vane ring prevent any side play.

Small Exit Duct:

Pinched the compressor turbine vane ring on the

shroud housing. Machined face contact shroud housing and turbine vane ring to prevent P3 air leakage.

Interstage Sealing Ring(s):

Encloses P3 air, prevents leakage to station 5.

No. 2 Bearing Cover (PT6T-3) or Cover Flange (All other):

Locate the compressor turbine vane ring, shroud

housing and small exit duct assemblies with the center line of the power section. The inner lugs of the vane ring match with the slots on the cover (T-3) or cover flange (all others).

Lock Plate:

Secure compressor turbine vane ring and No.2 bearing cover or cover flange to the gas generator case.

PT6T-3/-6

TRAINING USE ONLY

HOT SECTION

3.8

COMPRESSOR TURBINE VANE RING (T-3)

INTERSTAGE PRESSURE SHROUD RETAINING SMALLEXIT SEALINGRING SIDE SEGMENT RING DUCT P3 COMPRESSOR TURBINESHROUD
INTERSTAGE
PRESSURE
SHROUD
RETAINING
SMALLEXIT
SEALINGRING
SIDE
SEGMENT
RING
DUCT
P3
COMPRESSOR
TURBINESHROUD
HOUSING
LARGE
EXITDUCT
TIP
P3COOLING
CLEARANCE
PASSAGE
P3
COMPRESSOR
TURBINE
VANERING
COMPRESSOR
TURBINE
NO.2BEARING
LOCKPLATE
COVER

PT6T-3/-6

TRAINING USE ONLY

HOT SECTION

3.9

COMPRESSOR TURBINE VANE RING (cont'd)

Operation:

The compressor turbine vane ring receives hot gases from the combustion chamber. The converging vane airfoils direct the air towards the turbine blades, accelerating and changing its direction simultaneously.

Segments come in different classes (thickness) to fit different compressor turbine diameters and maintain the necessary clearance between the compressor turbine blades and the segments.

Effect of Vane Ring Class Change:

The vane ring is pinched between the small exit duct and

Increase area :

N1 ß

ITT Ý

the shroud housing. Lugs on the vane ring fit into slots on the shroud housing to prevent rotational movement.

Decrease area :

N1 Ý

ITT ß

The vane ring class determines the total area of all the openings between the vanes trailing edges. A smaller vane ring class (smaller area) accelerates the air more and therefore increases the compressor turbine speed (N1). A higher N1 speed provides more air to the engine, more cooling and a lower ITT.

The compressor turbine vane ring is subject to extreme temperatures within the engine. Cooling of the vane ring will thus determine its life expectancy. P3 air traveling inside the vane airfoils keeps them at a temperature lower than the gases flowing on the outside. After cooling, air is ejected in the gas path.

Note:

Replacement vane ring must have a class number identical to the original vane ring (tolerance ±0.03).

Maintenance:

During Hot Section Inspection

Inspect vane ring for : evidence of burning, cracking

and coating loss. Insure proper sliding fit (lugs to slots) with mating

parts. Check flatness of all mating flanges to reduce P3 air leakage to the minimum

COMPRESSOR TURBINE VANE RING

(T-3B’S/6’S)

INTERSTAGE

SEALINGRING

COMPRESSOR

TURBINESHROUD

HOUSING

INTERSTAGE SEALINGRING COMPRESSOR TURBINESHROUD HOUSING TIP CLEARANCE SMALLEXIT P3 COVER NO. 2BEARING

TIP

CLEARANCE

SMALLEXIT P3 COVER NO. 2BEARING COVERFLANGE
SMALLEXIT
P3
COVER
NO. 2BEARING
COVERFLANGE
PRESSURE SHROUD RETAINING SIDE SEGMENT RING DUCT P3 LARGE EXITDUCT P3COOLING PASSAGE NO. 2BEARING LOCKPLATE
PRESSURE
SHROUD
RETAINING
SIDE
SEGMENT
RING
DUCT
P3
LARGE
EXITDUCT
P3COOLING
PASSAGE
NO. 2BEARING
LOCKPLATE

COMPRESSOR

TURBINE

VANERING

COMPRESSOR

TURBINE

COMPRESSOR TURBINE VANE RING PT6T-3D’S (AND ASSOCIATED PARTS)

Vane Ring:

Similar to the PT6T-3B configuration except :

Nickel alloy casting.

Air-cooled core passages allow P3 air to flow through

each vanes and exit at the trailing edge of the vanes for increased efficiency. Lugs on outer diameter used to maintain segments in place.

Baffle:

Close tolerance baffle to create an area to insulate the turbine vane ring and No.2 Bearing area.

COMPRESSOR TURBINE VANE RING (T-3D)

COMBUSTIONCHAMBERLINER

LARGEEXITDUCT

CERAMIC COATING COMPRESSOR TURBINE VANERING SEALINGRING PRESSURESIDE P3 EXITDUCT SHROUDHOUSING SUPPORT FLANGE
CERAMIC
COATING
COMPRESSOR
TURBINE
VANERING
SEALINGRING
PRESSURESIDE
P3
EXITDUCT
SHROUDHOUSING
SUPPORT
FLANGE
SHROUDSEGMENT
TIPCLEARANCE
COMPRESSORTURBINEBLADE
P3
CLEARANCE
AIRBAFFLE
NO.2BEARINGCOVER
LOCKPLATE

COMPRESSOR TURBINE

Purpose:

Extract energy (66%) from the hot gases to drive the compressor rotor unit.

Construction:

The compressor turbine is a two-plane balanced disk assembly, the disk is made of nickel alloy steel with firtree serrations that provide a firm attachment as well as allowing for thermal expansion differences between the blades and the disk. Rivets are used to axially retain the 58 blades on the disk. A master spline ensures reinstallation of the compressor turbine in its initial position on the compressor stub shaft during maintenance.

References:

Maximum N1 speed :

Operation:

Expanding gases, accelerated through the vane ring hit the turbine blades. The energy available in the gases is converted into rotational movement to drive the compressor and the engine accessories. Nearly two thirds of all the energy available from the products of combustion is needed to drive the compressor. The one third remaining is used to drive the power turbine.

The turbine is individually balanced on two planes with weights and rivets. This feature allows for turbine replacement in the field.

The turbine disc is limited in cycles (refer to chapter Performance).

Maintenance:

During Hot Section Inspection:

(PT6T-3) :

100%

(38,100 rpm)

Inspect

turbine

disk

for

cracks,

overheating,

and

(PT6T-3B’s/-6’s) :

103.4%

(39,400 rpm)

scratches.

 

(PT6T-3D’s) :

109.2%

(41,600

rpm)

Rotation

CW viewed looking forward

 

COMPRESSOR TURBINE

COMPRESSOR

TURBINE

PIN

BALANCINGWEIGHT&RIVETS

CUPWASHER

RETAINING

BOLT

BLADE

DISK

RIVET

DETAIL

MASTER

SPLINE

COMPRESSOR TURBINE BLADES

Purpose:

Extract energy from the hot gases

Construction:

Stage 4 Deep penetration with metal separation. Blade fracture imminent. Unbalance of rotor assembly. Operation is unsafe.

The compressor turbine blades are made from a nickel alloy, using a Directionally Solidified casting process known as D.S. blades or Single Crystal on PT6T-3D’s.

If sulphidation of the C.T blades is experienced a boroscope inspection should be scheduled to monitor the sulphidation stage. A regular Turbine wash should be established to reduce sulphidation progress.

DS Blades features include triple taper design construction, firtree retention, growth check pad (PT6T- 3B’s) and diffused corrosion resistant protective coating

Special sulphidation resistance coatings are available as customer option.

Single Crystal blades have firtree retention, new airfoil

Maintenance:

design, no growth check pads. The blades are serialized for life tracking purpose.

Unscheduled

The sulphidation attack can described in four levels :

Stage 1 Mild sulphidation : Evident slight roughness of surface and breakdown of the coating layer. Condition acceptable in the field.

Stage 2 Medium sulphidation : Heavy roughness of the surface, Base material is attacked, Blade integrity still not affected. Condition acceptable in the field.

Stage 3 Severe sulphidation : Heavy roughness of the surface, Built-up of blister, Base material is attacked, Blade integrity is affected. Condition NOT acceptable in the field.

experience. Borescope inspection through fuel nozzle bosses.

Wash

turbine

blades

based

on

past

sulphidation

During Hot Section Inspection:

Inspect turbine blades for sulphidation, cracks, erosion, tip rub, burning, coating loss, impact damage and blade shift.

C.T Blades Retirement Life:

PT6T-3 :

one

TBO period

PT6T-3B’s/-6’s :

“On

Condition”

PT6T-3D’s :

8000 hours

CT BLADES SULPHIDATION

CT BLADES SULPHIDATION EQUIAXEDALLOYS DSALLOYS SCALLOYS CTBLADES STAGE1 STAGE3 STAGE2 STAGE4 CTBLADESULPHIDATION PT6T-3/-6

EQUIAXEDALLOYS

CT BLADES SULPHIDATION EQUIAXEDALLOYS DSALLOYS SCALLOYS CTBLADES STAGE1 STAGE3 STAGE2 STAGE4 CTBLADESULPHIDATION PT6T-3/-6

DSALLOYS

CT BLADES SULPHIDATION EQUIAXEDALLOYS DSALLOYS SCALLOYS CTBLADES STAGE1 STAGE3 STAGE2 STAGE4 CTBLADESULPHIDATION PT6T-3/-6

SCALLOYS

CTBLADES

SULPHIDATION EQUIAXEDALLOYS DSALLOYS SCALLOYS CTBLADES STAGE1 STAGE3 STAGE2 STAGE4 CTBLADESULPHIDATION PT6T-3/-6

STAGE1

EQUIAXEDALLOYS DSALLOYS SCALLOYS CTBLADES STAGE1 STAGE3 STAGE2 STAGE4 CTBLADESULPHIDATION PT6T-3/-6

STAGE3

EQUIAXEDALLOYS DSALLOYS SCALLOYS CTBLADES STAGE1 STAGE3 STAGE2 STAGE4 CTBLADESULPHIDATION PT6T-3/-6 TRAINING USE

STAGE2

DSALLOYS SCALLOYS CTBLADES STAGE1 STAGE3 STAGE2 STAGE4 CTBLADESULPHIDATION PT6T-3/-6 TRAINING USE ONLY

STAGE4

CTBLADESULPHIDATION

POWER TURBINE VANE RING

Purpose:

Effect of Vane Ring Class Change:

Direct gases to the power turbine and change static

Increase area :

N1 Ý

ITT ß

pressure into velocity.

Decrease area :

N1 ß

ITT Ý

Construction:

Note:

Nickel alloy casting with a riveted sheet metal center baffle.

The exit area (throat) of the vane ring is classified.

Supported by the power turbine housing.

A lug to slot arrangements centers and prevents movements of the vane ring.

Operation:

Gases leaving the compressor turbine are accelerated through the power turbine vane ring and cause the power turbine to rotate.

The vane ring is held in place by lugs fitted in the power turbine housing. The riveted inner baffle directs air close to the power and compressor turbine disks for cooling. During engine assembly, selection of the correct vane ring class (area) will allow for optimization (matching) of the N1 and ITT parameters and engine performance.

Replacement vane ring must have a class number identical to the original vane ring (tolerance ±0.1).

Maintenance:

During Hot Section Inspection:

Inspect vane ring for evidence of burning, cracking and coating loss.

Insure proper fit (lugs to slots) with mating parts.

Lap sealing face to obtain 100% contact.

POWER TURBINE VANE RING

POWERTURBINEVANE
POWERTURBINEVANE

POWER TURBINE

Purpose:

References:

Extract energy (33%) from the gases to drive the aircraft main rotor through the reduction gearbox.

N2 at 100% Rotation NR at 100%

33,000 rpm CCW viewed looking forward 324 rpm

Construction:

The power turbine is a single-plane balanced disk

The turbine disc is limited in cycles (refer to chapter Performance).

assembly, the disk is made of nickel alloy steel and is splined to the power turbine shaft. A master spline

Maintenance:

 

insures that the turbine can only fit in one position on the turbine shaft. The 41 blades are retained in the firtree serrations with rivets. There is no mechanical links

Unscheduled During Hot Section Inspection :