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1

CHAPTER-7
TRANSISTOR AT LOW
FREQUENCY
2
7.1 Transistor Amplifier Circuit:-
Transistor equivalent ckt are divided in two
types (i) D.C. equivalent ckt. (ii) A.C. equivalent ckt.
Fig.7.1(a) Transistor Amplifier using Self Bias
3
4
Fig.7.1(b) D.C. Equivalent Ckt.
Fig.7.1(c) A.C. Equivalent ckt.
5
The capacitors C
C1
& C
C2
are called the coupling
capacitors. Capacitors C
C1
is used to couple the a.c.
input signal to the base of the transistor. A coupling
capacitor is also called a blocking capacitor because
it blocks d.c.
Another capacitor C
E
is called bypass capacitor
because it bypasses the all a.c. current from the
emitter to ground.
6
7.2 Hybrid Parameter (h-Parameter):-
h-parameter is widely used because they gives
accurate results & can be measured very easily.
The transistor is a three terminal device but if one
terminal is grounded, then transistor can be used as a
two port network.
The h-parameters are
V
1
=h
11
I
1
+h
12
V
2
I
2
=h
21
I
1
+h
22
V
2

The parameter h
11
,

h
12
, h
21
& h
22
are called h-
parameters.

7
Fig.7.2 (a) General h-parameter Equivalent Circuit
Fig.2.2(b) Transistor Two Port Network
8
o 22
1 -
2
2
22
r 12
2
1
12
f 21
1
2
21
i 11
1
1
11
h h as, d represente also is it
mho. or ohm is unit & ckt. open I/P with admittance O/P h
h h as, d represente also is it
unit. no has & circuited open I/P gain with voltage Reverse
V
V
h
h h as d represente also is it
none. is unit & shorted O/P gain with current forward
I
I
h
h h as, d represente also is it
ohm is unit & shorted O/P with impedance I/P
I
V
h
as, summarized is parameter - h the
=
= =
=
= =
=
= =
=
= =
V
I
9
7.3 h-Parameter Representation for Transistor:-
Sr. No. h-Parameter Common
Emitter
Common
Base
Common
Collector
1. h
11
h
ie
h
ib
h
ic
2. h
21
h
fe
h
fb
h
fc
3. h
12
h
re
h
rb
h
rc
4. h
22
h
oe
h
ob
h
oc
10
7.4 Analysis of Transistor Amplifier by h-Parameter:-
Fig 7.4(a) General Amplifier Circuit with Source & Load Resistance
Fig 7.4(b) h-Parameter Equivalent Circuit of above General Amplifier
11
1. The Current Gain (A
i
):- The current gain for the
transistor amplifier is defined as the ratio of O/P
current to the I/P current. Mathematically,


I h ) h R 1 ( I
h .R I - I h I
get, we eq.(4) in V of value the putting Now
...eq.(4) V h I h I
...eq.(3) V h I h V
are, equations Parameters - h the Now
...eq.(2) .R -I .R I V
, V is minal output ter the across voltage the figure above from
...eq.(1)
I
I
-
I
I
A
1 f o L 2
o L 2 1 f 2
2
2 o 1 f 2
2 r 1 i 1
L 2 L L 2
2
1
2
1
L
i
= +
=
+ =
+ =
= =
= =
12

h R 1
h -
I
I
I
I -
A

h R 1
h
I
I
So
o L
f
1
L
1
2
i
o L
f
1
2
+
= = =
+
=
13
2. The Input Resistance (R
i
):- The I/P resistance R
i
is defined
as the resistance we see looking into the amplifier I/P
terminals (1-1). Mathematically,
i
1
1
r L
1
2
i
1
1
1
r L 2 1 i 1
2 r 1 i 1
L 2 2
1
1
i
R
I
V
But h .R
I
I
- h
I
V

have, we . I by side both on eq. above the dividing Now
h .R I - I h V
V h I h V
parameter - h of eq. in .R -I V of value the putting Now
I
V
R So
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
+ =
=
=
14
Admittance Load
R
1
Y where
Y h
h h
h
R
1
h
h h
h R
R h 1
h R h
h h .R
R h 1
h -
h R so
R h 1
h
A that know we h .R A h R
A
I
I -
but h .R
I
I
- h R therefore So
L
L
o
r f
i
L
o
r f
i i
L o
r L f
i r L
L o
f
i i
L o
f
i r L i i i
i
1
2
r L
1
2
i i
= =
+
=
+
=
+
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ =
+

= + =
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
L
15
3. The Voltage gain (A
v
):- The voltage gain is
defined as the ratio of the O/P voltage V
2
to I/P
voltage V
1.

Mathematically,

o
L
f r
i i
L o
f
i
i
L i
v i
1
1
1
1
L i
1
L 1 i
v
1 i 2
1
2
i
1
L 2
1
2
v
h
R
1
h h
h R &
R h 1
h
A that, know Again we
..eq.(2)
R
R A
A So, R
I
V
But
V
I
R A
V
R I A
A Therefore
I A I or
I
I
A that, Know we Since
eq.(1) ...
V
R I
V
V
A
+
=
+

=
= =
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
= =
= =
16
( )
h h - h h h where
R . h h
R h
A
R . h h
R h
R h h - h h h
R h
A
h
R
1
h h
h
R h 1
R h -
A
have, then we eq.(2) in value these putting now
f r o i
L i
L f
v
L i
L f
L f r o i i
L f
v
o
L
f r
i
L o
L f
v
=
+

=
+

=
+

=
+

+
=
17
4. Output Resistance (R
o
) :- The O/P resistance may be
calculated by reducing the source voltage V
s
to source &
load resistance R
L
to infinity & driving the O/P terminals by
a voltage generator V
2
. as shown below,
Fig.7.4(c) h-equivalent ckt. to calculate the O/P resistance
O/P resistance R
o
is the ratio of the voltage V
2
& the
current drawn from the voltage source I
2
So R
o
=V
2
/I
2
18
( )
( )
2 o
i s
2 r f
2
2 o
i s
2 r
f
2
o
1
i s
2 r
1
2 r 1 i s
2 r 1 i 1 s
2 o 1 f
2
o
2 o 1 f 2
V h
h R
V h h
V
V h
h R
V h
h
V
R
get, we eq.(1) in I of value the putting Now
...eq.(2)
h R
V h
I
V h I h R or
0 V h I h I R
fig.7.4(c) in shown as ckt. the of side I/P the to KVL Applying
...eq.(1)
V h I h
V
R hence
V h I h I eq. parameter - h from
+
+

=
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

=
+

=
= +
= + +
+
=
+ =
19
( ) ( )
h
h
R
be, will resistance O/P then 0 R resistance source if
h h h h h where
h R h
h R
R ,
h h h h R h
h R
h h h R h
h R
R
get, we arranging Re
i
o
s
r f i o
s o
i s
o
r f i o s o
i s
r f i s o
i s
o
=
=
=
+
+
=
+
+
=
+
+
=
So
20
5. The Overall Voltage Gain (A
vs
):- The overall voltage gain
of the transistor amplifier is the ratio of O/P voltage V
2
to
the source voltage V
s
. It is denoted by A
vs
.
Fig 7.4(d) Equivalent I/P ckt.
...eq.(1) . A A fore there
V
V
A but,
V
V
V
V
A gain, voltage overall ally Mathematic
1
v vs
1
2
v
1
1
2
s
2
vs
s
s
V
V
V
V
= =
= =
21
0) (R source
voltage ideal an gain with voltage the is A therefore
A A en th 0 R if

R Z
Z
A . A A
get, we eq.(1) in /V V of value the putting

R Z
Z
V
V
or
R Z
.Z V
V
have, we figure from resistance I/P
amplifier the represents Z here ckt. equivalent from now
s
v
v vs s
s i
i
v
1
v vs
s 1
s i
i
s
1
s i
i s
1
i
=
= =
+
= =
+
=
+
=
s
V
V
22
6. Overall Current Gain (A
is
):- overall current gain of the
transistor amplifier is the ratio of the O/P current (I
L
) to the
current delivered by the source (I
s
)
Fig 7.4(e) Modified I/P Equivalent ckt.
1
2
i
s
1
1
2
is
s
2
s
L
is
I
I
A but ...eq.(1)
I
I
I
I
A but,
have, we expression above the modifying
I
I
I
I
A gain, Current overall ally Mathematic
= =
= =
23
) (R source current ideal an gain with current
the is A therefore A A then R if Now
Z R
R
A
I
I
. A A
get, we eq.(1) in
I
I
of value the putting now
...eq.(2)
Z R
R
I
I
then
Z R
R
I I
have we fig.7.4(e) from , resistance I/P amplifier is Z here
ckt., equivalent I/P modified use we A determine To
...eq.(1)
I
I
. A A So
s
i i is s
i s
s
i
s
1
i is
s
1
i s
s
s
1
i s
s
s 1
i
is
s
1
i is
=
= =
+
= =
+
=
+
=
=
24
7.5 h-Parameter Expression for CE amplifier:-
Fig. 7.5 h-parameter equivalent circuit for CE amplifier
E
C
B
E E
25
1. Current gain (A
i
):-

h R 1
h
- A
Amplifier, Emitter Common for Gain Current
) Expression (General
h R 1
h -
A
oe L
fe
i
o L
f
i
+
=
+
=
R then Z resistance biasing
no for & R R Z ckt. bias fixed for the
R
1
h
h h
h R
Amplifier, E - C for resistance I/P The
) Expression (General
R
1
h
h h
h R
i i
B i i
L
oe
re fe
ie i
L
o
r f
i i
=
=
+
=
+
=
2. Input Resistance (R
i
):-
26
h h - h h h where
R . h h
R h
A amplifier, CE for gain Voltage
) Expression (General
R . h h
R h
A
fe re oe ie
L ie
L fe
v
L i
L f
v
=
+

=
+

=
3. Voltage Gain (A
v
):-
L o o
s re fe ie oe
s oe
ie s
o
s o
i s
o
R R Z
be will stage amplifier the of resistance O/P The
resistance source the is R & h h h h h where
amplifier) CE (for
h R h
h R
R
) Expression (General
h R h
h R
R
=
=
+
+
=
+
+
=
4. Output Resistance (R
o
):-
27
fe re oe ie
s i
i
L ie
L fe
s i
i
v vs
s i
i
v
1
v vs
h h h h h here
amplifier) CE (for
R Z
Z

hR h
R h -

R Z
Z
A A
) expression (general
R Z
Z
A . A A
=
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
+
=
+
= =
s
V
V
amplifier) CE (For
Z R
R
R h 1
h
A
) expression (General
Z R
R
R h 1
h
Z R
R
A A
i s
s
L oe
fe
is
i s
s
L o
f
i s
s
i is
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

=
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

=
+
=
5. Overall Voltage Gain (A
vs
):-
6. Overall Current Gain (A
is
):-
28
Properties of Common Emitter Amplifier:-
1. Large current gain (A
i
=100).
2. Large voltage gain (A
v
=500).
3. Large power gain (A
p
=A
v
.A
i
)
4. Moderate I/P impedance (50K).
5. Moderate O/P impedance (10K).
6. Phase shift is 180 bet I/P & O/P voltage.
29
1. Current gain (A
i
):-

h R 1
h
- A
Amplifier, Base Common for Gain Current
ob L
fb
i
+
=
R Z
then, biasing no is there t.if arrangemen biasing
upon the depends stage amplifier the of resistance i/p The
R
1
h
h h
h R
Amplifier, B - C for resistance I/P The
i i
L
ob
rb fb
ib i
=
+
=
2. Input Resistance (R
i
):-
7.6 h-Parameter Expression for CB amplifier:-
30
h h - h h h where
R . h h
R h
A amplifier, CB for gain Voltage
fb rb ob ib
L ib
L fb
v
=
+

=
3. Voltage Gain (A
v
):-
L o o
s rb fb ib ob
s ob
ib s
o
R R Z
be will stage amplifier the of resistance O/P The
resistance source the is R & h h h h h where

h R h
h R
R
=
=
+
+
=
4. Output Resistance (R
o
):-
31
rb fb ib ob
s i
i
L ib
L fb
s i
i
v vs
h h h h h here

R Z
Z

hR h
R h -

R Z
Z
A A
=
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
+
=

Z R
R
R h 1
h
A
i s
s
L ob
fb
is
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

=
5. Overall Voltage Gain (A
vs
):-
6. Overall Current Gain (A
is
):-
The overall current gain for the CB amplifier is,
32
Properties of Common base Amplifier:-
1. current gain is less than 1(A
i
<1).
2. Large voltage gain (A
v
=150).
3. Power gain is less than CE configuration (A
p
=A
v
.A
i
)
4. Small I/P impedance (40).
5. Large O/P impedance (1M).
6. No voltage & current Phase shift.
33
1. Current gain (A
i
):-

h R 1
h
- A
Amplifier, collector Common for Gain Current
oc L
fc
i
+
=
R Z
then, biasing no is there t.if arrangemen biasing
upon the depends stage amplifier the of resistance i/p The
R
1
h
h h
h R
Amplifier, C - C for resistance I/P The
i i
L
oc
rc fc
ic i
=
+
=
2. Input Resistance (R
i
):-
7.7 h-Parameter Expression for CC amplifier:-
34
h h - h h h where
R . h h
R h
A amplifier, CC for gain Voltage
fc rc oc ic
L ic
L fc
v
=
+

=
3. Voltage Gain (A
v
):-
resistance source the is R
h h h h h where

h R h
h R
R
is, amplifier CC the of resistance O/P The
s
rc fc ic oc
s oc
ic s
o
=
+
+
=
4. Output Resistance (R
o
):-
35
rc fc ic oc
s i
i
L ic
L fc
s i
i
v vs
h h h h h here

R Z
Z

hR h
R h -

R Z
Z
A A
=
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
+
=

Z R
R
R h 1
h
A
i s
s
L oc
fc
is
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

=
5. Overall Voltage Gain (A
vs
):-
6. Overall Current Gain (A
is
):-
The overall current gain for the CC amplifier is,
36
Properties of Common Collector Amplifier:-
1. current gain is Very high (A
i
=100).
2. Voltage gain is less than unity (A
v
<1).
3. Power gain is less than CE configuration (A
p
=A
v
.A
i
)
4. Large I/P impedance (750K).
5. Small O/P impedance (50).
6. No voltage & current Phase shift.
37
7.8 Simplified or Approximate model:-
..Simplified model are used to reduce the ckt complexity.
If the load resistance R
L
is small it is possible to neglect
the parameter h
re
& h
oe
and obtain the approx. equivalent
ckt. as shown in fig.7.8 below. By using h
oe
.R
L
<=0.1 the
error in calculating A
i
, A
v
, R
i
& R
o
is less than 10%
Fig.7.8 h-parameter Approximate CE model
38
Parameter

Symbol

CE
Approx.
CB
Approx.

CC Approx.

Current
Gain
A
i
-h
fe
h
fb
=1 h
fc
I/P
Resistance
R
i
h
ie
h
ib
h
ic
+h
fc
R
L
Voltage
Gain
A
v
1
O/P
Resistance
R
o
ie
L fe
h
R h
oe
h
1
ob
h
1
ib
L fb
h
R h
fc
ic S
h
h R +
39
7.9 Typical h-Parameter values for Transistor:-
Sr.
No.
h-Parameter Common
Emitter
Common
Base
Common
Collector
1. h
i
1100 1100

22

2. h
r
1
3. h
f
50 -51 -0.98
4. h
o
25A/V 25A/V 0.49A/V
-4
10 2.5
4
10 3

40
7.10 Conversion Expression for h-parameter:-
Sr. No. Common Base Common Collector

1. h
ic
=h
ie
2.

h
rc
=(1-h
re
)1
3.

h
fc
=-(1+h
fe
)
4.

h
oc
=h
oe
fe
ie
ib
h 1
h
h
+
=
re
fe
oe ie
rb
h
h 1
h h
h
+
=
fe
fe
fb
h 1
h -
h
+
=
fe
oe
ob
h 1
h
h
+
=
41
r
e
model of Transistor:-
r
e
model of transistor is an alternate approach which
employs transistor beta & resistance values is
gaining importance.
Advantage of using these models are:-
(1) Required parameters are easily available.
(2) Simple & easy procedure.
(3) Results obtained have a fairly good accuracy for
the study of amplifier circuit.
Note:- In CE r
e
-model h
ie
=r
e
& h
fe
=
In CB r
e
-model h
ib
=r
e
& h
fb
=-1
Rest of the analysis is very similar to approx. analysis.
42
7.11 Giacoletto or hybrid -Model:-
Fig. 7.11(a) Giacoletto or hybrid- Model of a CE transistor
43
Fig. 7.11(b) Diagram showing virtual base B & ohmic base
spreading resistance r
bb

44
7.12 Hybrid- Parameter Values:-
The typical magnitude for the element of the hybrid
Parameter Values at room temperature & for
I
C
=1.3mA are,
g
m
=50mA/V, r
bb
=100, r
be
=1K
r
bc
=4M, r
ce
=80K C
bc
=3pF
C
be
=100pF
45
7.13 Relationship bet low frequency h-parameter & high
frequency or - Parameters :-
c b' fe oe
ce
ce
re
e b'
c b'
c b'
e b' ie bb'
fe
m
e b'
m
fe
e b'
C
T
C
m
)g h (1 h
r
1
g (V)

h
r
g
1
r (IV)
r - h r (III)
h
g
g or
g
h
r (II)

26
) mA in ( I
V
I
g (I)
+ = =
= =
=
= =
= =
46
unity. to drops gain current
ckt. short CE he at which t requency the is f
C C C C
f 2
g
C (VI)
T
De Te De e b'
T
m
e b'
~ + =
~
t
47
7.14 Frequency Response of an Amplifier:-
Fig. 7.14(a) Typical R-C Coupled Amplifier Frequency Response
48
If the I/P voltage of an amplifier is kept constant
but its frequency is varied, it is found that the
amplifier gain,
remains practically constant over a sizable range
of the mid frequency.
Decrease at low as well as high frequencies.
thus in frequency response curve three values of
frequency are important,
(i) Mid frequency range.
(ii) Lower cutoff frequency, f
L
.
(iii) Upper cutoff frequency, f
H
49
7.15 Frequency Response Parameter:-
The cut off frequency f

is the CE short ckt small signal
forward current transfer ratio cut off frequency. It is given
by,



f

is the cut off frequency at which the CB short ckt small


signal forward current ratio drops 3dB from its value at low
frequency.

b'e b'c b'e

)r c C
f
+
=
( 2
1
b'e b'e
fe
b'e fb b'e
r C
h
)r h C
f
2 1 ( 2
1
~
+
=
o
50
f
T
is the frequency at which the short ckt. Common
emitter current gain attains unit magnitude.

( )
c b e b
m
T
C C
g
f
' '
2 +
~
t
51
7.16 Cascaded Amplifier:-
Fig. 7.16(a) Cascaded Amplifier
When the amplification of a single stage transistor is not
sufficient for a particular purpose then two or more stages
are connected in cascaded Then the required level of
amplification is achieved.