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Condensed Book Series by Prof. A.H.V. COREY

Composite Materials

Prof. Alleson Herman V. Corey

M. Sc. Polymer and Composites Engineering Cum Fructo Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium) B. Sc. Mechanical Engineering Cum Laude Central Mindanao University (Philippines)

Dedication

This Condensed Book Series is dedicated to:

The Almighty GOD (God the Father, God the Son Jesus Christ, and God the Holy Spirit). My Wife Ninnin, my Son Elgien, and my Daughter Sheanne.

Introduction to Composite Materials Prof. Alleson Herman V. Corey M. Sc. Polymer and Composites Engineering

Introduction to Composite Materials

Prof. Alleson Herman V. Corey

M. Sc. Polymer and Composites Engineering Cum Fructo Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium) B. Sc. Mechanical Engineering Cum Laude Central Mindanao University (Philippines)

Composite Material any combination of two or more different materials at the macroscopic level, in

Composite Material

any combination of two or more different materials at the macroscopic level, in a controlled manner to give desired properties. The properties of a composite will be different from those of the constituents in isolation. Two or more chemically distinct materials which when combined have improved properties over the individual materials. A judicious (good sense) combination of two or more materials that produces a synergistic (combined) effect. A material system composed of two or more physically distinct phases whose combination produces aggregate (combined) properties that are different from those of its

constituents.

Composite Material A material with two (or more) distinct macroscopical phases. They consist of two

Composite Material

A material with two (or more) distinct macroscopical phases. They consist of two or more materials combined in such a way that the individual materials are easily distinguishable. A common example of a composite is a concrete.

in such a way that the individual materials are easily distinguishable. A common example of a
Composite Material A combination of two or more materials (reinforcement, resin, filler, etc.), differing in

Composite Material

A combination of two or more materials (reinforcement, resin, filler, etc.), differing in form or composition on a macroscale (visible). The constituents retain their identities, i.e., they do not dissolve or merge into each other, although they act in concert (together). Normally, the components can be physically identified and exhibit an interface (distinct phase) between each other. A structural material that consists of two or more combined constituents that are combined at a macroscopic level and are not soluble in each other.

Reinforcing phase: fibers, particles, or flakes Matrix phase: polymers, metals, ceramics

Composite Material A material composed of 2 or more constituents. Two inherently different materials that

Composite Material

A material composed of 2 or more constituents. Two inherently different materials that when combined together produce a material with properties that exceed the constituent materials.

Reinforcement phase (e.g., Fibers) Matrix or Binder phase (e.g., compliant or compatible matrix)

Composite Material (cross-section) In Borsic fiber-reinforced aluminum, the fibers are composed of a thick layer

Composite Material (cross-section)

Composite Material (cross-section) In Borsic fiber-reinforced aluminum, the fibers are composed of a thick layer of
Composite Material (cross-section) In Borsic fiber-reinforced aluminum, the fibers are composed of a thick layer of

In Borsic fiber-reinforced aluminum, the fibers are composed of a thick layer of boron deposited on a small – diameter tungsten filament.

Silver – Copper Alloy reinforced with Carbon Fibers.

Composite Material (cross-section)

Composite Material (cross-section)

Composite Material (cross-section)
Composite Material (cross-section)
Composite Material (cross-section)
Composite Material (concept) Concept: Using the high strength of fibers to stiffen and strengthen a

Composite Material (concept)

Concept:

Using the high strength of fibers to stiffen and strengthen a cheap matrix material. The load is applied over a large surface area of the matrix. Matrix then transfers the load to the reinforcement, which being stiffer, increases the strength of the composite. It is important to note that there are many matrix materials and even more fiber types, which can be combined in countless ways to produce just the desired properties.

Composite Material (concept) Composite materials are like sandwiches. A good sandwich contains a variety of

Composite Material (concept)

Composite materials are like sandwiches. A good sandwich contains a variety of ingredients to yield a taste that no single ingredient could provide by itself. Similarly, composite materials are those which are formed from two or more materials producing properties or characteristics that could not be obtained from any one material. Composites consist of one or more discontinuous phases fixed in a continuous phase. The discontinuous phase is usually harder and stronger than the continuous phase and is called the reinforcement or reinforcing material, whereas the continuous phase is termed the matrix.

phase and is called the reinforcement or reinforcing material, whereas the continuous phase is termed the

Composite Material (facts) Some Facts: The composite industry is new and has grown rapidly in

Composite Material (facts)

Some Facts:

The composite industry is new and has grown rapidly in the past 30 years with the development of fibrous composites”. In the United States, composites manufacturing is a 25 billion dollar a year industry. There are about 6,000 composites related manufacturing plants and materials distributors across the U.S. The industry employs more than 235,000 people. An additional 250,000 people are employed in businesses that support the composites industry, including materials suppliers, equipment vendors, and other support personnel. About 90% of all composites produced are comprised of glass fiber (reinforcement) and either polyester or vinyl- ester resin (matrix) and are known as reinforced

plastics.

Composite Material (Advantages) Very light materials (light weight) High strength and stiffness (rigidity) Low

Composite Material (Advantages)

Very light materials (light weight) High strength and stiffness (rigidity) Low weight to strength ratio Material can be designed in addition to the structure Design flexibility

Composites have an advantage over other materials because they can be molded into different or complex shapes and size at relatively low cost. This gives designers the freedom to create any shape or configuration. Boats are a good example of the success of composites.

Corrosion Resistance

Composites products provide long-term resistance to severe chemical, temperature, and weathering environments. Composites are the material of choice for outdoor exposure, chemical handling applications, and severe environment service.

Composite Material (Advantages) Durability (Low Maintenance / Long Term Life) Composite products and structures have

Composite Material (Advantages)

Durability (Low Maintenance / Long Term Life)

Composite products and structures have an exceedingly long life span. Coupled with low maintenance requirements, the longevity of composites is a benefit in critical applications. In a half-century of composites development, well-designed composite structures have not yet to wear out (extended service life). FACT: In 1947 the U.S. Coast Guard built a series of forty- foot patrol boats, using polyester resin and glass fiber. These boats were used until the early 1970’s when they were taken out of service because the design was outdated. Extensive testing was done on the laminates after decommissioning, and it was found that only 2-3% of the original strength was lost after twenty-five years of hard service.

Dimensional Stability (stable shape even at elevated

temperature)

Composite Material (Advantages) High specific strength and modulus, as well as high fatigue strength and

Composite Material (Advantages)

High specific strength and modulus, as well as high fatigue strength and fatigue damage tolerance. Orientated Strength (base on reinforcement direction) Low Thermal Conductivity Other unique functional properties - damping, low CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion) Consolidation of Parts - can manufacture structures and eliminate joints Large Part Size Possible to manufacture - production of both material and structure or component in a single operation - manufacturing flexible, net-shape, complex geometry (shape). Designable or tailorable materials for both microstructure (reinforcement structure), mechanical properties and

aesthetic (beauty) appearance

Composite Material (Advantages) Composites have a higher specific strength (strength to weight ratio) than many

Composite Material (Advantages)

Composites have a higher specific strength (strength to weight ratio) than many other materials. A distinct advantage of composites over other materials is the ability to use many combinations of resins and reinforcements, and therefore custom tailor (design according) to the required mechanical and physical properties of a structure.

, and therefore custom tailor (design according ) to the required mechanical and physical properties of
Composite Material (Advantages) The low properties composite material are associated with simple manufacturing

Composite Material (Advantages)

The low properties composite material are associated with simple manufacturing processes and material forms (e.g. spray lay-

manufacturing processes and material forms (e.g. spray lay- up glass fibre), while the higher properties are

up

glass fibre), while the higher properties are associated with higher technology manufacturing process (e.g. autoclave moulding of unidirectional glass

fibre) and usually applied in the Aerospace

(Aircraft) Industry.

Composite Material (Disadvantages) Composites are heterogeneous (compose of different material components) Properties

Composite Material (Disadvantages)

Composites are heterogeneous (compose of different material components)

Properties in composites vary from point to point in the material. Most engineering structural materials are homogeneous.

Composites are highly anisotropic

The strength in composites vary as the direction along which we measure changes (most engineering structural materials are isotropic). As a result, all other properties such as, stiffness, thermal expansion, thermal and electrical conductivity and creep resistance are also anisotropic. The relationship between stress and strain (force and deformation) is much more complicated than in isotropic materials. NOTE: The experience and intuition (something already known) gained over the years about the behavior of metallic materials does not apply to composite materials.

Composite Material (Disadvantages) Mechanical property characterization (determination) of a composite structure is more

Composite Material (Disadvantages)

Mechanical property characterization (determination) of a composite structure is more complex than a metal structure (since composite is a combination of 2 or more materials). High production (manufacturing / fabrication) cost. Difficult to repair - repair process is not simple compared to metals. Susceptible to damage.

Composite Material (Disadvantages) Do not have a high combination of strength and fracture toughness compared

Composite Material (Disadvantages)

Do not have a high combination of strength and fracture toughness compared to metals.

Composite Material (Disadvantages) Do not have a high combination of strength and fracture toughness compared to
Composite Material (Disadvantages) Do not give higher performance in all the properties used for material

Composite Material (Disadvantages)

Composite Material (Disadvantages) Do not give higher performance in all the properties used for material selection:

Do not give higher performance in all the properties used for material selection:

strength, toughness, formability, joinability, corrosion resistance, and affordability.

Composite Material (Disadvantages) Composites materials are difficult to inspect with conventional ultrasonic, eddy

Composite Material (Disadvantages)

Composites materials are difficult to inspect with conventional ultrasonic, eddy current and visual NDI methods such as radiography.

FACT: American Airlines Flight 587, broke apart over New York on Nov. 12, 2001 (265 people died). Airbus A300’s 27-foot-high tail fin tore off. Much of the tail fin, including the so-called tongues that fit in grooves on the fuselage and connect the tail to the jet, were made of a graphite composite. The plane crashed because of damage at the base of the tail that had gone undetected despite routine nondestructive testing and visual inspections.

of damage at the base of the tail that had gone undetected despite routine nondestructive testing
Composite Material (Disadvantages) FACT: In November 1999, America’s Cup boat “Young America” broke in two

Composite Material (Disadvantages)

FACT: In November 1999, America’s Cup boat “Young America” broke in two due to debonding face/core in the sandwich structure.

1999, America’s Cup boat “Young America” broke in two due to debonding face/core in the sandwich
Composite Material (Economics) Material costs -- higher for composites Constituent materials (e.g., fibers and resin)

Composite Material (Economics)

Material costs -- higher for composites

Constituent materials (e.g., fibers and resin)

Processing costs -- embedding fibers in matrix

not required for metals Carbon fibers order of magnitude higher than aluminum

Design costs -- lower for composites

Can reduce the number of parts in a complex assembly by designing the material in combination with the structure

Increased performance must justify higher material costs Low Relative Investment

One reason the composites industry has been successful is because of the low relative investment in setting-up a composites manufacturing facility. This has resulted in many creative and innovative companies in the field.

Composite Material (2 Main Types) Composites can be broadly classified in to two groups: Natural

Composite Material (2 Main Types)

Composites can be broadly classified in to two groups:

Natural Synthetic (Man-made) Examples:

Natural Composite:

Wood is a good example of a natural composite, combination of cellulose fiber and lignin. The cellulose fiber provides strength and the lignin is the "glue" that bonds and stabilizes the fiber. Bamboo is a very efficient wood composite structure. The components are cellulose and lignin, as in all other wood, however bamboo is hollow. This results in a very light yet stiff structure. Composite fishing poles and golf club shafts copy this natural design.

Bone, Muscle, Fish fins

Composite Material (2 Main Types) Synthetic (Man-made) Composite - produced by combining two or more

Composite Material (2 Main Types)

Synthetic (Man-made) Composite - produced by combining two or more materials in definite proportions under controlled conditions.

The ancient Egyptians manufactured composites! Adobe bricks are a good example. The combination of mud and straw forms a composite that is stronger than either the mud or the straw by itself. Ferro-cement Plywood, Chipboards, Decorative laminates Asbestos Cement Sheets Fiber Reinforced Plastic (FRP) or Polymer Matrix Composite (PMC)

Composite Material (Basic Types) 5 Basic Types of Composite Materials (base on reinforcement shape ):

Composite Material (Basic Types)

5 Basic Types of Composite Materials (base on reinforcement shape): Fiber (continuous or long), Particle (small size), Flake (big size particle), Laminar (Laminate or layered), and Filled (short fibers or Whiskers) composites.

, Laminar (Laminate or layered) , and Filled (short fibers or Whiskers ) composites. Reinforcement Composite

Reinforcement

Composite

Composite Material (Basic Types) Particulate composites Flake composites Fiber composites Nano composites –

Composite Material (Basic Types)

Composite Material (Basic Types) Particulate composites Flake composites Fiber composites Nano composites –

Particulate composites Flake composites Fiber composites Nano composites – nano-particles (metals, oxides, compounds), nano-flakes, or nano- fibers (nano-wires) of very small dimension or diameter (1-100 nm)

Composite Material (Sample Fibers) (Long / Continuous Fiber) (Aligned) (usually Glass Fibers) (Short Fibers, Random

Composite Material (Sample Fibers)

Composite Material (Sample Fibers) (Long / Continuous Fiber) (Aligned) (usually Glass Fibers) (Short Fibers, Random
Composite Material (Sample Fibers) (Long / Continuous Fiber) (Aligned) (usually Glass Fibers) (Short Fibers, Random

(Long / Continuous Fiber) (Aligned)

(usually Glass Fibers) (Short Fibers, Random orientation)

(SMC – Sheet Molding Compound)

Composite Material (Classification) Matrix Phase / Reinforcement Phase Metal Ceramic Polymer   Powder

Composite Material (Classification)

Matrix Phase / Reinforcement Phase

Metal

Ceramic

Polymer

 

Powder metallurgy parts – combining immiscible metals

Cermets

 

Metal

(ceramic-metal

Brake pads

composite)

 

Cermets, TiC, TiCN Cemented carbides – used in tools Fiber - reinforced metals

SiC reinforced

 

Ceramic

Al2O3

Fiberglass

Tool materials

Polymer

   

Kevlar fibers in an epoxy matrix

Elemental (Carbon, Boron, etc.)

Fiber reinforced metals for Auto parts and aerospace

 

Rubber with carbon (tires) Boron, Carbon reinforced plastics

Rubber with carbon (tires) Boron, Carbon reinforced plastics MMC’s CMC’s PMC’s Metal Matrix Composites Ceramic

MMC’s

CMC’s

PMC’s

Metal Matrix Composites

Ceramic Matrix Composites

Polymer Matrix Composites

Composite Material (Classification) Metal Matrix Composites (MMC’s) Include mixtures of ceramics and metals, such as

Composite Material (Classification)

Metal Matrix Composites (MMC’s) Include mixtures of ceramics and metals, such as cemented carbides and other cermets, as well as aluminum or magnesium as matrix material then reinforced by strong, high stiffness fibers. Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC’s) Least common composite matrix. Aluminum oxide and silicon carbide are matrix materials that can be imbedded with fibers for improved properties, especially in high temperature applications. Polymer Matrix Composites (PMC’s) Thermosetting resins are the most widely used polymers as matrix in PMC’s. Epoxy and polyester are

commonly mixed with fiber reinforcement.

Composite Material (Classification) MMC, CMC, PMC Composites Particle-reinforced Fiber-reinforced Structural Large-

Composite Material (Classification)

MMC, CMC, PMC

Composites Particle-reinforced Fiber-reinforced Structural Large- Dispersion- Continuous Discontinuous Laminates
Composites
Particle-reinforced
Fiber-reinforced
Structural
Large-
Dispersion-
Continuous
Discontinuous
Laminates
Sandwich
particle
strengthened
(aligned)
(short)
panels
Aligned
Randomly
oriented
Composite Material (composition) A composite material consists of two phases : Primary (Matrix) Forms the

Composite Material (composition)

A composite material consists of two phases:

Primary (Matrix) Forms the matrix within which the secondary phase is imbedded Any of three basic material types: polymers, metals, or ceramics Secondary (Reinforcement) Referred to as the imbedded phase or called the reinforcing agent Serves to strengthen the composite. (fibers, particles, etc.) Can be one of the three basic materials or an

element such as carbon or boron

Composite Material (composition) Composites are combinations of two materials in which one of the material

Composite Material (composition)

Composites are combinations of two materials in which one of the material is called the reinforcing phase in the form of fibers, sheets (flakes), or particles, and is embedded in the other material called the matrix phase. Reinforcing materials are strong with low densities while the matrix material is usually a ductile or tough.

NOTE: Composite properties are less than that of the fiber because of dilution (less concentrated or weakened due to mixture) by the matrix and the need to orient fibers in different directions.

Composite Material (composition) Example: Glass Reinforcing material (Reinforcing phase) Polyester material (Matrix

Composite Material (composition)

Example:

Glass Reinforcing material (Reinforcing phase) Polyester material (Matrix phase)

Result: Glass + Polyester = GRP (Glass-Fiber Reinforced Plastic)

NOTE: If the composite is designed and fabricated correctly, it combines the strength of the reinforcement with the toughness of the matrix to achieve a combination of desirable properties not available in any single conventional material.

Composite Material (composition) Components of composite materials Reinforcement fibers Glass, Carbon, Organic, Boron,

Composite Material (composition)

Components of composite materials Reinforcement fibers

Glass, Carbon, Organic, Boron, Ceramic, Metallic

Matrix materials

Polymers, Metals, Ceramics

Interface - Bonding surface

Terminology/Classification woven

Composites:

-- Multiphase material with significant proportions of each phase.

Matrix:

fibers 0.5 mm
fibers
0.5 mm

-- The continuous phase -- Purpose:

- transfer stress to other phases

- protect phases from environment

stress to other phases - protect phases from environment -- Classification: metal MMC, CMC, PMC polymer
stress to other phases - protect phases from environment -- Classification: metal MMC, CMC, PMC polymer
stress to other phases - protect phases from environment -- Classification: metal MMC, CMC, PMC polymer

-- Classification:

metal

MMC, CMC, PMC

from environment -- Classification: metal MMC, CMC, PMC polymer ceramic cross section view 0.5 mm •
from environment -- Classification: metal MMC, CMC, PMC polymer ceramic cross section view 0.5 mm •
from environment -- Classification: metal MMC, CMC, PMC polymer ceramic cross section view 0.5 mm •

polymer

ceramic

cross section view 0.5 mm
cross
section
view
0.5 mm

Dispersed phase (Reinforcement):

-- Purpose: enhance matrix properties.

MMC: increase σy, TS, creep resist. CMC: increase K c PMC: increase E, σy, TS, creep resist.

K c = thermal conductivity

TS = tensile stress

-- Classification: Particle, Fiber, Structural

Matrix (Functions) Functions of the Matrix Bonds with the fibers (Very important) . Separate the

Matrix (Functions)

Functions of the Matrix

Bonds with the fibers (Very important). Separate the fibers. Transmit force (stresses) between fibers Arrest (stop) cracks from spreading between fibers Fibers do not carry most of the load some are shared by the Matrix. Hold fibers in proper orientation Protect fibers from environment mechanical forces can cause cracks that allow environment to affect fibers Protect fibers from surface damage due to abrasion or corrosion (i.e., avoid cracks on surfaces of fibers).

Matrix (Demands) Demands on Matrix (design consideration) Interlaminar (from one lamina to the next lamina)

Matrix (Demands)

Demands on Matrix (design consideration)

Interlaminar (from one lamina to the next lamina) shear strength Toughness (resistance to breaking) Ductility Moisture / environmental resistance Adhesion (bonding) to reinforcement Temperature properties (important for application environment / condition, heat resistance) Processing (manufacturing) Method – complexity (simple or complex) and equipments Production (manufacturing) Cost

Matrix (Types – Metal and Ceramic) Metal Matrix materials - higher temperature application Aluminum (matrix)

Matrix (Types – Metal and Ceramic)

Metal Matrix materials - higher temperature application

Aluminum (matrix) with boron or carbon fibers Aluminum-Lithium, Magnesium, and Titanium as matrix materials. The fibers used are graphite (carbon fibers), aluminum-oxide, silicon carbide, and boron.

Ceramic Matrix materials - very high temperature application

Silicon carbide, Silicon nitride, Aluminum oxide, and Mullite as matrix materials. The fibers used are various (different kinds) ceramics. Fiber is used to add toughness (resistance to breaking) to ceramic matrix, not necessarily higher (little effect) in strength and stiffness (ceramic material

is already strong and stiff).

Matrix (Types – Polymer) Thermoplastics Formed (shaped) by heating to elevated (high) temperature at which

Matrix (Types – Polymer)

Thermoplastics

Formed (shaped) by heating to elevated (high) temperature at which softening occurs.

Reversible reaction (soften or harden and vice-versa). Can be reformed (re-shape) and / or repaired. Limited in temperature (application) range up to 150 O C.

Examples:

Polypropylene (PP)

with nylon or glass (reinforcement). PP can be injected – inexpensive (cheaper manufacturing process since few equipment materials needed). Soften layers (by heating) of combined fiber and PP then place in a mold -- higher costs (more equipment

materials needed).

Matrix (Types – Polymer) Thermoplastics Examples: Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) Tougher (resistance to breaking) than

Matrix (Types – Polymer)

Thermoplastics

Examples:

Polyetheretherketone (PEEK)

Tougher (resistance to breaking) than Thermosets but lower resistance to temperature (less than 150 O C temperature application).

Fibers used:

Glass, Aramid (kevlar), Carbon (graphite), and Boron

Matrix (Types – Polymer) Thermosets Cure (to finish) by chemical reaction (harden) Heated in oven

Matrix (Types – Polymer)

Thermosets

Cure (to finish) by chemical reaction (harden)

Heated in oven (autoclave) at more than 100 O C

Irreversible Examples:

Polyester and Vinylester

Most common, lower cost, solvent resistance. Polyesters have good mechanical properties, electrical properties and chemical resistance. They are amenable (required) to multiple fabrication techniques and are low cost. Vinyl Esters are similar to polyester in performance and have increased (better) resistance to corrosive environments as well as a high degree of moisture

resistance.

Matrix (Types – Polymer) Thermosets Examples: Epoxy resins Superior performance, relatively costly. Epoxy resins

Matrix (Types – Polymer)

Thermosets

Examples:

Epoxy resins

Superior performance, relatively costly. Epoxy resins have improved (better) strength and stiffness properties over polyesters and have excellent corrosion resistance and resistance to solvents and alkalis. Cure cycles are usually longer than polyesters, however no by-products (during curing chemical reaction) are produced. Flexibility and improved performance is also achieved by the utilization of additives and fillers.

Phenolics, Flourocarbons, Polyethersulfone,

Silicon, Polyurethane, and Polyimides

Matrix (Types – Polymer) Thermosets Fibers used: Glass, Aramid (kevlar), Carbon (graphite), Boron

Matrix (Types – Polymer)

Matrix (Types – Polymer) Thermosets Fibers used: Glass, Aramid (kevlar), Carbon (graphite), Boron

Thermosets

Fibers used:

Glass, Aramid (kevlar), Carbon (graphite), Boron

Matrix (Types – Polymer) Comparison:   Thermoplastics Thermoset Soften on heating and pressure, and thus

Matrix (Types – Polymer)

Comparison:

 

Thermoplastics

Thermoset

Soften on heating and pressure, and thus easy to repair

Decompose on heating

High strains to failure (ductile)

Low strains to failure (brittle)

Indefinite shelf life (storage)

Definite shelf life (storage)

Can be reprocessed (re-melt, re- use)

Cannot be reprocessed

Not tacky and easy to handle

Tacky (slightly sticky)

Short cure (to finish) cycles

Long cure cycles

Difficult fabrication – higher temperature and viscosity

Easy fabrication - lower temperature and viscosity

Excellent solvent resistance

 

Fair (moderate) solvent resistance

Reinforcement (Function) The typical composite consists of a matrix holding reinforcing materials . The reinforcing

Reinforcement (Function)

The typical composite consists of a matrix holding reinforcing materials. The reinforcing materials, the most important is the Fibers, supply the basic strength of the composite. However, reinforcing materials can contribute much more than strength. They can conduct heat or resist chemical corrosion. They can resist or conduct electricity. They may be chosen for their stiffness (modulus of elasticity) or for many other properties.

Reinforcement (Particles) Particles (small size) Important for metals and ceramics matrix composites. Particles

Reinforcement (Particles)

Particles (small size)

Important for metals and ceramics matrix composites. Particles reinforce a composite equally in all directions (called isotropic).

Impede (stop) dislocation movement in the matrix. Particle materials: Plastics, Cermets, and Metals.

Size: microscopic (less than 1 µm) to macroscopic (greater than 1 µm)

For microscopic size (< 1 µm) particles (15% or less the total composite volume), the imbedded particles strengthens the matrix material. For macroscopic size (> 1 µm) particles (25% or more the total composite volume), the imbedded particles share with the carried load of the matrix material.

Example: composite strengthening in cemented carbides, in which tungsten carbide (80% of the total cement volume) is

held in a cobalt binder.

Reinforcement (Particles) Particles used to strengthen a matrix not the same way as Fibers .

Reinforcement (Particles)

Particles used to strengthen a matrix not the same way as Fibers. Particles are not directional like Fibers. Particles spread at random through out a matrix and reinforce in all directions equally.

out a matrix and reinforce in all directions equally . Cermets (1) Oxide–Based Cermets (e.g. Combination

Cermets

(1) Oxide–Based Cermets (e.g. Combination of Al 2 O 3 with Cr particles) (2) Carbide–Based Cermets (e.g. Tungsten carbide, Titanium carbide)

Metal particles (in Plastic Matrix Composites)

(e.g. Aluminum, Iron & Steel, Copper particles)

Metal and Dispersion Hardened Alloys particles (in Metal Matrix

Composites)

(e.g. Ceramic–oxide particles)

Reinforcement (Particles)

Examples:

- Spheroidite steel

matrix:

ferrite (α)

(ductile)

- Spheroidite steel matrix: ferrite ( α ) (ductile) 60 µ m particles: cementite (Fe 3
- Spheroidite steel matrix: ferrite ( α ) (ductile) 60 µ m particles: cementite (Fe 3

60 µm

Spheroidite steel matrix: ferrite ( α ) (ductile) 60 µ m particles: cementite (Fe 3 C
Spheroidite steel matrix: ferrite ( α ) (ductile) 60 µ m particles: cementite (Fe 3 C
Spheroidite steel matrix: ferrite ( α ) (ductile) 60 µ m particles: cementite (Fe 3 C

particles:

cementite (Fe 3 C )

(brittle)

- WC/Co cemented carbide

matrix:

cobalt

(ductile)

(brittle) - WC/Co cemented carbide matrix: cobalt (ductile) 6 0 0 µ m 0.75 µm particles:
(brittle) - WC/Co cemented carbide matrix: cobalt (ductile) 6 0 0 µ m 0.75 µm particles:

600 µm

cemented carbide matrix: cobalt (ductile) 6 0 0 µ m 0.75 µm particles: WC (brittle, hard)
0.75 µm
0.75 µm

particles:

WC

(brittle,

hard)

6 0 0 µ m 0.75 µm particles: WC (brittle, hard) V m : 5-12 vol%!
6 0 0 µ m 0.75 µm particles: WC (brittle, hard) V m : 5-12 vol%!

V m :

5-12 vol%!

matrix:

rubber

(compliant)

- Automobile

tires

particles:

C

(stiffer)

µm particles: WC (brittle, hard) V m : 5-12 vol%! matrix: rubber (compliant) - Automobile tires
µm particles: WC (brittle, hard) V m : 5-12 vol%! matrix: rubber (compliant) - Automobile tires
µm particles: WC (brittle, hard) V m : 5-12 vol%! matrix: rubber (compliant) - Automobile tires
Reinforcement (Particles) Advantages of Particle reinforcement : improved strength increased operating temperature

Reinforcement (Particles)

Advantages of Particle reinforcement:

improved strength increased operating temperature oxidation resistance Examples:

Aluminum particles in Rubber Silicon carbide particles in Aluminum Gravel, Sand, and Cement to make Concrete

Reinforcement (Particles & Flakes) Nano Particles and Flakes - dispersion strengthened composites (nano composites)

Reinforcement (Particles & Flakes)

Nano Particles and Flakes - dispersion strengthened composites (nano composites)

Small particles or flakes (1 to 100 nm) Matrix bears most of the applied load Particles hinder or impede motion of dislocations Plastic deformation is restricted Improves yield and tensile strength. Examples:

Thoria (From Periodic Table of Elements: Th Thorium) dispersed nickel (Ni with up to 3% by volume of ThO 2 particles) Sintered (bonding by pressure and heat below melting point) aluminum powder (Al matrix with Al 2 O 3 coated Al

(bonding by pressure and heat below melting point) aluminum powder (Al matrix with Al 2 O

flakes).

Large-Particle (<1 µ m, >1 µ m) vs. Dispersion- Strengthened (1 – 100 nm particles)

Large-Particle (<1 µm, >1 µm) vs. Dispersion- Strengthened (1 – 100 nm particles) Composites

Shear ττττ

(1 – 100 nm particles) Composites Shear τ τ τ τ Large-Particle Strong Particle >500 nm

Large-Particle

particles) Composites Shear τ τ τ τ Large-Particle Strong Particle >500 nm Dispersion Strengthened
particles) Composites Shear τ τ τ τ Large-Particle Strong Particle >500 nm Dispersion Strengthened
particles) Composites Shear τ τ τ τ Large-Particle Strong Particle >500 nm Dispersion Strengthened
particles) Composites Shear τ τ τ τ Large-Particle Strong Particle >500 nm Dispersion Strengthened

Strong Particle >500 nm

Dispersion Strengthened

Dislocation shears through the dispersion

Strengthened Dislocation shears through the dispersion Stress field of dispersion Strong Particle < 1 0 0

Stress field of dispersion

shears through the dispersion Stress field of dispersion Strong Particle < 1 0 0 n m
shears through the dispersion Stress field of dispersion Strong Particle < 1 0 0 n m
shears through the dispersion Stress field of dispersion Strong Particle < 1 0 0 n m

Strong Particle <100 nm

Dislocation stopped

Reinforcement (Flakes) Flakes (big size particles) Flat Reinforcement (flat mm. platelet form) in 2-D (reinforce

Reinforcement (Flakes)

Flakes (big size particles)

Flat Reinforcement (flat

mm.

platelet form) in 2-D (reinforce in length & width direction due to Flake Shape). Two-dimensional particles

ranging 0.01 to 1.0 mm. across the flake, with a thickness of 0.001 to 0.005

Difficult to orient (align) the flakes.

Flake materials are Glass,

2-D Reinforcement

orient (align ) the flakes. Flake materials are Glass , 2-D Reinforcement 1-D Reinforcement Mica ,

1-D Reinforcement

Mica, and Aluminum.

Reinforcement (Flakes) A flake composite consists of thin, flat flakes held together by a binder

Reinforcement (Flakes)

A

flake

composite

consists

of

thin, flat

flakes

held

together by a binder or placed in a matrix. Almost all flake composite matrixes are plastic resins. Flakes will provide:

Uniform mechanical properties in the plane of the flakes Higher strength Higher flexural modulus (bending stiffness) Higher dielectric strength and heat resistance Better resistance to penetration by liquids and vapor Lower cost

Reinforcement (Fibers) Fibers Diameter range from 0.0001 in. to about 0.005 in. (depending on the

Reinforcement (Fibers)

Fibers

Diameter range from 0.0001 in. to about 0.005 in. (depending on the material). Generally circular cross-section, but can also be in the form of tubular (tubes), rectangle, hexagonal. Fibers used can be either continuous (long) or discontinuous (short or Whiskers)

Continuous fibers (long) – are very long (continuous fiber length). In theory, they offer a continuous path by which a load can be carried by the composite material. Discontinuous fibers (Short / Whiskers / Chopped) – are short lengths.

Length based on Length to Diameter (L/D) Ratio

L/D = 100 (Chopped Fiber / Short Fiber / Whisker)

Reinforcement (Dimension)

Fiber Diameter is very small (thin or filament).

As fiber diameter becomes smaller, chances of material flaw (molecular or crystal dislocations) is reduced. The molecules or crystals are well aligned one after the other resulting to increase in strength. A fiber bundle (strands of fiber filaments) has more surface area in contact to the matrix (increase in load transfer from matrix to fiber) than one solid fiber of the same diameter as the fiber bundle. Flexibility – ability to bend increases with a decrease in fiber diameter. Bending

bend increases with a decrease in fiber diameter . Bending Fiber Strength as a function of

Fiber Strength as a function of Fiber Diameter (Carbon Fiber)
Fiber Strength as a function of Fiber Diameter (Carbon Fiber)

Fiber Strength as a function of

Fiber Diameter (Carbon Fiber)

stiffness (the resistance to bending moments) increases.

Reinforcement (Types of Fibers) Characteristics / Properties of common fibers: Glass Many types (from ordinary

Reinforcement (Types of Fibers)

Characteristics / Properties of common fibers:

Glass

Many types (from ordinary bottle glass to high purity quartz glass), all can be made into fibers, each type has its own set of properties. High strength, low stiffness (elastic modulus), high density, lowest cost (cheapest), chemical resistance, moisture resistance, thermal resistance (low thermal conductivity), electrical resistance (insulator)

Most widely used fiber (ex. Glass Fiber-Reinforced Plastic [GFRP] or Fiberglass)

Uses: piping (pipes), tanks, boats, sporting goods Advantages:

Low cost compared to other fibers Corrosion resistance

Reinforcement (Types of Fibers) Glass Disadvantages: Relatively low strength High elongation (stretches) Moderate

Reinforcement (Types of Fibers)

Glass

Disadvantages:

Relatively low strength

High elongation (stretches)

Moderate strength to weight ratio (specific strength)

Common types used:

A-Glass C-Glass E-Glass (Calcium-Aluminoborosilicate) – electrical (insulator), cheaper, (less than E = 500,000 psi) S-Glass (Magnesia-Aluminosilicate) – high tensile strength (650,000 psi) compared to other glass types, 5 times the

S-Glass (Magnesia-Aluminosilicate) – high tensile strength (650,000 psi) compared to other glass types, 5 times the
S-Glass (Magnesia-Aluminosilicate) – high tensile strength (650,000 psi) compared to other glass types, 5 times the
S-Glass (Magnesia-Aluminosilicate) – high tensile strength (650,000 psi) compared to other glass types, 5 times the

tensile strength of steel, about one-third the density of steel.

Reinforcement (Types of Fibers) Glass Fiber manufacturing (processing) Sizzing Solution is a mixture of: •

Reinforcement (Types of Fibers)

Glass Fiber manufacturing (processing)

(Types of Fibers) Glass Fiber manufacturing (processing) Sizzing Solution is a mixture of: • Binders –

Sizzing Solution is a mixture of:

Binders – allow filaments to be packed in strands •Lubricants – prevent abrasion of filaments •Coupling agents – better adhesion between the inorganic glass fiber and the organic matrix (during composite manufacturing)

Anti-static agents

Reinforcement (Types of Fibers) Glass Fiber manufacturing (processing)

Reinforcement (Types of Fibers)

Glass Fiber manufacturing (processing)

Reinforcement (Types of Fibers) Glass Fiber manufacturing (processing)
Reinforcement (Types of Fibers) Aramid (Kevlar [trade name] – polyamide [nylon] family, plastic fibers) -

Reinforcement (Types of Fibers)

Aramid (Kevlar [trade name] – polyamide [nylon] family, plastic fibers) - aromatic (hexagonal / cyclic) polyamide fibers.

For high performance composite application – light weight, high strength, resistance to stress. Highest strength to weight ratio (specific strength) of all fibers, high cost. Uses High performance replacement for glass fiber. Application Armor, protective clothing, industrial, sporting goods. Advantages:

Higher strength, lighter than glass

More ductile than carbon

Reinforcement (Types of Fibers) Aramid (Kevlar – trade name) 2 Commercial Types: Kevlar 29 –

Reinforcement (Types of Fibers)

Aramid (Kevlar – trade name)

2 Commercial Types:

Kevlar 29 – Low density, high strength.

Application – Cables, Ropes and Missiles.

Kevlar 49 – density is higher than Kevlar 29.

Application – Shipping industry, Aerospace, Automobile, and Industrial application.

Reinforcement (Types of Fibers) Graphite (Carbon) 2nd most widely used fiber Application Areas: aerospace, sporting

Reinforcement (Types of Fibers)

Graphite (Carbon)

2nd most widely used fiber

Application Areas: aerospace, sporting goods

High strength (high elastic modulus), low cost (cheap), less dense than glass (low density) Graphite fibers are manufactured from any one of the 3 material precursor (origin / start / source):

Rayon

Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) – commonly use

Pitch (petroleum pitch)

Carbon fibers (produced at 1,316°C) have 93 to 95% carbon content. Graphite fibers (produced at more than 1,900°C) has more than 99% carbon content (5 times stronger than steel, density is one-fourth of steel).

Reinforcement (Types of Fibers) Advantages: Graphite (Carbon) high stiffness and strength Low density Intermediate

Reinforcement (Types of Fibers)

Advantages: Graphite (Carbon)

high stiffness and strength Low density Intermediate (moderate) cost Properties:

Standard modulus: 207-240 GPa Intermediate modulus: 240-340 GPa High modulus: 340-960 GPa Diameter: 5-8 µm, smaller than human hair

Fibers grouped into tows or yarns (bundle) of 2,000-12,000 fibers per bundle (strand)

Reinforcement (Types of Fibers) Carbon Fiber manufacturing (processing) Carbon fiber is produced using PAN

Reinforcement (Types of Fibers)

Carbon Fiber manufacturing (processing)

Carbon fiber is produced using PAN (Polyacrylonitrile) with the help of these processing stages:

Stabilization – by holding in tension PAN fibers are stretched to align and are oxidize (200 O C – 300 O C) in air. Carbonization - PAN fiber are heated (1,000 O C – 1,500 O C to eliminate [vaporize] oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen) until transformed into carbon fibers. Graphitization - heating at more than 1,900 O C to produce a product of high elasticity.

Reinforcement (Types of Fibers) Carbon Fiber manufacturing (processing) Fiber precursor (Polyacrylonitrile) heated and

Reinforcement (Types of Fibers)

Carbon Fiber manufacturing (processing)

Fiber precursor (Polyacrylonitrile) heated and stretched to align structure and remove non-carbon material.

(processing) Fiber precursor (Polyacrylonitrile) heated and stretched to align structure and remove non-carbon material.
Reinforcement (Types of Fibers) Boron High strength and stiffness (high elastic modulus), highest density, highest

Reinforcement (Types of Fibers)

Boron

High strength and stiffness (high elastic modulus), highest density, highest cost (limit its application in Aerospace), has tungsten filament at its center. Good Compressive strength, Large Fiber Diameter (200 µm).

Metal (Steel filaments)

Reinforcing fiber in plastics

Polyethylene (PE) – trade name “Spectra Fiber”

Commonly use in Textile Industry (textile composites production) High strength Extremely Light weight

Low range of temperature usage (application)

Reinforcement (Types of Fibers) Ceramic Fibers Main fiber materials: Silicon carbide (SiC) and Aluminum oxide

Reinforcement (Types of Fibers)

Ceramic Fibers

Main fiber materials: Silicon carbide (SiC) and Aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ). High Elastic modulus, used to strengthen low-density, low- modulus metals (Aluminum, Magnesium). Very high temperature applications (e.g. engine components) Silicon carbide fiber - in whisker (short fiber) form. Excellent temperature resistance (matrix material use is also Ceramic) Not commonly use

Advanced Fibers (high strength and stiffness [elastic modulus], low weight)

Nylon, Silicon carbide, Silicon nitride, Aluminum oxide, Boron carbide, Boron nitride, Tantalum carbide, Steel,

Tungsten, Molybdenum.

Reinforcement (Types of Fibers) Fiber Glass Graphite Fiber Fibers in Textile Form Kevlar Fiber Kevlar/Carbon

Reinforcement (Types of Fibers)

Reinforcement (Types of Fibers) Fiber Glass Graphite Fiber Fibers in Textile Form Kevlar Fiber Kevlar/Carbon Hybrid

Fiber Glass

Reinforcement (Types of Fibers) Fiber Glass Graphite Fiber Fibers in Textile Form Kevlar Fiber Kevlar/Carbon Hybrid

Graphite Fiber

Reinforcement (Types of Fibers) Fiber Glass Graphite Fiber Fibers in Textile Form Kevlar Fiber Kevlar/Carbon Hybrid

Fibers in Textile Form

Kevlar Fiber

Reinforcement (Types of Fibers) Fiber Glass Graphite Fiber Fibers in Textile Form Kevlar Fiber Kevlar/Carbon Hybrid

Kevlar/Carbon Hybrid

Fiber Mechanical Properties Steel: Density = 7.87 g/cc; Tensile Strength (Stress) = 0.380 GPa; Elastic

Fiber Mechanical Properties

Fiber Mechanical Properties Steel: Density = 7.87 g/cc; Tensile Strength (Stress) = 0.380 GPa; Elastic Modulus

Steel: Density = 7.87 g/cc; Tensile Strength (Stress) = 0.380 GPa; Elastic Modulus = 207 GPa Aluminum: Density = 2.71 g/cc; Tensile Strength (Stress) = 0.035

GPa; Elastic Modulus = 69 GPa

Fiber Mechanical Properties Fiber Density (kg/m 3 ) E- Tensile Elong. Type Modulus Strength

Fiber Mechanical Properties

Fiber

Density (kg/m 3 )

E-

Tensile

Elong.

Type

Modulus

Strength

(%)

 

(GPa)

(GPa)

E-Glass

2.54

72.5

1.72-3.45

2.5

S-Glass

2.49

87

2.53-4.48

2.9

Kevlar 29

1.45

85

2.27-3.80

2.8

Kevlar 49

1.45

117

2.27-3.80

1.8

Carbon

1.80

227

2.80-5.10

1.1

(HS)

Carbon

1.80-1.86

370

1.80

0.5

(HM)

Carbon

1.86-2.10

350-520

1.00-1.75

0.2

(UHM)

Fiber Strength

Fiber Strength

Fiber Strength
Fiber Density (g/cm 3 ) Steel 8 Alum 2.76 E-Glass 1.99 S-Glass 1.99 Carbon 1.59

Fiber Density (g/cm 3 )

Steel 8 Alum 2.76 E-Glass 1.99 S-Glass 1.99 Carbon 1.59 Aramid 1.38 0 2 4
Steel
8
Alum
2.76
E-Glass
1.99
S-Glass
1.99
Carbon
1.59
Aramid
1.38
0
2
4
6
8
10
Fiber Tensile Strength ( σ ) Alum 20 Steel   60 S-Glass   625 Carbon

Fiber Tensile Strength (σ)

Alum

20

Steel

 

60

S-Glass

 

625

Carbon

 

530

Aramid

 

525

E-Glass

 

500

 

0

200

400

600

800

Fiber Strain ( εεεε ) To Failure Alum 0.2 Steel 0.16 S-Glass 5 E-Glass 4.8

Fiber Strain (εεεε) To Failure

Alum 0.2 Steel 0.16 S-Glass 5 E-Glass 4.8 Aramid 2.8 Carbon 1.4 0 1 2
Alum
0.2
Steel
0.16
S-Glass
5
E-Glass
4.8
Aramid
2.8
Carbon
1.4
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Fiber Tensile Modulus (E) Alum 10 Steel 29 Carbon 33.5 Aramid 19 S-Glass 12.6 E-Glass

Fiber Tensile Modulus (E)

Alum 10 Steel 29 Carbon 33.5 Aramid 19 S-Glass 12.6 E-Glass 10.5 0 10 20
Alum
10
Steel
29
Carbon
33.5
Aramid
19
S-Glass
12.6
E-Glass
10.5
0
10
20
30
40

x 10 6 psi

Fiber CTE – Longitudinal x10 -6 mm/ 0 C 14 12.6 12 10 8 6.5

Fiber CTE – Longitudinal

x10 -6 mm/ 0 C 14 12.6 12 10 8 6.5 5 6 4 2.9
x10 -6 mm/ 0 C
14
12.6
12
10
8
6.5
5
6
4
2.9
2
0.5
-2
0
-2
Carbon
S-Glass
E-Glass
Steel
Alum

Aramid

CTE = coefficient of thermal expansion

CTE = coefficient of thermal expansion

CTE = coefficient of thermal expansion
Reinforcement (Organization/Design) In fiber composites , fibers reinforce along the line of their length .

Reinforcement (Organization/Design)

In fiber composites, fibers reinforce along the line of their length. Reinforcement may be mainly 1-D, 2-D or 3-D. Figures shows the 3 basic types of fiber orientation.

1-D (One-Dimensional) gives maximum strength and stiffness are in one direction fiber direction.

2-D (Planar or 2-Dimensional) gives strength in two directions (ex. in the form of 2 dimensional woven fabric).

3-D (Random or 3-Dimensonal) gives strength equally in all directions (3 directions) – ISOTROPIC. Fibers are in different directions. The composite material has the same properties in all directions (length, width, and height directions).

directions. The composite material has the same properties in all directions (length, width, and height directions)
aligned aligned random Fiber Alignment (Short Fiber or Whiskers) continuous discontinuous
aligned aligned random
aligned
aligned
random

Fiber Alignment (Short Fiber or Whiskers)

continuous

discontinuous

Reinforcement (Organization/Design) Reinforcement Organization (Design) – fiber arrangement affects the properties of a

Reinforcement (Organization/Design)

Reinforcement Organization (Design) – fiber arrangement affects the properties of a composite material.

Design Types for Continuous (long) Fiber:

Unidirectional non- woven, oriented (straight) in a single direction. Textile Form (Fabric)

Unidirectional – non- woven , oriented (straight) in a single direction . Textile Form (Fabric)

Woven – series of interlaced yarns at 90 O to each other Braided – series of intertwined spiral yarns Knitted – series of inter-looped yarns

Tri-axial Yarns

Yarn = strand (bundle) of fibers

Reinforcement (Organization/Design) Unidirectional Fiber – Design Variations

Reinforcement (Organization/Design)

Unidirectional Fiber – Design Variations

Reinforcement (Organization/Design) Unidirectional Fiber – Design Variations
Reinforcement (Organization/Design) Textile Form (Fabric) Fiber Glass Graphite Fiber Fibers in Textile Form Kevlar

Reinforcement (Organization/Design)

Textile Form (Fabric)

Reinforcement (Organization/Design) Textile Form (Fabric) Fiber Glass Graphite Fiber Fibers in Textile Form Kevlar

Fiber Glass

(Organization/Design) Textile Form (Fabric) Fiber Glass Graphite Fiber Fibers in Textile Form Kevlar Fiber

Graphite Fiber

Textile Form (Fabric) Fiber Glass Graphite Fiber Fibers in Textile Form Kevlar Fiber Kevlar/Carbon Hybrid

Fibers in Textile Form

Kevlar Fiber

Textile Form (Fabric) Fiber Glass Graphite Fiber Fibers in Textile Form Kevlar Fiber Kevlar/Carbon Hybrid

Kevlar/Carbon Hybrid

Reinforcement (Organization/Design) Woven Fabric Warp – fasten or hold 2 systems of yarns (strand /

Reinforcement (Organization/Design)

Woven Fabric

Reinforcement (Organization/Design) Woven Fabric Warp – fasten or hold 2 systems of yarns (strand / bundle)

Warp – fasten or hold

2 systems of yarns (strand / bundle) interlaced in series to each other at right angles (90 O ) to create a single layer with isotropic or biaxial properties. Physical Properties:

Construction – ends & picks (pull through) Weight Thickness Weave Type

Basic Weave Types Plain Weave

Basic Weave Types

Plain Weave

Basic Weave Types Plain Weave
Basic Weave Types Satin 5HS

Basic Weave Types

Satin 5HS

Basic Weave Types Satin 5HS
Basic Weave Types 2 x 2 Twill

Basic Weave Types

2 x 2 Twill

Basic Weave Types 2 x 2 Twill
Basic Weave Types Non-Crimp Crimp – wave (bending)

Basic Weave Types

Non-Crimp

Crimp – wave (bending)
Crimp – wave (bending)
Reinforcement (Organization/Design) Braid (Braiding or Braided) 2 sets of yarns , which are helically (spiral)

Reinforcement (Organization/Design)

Braid (Braiding or Braided)

2 sets of yarns, which are helically (spiral) intertwined in series. Oriented to the longitudinal axis of the braid. High level of conformability (easily follow shape), relative low cost, and easy to manufacture.

of the braid . High level of conformability (easily follow shape) , relative low cost ,
of the braid . High level of conformability (easily follow shape) , relative low cost ,

Tubular braid form – braiding is done on a tube shape guide (solid tube metal).

Longitudinal

Axis

on a tube shape guide (solid tube metal). Longitudinal Axis Finished tubular braid is pull-out from

Finished tubular braid is pull-out from the tube shape guide and can be

flattened or cut for use in non-tubular products.

Types of Braids

Types of Braids

Types of Braids
Reinforcement (Organization/Design) Triaxial Yarns A system of Longitudinal Yarns are held in place by the

Reinforcement (Organization/Design)

Triaxial Yarns

A system of Longitudinal Yarns are held in place by the Braiding Yarns. Longitudinal Yarns:

Add dimensional stability, improve tensile properties, stiffness, and compressive strength. Can be added to the core of the braid (tubular braid) to form a solid

, and compressive strength . Can be added to the core of the braid (tubular braid)

braid.

Reinforcement (Organization/Design) Knit Series of Inter-looped Yarns Knit

Reinforcement (Organization/Design)

Knit

Series of Inter-looped Yarns

Reinforcement (Organization/Design) Knit Series of Inter-looped Yarns Knit

Knit

Reinforcement (Organization/Design) Fibers in Textile (Fabric) Form

Reinforcement (Organization/Design)

Fibers in Textile (Fabric) Form

Reinforcement (Organization/Design) Fibers in Textile (Fabric) Form
Reinforcement (Organization/Design) Fibers in Textile (Fabric) Form
Fabric (fiber organization) Effect on Composite Material Properties

Fabric (fiber organization) Effect on Composite Material Properties

Fabric (fiber organization) Effect on Composite Material Properties
Laminate Composites Stack (2 or more layers of the same or different materials) of Lamina
Laminate Composites Stack (2 or more layers of the same or different materials) of Lamina

Laminate Composites

Stack (2 or more layers of the same or different materials) of Lamina arranged with their main reinforcement in at least 2 or more different directions to give strength where needed.

Lamina (thin layer – laminae) – any arrangement of fibers (unidirectional or woven) in a matrix. Usually this arrangement is flat, although it may be curved, as in a shell. Example: Speedboat hulls are made of Laminate Composites.

Laminate Composites Sheets of continuous fiber composites laminated (bonding thin layers together) wherein each

Laminate Composites

Sheets of continuous fiber composites laminated (bonding thin layers together) wherein each layer has the fiber oriented in a given direction. Combine constituents (components of different materials) to produce properties that neither constituent alone would have. In Laminate Composites outer metal is not called a matrix but a face. The inner metal, even if stronger, is not called a reinforcement but a base.

is not called a matrix but a face . The inner metal , even if stronger,

Laminate Composites Belong to Structural (put together) Composites Stacked and bonded fiber- reinforced sheets

Laminate Composites

Belong to Structural (put together) Composites Stacked and bonded fiber- reinforced sheets

stacking sequence: e.g., 0º/90º or 0°/45°/90º. benefit: balanced, in-plane stiffness (elastic modulus).

Reinforced–Layer composites Fiber Direction (angle)

0 O flexural strengthening 90 O – column wraps +/- 45 O shear strengthening

strengthening 90 O – column wraps +/- 45 O – shear strengthening Angle varies by application

Angle varies by application

Combined Composites Combine several different materials into a single composite (Hybrid Laminate) . Reinforced -

Combined Composites

Combine several different materials into a single

composite (Hybrid Laminate). Reinforced-Laminates (MMC, CMC, PMC) well bonded with steel, aluminum, copper, rubber, gold, etc. Example: Modern Ski – combination of wood (natural fiber composite),

Modern Ski – combination of wood (natural fiber composite) , and layers of other materials as

and layers of other materials as laminate composites.

Combined Composites Particle, Fiber, and Structural (Sandwich) composite.
Combined
Composites
Particle, Fiber, and
Structural (Sandwich)
composite.
Sandwich Panel Composites Sandwich Structures Belong to Structural (put together) Composites Consists of a

Sandwich Panel Composites

Sandwich Structures Belong to Structural (put together) Composites Consists of a Skeletal 3-D Core (commonly use – Honeycomb) that holds a second material (in Foam form). Thin composite skins (face sheet) bonded to thicker lightweight core. Lightweight (low density Honeycomb core) High bending stiffness (high flexural modulus E)

(low density Honeycomb core) High bending stiffness (high flexural modulus E) face sheet adhesive layer honeycomb

face sheet adhesive layer

honeycomb

(low density Honeycomb core) High bending stiffness (high flexural modulus E) face sheet adhesive layer honeycomb
(low density Honeycomb core) High bending stiffness (high flexural modulus E) face sheet adhesive layer honeycomb
Sandwich Panel Composites (concept) Sandwich Panels Composites are a very efficient way of providing high

Sandwich Panel Composites (concept)

Sandwich Panels Composites are a very efficient way of providing high bending stiffness (Flexural Modulus E) at low weight.

Composite Skins (face sheet - stiff and strong) carry the bending loads. Core resists shear loads. The principle is the same as a traditional “I” beam.

the bending loads . Core resists shear loads. The principle is the same as a traditional
Sandwich Panel Composites (concept) Thick, Lightweight Core – gives large increase in second moment of

Sandwich Panel Composites (concept)

Thick, Lightweight Core – gives large increase in second moment of area (without weight increase in the Sandwich Panel Composite structure). Core needs good shear stiffness (Shear Modulus G) and strength (Shear Loads). Thin Composite Skins (bonded to thick, lightweight Core) carry tension and compression loads (bending loads).

The stiff, strong facing skins carry the bending loads, while the core resists shear loads.
The stiff, strong facing
skins carry the bending
loads, while the core
resists shear loads.
Total deflection =
bending + shear

Bending depends on the skin properties

Shear depends on the core properties

Total deflection = bending + shear Bending depends on the skin properties Shear depends on the
Sandwich Panel Composites (concept) Bending stiffness (flexural modulus E) – increased by making beams or

Sandwich Panel Composites (concept)

Bending stiffness (flexural modulus E) – increased by making beams or panel thicker sandwich of lightweight core (very small increase in weight).

E) – increased by making beams or panel thicker sandwich of lightweight core (very small increase
Sandwich Panel Composites (core) Core Materials and Comparison   Core Materials Property Honeycomb Core

Sandwich Panel Composites (core)

Core Materials and Comparison

 

Core Materials

Property

Honeycomb Core Advantages

Polymer (in Foam form):

   

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) Polymethacrylimide (PMA) Polyurethane (PU) Polystryrene (PS) Phenolic Polyethersulfone (PES)

Low crush strength and stiffness Increasing stress with strain Friable (brittle) Limited strength Fatigue Cannot be formed around curvatures

Excellent crush strength and stiffness Constant crush strength Structural integrity (do not break apart) High strength High fatigue resistance Over-expanded

 

Honeycomb cells design for curvature application

Sandwich Panel Composites (core) Core Materials and Comparison Core Materials Property Honeycomb Core Advantages

Sandwich Panel Composites (core)

Core Materials and Comparison

Core Materials

Property

Honeycomb Core Advantages

Wood-based:

   

Plywood Balsa (lightweight soft wood) Particle board

High density Absorbs moisture Degradation (loss of quality or performance) Flammable (easily burns in fire)

Excellent strength to weight ratio Excellent moisture resistance Self-extinguishing (fire), low smoke

Sandwich Panel Composites (core) Some Core Materials Properties : Polymer in Foam form Polyvinyl chloride

Sandwich Panel Composites (core)

Some Core Materials Properties:

Polymer in Foam form

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)

Linear – high ductility, low properties Cross-Linked – high strength and stiffness, but brittle 50% reduction of properties at 40 O C - 60 O C Chemical breakdown (HCl vapor) at 200 o C

, but brittle 50% reduction of properties at 40 O C - 60 O C Chemical
, but brittle 50% reduction of properties at 40 O C - 60 O C Chemical
, but brittle 50% reduction of properties at 40 O C - 60 O C Chemical

Polyuretthane (PU)

Inferior (lower) properties compared to PVC at ambient (environment or sorroundings) temperatures. Better property retention (max. 100 o C)

compared to PVC at ambient (environment or sorroundings) temperatures . Better property retention (max. 100 o

Phenolic

Poor mechanical properties Good fire resistance

Strength retention up to 150 o C

Sandwich Panel Composites (core) Some Core Materials Properties : Wood-based Balsa Efficient and low cost

Sandwich Panel Composites (core)

Some Core Materials Properties:

Wood-based

Balsa

Efficient and low cost Absorbs water (swelling and decompose) Not advisable for primary hull and deck structures (water or sea exposure – absorbs moisture) Advisable for internal bulkheads (partitions)

hull and deck structures (water or sea exposure – absorbs moisture) Advisable for internal bulkheads (partitions)
hull and deck structures (water or sea exposure – absorbs moisture) Advisable for internal bulkheads (partitions)
hull and deck structures (water or sea exposure – absorbs moisture) Advisable for internal bulkheads (partitions)
Sandwich Panel Composites (core) Honeycomb structure – hexagonal cells

Sandwich Panel Composites (core)

Honeycomb structure – hexagonal cells

Sandwich Panel Composites (core) Honeycomb structure – hexagonal cells
Sandwich Panel Composites (core) Over-expanded Honeycomb Cells – give extra formability (can follow shapes) .

Sandwich Panel Composites (core)

Over-expanded Honeycomb Cells – give extra formability (can follow shapes).

Over-expanded Honeycomb Cells – give extra formability (can follow shapes) . Regular (symmetrical) Honeycomb Cells
Over-expanded Honeycomb Cells – give extra formability (can follow shapes) . Regular (symmetrical) Honeycomb Cells

Regular (symmetrical) Honeycomb Cells

Sandwich Panel Composites (core) Honeycomb is available in polymer (thermoplastic or thermoset) , carbon ,

Sandwich Panel Composites (core)

Honeycomb is available in polymer (thermoplastic or thermoset), carbon, aramid (kevlar), and GRP (glass-fiber reinforced polymer). 2 common types of Honeycomb use in aerospace applications:

Aluminium Honeycomb Aramid Fiber Honeycomb (Nomex) honeycomb made of aramid fiber-paper impregnated with phenolic resin.

Aluminum Honeycomb

• relatively low cost

• best for energy absorption

• high strength to weight ratio

• thinnest cell walls

• smooth cell walls

• conductive heat transfer

• electrical shielding

• machinability

heat transfer • electrical shielding • machinability Aramid Fiber (Nomex) Honeycomb • flammability / fire
heat transfer • electrical shielding • machinability Aramid Fiber (Nomex) Honeycomb • flammability / fire

Aramid Fiber (Nomex) Honeycomb

• flammability / fire retardance (slow

down fire)

• large selection of cell sizes, densities, and strengths

• formability (can follow shape)

• insulative (insulator)

• low dielectric (electrical insulator)

properties

Sandwich Panel Composites (core) Sandwich constructions made with other core materials (Balsa, Foam, etc.) have

Sandwich Panel Composites (core)

Sandwich Panel Composites (core) Sandwich constructions made with other core materials (Balsa, Foam, etc.) have large
Sandwich Panel Composites (core) Sandwich constructions made with other core materials (Balsa, Foam, etc.) have large

Sandwich constructions made with other core materials (Balsa, Foam, etc.) have large surface available for bonding the skins (high probability of non-uniform adhesive distribution). Honeycomb core needs only a small fillet of adhesive placed at the edge of the cell walls. Performance of Sandwich Panel Composite depends on:

Uniformity of adhesive distribution. Manufacturing (processing) factors (resin viscosity, temperature, vacuum [porosity], etc).

Composite Material Strength Depends on following Factors : Fiber factors: Fiber type (kind) Fiber strength

Composite Material Strength

Depends on following Factors:

Fiber factors:

Fiber type (kind)

Fiber strength

Fiber length

Fiber size (diameter / bundle / strand)

Fiber volume (fiber volume to composite volume – fiber volume

fraction) Fiber defects (crystal or molecular / atomic alignment / arrangement).

Fiber orientation (angle orientation)

Fiber shape (organization / design / architecture).

Matrix factors:

Matrix type (kind). Matrix properties (physical, mechanical, chemical).

Matrix type (kind). Matrix properties (physical, mechanical, chemical).

Composite Material Strength Depends on following Factors : Fiber-Matrix factors: Homogeneity (uniformity) of mixture

Composite Material Strength

Depends on following Factors:

Fiber-Matrix factors:

Depends on following Factors : Fiber-Matrix factors: Homogeneity (uniformity) of mixture (reinforcement and

Homogeneity (uniformity) of mixture (reinforcement and matrix). Natural roughness (mechanical interlocking between fiber and matrix). Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of matrix (same with fiber). Bonding quality (interfacial (common boundary) bonding – coupling agents) of the fiber and matrix (equal stress distribution). Voids (empty spaces). Moisture absorption (coupling agents – prevent moisture entry). Moisture can damage (chemical

reaction) the reinforcement, matrix,

and interphase bonding.

moisture entry). Moisture can damage (chemical reaction) the reinforcement , matrix , and interphase bonding .

Composite Material Strength Depends on following Factors : Bonding Quality – interfacial bonding (coupling agents)

Composite Material Strength

Depends on following Factors:

Bonding Quality interfacial bonding (coupling agents) between fiber and matrix.

The chemistry behind the interfacial bonding of fiber and matrix is

very important.

Fibers are debonded (pulled-out) from matrix if interfacial bonding is insufficeint.

matrix is very important . Fibers are debonded (pulled-out) from matrix if interfacial bonding is insufficeint
Composite Material Strength Break Surface Fiber-Matrix Adhesion Good Fiber-Matrix Adhesion Loose fibers are pulled-out

Composite Material Strength

Break Surface

Fiber-Matrix Adhesion

Good Fiber-Matrix Adhesion

Surface Fiber-Matrix Adhesion Good Fiber-Matrix Adhesion Loose fibers are pulled-out (insufficient adhesion). Poor
Surface Fiber-Matrix Adhesion Good Fiber-Matrix Adhesion Loose fibers are pulled-out (insufficient adhesion). Poor

Loose fibers are pulled-out (insufficient adhesion).

Poor Fiber-Matrix Adhesion

Composite Material Strength Function of the Coupling Agent Interfacial bonding (chemical bonding at small extent

Composite Material Strength

Function of the Coupling Agent

Interfacial bonding (chemical bonding at small extent) between the fiber and matrix.

Function of the Coupling Agent Interfacial bonding (chemical bonding at small extent ) between the fiber
Effect of Fiber Type Properties Of Unidirectional Composites Property E-Glass/ S-Glass/ Aramid/ Carbon/

Effect of Fiber Type

Properties Of Unidirectional Composites

Property

E-Glass/

S-Glass/

Aramid/

Carbon/

Epoxy

Epoxy

Epoxy

Epoxy

Fiber Volume

0.55

0.50

0.60

0.63

(%in decimal form) Longitudinal Modulus (GPa) 39

43

87

142

Transverse .Modulus (GPa) Shear Modulus (GPa) Poisson’s Ratio (unitless)

8.6

8.9

5.5

10.3

3.8

4.5

2.2

7.2

0.28

0.27

0.34

0.27

Long.Tensile Strength(MPa) 1080

1280

1280

2280

Compressive Strength(MPa) 620

690

335

1440

Properties of Reinforced Plastics (PMC)

Mechanical properties of reinforced plastics