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Chap 45 Due: 11:51pm on Tuesday, May 1, 2012 Note: To understand how points are awarded, read your instructor's

Grading Policy. [Switch to Standard Assignment View] Close Grading Policy [x] Grading Policy Number of answer attempts per question is: 3 You gain credit for: Correctly answering a question in a Part Correctly answering a question in a Hint Not opening a Hint (2% bonus) You lose credit for: Exhausting all attempts or giving up on a question in a Part or Hint Incorrectly answering a question in a Part or Hint Late submissions: reduce the score for any item completed late by 5% for each day late, but never by more than 40%. The score is reduced for the whole item even if some parts are finished on time. Hints are helpful clues or simpler questions that guide you to the answer. Hints are not available for all questions. There is no penalty for leaving questions in Hints unanswered. Grading of Incorrect Answers before the last attempt: You lose 20% credit per incorrect answer on multiple-choice and true/false questions. You lose 5% credit per incorrect answer on questions that are not multiple-choice or true/false. Activity: Hormone Actions on Target Cells

Click here to view this animation. Then answer the questions. Part A Which type of hormone is lipid soluble? Hint A.1 Hint not displayed ANSWER: Polypeptides. Amino acid derivatives. Steroids. DNA.

Correct Steroid hormones are lipid soluble. Part B Which molecules determine the tissue specificity of hormones?

Hint B.1 Hint not displayed ANSWER: Agonists. Hormone-response elements. Second messengers. Receptors.

Correct Hormones bind to receptors on target cells and trigger a cellular response.

Part C True or false? Lipid-insoluble hormones affect their target cells by binding to receptors inside the cell. Hint C.1 Hint not displayed ANSWER: True False

Correct Lipid-insoluble hormones cannot cross the plasma membrane and get into the cell, so they must bind to receptors on the cell surface and transduce their signals through signal transduction pathways. Part D

Which of the following statements about lipid-soluble hormones is true? Hint D.1 Hint not displayed ANSWER: They bind to DNA as soon as they enter a cell. They act by producing second messengers. They bind to receptors on the plasma membrane. They act by affecting the transcription of genes.

Correct Lipid-soluble hormones act by affecting the transcription of genes.

Part E Which of the following is a structure that allows hormone-receptor complexes to bind to specific DNA sequences? Hint E.1 Hint not displayed ANSWER: Hormone-response element (HRE). Promoter. Enhancer. Zinc finger.

Correct

A zinc finger is a distinctive DNA-binding domain on some hormone receptors that is exposed when hormone-receptor complexes are formed. Part F What is the role of cAMP in the signal transduction pathway activated by epinephrine? Hint F.1 Hint not displayed ANSWER: It binds to and activates protein kinase A, which then phosphorylates other enzymes. It activates adenylyl cyclase. It catalyzes the breakdown of glycogen to glucose. It binds to the receptor protein on a target cell.

Correct cAMP binds to and activates protein kinase A, which then phosphorylates other enzymes in the signal transduction pathway.

Part G True or false? For a signal transduction pathway to be activated, hormones must be present in the bloodstream at very high concentrations. Hint G.1 Hint not displayed ANSWER: True False

Correct Only low concentrations of hormones are needed in the bloodstream to activate a signal transduction pathway, which works by producing second messengers inside the cell that amplify the hormonal signal. Activity: Human Endocrine Glands and Hormones

Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Which of these glands secretes releasing hormones? ANSWER: hypothalamus adrenal cortex thymus ovaries testes

Correct

The hypothalamus secretes both releasing and inhibiting hormones. Part B Which of these hormones are responsible for the "fight or flight" response to danger? ANSWER: insulin and glucagon thyroxine and calcitonin androgens and estrogens antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin epinephrine and norepinephrine

Correct These hormones, secreted by the adrenal medulla, are responsible for the "fight or flight" response.

Part C Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) triggers the release of _____ in response to stress. ANSWER: melatonin insulin glucocorticoids thymosin parathyroid hormone

Correct

In response to stress, ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids. Part D _____ are the main male hormones. ANSWER: Progesterones Mineralocorticoids Androgens Luteinizing hormones Estrogens

Correct Androgens, such as testosterone, are the main male hormones.

Part E What hormone promotes water retention by the kidneys? ANSWER: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) prolactin antidiuretic hormone (ADH) melatonin glucagon

Correct A diuretic promotes water loss; thus it makes sense that ADH (secreted by the anterior pituitary)

promotes water conservation. Part F Which hormone opposes the action of parathyroid hormone? ANSWER: calcitonin insulin thyroxine thymosin glucagon

Correct Parathyroid hormone increases blood calcium levels; calcitonin lowers blood calcium levels.

Part G Which hormone stimulates hormone production by the ovaries and testes? ANSWER: progesterone testosterone glucocorticoids luteinizing hormone (LH) estrogens

Correct

LH stimulates hormone production by both the ovaries and testes. Part H Which hormone stimulates milk production? ANSWER: parathyroid hormone mineralocorticoids prolactin thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) thymosin

Correct Prolactin, secreted by the anterior pituitary, stimulates milk production by the mammary glands.

Homeostasis: Regulating Blood Sugar (BioFlix tutorial) The regulation of sugar levels in the blood is just one example of homeostasis, the bodys tendency to maintain a relatively constant internal environment. Two hormones, insulin and glucagon, counter each other to achieve homeostasis of blood glucose levels.

Before beginning this tutorial, watch the Homeostasis: Regulating Blood Sugar animation. Pay particular attention to

how blood glucose levels trigger the release of insulin or glucagon how insulin and glucagon act in opposing ways to maintain blood glucose levels at the set point Part A Maintaining homeostasis

An animals body maintains a relatively constant internal environment. How is this accomplished? It is surprisingly similar to the way a thermostat and heating system maintain a relatively constant temperature inside a room. The diagram below shows how a thermostat responds when the temperature becomes too hot or too cold.

Hint A.1 What components are involved in regulating an internal environment? Hint not displayed Hint A.2 What is the difference between positive and negative feedback? Hint not displayed Drag the terms on the left to the appropriate blanks on the right to complete the sentences. Not all terms will be used.

ANSWER:

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Bottom of Form View Correct The maintenance of a relatively constant internal environment is known as homeostasis. To achieve homeostasis, the body has a wide variety of sensors that detect and trigger responses to different stimuli. Negative feedback, in which the bodys response reduces the stimulus, is an important mechanism for maintaining homeostasis. Part B Controlling blood glucose levels

In the animation, you saw that both high blood glucose levels and low blood glucose levels are stimuli that trigger specific responses by the body. These responses cause blood glucose levels to return to their set point. In this activity, you will explore how this happens. Hint B.1 What happens when blood glucose levels rise? Hint not displayed Hint B.2 What happens when blood glucose levels fall? Hint not displayed

Hint B.3 What are the characteristics of insulin and glucagon? Hint not displayed Drag the labels to their appropriate locations on the diagram. ANSWER:

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Bottom of Form View Correct Insulin and glucagon act together to maintain homeostasis of blood glucose levels. When blood glucose levels rise, insulin is released. Insulin causes the liver to take up glucose and convert it to glycogen. Insulin also causes most cells in the body to take up glucose. As a result, blood glucose returns to its set point. When blood glucose levels fall, glucagon is released. Glucagon causes the liver to break down glycogen and release glucose into the blood. As a result, blood glucose returns to its set point.

Part C

Diabetes: Disrupting blood glucose homeostasis

In the disorder diabetes mellitus, the body is unable to maintain homeostasis of blood glucose.

There are two major types of diabetes, type 1 and type 2. The graphs below show blood levels of glucose and insulin in three patients after each has consumed a sugary soft drink. Use the graphs to identify which patient is healthy, which has type 1 diabetes, and which has type 2 diabetes. Hint C.1 What happens to blood glucose and insulin levels when a healthy person consumes sugar? Hint not displayed Hint C.2 What happens to blood glucose and insulin levels when someone with type 1 diabetes consumes sugar? Hint not displayed

Hint C.3 What happens to blood glucose and insulin levels when someone with type 2 diabetes consumes sugar? Hint not displayed Drag the labels to their appropriate locations above the graphs. ANSWER:

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Bottom of Form View Correct In people with diabetes mellitus, the body is unable to maintain homeostasis of blood glucose. In type 1 diabetes, the immune system destroys most of the beta cells of the pancreas. Little or no insulin is produced. As a result, blood glucose levels remain elevated for a longer period than in healthy individuals. In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas produces sufficient insulin. However, the body's target cells do not respond to insulin effectively. As a result, blood glucose levels remain elevated for a longer period than in healthy individuals. Because glucose levels remain high, the pancreas continues to release insulin -- this is why insulin levels are also higher than in healthy individuals. Chronic disruption of glucose homeostasis has serious effects, particularly for the heart, blood vessels, kidneys, and eyes. In the U.S., diabetes is a major cause of blindness and the seventh most common cause of death. Activity: Endocrine System Anatomy

Click here to view this animation. Then answer the questions. Part A

What is the function of endocrine glands? Hint A.1 Hint not displayed ANSWER: They release hormones into a space other than the circulatory system by means of ducts. They release hormones into the bloodstream for distribution around the body. They release enzymes into the bloodstream through ducts. They are the targets of hormones.

Correct Endocrine glands release hormones into the bloodstream for distribution to distant cells in the body. Part B True or false? The homeostatic system for blood calcium concentration is maintained by the hormones calcitonin and parathyroid hormone. Hint B.1 Hint not displayed ANSWER: True False

Correct This statement is true.

Part C Which of the following statements about the pituitary gland is false? Hint C.1 Hint not displayed ANSWER: The posterior portion is an extension of the hypothalamus. Neurosecretory cells produce hormones that are stored in the anterior pituitary. The anterior pituitary is connected to the hypothalamus by blood vessels It produces hormones that control the menstrual cycle.

All attempts used; correct answer displayed This statement is false; neurosecretory cells produce hormones that are stored in the posterior pituitary. Part D True or false? The pancreas is responsible for producing hormones that maintain the homeostatic levels of glucose in the blood. Hint D.1 Hint not displayed ANSWER: True False

Correct The pancreas produces two hormones, insulin and glucagon, which work together to maintain the homeostatic levels of glucose in the blood.

Part E How is the production of hormones such as thyroxine and estrogen regulated? Hint E.1 Hint not displayed ANSWER: The hypothalamus directs the anterior pituitary to produce hormones that then stimulate or inhibit the production of these hormones. The hypothalamus directs the posterior pituitary to produce hormones that then stimulate or inhibit the production of these hormones. Hormones produced in the hypothalamus act on the thyroid gland and ovaries to stimulate or inhibit the production of these hormones. The anterior pituitary directs the hypothalamus to produce hormones that then stimulate or inhibit the production of these hormones.

Correct The hypothalamus directs the anterior pituitary to produce hormones that regulate other hormones in a variety of endocrine organs, including the thyroid gland and ovaries. Part F Which of the following statements about endocrine glands and the hormones they produce is true? Hint F.1 Hint not displayed ANSWER: Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) produced by the anterior pituitary controls the body's metabolic rate. Aldosterone produced by the adrenal glands controls the reabsorption of sodium ions by the kidneys.

Erythropoietin (EPO) produced by the kidneys increases blood calcium levels. Prolactin produced by the posterior pituitary triggers contractions in the uterus during labor.

Correct The adrenal glands sit atop the kidneys and secrete a variety of hormones, including aldosterone, which controls the reabsorption of sodium ions by the kidneys.

Part G Gigantism, a condition characterized by exceptionally rapid growth, is sometimes caused by a tumor that induces the gland in which it develops to overproduce a certain hormone. Where would such a tumor be expected to grow? Hint G.1 Hint not displayed ANSWER: Pituitary gland. Pancreas. Adrenal glands. Thyroid gland.

Correct Since the anterior pituitary produces growth hormone (GH), which has growth-stimulating effects throughout the body, a tumor of the anterior pituitary could produce gigantism. Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 96.8%. You received 9.68 out of a possible total of 10 points.

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