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NORMAN ABRAMSON Associate Professor of Electrical Engineering ‘Stanford University INFORMATION mHoiLORY — comes, CopINc lll McGRAW-HILL ELECTRONIC SCIENCES SERIES EDITORIAL BOARD Ronald Bracewell Colin Cherry Willis W. Harman Edward W. Herold John G. Linvill ‘Simon Ramo John G. Truxal ABRAMSON Information Theory and Coding BREMER Superconductive Devices Nor Ye introduction ‘ory of Finite-state Machines in Francisco GILL Introduction to the Theory of Fi te 5 London PAPOULIS ‘The Fourier Integral and Tts Applications STEINBERG AND LEQUEUX (TRANSLATOR R. N. BRACEWELL) HUELSMAN Circuits, Matrices, and Linear Vector Spaces | Radio Astronomy McGRAW-HILL Book Company, Ine CONTENTS Preface v Glossary of Symbols and Entropy Expressions INTRODUCTION 1 a 12 13 4 15 What Information Theory Is Not 1 What Information Theory Is 3 Encoding Information 3 ‘A Problem in Taformation ‘Transmission 6 Some Questions 9 CHAPTER 2 INFORMATION AND SOURCES 24 The Definition of Information 11 2 The Zero-memory Information Source 18 24 Some Properties of Entropy. 1 Extensions of a Zero-memory Source 19 The Markov Information Source 22 The Adjoint Source 27 Extensions of a Markov Source 20 ‘The Structure of Language 83 CHAPTER 3 SOME PROPERTIES OF CODES BA Introduetion 45 2 Uniquely Decodable Codes 47 3 Instantaneous Codes 49 “€4 Construction of an Tnstantaneous Code §2 65, Tho Kraft h Disoussion 5% “66 The Kraft Inequality—Proot 57 £7 MeMillan’s Inequality 59 88 Some Examples 00 wality—Statement and CHAPTER 4 CODING INFORMATION SOURCES we Average Length of a Code 65 42° A Method of Encoding for Spec Sources. 68 £3 Shannon's First Theorem 44 Shannon's Firet Theorem for Markov Sources 74 445. Coding without Extensions 75 44 Finding Binary Compact Codes— Hutlman Codes 77 47 Completing the Proof 82 “€8 rary Compact Codes 83 £9 Code Bificiensy and Redundancy 85 n 6 6 CHAPTER 5 CHANNELS AND MUTUAL, INFORMATION 3 5A Introduction 98 \§2 Information Channels 94 5:8 Probsbility Relations in a Channel 98 54 A Priori and A Posteriori Entropies 100 55 A Generalization of Shannon's First ‘Theorem 101 5-6 Mutual Information 105 5-7 Properties of Mutual Information 107 58 Noiscless Channels and Deterministic Channels 111 5.9 Caseaded Channels 113, 5-10 Redwood Channels and Sufficient Reductions 118 ‘of Mutual Information 123, Information of Several Alphabets 127 443. Channel Capacity 131 5-14 Conditional Mutual Information 135 sun 2 CHAPTER 6 RELIABLE MESSAGES: THROUGH UNRELIABLE CHANNELS. 7 6-1 Introduction 147 62. Error Probability and Decision Rules 149 63 The Fano Bound 153 6-4 Reliable Messages and Unreliable Channels 155, ‘An Example of Coding to Correct Errors 158) 66 Hamming Distance 163 67. Shannon's Second Theorem for the BSC— The First Step 165, 68. Random Coding—The Second Step 170 69 Shannon's Second Theorem— Discussion 172 z