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COLLEGE SERIES OF GREEK AUTHORS

EDITED DNDEK THE SUPERVISION OF

JOHN WILLIAMS WHITE AND CHARLES BUETON GUUCK

INTEODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF THE

GEEEK DIALECTS
GRAMMAR
SELECTED INSCRIPTIONS
GLOSSARY

BY

CARL DARLING UCK


PBOFESSOK OF SANSKRIT AND INDO-EUROPEAN COMPARATIVE PHILOLOGT
IN THE UNIVERSITY OP CHICAGO

GINN AND COMPANY


BOSTON

NEW YORK

CHICAGO

LONDON

Entered at Stationebs' Hall


Copyright,

1910,

by

John 'Williams White akd Charles Burton Golick


ALL rights reserved
910.1

(He attenanm gteg<


GINN AND COMPANY PROPRIETORS BOSTON' U.S.A.

TO
THE MEMORY OF

THOMAS DAY SEYMOUR

PREFACE
The aim of this work is to fnrnish in concise form the essential
material for an introductory study of the Greek dialects. Hitherto
there has been no single volume intended to fulfill the requirements
of college and graduate students who wish to gain a first-hand
knowledge of Greek dialects, whether for a better understanding of
historical Greek grammar, or for a greater appreciation of the variety of speech in the Greek world, only half suspected from the few
dialects employed in literature, or as a substantial foundation for a
critical

study of these literary

dialects, or

merely for the ability to

handle intelligently the numerous dialect inscriptions which are


important in the investigation of Greek institutions.
It is

now more than

ten years since the author formed the plan

of publishing a brief collection of

Greek

dialect inscriptions with

explanatory notes for the use of students, and made a selection for
this purpose.

rum (2d

At

that time Cauer's Delectus inscriptionum Graeca^

ed. 1883),

which proved useful for many

years,

had already

ceased to be a representative collection of dialect inscriptions.

In

the case of several dialects the material there given was quite over-

shadowed in importance by the discoveries of recent years. In the


meantime this situation has been relieved by the publication of
Solmsen's Inscriptiones Graecae ad inlustrandas dialectos selectae.
But another need, which it was equally a part of the plan to supply,
namely of more explanatory matter for the assistance of beginners
in the subject, has remained unfilled up to the present time, though
here again in the meantime a book has been announced as in preparation (Thumb's Handbuch der griechischen Dialekte) which presumably aims to serve the same purpose as the present one.
With regard to the explanatory matter, the first plan was to accompany the inscriptions not only by exegetical, but also by rather
full grammatical notes, with references to the grammars where the

PEEFACE

vi

peculiarity in question -was treated as a whole.

But

tlie

desire to

include all that was most essential to the student in this single volume led to the expansion of the introduction into a concise " Gram-

and the author has come to believe that this


prove to be the most useful part of the work. Without it the
student would be forced at every turn to consult either the larger

mar

of the Dialects,"

may

Greek Grammars, where, naturally, the dialectic peculiarities are


not sifted out from the discussion of the usual literary forms, or
else the various grammars of special dialects. For, since Ahrens,
the works devoted to the Greek dialects, aside from discussions of
special topics, have consisted in separate grammars of a single dialect or, at the most, of a single group of dialects. Some of the advantages which this latter method undoubtedly possesses we have
aimed to preserve by means of the Summaries (pp. 129-153).

Highly important as are the dialects for the comparative study


Greek language, this Grammar is distinctly not intended as
a manual of comparative Greek grammar. It restricts itself to the
discussion of matters in which dialectic differences are to be observed, and the comparisons are almost wholly within Greek itself.
Furthermore, the desired brevity could be secured only by eliminating almost wholly any detailed discussion of disputed points and
citation of the views of others, whether in agreement or in oppoSome notes and references
sition to those adopted in the text.
are added in the Appendix, but even these are kept within narrow
limits.
Several of these references are to articles which have appeared since the printing of the Grammar, which began in Septemof the

ber 1908, was completed.


Especial pains have been taken to define as precisely as possible

the dialectic distribution of the several peculiarities, and

it is

be-

lieved that, though briefly stated

and without exhaustive lists of


examples, fuller information of this kind has been brought together
than is to be found in any other general work. Biit, as the most competent critics will also be the first to admit, no one can be safe from
the danger of having overlooked some stray occurrence of a given
peculiarity in the vast and still much scattered material; and, furthermore, such statements of distribution are subject to the need of continual revision in the light of the constantly appearing

new

material.

PREFACE
The

reasons for not attempting in the

of the peculiarities exhibited

forth on

by our

vii

Grammar

a fuller account

literary texts in dialect are set

p. 14.

The Selected

Inscriptions show such a noticeable degree of coinwith


the
selection made by Solmsen, in the work cited above,
cidence
it is perhaps well to state expressly that this is not the result
simply adopted a large part of his selections with some
having
of
additions, as it might appear, but of an independent selection, made
some years before the appearance of his work, and, except for some
necessary reduction, adhered to with probably not over half a dozen

that

substitutions.

Eor a brief

collection the choice of the

most repre-

when the dialects are comparar


The later inscriptions with their

sentative inscriptions from a time


tively

unmixed

is

fairly clear.

various types of dialect mixture are of great interest, and some

few examples

of these

phase adequately

is

have been included.

possible only in a

But

to represent this

much more comprehensive

collection.

The transcription employed is also identical with that used by


Solmsen in his second edition, but this again is the result of longsettled conviction that this system, as used for example by Baunack
in his Inschriften von Gortyn (1885) and his edition of the Delphian
inscriptions (1891), is the one best adapted for a work of this kind.

The

brevity of the notes

other parts of the book.

If,

is

justified

by the assistance given

in

before beginning the inscriptions of a

given dialect, the student familiarizes himself with its main characby the help of the Summaries (180-273), he will not feel

teristics

the need of a comment or reference for a form that, from the point
of view of the dialect in question, has nothing abnormal about it.

Furthermore, the Glossary makes it unnecessary to comment on


many individual words. Detailed discussion of the problems of
chronology, constitutional antiquities, etc. which are involved in
many of the inscriptions is not called for in a work the principal

aim of which is linguistic.


It is sometimes advisable for a student to depart from the order
in which the inscriptions are given, and to begin his study of a dialect with one of the later inscriptions, e.g. in Arcadian to read first
no. 18, leaving until later the

more

difficult nos. 16, 17.

PEEFACE

viii

The Glossary and Index,

besides serving as an index to the

Gram-

words occurring in the Selected Inmar, is intended to include


in Liddell and Scott, or exhibit
found
be
scriptions which are not to
all

unusual meanings.

Some time

book was

after this

first

planned, I learned that the

editors of the College Series had already arranged for a volume

dealing with the monuments, inscriptional and literary, which represent the different dialects of Greece,

by Professor H.

W.

Smyth.

But, finding that Professor Smyth, because of other interests, was


quite willing to relinquish the task, the editors invited
tribute

my

contemplated work to the Series.

Seymour, under

whom more

first dialect inscriptions,

The

late

me

to con-

Professor

than twenty years ago I had read my


me valuable counsel on the general

gave

and before his lamented death read over a large part of my


am also under obligation to Professor Gulick for the
great care with which he has read the proofs and for important sug-

plan,

manuscript. I

gestions.

The proofreading

so notably accurate

appreciation of

in the office of the publishers has been

and scholarly that I cannot omit to express

it.

r.

my

r,

C. D. B.

Chicago, Novembek 1909

CONTENTS
PAET

GRAMMAR OF THE DIALECTS

I:

INTRODUCTION

Page

Classification and Interrelation of the Dialects

The Dialects

PHONOLOGY

Literature

in

.15
17

...
...

FOR O BEFORE AND AFTER LiQDIDS


FOR a IN Other Cases
FOR a
.

12

...

Alphabet
Vowels
O

17

.18
.

19

a
i;

FROM

d IS Attic-Ion K'

19

FROM
FROM

BESIDE

a FROM

e
e

BEFORE A VoWEL
BEFORE V IN AuCAnO-CYPRIAN

Other Cases

IN

before

West Greek

p ix

...
...
...
....
...
.

NoRTinvEST Greek:

East Greek

1
*

o
1

from
FROM

ij

IN

Elean

17

IN

ThESSALIAN AND BOEOTIAN

Lesbian

ai

....

...

-q

FROM 1 AFTER p IN AeOLIC


Consonantal from Antevocalic

.....
i

and

21

22
23
23
23

SALIAX

21

.23

Interchange of

19

20

in Lesbian

and Thes-

...

2-t

.24
24

o
V

FROM

0,

ESPECIALLY IN ArCADO-CyPRIAN

ov FROM u) IN Thessalian
AND V
ou IN Boeotian etc.
Secondary e AND 0. "Spurious Diphthongs"
.

25

25

25
25

.26

CONTENTS
Page
Diphthongs
ij

ei

e
t

FROM
FROM

oi in

FROM ei
FROM ei

IN

28

Boeotian
Thessalian

at IN

28
28

Boeotian

29.

FROM 01 IN Boeotian
BEFORE Vowels

av, CD, ou

....

In General

FROM au, ev IN East Ionic


Monophthongization of o
(V BEFORE VoWELS
ao, CO,

CM,

In Lesbian
Insertion op

30

30

30

...

f.

Loss of

31
81

Long Diphthongs
In General
a, 7;, w, from dtjtjt, qjl
FROM 7;t
Non-Diphthongal Vowel Combination (Contraction
In General
.

31

.........
.

fit

a OR o

+ Vowel

+ Vowel
+ Vowel
o + Vowel
e

29
29

ai, ei, ot

32

33

etc.)

33
34
36

38

Tl

88

Notes to Preceding
Assimilation op Vowels
Epenthetic Vowels
Anaptyctic Vowels
Vowel-Gradation
Consonants

89
40
41
41

41

In General
jS

FOR f

43
44

Initial f before a

Vowel

Intervocalic f
Postconsonantal
f before Consonants

46

Consonantal

47

48

Spiritus Asper. Psilosis

Loss of Intertocalic
RlIOTACISM
Change of t to or.

44
45

49
c

61
62

63

CONTENTS

....

<!>>',

Page

...

8,7

P,

XI

54

55

Lacoxian <r FROM 6


Interchange op Surds, Sonants, axo Aspirates
Interchange of it and itt
Interchange op Labials, Dentals, and Gutturals
Nasals and Liquids
Nasal before Consonant
Transposition of a Liquid, ou Loss by Dissimilation
Cretan u fkom X
trr, ve, from Xt, xe
Double Liquids and Nasals in Lesbian and Thessalian

55

56

Xk

>,

+i

...

P,

....
+

Jntervocahc

...
...

67

58

.59
60

.60

.60

61
.

.61

Liquid or Nasal

0-

61

v<r

Original Intervocalic koK7 + Consonant


Secondary Intervocalic kjFinal v<r
.
.

cr,

TT

mr, tt

Original
J,

a-a-

...

88

62
63

...........
........

X<r, p<r
fr<r,

62

62

6'1

65
66

.66

66

67

o-e

Assimilation, Dissimilation, and Transposition of Consonants

Assimilation in Consonant Groups


Transposition in Consonant Groups
Assimilation, Dissimilation, and Transposition, between
Non-Contiguous Consonants
.

Doubling of Consonants
Changes in External Cosibination
.

In Gener.vl
Elision

....
.

Final
Final

,
s

FlN.VL p

69
70

.72
72
72
.

69

72

.... ...
......
.

68

71

Apocope
Consonant Assimilation

Aphaeresis
Shortening of a Final Long Vowel
Crasis

74
75

76
'7

CONTENTS

xu

Page
Pinal Mute

77

....
....

l^,iK,is

Consonant Doubling

Movable
Accent
p

77

78

78

79

INFLECTION
Nouns and Adjectives
Feminine .a-STEMS
Masculine d-SiEMS

80
81

81

o-Stems

Consonant Stems in General

82

it-Stems

83

i-Stems

w-Stems

Nouns in -evs
Some Irregular Nouns

84

85

8.5

86

Comparison of Adjectives

87

Numerals
Cardinals and Ordinals
Pronouns
Personal Pronouns
.

possessives

87

90

91

....

Reflexive Pronouns
Demonstrative Pronouns

91

92

Relative, Interrogative, and Indefinite Pronouns


Adverbs and Conjunctions
Pronominal Adverbs and Conjunctions of Place, Time, and
.

....
....

Manner

Prepositional and Other Adverbs


Prepositions
Peculiarities in Form
Peculiarities in Meaning and Construction

93

95
97

99
100

Verbs

Augment and Reduplication

103

Active Personal Endings


Middle Personal Endings
Imperative Active and Middle
Future and Aorist

...
.

Perfect

....
....
....
.

...

105
106
107

109

Subjunctive
Optative
Infinitive

103

110

Unthematic Inflection of Contract Verbs

....
....

112
112

114

CONTENTS

xiii

Page

Middle Participle in -ei/iei/os


Type 0t\i}cD, (neipaviliiti
Transfer or /ii-VEKBS to the Type of Contract Verbs
Some Other Interchanges in the Present System
The Verb " To Be "
.

114
115

"WORD-FORMATION

.115

...
.

115
117

On the Form and Use of Certain Suffixes and Certain Peculiarities OF Composition
-7)tos

-eios

Type xop'"s

-afis

-Tis, -(n%,

-a-fws,

-tr/jui

119

...

.119

...

= -T))S
-los = -eos
-qv = -<ov
-Trip

-uvSas, -ovSas

119

.......

Individual Cases of Variation in Suffix


-Tepos

....

-iSios
.

-wv

...
...Vowel ...

Proper Najies

in -kX&s

-rpoc
~0}V^

120
120
120
120
121
121
121

121
121
121

At6foTos, Gtifbros

120
120

Stems in First Member of


Interchange of Different
122
Compound, etc
122
Patronymic Adjective instead of Genitive Singular
.

SYNTAX
The Cases
The Genitive
The Dative
The Accusative
The Moods
The Subjunctive
The Optative
The Imperative and the
Word Order

124

125

125

...

125

Infinitive

126

...

128

128

SUMMARIES OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SEVERAL


GROUPS AND DIALECTS
East Greek
Attic-Ionic
Ionic

...

Arcado-Ctpeian
Arcadian
Cyprian

....

129
.

130
132
'"
1^*

CONTENTS

xiv

Aeolic
Lesbian
Thessalian
Boeotian

West Greek

....

....
....
....
....
.

135

135

...

Northwest Greek
Phocian
LOCRIAN

Page

136

141

139

142
143
144

Elean

144

Doric
Laconian

Heraclean

146
147

Argolio
Corinthian
.

...

Megarian
Rhodian
COAN
Theran
Cretan

148

148
149
149

150

....

151
151

SURVIVAL or THE DIALECTS GROWTH OF VARIOUS EORMS


OF KOINH
;

The Attic Koivii


The Doric Koiirfi
The Northwest Greek

....

....
Koi;'^

154

156
157

158

Hybrid Forms, Hyper-Doric Forms, Artificial Revival op


Dialects

PAET
IONIC

160

SELECTED INSCEIPTIONS

II:

...

East Ionic
Central Ionic
West Ionic (Euboean)
.

....
....
....

ARCADIAN

CYPRIAN
LESBIAN
THESSALIAN

Pelasgiotis
Thessaliotis

BOEOTIAN
PHOCIAN

....

...
....
.

164
169

171
174
180

.183

Delphian
Exclusive op Delphi

....
.

....
....
....
...
.

190
195

196

205
212

CONTENTS

XV
Page

LOCRIAN

214

ELEAN
NORTHWEST GREEK KOINH
LACONIAN
HERACLEAN .*

219

ARGOLIC
CORINTHIAN

239

MEGARIAN
RHODIAN
COAN
THERAN
CRETAN

223
225
231

...

247
249

251

255

259
261

APPENDIS
Selected Bibliographt
Notes and Referexces

GLOSSARY AND INDEX

281'

287
.

299

CHARTS ILLUSTRATING THE DISTRIBUTION OE IMPORTANT


PECULIARITIES

DIALECT MAP OF GREECE

Plates I-IV

Plate

ABBEEYIATIONS
The following abbreviations
of the

are employed for languages, dialects, and local sources

forms quoted.

= German
= Gortynian
= Heraclean
Herm. = of Hermione
Ion. = Ionic
Lac. = Laconian
Lat. = Latin
Lesb. = Lesbian
Locr. = Loorian
Mant. = Mantinean
Meg. = Megarian
Mel. = of Melos
Mess. = Messenian
Mil. = of Miletus
Mycen. = of Mycene
Nisyr. = of Nisynis
N.W.Grk. = Northwest Greek
Olynth. = of Olynthus
Drop. = of Oropus
Pamph. = Pamphylian
Phoc. = Phocian
Eheg. = of Rhegium
Khod. = Rhodian
Selin. = of Selinus
Sicil. = Sicilian
Sicyon. = Sicyonian
Skt. = Sanskrit
Stir. = of Stiris

Acarn. = Aoamanian
Ach. = Achaean
Aegin. = Aeginetan
Aetol. = Aetollan
Agrlg.

Germ.

Gortyn.
Heracl.

= of Agrigentum
= of Amorgos

Amorg.
And. =

Andania

of

Arc. = Arcadian
Arc.-Cypr. = Arcado-Cyprian
Arg. = Argive (of Argos)
Argol. = Argolic (of Argolis)
Astyp. = of Astypalaea
Att. = Attic
Att.-Ion. = Attic-Ionic
Av. or Avest. = Avestan
Boeot. = Boeotian

Calymn.

of

Calymna

Carpath. = of Carpathus
Chalced. = of Chalcedon
Chalcid. = Chalcidian
Cnid. = Cnidian
Corcyr. = Corcyraean
Corintli. = Corinthian

= Cretan
= Cyprian
= of Cyrene
= Delphian
Dodon. = of Dodona
Dor. = Doric
El. = Elean
Eng. = English
Ephes. = Ephesian
Epid. = Epidaurian
Epir. = Epirotan
Eretr. = Eretrian
Eub. = Euboean
Cret.

Cypr.
Cyren.
Delph.

Styr.=

of Styra
Sybar. = of Sybaris
Syrac. = Syracusan
Teg. = Tegean
Thas. = of Thasos
Ther. = Theran
Thess. = Thessalian
Troez. = of Troezen
-

In abbreviating the names of Greek authors and of their works, Liddell and Scott's
grammatical
has been generally followed. Note also the more general gram.
(forms quoted from the ancient grammarians) and lit.
literary (forms quoted from
the literary dialects without mention of the individual authors)
For abbreviations of modern works of reference, see under the Bibliography,
pp. 281 fe.
Other abbreviations which are occasionally employed will be readily understood,
compound, dat.
dative, Imv.
imperative, 1.
line, pi.
plural, sg.
as cpd.
singular, subj.
subjunctive.
list

PAST

I:

GRAMMAR OF THE DIALECTS


INTRODUCTION

Classification and Inteeeelation of the Dialects


1.

When

Greece

the ancient grammarians spoke of the four dialects of

Koiv^ as a fifth

they had

in

and Doric,

to

which some added the

mind solely the

Literary dialects, wliich

Attic, Ionic, Aeolic,

furnished the occasion and object of their study. But these hterary

few of the many forms


which play no part whatever

dialects represent only a

of speech current

in Greece, most of

in literature, and,

apart from some scattered glosses, would be entirely

us were

it

miknown

not for the wealth of inscriptions which the

to

soil of

Greece has yielded in modern times.

The existence of Ionic, Aeolic, and Doric elements in the people


and speech of Greece is an undoubted fact of Greek history, and
one of first importance to an understanding of the dialect relations. But there is no warrant, either ia the earUer Greek tradition
or in the linguistic evidence, for making this an aU-inclusive classification. These three elements were precipitated, as it were, on the
coast of Asia ilinor, where their juxtaposition gave rise to the historical recognition of the distinction.

and Dorians

of

And

as the lonians, Aeolians,

Asia Minor were colonists from Greece proper,

it

was a natural and proper inference of the historians that they reflected ethnic divisions which also existed, or had once existed, in
1 See also the Summaries of Characteristics, 180-273, and Charta I and la
at the end of the book.

GEEEK DIALECTS

2
the mother country.^

As

to

who were

[l

the Dorians of Greece proper

there was of course no mystery. They formed a well-defined group

throughout the historical period, and the tradition that they came
originally from the Northwest is completely home out by the close

and Northwest Greek dialects (see below).


That the lonians were akin to the inhabitants of Attica was an
accepted fact in Greek history, and the Athenians are called Ionic
both in Herodotus (e.g. 1.56) and Thucydides (6.82, 7.57). The
relationship of the Doric

The only uncertainty

linguistic evidence is equally unmistakable.

here

is

as to the extent of territory

which was once

Ionic.

There

which lonians once occupied the


Corinthian
gulf, the later Achaea (e.g. Hdt.
the
Megara (e.g. Strabo 9.392), Epidaurus (e.g. Pans,

are various accounts according to

southern shore of

1.145-146, 7.94),
2.26.2),

and Cynuria (Hdt.

8.73).

are of questionable value, yet

If these

accounts in themselves

we cannot doubt

that the lonians

before the migration were not confined to Attica.

The

close rela-

tions of Epidaurus and Troezen with Athens, in cult and legend, are
significant for the Argolic Acte,

and

it is

reasonable to assume that

at least the entire shore of the Saronic gulf

The

affinities of

was once

lonic.^

the Aeolians were more obscure, for theirs

was

the earliest migration to Asia Minor, the most remote from the

But Thessaly was the scene

of their favorite

legends, the

of Achilles, as also of their

eponymous hero

Aeolus,

of their place-names

historical period.

home
and many

Thessaly.

had

their counterpart in

In Herodotus we find the tradition that the Thessalians


were invaders from the west who occupied

of the historical period

1 It is equally natural, and quite iustiflable as a matter of convenience, to


apply the same names to these earlier divisions. That the name Ionian, for example, did not gain its current application on the mainland, but in the east, is
of no consequence. Such generic terms are everywhere of gradual growth.
2 That is, in a period contemporaneous with the Aeolic and Achaean occupation of other parts of Greece (see below). Of a still remoter period the view has
been advanced that the lonians formed the first wave of Greek migration, were
in fact the much-discussed Pelasgians, and for a time occupied also the territory
which with the next wave of migration became Aeolic or Achaean. This is,

naturally,

much more

problematical.

INTEODUCTION

1]

what had hitherto been an AeoUc


evidence

most

is

in perfect accord.

land,i

and with

For Thessalian

closely related to Lesbian,

and

at the

than in

These

is,

shai-es in

dialects, this

by

the

some

admixture

stronger in Thessaliotis

See 201, 202, 210, and Chart

Pelasgiotis.

tians also are called Aeolians


dialect

this the hnguistic

is of all dialects

same time

West Greek
West Greek elements being somewhat

of the characteristics of the


of

I.

The Boeo-

Thucydides,'' and the Boeotian

next to Thessalian, the most closely related to Lesbian.

thr-ee

have several notable characteristics in common

(see

and are known as the Aeohc dialects. But in


Boeotian there is an even stronger admixture of West Greek elements than in Thessalian (see 217 and Chart I), the historical
explanation of which must be the same. If we credit the state201 and Chart

I),

ment of Thucydides that the Boeotian invaders were from Arne,


whence they had been driven by the Thessalians,^ we should recognize in these Boeotians, not a part of the old AeoKc population of
Thessaly, but a tribe of West Greek invaders from Epirus (cf. Mt.
Boeon), like the Thessalians who forced them onward. The Aeolic
element

is

to be ascribed rather to the tribes, or

some

of

them,

comprising the early stratum, as for example the Minyans of


Orchomenos. However obscure such details may be, the evidence
is perfectly clear

that both Boeotia and Thessaly were once Aeolic,

but were overrun by West Greek tribes which adopted the speech
of the earlier inhabitants in greater or less degree.
It is a natural presumption, of

which there

ai-e

some

specific

indications, that not only Thessaly and Boeotia but the interme-

and

Locris,

Hdt. 7.176 Are! er<roXoi

^XfloK ix

diate lands of Phocis

and even southern Aetolia


eetrwpwrwv

olicTljiTOVTes

y^v

in fact

riiv Alo\lSa, tiJi'

rep vSf ^rr^rai.


'

Thuc. 7.57

ovroi Si AtoK^s AtoXeB<rt Tofs KTl<ra<rt Bouirrorr tois

/lerel

ZvpaKOtrlav

the Aeolians of Mediymna, Tenedos, etc., were compelled to fight against the Aeolians who founded these cities, namely the Boeotians; id. S.2 Boturuv (vyyeviop 6rTuii (of the Lesbians).
(COT

ivAymiv iiiAxoTo,

Thuc.

rrdvres

1.

i.e.

12 BotoiTof re yip

diri Geo-o-aXw* Ti) yOr

oi vvv iii)Ko<rTV ^rei /isri 'Tklov iXairiy (i 'Apvris

Souarlav, Trpirepov Se

'S.aSp.iilSa.

iva-

y^v koKouiUvtiv ^Kriaar.

GREEK DIALECTS

[l

the
that portion of Greece north of Attica which plays a r61e in
Minor,
was once Aeolic. Phocaea in Asia
legends of early Greece
all

which, though

belonged originally to the strip

later Ionic, surely

of Aeolic colonies,

believed to be a colony of Phocis, and in the

was

dialect of Phocis there are actually

some

relics of

Aeolic speech, as

the dative plural of consonant stems in -ecrai (107.3), which is also


found in eastern Locris. As for southern AetoHa, the region of

Calydon and Pleuron was once called Aeolis aecordmg to Thucyd-

and the probability is that the Aetolians of the Homeric period


were Aeolic, though their name was taken by the later. West Greek,
invaders. The Aetolian occupation of Elis was an accepted tradiides,i

tion,

and the existence

this if

we assume

later sense, that is


dialect,

an Aeolic element in the dialect of

of

like the dative plural in

-ecrai,

Elis,

connection with

may be brought into

that while the invaders were Aetolians in the

West Greek,

as Elean

is

distinctly a

West Greek

they had nevertheless adopted certaiu characteristics of the


and brought them to Elis. Corinth was

earlier Aeolic Aetolian

also once occupied

by Aeolians according

a noteworthy fact that the dative plural in


in other Doric dialects,

is

and it is
which is unknown

to Thucydides,^
-ecro-t,

found in various Corinthian colonies (107.3).


limits within which the term

But we have passed beyond the

Aeolic, or in general the division into Ionic, Doric,

and Aeolic, can

with any propriety be applied to the peoples and dialects of the


historical period.

made

into

an

It is only in Strabo that these three

all-inclusive

system

of classification,

groups are

by means

unwarranted extension of Aeolic to include everything that


Ionic or Doric.

And

Strabo's,^ the error of

yet

it

is,

of
is

an
not

unfortunately, this statement of

which has long since been recognized, that

Thuo. 3.102 ii T^v XloXlSa Ti]v vSv KaKaviiirrfV 'KaKvSwva Kal nXevpwva.
Thuo. 4. 42 iirkp ov b 'LoKiyeioi XAi^os itTTly, iifl ov Aupiijs tA irdXai ISpvBirres
rots iv T% irfiXct KopivBioK iiroX^fxovVj offtrty Alo\eO<rt.
' Strabo 8.333 irivres yd,p ol iKris 'lirSiwO irXiiv 'AOrivaluv xal Meyapiui' xal ruv
1

irepX

rbv

IIo/ii'ocro'Ai'

Aupiiuv

AfoXets Tp&repov ^(rav, etr

vxiiTuv, Tuv

S'

/to!

vvv

en

iii,lx9i](sa.v,

A2oXeis KoXoBvrai.

Kal

ol

ivris (sc.'lirfl/ioO)

'Iiivuv pip ix rijs 'Attik^s riv Ai7ioX6i' koto-

'HpaKXeiSflK Tois Aapiias KaTayayivTur, ...

o!

piv otv'luves i^iireaov

INTRODUCTIOI^

1]

has often been taken as representative of ancient tradition and


still colors, in the literal sense, our maps of ancient Greece.
The
historical Phocians, Locrians, Aetohans,

statement implies, called Aeolic.

etc.,

were not, as Strabo's

Neither in Herodotus, Thucydi-

nor any early writer, are they ever brought under any one of
the three groups. Their dialects, with that of Elis, which Strabo
des,

which may be conveniently designated the


Northwest Greek dialects, are, in spite of some few traces of AeoHc
as mentioned above, most closely related to the Doric dialects.
There is scarcely one of the general characteristics common to the
also calls Aeolic, all of

Doric dialects in which they do not share, though they also have
certain peculiarities of their own.

See 223 with

and Chart

a, 226,

If

we were

is

unquestionably Doric to which they have the best claim, and

to classify

Strabo and our

maps

ous objection.

Indeed

them under any one

them

so classed

modem

Doric in

But on the whole


its historical

it

would be no very

scholars do often class

" Doiic in the wider sense," calling

Doric."

there

I.

of the three groups, it

them then

if

seri-

them under

specifically "

North

seems preferable to retain the term

application

and employ West Greek

as the

comprehensive term to include the Northwest Greek dialects and


the Doric proper.

In

fact the

most fimdamental division

Greek

dialects is

dialects,

the terms

of the

West Greek and the East Greek

that into these

The East

referring to their location prior to the great migrations.

Greek

Eire

the

the peoples

"

Old Hellenic "

who held

dialects, that is those

employed by

the stage almost exclusively in the period

represented by the Homeric poems,

when

the

West Greek

peoples

remained in obscurity in the northwest. To the East Greek division


belong the Ionic and Aeolic groups, though, of the

and Boeotian, as explained above, are mixed


TdXir TOxAiis

irwb

'Axtuav, AloKixcS eBrov!

t6 tc AtoXurdc xal ri Awpixiv.

&roi fi^w

ww4pri Tots re 'ApKdirt Koi rots 'HXeiots,


afi0o, oi /i^ fiaWof
Tin ixP't'^'"^"
.

o?>
.

. ,

latter,

Thessalian

dialects belonging in

fKct^Sti S" ir tJ IleXoiroFiTJo-^i rd Sio ^Bni,


^ttop tois AwpiEwriv irewX^KOFTO, Kaddrep

ofroi otoXurri fitcX^ffqcrar, oi

oi S*

^TTor

alo\t{>)rTS.

5"

SXXot /aurrj

GEEEK DIALECTS

West Greek

part also in the

And

division.

[l

to East

Greek belongs

also another group, the Arcado-Cyprian.

No two

dialects,

not even Attic and Ionic, belong together more

They

obviously than do those of Arcadia and the distant Cyprus.

which are unknown elsewhere. See 189 and Chart I. This is to be accounted for by the
fact that Cyprus was colonized, not necessarily or probably from

number

share in a

Arcadia

as tradition states, but

itself,

at a time

of notable peculiarities

when

its

from the Peloponnesian

This group represents, beyond question, the

the Doric migration.

we

pre-Doric speech of most of the Peloponnesus, whatever


to call

that

it

apply

The term Achaean

it.

is

might be well to avoid


it

coast,

speech was like that which in Arcadia survived

it

used in so
entirely.

many
But

choose

different senses

it is

convenient to

which actually has the best claim to

to this group,

it,

some other term than Arcado-Cyprian,


which, whUe describing accurately what is left of the group in
whenever the need

is felt of

the historical period,


prehistoric times.

is

The

strikingly infelicitous

relations of this

when

East Greek division, especially Aeolic, are the most

of the

difficult to

Strabo, of course, calls the Arcadians Aeolic,

interpret historically.

but without warrant in earlier usage.

For example, Thucydides,

in describing the forces engaged at Syracuse (7.57),

most

applied to

group to the others

of the distinction

between

Ionic, Doric,

makes the

and Aeolic nations,

but does not class the Arcadians with any one of these.

Yet the

Arcadian and Cyprian dialects show notable resemblances to the


Aeolic dialects which cannot be afecidental (see 190.3-6 and Chart

I),

them all together under the head of " Aeolic


in the widest sense" or "Achaean" (Aeolic in the usual sense
then appearing as " North Achaean "). On the other hand, many
and some would

class

of the characteristics

'
'

Achaean

'
'

is

common

applied

by some

to the Aeolic dialects are lacking,

to a

supposed stratum intermediate between

that which survived in Arcado-Cyprian and the later Doric. But there is no
good evidence, either linguistic or otherwise, that any such intermediate stratum

ever existed.

INTEODUCTION

1]

and there are

certain points of agreement with Attic-Ionic (see

One may surmise that the latter,


which are in part confined to Arcadian, are due to contact with
lonians on the coast of the Peloponnesus (see above, p. 2), and
and Chart

190.1, 193.2,3,

I).

that the connections with Aeolic are earlier and more fundamental,

with Aeohc peoples


somewhere in Northern Greece. But that brings us before the " mystery of the Achaean- name," that most difficult problem of the
relation between the Achaeans of the Phthiotis and the pre-Doric
Achaeans of the Peloponnesus, and of those again to the historical
Achaeans on the Corinthian Gidf, whose dialect is West Greek.
reflecting a period of geographical continuity

Conservative procedure here consists in recognizing Arcado-Cyprian,


or Achaean, as a distinct group intermediate between Aeolic and

and conceding that the

Attic-Ionic,

precise historical background of

their interrelations is hopelessly obscure.

West Greek

peculiarities

Arcadian shows some few

which we may properly

attribute to the

influence of the surrounding Doric dialects in the historical period.

Just as in the Northwest Greek dialects some traces of the

former Aeolic speech have survived, as noted above, so

it is

not

Achaean speech in the Doric


dialects spoken in lands formerly Achaean. For example, in
Laconia Poseidon was worshiped under the name of IlohoiSdv,
which recalls Arc. HoaoiSdv, the true Doric form being Hotoisurprising to find

Sdv

traces of

Here possibly belongs

(49.1, 61.5).

scriptions (10).

some

Iv

= iv in

some Cretan

in-

Besides survivals which bear specifically either the

Aeolic or the Achaean stamp, there are others of forms which are

common

to both,

and so from the

linguistic poiat of

view might

be called Aeolic-Achaean, only their provenance leading us to


infer either Aeolic or Achaean source (e.g. probably Achaean,
Te\etr<f>opevT<; 157, TreSa 137.5, ypo<f)ev<} etc. 5, 6)

which might be
entiation.

called simply East

or again others

Greek without further

differ-

But, apart from some few striking examples, the ques-

tion of survival versus accidental agreement or historical borrowing


is

a very delicate one.

GEEEK DIALECTS

classification of the dialects is then, in outliae, as follows

The

West Greek
1.

2.

[l
^
:

East Greek Division

Division

Northwest Greek: Phocian,

1.

Attic-Ionic.

Locrian, Elean, etc.

2.

Aeolic

3.

Arcado-Cyprian or Achaean.

Doric

Lesbian, Thessalian,

Boeotian.

Laconian, Corinthian,

Argolic, Cretan, etc.

The Greek dialects, classified in accordance with the preceding


scheme, and with their important subdivisions noted, are the fol2.

lowing.

For summaries

of the characteristics of each, see 180-273.

EAST GREEK
I.
1.

Attic.

2.

Ionic.

A. East

Ionic, or

coast of Asia

The

Attic-Ionic

Group

Ionic of Asia Minor.

Minor and

The Ionic

the adjacent islands,

cities of

Samos, Chios,

the
etc.,

together with their colonies, mostly on the Hellespont, Propontis,

and Euxine. There are some local varieties, of which the most
marked is Chian, containing some Lesbian features.

The Ionic Cyclades,


colony Thasos, Delos, Tenos, An-

B. Central Ionic, or Ionic of the Cyclades.

Naxos, Amorgos, Paros with

its

dres, Ceos, etc.


C. "West Ionic, or Euboean.
Sicily,

boea.

Chalcis (with its colonies in Italy,

and the Chalcidian peninsula) and the other cities of EuA local dialect with marked characteristics is the Eretrian,

seen ia the inscriptions of Eretria and Oropus.


1 Pamphylian, of which the meager remains permit only a very imperfect
knowledge, and which is therefore, barring occasional references, ignored in this
book, shows notable affinities on the one hand with Arcado-Cyprian (u = o, i^
with dat., etc.), on the other with West Greek (<l>lKa.Ti, lap6s, Sko, etc.). As
Thessalian and Boeotian represent a mixture of Aeolic and West Greek, so
Pamphylian of Achaean and West Greek. Quite probably the earliest colonists
were Achaeans from the Peloponnesus, later followed by Dorians.

INTRODUCTIOZSr

2]
II.
1.

The Akcado-Cypeian oe Achaean Geoup


The most important material

Arcadian.

'is

from Tegea and

Mantiaea.
2.

There are numerous short inscriptions, and one

Cyprian.

considerable length, the bronze of IdaJium.

of

All are iu the Cyprian

syllabary.
III.
1.

The Aeolic Geoup

Lesbian, or Asiatic Aeohc.^

extensive, but late.

There

is

The

inscriptional material is fairly

nothiug approaching the time

of the

poems of Alcaeus and Sappho, and very little that is older than the
Macedonian period. Most of the inscriptions are from the chief
cities of Lesbos,

but a few are from other islands and to-wns of

the Aeolic mainland.


2. Thessalian.^

formed by the

may

Two

subdivisions with

be conveniently,

if

marked

and that

dialect of Pelasgiotis

differences are

of Thessaliotis,

which

not quite appropriately, designated as East

and West Thessalian.

From

Phthiotis there

is

an early Thessalian inscription, but most

Aetohan domination and in

of the material is from the period of

the Northwest Greek

Koivri.

and Magnesia the material


3.

Boeotian.^

See 279.
is

The material

From

Histiaeotis, Perrhaebia,

very scanty.
is

very extensive, and representative

of all the important Boeotian towns, but is

meager

for the early

period.

WEST GREEK
IV.
1.

of

Phocian.

an early

The Noethwest Gkeek Group

A large part of the material,including nearly all that is

date, is

from Delphi, and

is

quoted specifically as Delphian.

1 Sometimes called simply Aeolic. But, to avoid confusion with Aeolic in its
wider sense, the designation Lesbian is to be preferred in spite of the formal
impropriety of applying it to a dialect not restricted to Lesbos. Most of the

is actually from Lesbos.


That Thessalian and Boeotian are only in part Aeolic,
has been explained above, pp. 2, 3.

material
2

in part

West Greek,

GEEEK DIALECTS

10
2.

Locrian.

ern Locris.
3.

Elean.

[2

and important inscriptions are from westFrom eastern Locris the material is meager and late.
All the material, much of which is very early, is from

The

early

Olympia.
4.

The Northwest

Greek Koivri.

Employed in Aetolia and other

regions rmder the domination of the Aetolian league.

See 279.

Note. Only Phocian, Locrian, and Elean are known to us as distinct


Of others which presumably belong here we have
practically no material from a time when they retained their individuality.
In Aetolia, for example, before the rise of the Northwest Greek Koivq there
was undoubtedly a distinct Northwest Greek dialect, probably most nearly
related to Locrian, but of this pure Aetolian we have no knowledge. Of the
speech of Aeniania and Malis previous to the Aetolian domination we have
no remains. It is natural to suppose that Northwest Greek dialects were
once spoken also in Acarnania and Epirus. But here the influence of the
Corinthian colonies was strong from an early period, as shown by the use
of the Corinthian alphabet in the few early inscriptions and in later times,
from which nearly all the material dates, the language employed is not the
dialects of this group.

Northwest Greek Kowq, but the Doric


Acarnania and Epirus
Cephallenia and Ithaca

is

more properly

we have

like that of the contempora-

koivtq,

Hence the actual material from

neous insci-iptions of Corcyra. -See 279.

From

with Corinthian.

classified

decrees in the Northwest Greek

kolvti

from

the Aetolian period (see 279), but from earlier times not enough to show

whether the dialect was Northwest Greek or Doric. From Zacynthus there
is almost nothing. The dialect of Achaea (i. e. Peloponnesian Achaea in
the historical period) is generally believed to belong to this group. This
is probable on general grounds, but there is as yet no adequate linguistic
evidence of it. For, apart from the inscriptions of Achaean colonies in
Magna Graecia, which, both on account of their meagemess and the mixed
elements in the colonization, are indecisive, nearly
the time of the Achaean league, and this
Koarfj,

but in the same Doric

V.
1.

Laconian

Heraclea.

and

Kotvij

all

the material

is

from

not in the Northwest Greek

that was used in Corinth and Sicyon.

The Doric Group


Laconia and

Heracleata.

Heraclean, well

peculiarities of its

is

known from

own, and

is

its

colonies

Tarentum and

the Heraclean Tables, has

treated as a distinct dialect.

ESTTRODUCTION

2]

11

There

is scarcely any material until a late period,


no longer pure.
3. Megarian. Megara, and its colonies in Sicily (especially Selinus)
and on the Propontis and Bosporus (as Byzantium, Chalcedon, etc.).

Messenian.

2.

when

the dialect

is

Except from Selinus the material


CorintMan.

4.

is late.

Corinth, Sicyon, Cleonae, Phlius,

thian colonies Corcyra (with

its

chium), Leucas, Anactorium, Ambracia,

with

own

and the Corin-

own colonies ApoEonia and Dyrrhaetc.,

and, in Sicily, Syracuse

Material from places other than Corinth,


though coming under the general head of Corinthian, is generally
its

colonies.

quoted specifically as Sicyonian, Corcyraean, Syracusan,


Argolic.

5.

Argos, Mycenae,

etc.,

and the

cities of

etc.

the Acte, as

Hermione, Troezen, and Epidaurus together with Aegina.^ Argolic


(abbreviated Argol.) is used as the general term, while Argive (Arg.)

more specifically to the material from Argos (with the Argive


Heraeum), as Epidaurian to that from Epidaurus.
6. Rhodian. Ehodes (Camirus, lalysus, Lindus, and the city of
refers

Eliodes) with the adjacent small islands (Chalce, etc.) and Carpathus,
Telos,

and Syme, the settlements on the mainland

(the

Ehodian

Peraea) and Phaselis in Pamphylia, and the Sicilian colonies Gela

and Agrigentum (an inscription of Ehegium, though not a Ehodian


colony, is in the same dialect). The material is very extensive, but
little of it is early.
7.

Coan and Calymnian.

8.

The

The material is considerable, but not early.


and of Nisyrus, Anaphe, Astypalaea,
The material is late, and insufficient to

dialects of Cnidus,

and other small islands.


determine whether any of these should properly be grouped with
Ehodian, Coan, or Theran.

Nisyrus, for example, was nearly always

connected politically with either Cos or Ehodes.


9.

Theran and Melian.

Thera with Cyrene, and Melos. Early

in-

scriptions are numerous, but brief.


1 From Aegina there is not much material from the period before the Athenian occupation, but enough to show that the dialect was Argolic (note tapios
with lenis, 58 &).

GEEEK DIALECTS

12
10. Cretan.

owing

The

This

is

now

[3

the best-known of

all

the Doric dialects,

from Gortyna.

to the very extensive early material, especially

dialect of

Gortyna and other

of the island is also

cities of

the great central portion

specifically as Central Cretan, to

known more

exclude the divergent type seen in the iascriptions, mostly late,


from the eastern and western extremities of the island. See 273.

But the term Cretan alone

is to

be understood as referring to this

Central Cretan, unless otherwise stated.

The Dialects
3.

Of the numerous

of literary dialects,
ficial

in Liteeatuee

dialects of Greece a

though

for the

form not corresponding to

given time and place.

ment these

dialects

few attained the rank

most part in a mixed and artianything actually spoken at a

Moreover, in the course of literary develop-

came

to be characteristic of certain classes of

hterature, and, their r61e once established, the choice of one or the

other usually depended

upon

this factor rather

than upon the native

dialect of the author.

The
of

literary

development

Asia Minor, whence

it

of epic songs

began with the Aeolians

passed into the hands of the neighboring

lonians, and the language of Homer, which became the norm of


aU epic poetry and strongly affected subsequent poetry of all classes,
is

a mixture of Aeolic and Ionic,

the retention of

many

in the

main Old Ionic but with

Aeolic forms, such as

genitive singular in -do beside

-eco, etc.

dfifie<;

The language

beside
of

^fiel's,

Hesiod

is

some Aeolic forms not used in


Homer, also some Boeotian and Doric peculiarities. The elegiac
and iambic poets also use the epic dialect with some modifications,
substantially the same, but with

not only lonians like Archilochus, but the Athenian Solon, the

Spartan Tyrtaeus, the Megarian Theognis,

Of the melic

poets,

their native Lesbian dialect,


influence.

etc.

Alcaeus and Sappho followed very closely

The language

though not entirely unaffected by epic


and other Lesbian poets was

of these

INTEODUCTION

3]

directly imitated

by some

13

by Theocritus

later writers, notably

in

three of his idyls, and contributed an important element to the

many more, e.g. Anacreon of Teos, who in the main


employed his native Ionic (New Ionic), and, in general, to the
choral lyric, which Xv^as mainly Doric.

language of

The choral

lyric was developed among Doric peoples, though


under the impulse of Lesbian poets, who we know were welcomed

in Sparta, for example, in the seventh century.

Its

language

Doric, vnth an admixture of Lesbian and epic forms,

whether the poet

is

a Dorian, or a Boeotian like Pindar, or an

Ionian like Simonides and Bacchyhdes. This Doric, however,


identical with
posite,

any

specific

showing many

Doric

dialect,

but

is

an

artificial

is

not

com-

of the general Doric characteristics, but with

the elimination of local peculiarities.


in the case of

is

no matter

Alcman, whose Doric

An
is of

exception

is

to be

made

a severer type and evi-

dently based upon the Laconian, though also mixed with Lesbian

and epic forms.

The

earliest prose writers

were the Ionic philosophers and Ms-

torians of the sixth century, and in the

fifth

century not only

Herodotus, but Hippocrates of Cos, a Dorian, wrote in Ionic.

In

the meantime, with the political and intellectual supremacy of

Athens, Attic had become the recognized language

of the

drama,

and before the end of the fifth century was employed in prose also,
though the earlier prose writers as Thucydides, like the tragedians,
avoided certain Attic peculiarities which were stUl felt as provincialisms (e.g. TT = crcr, pp = per). Henceforth Attic was the language of literary prose.
The dialects mentioned are the only literary
cultivated throughout the Greek world.

dialects

But some

known and

few others were

Epicharmus and Sophron wrote in their native


Syracusan Doric, as did, later, Archimedes. A form of Doric prose

employed

locally.

was developed among the Pythagoreans of Magna Graecia, seen in


some fragments of Archytas of Tarentum, Philolaus of Croton, and
others, though the greater part of the writings of this class are

GEEEK DIALECTS

14

The comic poet Ehiuthon, from

spurious.

[3

whom

the grammarians

The fragments of
than local, are
more
Corinna of Tanagra, whose fame was scarcely
in Boeotian, and the Boeotian dialect, as well as Megarian and
sometimes quote, used the Doric of Tarentum.

But the great majority

Laconian, are caricatured by Aristophanes.


of the dialects play

no

whatever in

role

literature.

Even for those dialects which are represented, the literary remaias must for the most part be regarded as secondary sources,
not only because of their

artificial

character but also because of

the corruptions which they have suffered in transmission.

Excep-

tional importance, however, attaches to the language of

Homer

because of

because

its

it is

antiquity,

and

relatively pure

to the Lesbian of

Alcaeus and Sappho

and much older than the inscriptional

material.

Note. In the following exposition,

dialectic

forms from literary and

grammatical sources are not infrequently quoted, especially where the


inscriptional evidence

the personal pronouns.

is slight,

as it

is,

for example,' quite naturally, for

Such forms are sometimes quoted with

cific

sources, sometimes simply as literary Doric

(lit.

Lesb.), literary Ionic

(lit.

Ion.), or

(lit.

their spe-

Dor.), literary Lesbian

grammatical (gram.). But a de-

tailed treatment of the dialectic peculiarities observed in our literary texts


is

so

that

bound up with questions


it is

of literary tradition

and textual criticism


It would

best left to the critical editions of the various authors.

be impracticable in a work of the present scope, and would, moreover, tend


to obscure that more trustworthy picture of the dialects which is gained
from inscriptions, and which is so important as a basis for the critical study
of the

mixed

literary forms.

PHONOLOGY
The Alphabet
4.

The numerous

diEFerences in the local alphabets, so far as

they consist merely in variations of the forms of the


not be discussed here, important as

the}- are to

deciding the age and source of inscriptions.

the use of the alphabet and

its

letters,

need

the epigraphist in

But

certain points in

development as a means

of express-

ing the Greek sounds should be noted.


1.

In the most primitive type

of the

Greek alphabet, as

it

is

seen in the earliest inscriptions of Crete, Thera, and Melos, the

non-Phoenician signs

is

X,

<|),

have not yet been introduced, and the

not in use. The sounds of

<fi,

are represented

y^

by

ttA, k/i

A,

are not

where B (H) when used is tj not


k those of yjr, f by ttct, Ktr.

(or fh), or, as in Crete,

distinguished fi-om
2.
<l>,

tt,

In the next stage of development,

X, Y,

the alphabets

fall into

them

as

<|),

%, '^,

after the introduction of

classes, according to

The eastern

attached to these signs.


belongs, employs

two

and

also uses the

the values

which Ionic

division, to

as

though

^,

a subdivision of this group, represented mainly by the Attic

aljdia-

only the first two and expresses fjr, f by <f>(r, x'^- The
western di^ision,^ to which belong the majority of the alphabets

bet, uses

of Greece proper as

to Italy

weU

as that of Euboea,

by the Chalcidian

Latin alphabet, employs

<l>,

colonies
X,

whence

it

was

carried

and became the source

as ^,

f,

x. not using

at

of the

all,

and

This distinction of eastern and western alphabets, the distribution of wliich


shown in the Chart in Kirchhoff s Sludien zur GeschictUe des griechischen Alphabets, has no connection with that of East and West Greek dialects,
and is anything but coincident with it.
1

is

clearly

15

GREEK DIALECTS

16
generally expressing

yjr

by

oftener,

ttct or,

Arcadian by a special sign

^a

(only in Locrian

and

*).

In the earliest inscriptions nearly

3.

[4

the alphabets have the

all

f (van or digamma); and many the 9 (koppa), which is used before


or V, and that too even if a liquid intervenes, e.g. ioptvdodev,
h6ppo<!, Aop/30?, ippore, IlaT/aopXo?, XepvOof, 2\vtos (in other positions it is very rare).

Two

4.

(san),

signs were available for

o-,

namely ^

5 (sigma) and

or

and most alphabets use one of these to the exclusion of


But there are some few examples of a differentiation.

the other.

In an early Arcadian inscription of Mantinea


ter

\A,

a simplified form of the san,

sources, is used

sign T,

which

is

= Cypr.

the charac-

(no. 16),

is

known from

to denote a sibilant of specifically

other

Arcado-Cyprian
See

68.3.

also probably a modification of the san, is

used

origin, as in v^t? (transcribed

which

a;i<;)

o-ts,

Att. tk.

some Ionic inscriptions of Asia Minor for the usual acr = Att. tt,
from Hahcarnassus KXiicapvwve{(o)v beside AXiKupvacrcrecov,
from Ephesus TeTape;, reTapaKovra = reaaapei;, etc., from Teos
in

e.g.

'

'

\ff\d\wvr]'i

beside OaKaacrav.

In Boeotian,

5.

used for the close

V,

a compromise between E and

e,

later

were two characters, & and


entiated.

(9.2).

E, for the e-sounds,

et

there
dififer-

See 28.

spiritus asper,

rious

sometimes

but usually

In most of the alphabets the H (early B)

6.

is

I,

At Corinth and Megara

and neither 77 and

co

is

the sign of the


e

and

and

nor the lengthened

and ow") are distinguished from the short

("spu0.

But

in East Ionic, where the sound of the spiritus asper

very early period, the H, which was thus

account as a vowel sign, not so


tity (in the case of a,

It

was probably used

from

d,

that

is

I,

much

to

left free,

show a

v no such need was

first

was lost at a
was turned to

difiference in

felt)

only for the extremely open e coming

for the specifically Attic-Ionic

-q

also

open as compared with the short

e,

which for a
though this

(8),

time was more open than the sound of the inherited

was

quan-

as one of quality.

e,

and both soon became

PHOXOLOGY

S]
identical

17

and were denoted in the same way. To be

sure,

no such

distinction is to be observed in East Ionic inscriptions, but it is


seen in some of the Cyclades, to which the use of the H had passed

from East

Ionic, e.g.

from Naxos

avedeKev (with E in the penult).

(no. 6) NiKcivSpr), popr], etc.,


Siinilai-

examples from Ceos

but
(e.g.

and Amorgos.
The use of H = ?/ extended not only

no. 8)

to the Ionic but also to the


Doric islands, Rhodes, Thera, Melos, and Crete, where it is found
in the earliest inscriptions, though in Crete it went out of use for

a time, not appearing for example in the Law-Code. In Central


Ionic, where the sound of the spiritus asper still survived, as also
in Ehodes, Thera,

and Melos, the sign was used both


with the value of

It occurs also

he, at

Delos,

as

t)

Naxos

and as
(no. 6),

and Oropus (no. 14.46).


The Ionic alphabet is also characterized by its distinction of o
and o) through dififerentiated forms of
(usually Q = (o, but in
some of the islands, namely Paros, Thasos, and Siphnos, Q = o, and

= w).

or

7.

In 403 RC. the Ionic alphabet was

Athens, and not

much

alphabets in other parts of Greece.


fifth or

tional

introduced at

Inscriptions of the end of the

the beginning of the fourth century often show a transi-

form of the alphabet, partly

epichoric, partly Ionic.

Even

f was generally retained where it was


sounded, and sometimes a form of H was used for the spiritus

with the
still

officially

later replaced the native or "epichoric"

full Ionic alphabet,

asper, as h in the

Heraclean Tables and occasionally elsewhere

(Elis, no. 60, Sicyon,

tion (no. 51) has

For the Cyprian

Epidaurus).

= h,

The Delphian Labyadae

inscrip-

?/.

syllabary, see no. 19.

VOWELS
a
5.

o for

a before or

after liquids.

Examples are most numerous

in Lesbian, mainly from literary and grammatical

sources, as

GREEK DIALECTS

18

= arpaTO^,

(7t/jo'tos

So an^p[6]Trjv
Tov

from

(fjL^p

hpoaea)<i

(no.
iu,p,

21)

[5

= y^dXcoai, etc.
rjn^porov = ^fj.ap-

Bpaaewi, ^oKaicri

= dfiaprelv,

like Horn,

Both arporayoi; and

as regularly).

a-Tpdrayo';

occur in inscriptions, Kkewise in Boeotian crrpoTo^ in numerous


proper names, a-TporicoTa';, ia-TpoTevaO-rj, but also a-Tparo^ in proper

The forms with

names, arpaTay(ovTo<i.

a,

which are the only ones

attested for Thessalian, are to be attributed to


Cf. Boeot., Thess. iporo'i

= e/aaro?,

names, Boeot., Lesb.

proper

icoivri

tafluence.

^pox"<i == ^paxv<;, attested by

ttojovot^

= Trdpvoyjr,

whence

Lesb.

IlopvoTricov (Strabo 13.613), Tiopvoiria (no. 23).

In Arcado-Cyprian also

= iravrjyvpL'i

TravdyopcTK
(Naples)

dyappa

we

Arc.

find

i(ji6opKd><;

(49.2), crTopirdo<;

= aa-rpairaloi;

(also Arc. a-Topird,

Cypr. arpoTrd in Hesych.), Cypr. Kop^Ca (Hesych.)

fopyov =

*KaTepapyov

weak grade

= e^BapKm,

but iu form belonging with West Ion.

= KapSia,

aorist of *icaT-epepyco {icaTelpyoa)

of the root as in

eSpaKOv from SepKOfiai

Kare-

with the

(49.2).

In various West Greek dialects occur derivatives of ypd^ca with

though the verb

itself

always has

a.

Thus ypo^ev<;

Sicyon, in Argolis also ypo<l>evco, (Tvyypo(j)o<;,


</>09,

KaTaXo^ev<i
a.

etc.,

Cret. aTToypo^ov, eyypo^ov, Mel. Tpocfxov.

Some

Heracl. aveiriypo-

Cf. also Cret., Epid.

*Kara\a/3ev';, support, Cret. a/3Xo7ria

of tlie examples, if taken

o,

in EUs, Argolis,

= a^Xa^Ca.

by themselves, might be regarded

simf)ly as inherited o-grade forms (cf 49.2),


.

e. g.

Arc.

i(j>dopKioi (cf i<j)9opa).


.

must be recognized in Lesb. o-rporos etc., and,


while the precise conditions and scope of the phenomenon are not clear, it
is evidently one in which all the Aeolic dialects and Arcado-Cyprian had a
share. Whether ypoc^eiJs etc. are anything more than inherited o-grade
forms may be less certain, but it is probable that these are Achaean survivals (see p. 7), and belong in this same connection.

But an

6.

actual substitution

for

a in other

cases.

6v

= avd

in Lesbian, Thessalian (Pe-

Lesb., Arc. SexoToi =


= Se'/ca, heKorov = ewoToV, and Lesb. evoro^
evaTO's. Thess. k^ofieivvov = e^dfirjvpv. Delph. evTo^rjia, burial
rites, Heracl. to</)kbi^, hurial-plaee (cf. ra^os). Kodap6<i = Kadapo^

lasgiotis),

and Arcado-Cyprian

{iv, see 22).

Se/earo?, also Arc. Ssko

in Heraclea, Sybaris, Locris (Heppodapidv), Elean Kodaptni;.

PHONOLOGY

9]

19

a. The explanation is uncertain, and not necessarily the


same for all
the forms cited here. For example, it is possible that the o of SeKoros etc.
is to be viewed in the same light as that of cIkoiti = West Greek
piKaTi. See

116 a. But the preference


Aohaean characteristic.
e for a.

7.

for o appears to he, here as in 5, an Aeolic-

For forms with

e beside

a which

fall

within the

regular system of vowel-gradation, see 49.2-4.

An
Thess.

actual change of final a to


-ec

= -at

e is

seen in Thess. Sie

= Sid.

Of.

(27).

d
8.

Attic-Ionic

r/

from

Original a, which remains unchanged

d.

in all other dialects, becomes


la-Trjfii,

(Lat. stare).

note Att.-Ion.

But Attic
and
a.

in Attic-Ionic.

For the contrast between

sents an inherited e-sound


also,

tj

but in other dialects Tifia (a-stem),

lirjT'qp,

differs

from

is

ti/j,'^,

^rjfii,

rj

common

and that which

repre-

to the other dialects

elsewhere /MaTrjp (Lat. mater).


Ionic, in that

p, as yevea, olicid, x'^P^

The change

and

this

Thus

(j^dni (Lat. farl), la-Tdfii

= Ion-

has

it

jeve'^, oIkCtj,

of a in the direction of

ij

began

d,

not

17,

after

e, i,

x^PV-

in the Attic-Ionic period,

and was universal. The d in Att. X'^^P^ ^tc. is not the original d unchanged,
but a special Attic reversion to d, which occurred, however, before the new
sound had become completely identical with that representing original e,

and hence did not affect the latter (so Att. jrpa.TTOi, but pjjTwp). That is,
the 17 from d was at first an extremely open e-sound, even more open than
that of original e, and even in the historical period the two sounds are
distinguished in the spelling of some inscriptions of the Cyclades. See 4.6.
6. The d arising from lengthening of a in connection with original intervocalic vcr, (TV, etc., undergoes the same change, e.g. Att.-Ion. i<j>rjva. from
l<^va,, original *^av<Ta. See 76, 77.1. But in rds from Tavs and irStra from
irdva-a, original *iravTia., the d was of later origin and was unafiected. See
77.3, 78.

from

9.

1.

Even

e before a

vowel.

in Attic an e before another vowel had a closer sound


0o'? =
= em?, Seto'/iei/o?

than in other positions, and was frequently written , as


6e6<;,

= vew. So, sometimes, in Ionic,


= Seoiievoi.

veiuK

(Oropus)

as ?&)?

GEEEK DIALECTS

20

In several dialects the


that

Ylo\vic\V-e<i

= 0e6<;,

= IloXvKXer]';,

Boeotian

lovTO'i

had a

in general

= *66(TTOi

<l>euTTOs

the spelling

which in other

= iovTOi,

= peovTOi.

piovrof

relatively close sound,

is

(68.2), jreiroLOVTtuTa-t

and the spelling a

connected with OicnrK


3.

4.

= iovTU,

and the

vocalic p;

before another vowel,

= KoKeatv,
5.

TrXte?

Laconian.

6.

is,

'Sivaperov, i6-

name

ij

(16),

town were

of the

regularly

is

as

t,

6i6<i,

where the

regularly, except

was once

the change was prior to the loss of inter-

which later, with the loss of


was unaffected. Thus 16vto<;

= Hom.
We find

= ^vioxecov.

Heraclean.

as if the

the spelling

7r\ee9,
i,

but

came

f,

to stand

= e6vT0<;, Kokimv

vleo';, ponceo's,

hpop,edv.

with the same restriction as in Cretan,

in early inscriptions (also in

avioxeov

ev eurirt^s, etoTrteus,

= eirea.

find

That

In

-eero-t.

etc.

peiTija

We

Cretan.

followed by f

was shortened

At Idalium

Cyprian.

l6(v)Ta

so constant that it perhaps stands for original

dialects

or H

ei,

aveOiav, avedeiav beside avedeav,

occurs occasionally even before a consonant, as HevapEiVo)

etc.

i.

Boeotian.

(see 4.5), as diof, OeLot

a.

progressed so far in the direction of

Thus
was frequently, or even regularly, written
The spelling is usually i, but sometimes e,

it

2.

Alcman and

Ar. Lysist.), e.g. Bioi,

In later inscriptions the spelling

Verbal forms show

is

usually

as in Cretan, e.g. aSiKiav, ep^eTplcofiea, but peovra, Seofieva.

other words, TifiOKpario';, but usually

e.

with the same restriction

i,

e,

as pireo'i,

owing to

In

Koivrj

influence.
7.

In Argolic and Thessalian, both

there are
dio^,

10.

some examples

of

t,

as Arg.

which usually show

of

^to'?,

irehiov

= fiereatv,

e,

Thess.

Aimv.
t

from

e before v in

Arcado-Cyprian.

Iv

= iv

is

the regular

form in Arcadian and Cyprian, also in compounds as Arc. Ivdym,


ifi^aivo), lvcf)op^ia), lyKexvPVicoi, ivBiKO'i, ivTratni, IvrroXd, lyyvo^,
lviiev<l)ri<i

and

IV/ioi/^os,

hlameworthy (opp. to afiep,^^^,

ap,op.<^o<;),

Cypr. ivaXCva (lva\a\ia-p.eva). Cf. also early Arc. (Mantinea, no.


16)
airexop.ivo'},

a7ruSeSo/u,t'v[o?]

= -pAvovi.

But

V occurs

in

other

PHONOLOGY

12]

21

words, and the more precise conditions of the change are not yet
iv

clear,

an Achaean
11.

and

is

found

some Cretan

in

p. 7),

= iv

inscriptions of

words, as

e in related

The occasional interchange

among

sionally seen

= iretyervpes,

dialectic

common types

appears with

given in 49),

forms of the same word.

Tecrcrepe;, Att. xtXioi

Lesb. j^eXXiot,

j^eCXioi,

from

is

occa-

Horn, iriav-

*j^i(7\toi,

are from *;^eo-Xtot (76).

etc.

of

beside weravvvfii (a kind of

irCrvrifii

vowel-gradation, but not of the

pes

"

iascription.

beside e in other cases.

Achaean " survival (see


Eleutherna and Vaxus, and ia
an

also, possibly

while Ion.
Att. earta

in all other dialects, so far as quotable, e.g. Ion.

Delph.

ia-riTj,

Lesb.

'lo-Ttto,

Locr. laria, Hera;cl. 'ItrTieto?, Syrac. 'laria, Ehod. IcrnaTo-

piov,

Coan

Thess. 'lo-o-Ttateio?,

larCa,

larCa, Cret. '\aria. Arc. Fto-rtau.

well as the early substitution of

due to the influence

a from

12.
cLfidpa,

55

(no.

of

e before

av(f>6Tapo<i,
;

aorist)'.

and

/r

In

this case the

ia most dialects,

t,

as

may he

(but

EL

Locr. ^dpeiv, irardpa,

p-epo';).

Here

also hapicTTai

56) = eXeaOai,
(as,

<f>dpev,

varapiv, but the spelling ap


inscriptions,

for

p in Northwest Greek.

peairdpio<s

hut heXearai no.


the

'

'la-Tirico,

la-Trjfii.

analogy of the present alpeto

X from

Boeot.

is

later gives

with p ioT \ after the


vice versa, Cret. alXea = aipeco, with
pdpyov, irdp (=

Trepi), bw6Tapo<i,

not quite uniform even in the early

way

to ep (see 241).

Delph. <^dpev

in a fifth-century inscription (no. 50), and Mpfiara, irevTafiapireiav (no. 51), show that in Phocian too p had a similar effect on

the pronunciation of a preceding

e,

but except in these instances

the spelling is ep {<j>epev even in no. 51).


pto9,

a.

and Pamph.

Cf. also

Ach. Zeus 'Afid-

virap = v/rep.

Elean has a also after

p, as XoTpai[d/to'ov] beside XaTpuoiievov,

pa-

arpdai from *iuuTrpe.la (31), KartajoatW, Karuxpavaoi in contrast to fjtvyaBdrjv,


= yvZfiev,
<t>vya8cuavTi (see 161.1); also before final v,asfiav = p-hr, yvoiiav
as eimelsewhere,
occasionally
etc.
(Twrnv,
iniOeuiv,
3 pi. opt. aTTorCvoiav,
;

/8eoi

cuo-)8eot,

(TKevdov

open sound. Cf El. d


.

= -io>v,
ij

(IS)-

showing that Elean

in general had a very

GEEEK DIALECTS

22
b.

Epid.

Kpa/juxa-ai

KpejjAa-ai

and /mvroL

[l2

fLfinoi,

thougli

more

isolated,

contamination with /xav =


viewed in the
/xiyv, Kpa/jiaa-ai weak grade or assimilation), are perhaps to be
same light as the Elean forms under a.

and open to other possible explanations

13.

West Greek a

= East

Greek

a and

dialectic interchange of

(fjulvToi

e.

cited

Besides the examples of

under the head

of vowel-

gradation (49.2-4), in which the distribution of the a and


is

various

(e.g. apa-rjv, epar]v,

of by-forms in

West Greek
1.

/SaWto, SeWco), there

which the preference

for the

a forms

is

is

forms

a group

a marked

characteristic.

lapog (or lap6<;) is the regular form in early inscriptions of

aU West Greek dialects and Boeotian, iep6<; occurring only later


and plainly due to kolvti influence. The situation is probably the
same in Thessalian, though the occurrences of both forms are late,
te/ao's

form

(or
is

seen in

pmv with

Attic-Ionic and Arcado-Cyprian,

is

te/jo'?)

whUe

a third

Le'sb. lpo<; (likewise ipev;, Ipeia, IprjTevco, late xarei-

Ion.

I),

ipd'i, ip6<;

*la-po- beside *la-apo-, *la-epo-).

variation between -epoi

and

beside

-ap6<;,

as

(probably from

lepo';, lepo'i

There are

many

fiiep6<i,

other words with


fjLiapoi,

but with

widely different dialectic distribution.


2. "Aprafii';,

tions, is the

name is quotable from early inscripWest Greek dialects except Cretan, and of

so far as the

form

of all

In later Doric and Delphian inscriptions this

Boeotian.

is

usually

replaced by "Apre/it?.
3.

tian,

Ku

= Ke

(dv) is the

The same ku in
See

132.9).

verbs in -da
dialects.
a.

of all

ks, like

oku, toku, ttoku,

doubtless Boeotian)
etc.

form

while Thessalian has

= Att.-Ion.,

7a = 76 is

= -9e,

-6ev,

West Greek

dialects

Lesbian and Cyprian.

which are

also

and BoeoSee

134.2.

West Greek (and

Arc.-Cypr. ore etc. (but Lesb. o'to

likewise

West Greek and

belong to some, but not

AdWest Greek

Boeotian.

all.

See 133.1.

wrtpiK

iTepos is not confined to

West Greek

dialects,

but

is also

quotable from Arcadian, Boeotian, and Lesbian, and even for Attic is
implied by artpoi with crasis. So far as we know, Irtpos belongs to AtticIonic only, all examples in other dialects being late.

PHONOLOGY

18]

Original

14.

that

r),

changed in nearly

from d

representing original

r)

all dialects.

On

= ixaTtjp

/iijTTj/ci

the introduction of the character H, see

d from

remains un-

e,

Contrast the special Attic-Ionic

both being seen in Attic-Ionic

(8),

dialects.

is

23

tj

of other

4.6.

The sound of r} was so open in Elean


that it approximated that of d, and was frequently, though by no
means consistently, denoted by a. Thus nd (but also /ie, /i^) =
ixri, fpdrpa = prjrpa, ^aai\de<; = -ije?, ea (but also eU) = eirj, Safio15.

= -oiT),

aioia
16.

ei

-q

in Elean.

irXadvovra beside irXedvovri.

from

Of.

in Thessalian and Boeotian.

r)

sound was so close that with the introduction


bet

it

was uniformly denoted not by

time represented a close


aveOrjKe,

fieiv6<;

= fiTiv6<;,

e.

but by

Thess., Boeot.-/tiet

which

et,

Thess. ySacriXetos, Boeot.

In late Boeotian inscriptions the spelling

a.

beside wapeis
17.

(eis

^s, Att.

Lesb. al/jitaecov

fjiiiovo';,

yn??,

more open

rj

initially

= r)p.ia-eoav,

ypaixfjLareio'i

18.

e
I

from
after

Aa/iOKpeTQ)
(Lesb.

is

sometimes found, as irapt's

Magn.)

also (Etj'm.

The explanation

than in other positions, and

is

alp.Lovo';

difficult, since

this, in

t)

was

connection

(47), led to ai.

after p in the Aeolic dialects.


is

=
=

= -rrjp-.

remains unchanged in Lesbian. Perhaps

with the epenthetic vowel

tion of

at that

dve6eiKe

163.3).

= 'HcrioSo?.

Kiaioho'i

in all other cases

-rjv,

e (12 a).

of the Ionic alpha-

Thess., Boeot. a-Tarelpa'i, Boeot. /idreip, iraTeip

-fjO<;,

An

open pronuncia-

indicated by occasional spellings such as Lesb.

= Aij/iOKpiTov

(but Kpivvat, KpiTiov), Thess. Kpevvdfiev

KpCvvm), 'T/Sjoe'o-Ta? beside 'T^piarwi, direkevOepeaOevaa

from cnreXevdepi^Q}.
To<;,

tj

a for

In these dialects the

but

cf.

also 19.2.

Lesb. reprot

is

perhaps from *TpeTO<;

probable Boeotian example

TpeTreSSira?, beside rpdireSSa. Cf. Hesych. rpOire^av


BoicoToi.

But vowel-assimilation

= rpl-

is rpeireSSa,

rrjv rpdire^av.

(46) is also possible.

GEEEK DIALECTS

24
a.

Lesb. Kcpvav

6.

El. TTo'Xtp

owes

Kipvdvai

ttoXk,

and

its c to

y3ei/coi

[18

the influence of inipfura etc.


though isolated occurrences,

fiwioi,

indicate an open pronunciation of the

i.

Cf El. a
.

and

a.

rj

(12 a, 15).

i in Lesbian and Thest (t) from antevocalic


The consonantal pronunciation of antevocalic i might
occur anywhere in rapid speech, but was especially characteristic
of AeoUc, as indicated by the following related phenomena in

Consonantal

19.

salian.

Lesbian and Thessalian.


Lesb. from St in

1.

inscriptions, the usual

from glosses or

late

inscriptional spelling being Stti etc.

Cf.

Kcip^a, ZoWuo-o?,

?a',

Ziovv{aLos:) on a coin of Phocaea, Cypr. icop^ia-

also

KapSi'a

(Hesych.).

= /ier/ato?,

Lesb. fiTppo<s, aXXoVe/a/aos, lieppap.o'i (Herodian)

2.

aXKoTpiQ';,

Ilpia/jLO';, -the

development being

pi, p^, epi, epp.

Thessalian doubling of consonants before

3.

i,

which may then

be retained or omitted in the spelling, as ISSiav, Tro'Wtos, irpo^evviovv,

Kvppov beside Kvpiov, apyvppoi beside apyvpioi, Mvacraa

Mvaaid.

Cf. Att.

Omission

4.

of

^oppai from
i,

Interchange of

20.

lowing syllable

is

/Sopedf.

as Lesb. apryvpa

rpiaKaSt, etc. (see also under


i

and

= apyvpia,

Thess. rpaicdhi

ceding

ev,

Assimilation of

seen in rj/xvav

in

/3t/3\to)c

^fiiav,

to w of the fol-

which appears

Meg.

I,

as

which

is

name

of a

month).

= al<Tvp,vrjTri<;

remains unchanged everywhere.

sometimes denoted by
Tet/tta

or

Teifirj

= tI/ii].

ei,

in Attic

the oppo-

Influence of the pre-

'EXeuAwta

= 'EXewff/wa

Other by-forms, the

uncertain, are 'A/x^tKribi/e?

alcTifivd.Ta'i, ai(7if,vSivre<;

21.
it is

beside ^v^Xiov.

or of the suffix -avvr), in Lac.

(also Olynth. 'EXeuo-vvto?,

relation of

3).
v.

in the early fourth century, in other dialects only late


site assimilation

and 'AfKpiKTvovei,

etc.

But in late inscriptions


which had come to have the sound

PHONOLOGY

34]

22.

V from

especially in Arcado-Cyprian.

o,

and Cyprian, final

KaWiau,

as Arc.

25

o neariy

always appears as

Cypr. 'Ovaaijopav.

Cypr. 3

yevoiTv, ifpeTcia-aTv (in Arcadian there are

Arc, Cypr. airv

= airo,

In both Arcadian
Gen.

sg.

sg.

= -ao,
= -to, as

-dv

mid. -tv

no early examples

may be due

the ending, and -ro in a late inscription


ence).

v.

of

to koivt] influ-

Arc. kutv formed after airv, Arc.

dWv = dWo. But d-irv is also Lesbian and Thessalian. Cf. also vv
for 6v = dvd (6) in Cypr. vvedeKe (once) bfeside ovedeice, and Arc.
vveOvae
a.

]tl,

as

ow/jua

initial v

o,

especially

ovofia is

common

to nearly

perhaps

all,

dialects except

all,

compounds dvuint/xos etc., which are universal.


In Chalcid. hmrv = inro, and 9ijpvDs, the second v is due to assimila-

tion to the
d.

in later inscriptions dvd, due to the Koivrj).

v^ioicus, v/jLoKoyux.

Attic-Ionic.
c.

In Lesbian there are several examples of

before
b.

15

(no.

Cf. the

first.

In Pamphylian, o in final, syllables regularly becomes

v,

written v

or ov.
<i>

23.

ov from

Long 6

in Thessalian.

original or secondary (25),

became a

in Thessalian, whether

close o, then

it,

and, after the

introduction of the Ionic alphabet, was regularly denoted by

=
Tovv = Twv

Xovpa

;^</3<x,

<j)i\dv0povira

raywv

irdvTmv.

(pikdvdpmira,

Cf. et

from

i?

ov.

rovv rayovv irdv-

(16).

V and u
24.
it

Instead of becoming a sound like

German

u,

French

u, as

did in Attic at an early period, the original M-sound (English oo

was retained in several, perhaps the majority of, dialects.


This is most obvious where, the Attic values of the letters being
taken as a basis, the spelling v was replaced by ov.
In Boeotian, ov begins to appear beside v about 350 B.C., and is

in food)

frequent after 300

B.C.,

though v

quarter of the century.

Thus

^ov, Tov)^a, ovovfia (22

I), etc.

is

not

vmcommon

until the last

ovirep, Kovpio<;, dpryovpiov, a-ovvypa-

In the

tliird

century the spelling

GEEEK DIALECTS

26

lov (pronounced like English

never consistently, after

t,

S,

in cuhe

6,

also employed,

?) is

and

v,

[24

'WlovSiko^, oviov/ia, Ai(oviovcno<;, Aiov/cia/cco, etc.

and once

(J,i,owen<;)

initially (lovico

tively rare, spelling in Boeotian

though

\, as Tiovj(^a, Siovo
;

= Svo,

also once after

<r

= vlov).

Another, but compara-

as oTrep

= inre'p, Qoaia = dvaCa.

is o,

Except in Boeotian and Pamphylian, where ou is also frequent, the


So in Laconian, for which the retention of the -sound is amply attested by the numerous glosses spelled with
ov in accordance with Attic values, and by the pronunciation of the modem
a.

spelling V is retained in inscriptions.

Tsakonian.

In various other dialects, as Arcadian, Cjrprian, Thessalian,

Lesbian, Cretan, Euboean, there are indications, of one kind or another, of

the same pronunciation, such as the occasional spelling ov or o for


(22 a), use of 9 before v (Chalcid. 9v9vvs,

for

v,

or v

X-qifvOcK, etc.), or-present-

day pronunciation.
Secondary i and 5.

In

25.

from

T)

many

and

" Spurious Diphthongs "

and

dialects, as in Attic, e

, being close vowels

\e,

o differed in quality

Consequently the long

q).

vowels which came from them by contraction or compensative

same

lengthening, since they retained the


tical

with

and

Tj

<o,

but were e and

eventually came to be designated by

quality,

were not iden-

the latter becoming u, and

o,
et

and ov

after these original

diphthongs had become monophthongs in pronunciation

But in other
so written.
*rpeie<i

dialects they

Hence such
eljjii

(42.3),

from *^6epia)

and

were identical with

t)

and

dialectic variations as rpets


r)ixi

from

and

to,

and

*e(Tp,C (76), <f)6eip(o

(28, 34).

and were
Tprj<:

and

from

(i>6rip(o

from f eV/ro? (54), x^^'^i-oi- and


*%erXtot
XV^oi from
(76), ^ovXij and /SmXa from */3o\va (75),
Kovpr] and Kcopd from Koppd (54), gen. sg. -ov and -to from -oio
(74), ^eivo?

ItjVo?

and -to? from -01/9


which regularly have

(106.1), ace. pi. -OK?

The

dialects

(78).
7/

and a in such forms are

Arcadian, Cyprian, Elean, Laconian, Heraclean, and Cretan.


tian has to, but et as for original rj (16).
a.

Other dialects which occasionally show

usual, are Argolic (^A,eTo beside tiXtTo,

iy

tj/jlcv,

Boeo-

and u, though and ou are


ySuXas, etc.; at Hermione

PHONOLOGY

25]

gen. sg. in -m, ace. pi. in -us),

Rhodian

(^/tt,

27
k^vos, BojXios, HjjvtdSa, etc.),

Coan

(ij/i.ei',

etc.;

at Cyrene, a colony of Thera, regularly

k^vos, St^Ko/ml, KapTruivri, etc.),

Theran
rj,

(^/At, Tfsrj's,

these dialects belong properly with those which have

<o

?;,

ButXaKparrp,

probable that

It is

(o).

regularly,

and

that their usual a, ov are due to the fact that with the introduction of the
Ionic alphabet they also adopted in the main the Attic-Ionic orthography
of such words.
6.

XOP'

X"P"

Cret. Ktpavs, Arc.

^ap, x^pos) is even more widespread, e. g. not only


Cypr. v^pov, but Epid. )(rjpas and even Delph.

Corinth. cvcK^iypov.

iK)(ripiav,

whoUy upon

rest

(-'^tt.

lyKejfi/pijKoi,

a nom. sg.

^(^p

But

it is

probable that this

xijp-

does not

but is due in part at least to the influence of


(quoted by Herodian as Aeolic) formed after the analogy
*^ep<T- (79),

of inherited p-stems in

-j/p.

Cf. Att.

/xi^v

in place of /ias (112.3).

SmXxK, Dor. SuXos (Cret., Theocr., CalUm.) do not belong here. 8ovXos has a genuine diphthong, as shown by the spelling ov in early Attic
inscriptions and in Boeotian, while Su>A.o9 must come from a by-form *8o>i;c.

The

Xos.
is

relation of Lesb., Boeot., Dor. Stv to Att.

ow

is

obscure, since av

also Ionic.
d. It is to

be remembered that the early inscriptions of most dialects have


e, o, no matter whether the later spell-

simply E, 0, which we transcribe


ing

is

et,

ov, or

rj, la.

Among

the

ij, to

dialects the actual spelling

rj,

does

*)

not occur, of course, until the introduction of the Ionic alphabet about

400

we

B.C., except that in Crete,

Rhodes,

etc.,

where H

i;

is

much

earlier,

find -q/u etc. in the earliest inscriptions.

Of the

ei,

ov dialects, Coriuthian

genuine and spurious

et,

is

the only one in which the identity of

ov belongs to the earliest period, ovring to the very

The

early monophthongization of the diphthongs (28, 34).

of the earliest inscriptions is El,

OV

(but E, not El) at Corinth.

OV

at Corcyra (e.

spelling even

hviov,

In Attic-Ionic examples of El,

in the fifth century (E\pl even earlier), but E,

are

api), and

OV

more common

occur
until

and occasionally appear much later. In general El becomes


established earlier than OV, and many inscriptions use El uniformly but
and OV. In Ionic the gen. sg. -0 is especially persistent.
vary between
after

400

B.C.,

In Locrian no. 56 has only E,


earlier no. 55 has El

(e.g. hayev, tos), while the

(<j>a.pE\v etc.),

and

OV

somewhat

in the ace. pi. (tovs) but

in the gen. sg. (Sa/io). This last difEerenee, though only a graphic vagary,
is

observed also in several Ionic inscriptions.

come in with the introduction


spelling varies for a time.

In other dialects El,

of the Ionic alphabet,

OV

and even then the

GEEEK DIALECTS

28

[36

Diphthongs
ai

from ai in Boeotian. The diphthong is retained in the


ae, especially
earliest inscriptions, sometimes as ai, sometimes as
pronounced
to
be
came
it
But
'Otci^ae.
Aecrxoi'Sa?,
at Tanagra, e.g.
26.

7]

and with the introduction of the


Ionic alphabet was regularly denoted by r), e.g. /c^ = Kai, rj = al,
at?,
@ei^rio<s = @r]^aio<;, dat. sg. and nom. pi. -v = -', dat. pi. -j?9 =
infin. -ar), -f^^V = -<^a*. -a-0ai. In very late inscriptions even et is
as a

monophthong, an open

e,

found, as @et;8etos.
27. ei

Larissa

from at in Thessalian.

we

find

ei

for final ai, e.g.

In general

'

at,

remains, but at

e'T|ra0to-Tet = iyjr'q<f)ia-Tac, ^e'Wet-

= ^ovXtjtm, yivveirei = jiyvr]Tai, and, with added v (139.2, 156),


Treireiareiv = ireTrela-daL, 6v<ypd'\{reip = avaypdy^ai, e^dvypevGeiv =
e(j)aipovVTai, ^eWovvdeiv = ^ovXavrai.
Tei

ei

became everywhere a monophthong, a close


28.
e (e), though the speUing was retained and extended to the e of
different origin (25). In Corinthian this had taken place at the
Sooner or later ei

time of the earliest iuscriptions, and, while at Corcyra the spelling

was

El (25 d), at

a single sign,
e.g.

ApEvia,

Corinth the sound was nearly always denoted by

though generally differentiated from the open

i.e.

Afevia=AeLviov, HoteSuvi,

i.e.

e or

tj,

JloreSavi (rarely

= aveOrjKe. Cf. also reSe = reiSe in an early


(here & =
E = and genuine or spurious ei).

UoTBiSdv), but uvsObkb

Megarian inscription
a.

At

e,

a late period the i progressed

retention of the old spelling a,


i

t;

still

further to an

which then came

(21), but sometimes with phonetic spelling

spelling with

became

the proper spelling, as

fixed in our texts,

shown by

to
i.

be used

i,

usually

In some words this

e. g. ritrio,

erura, cktio-is, of

inscriptions of Attic

mth

also for original

and other

late

which

dialects, is

Titcu), tTeicra, eKTacris.


b.

But before vowels

it

e for some time after it had become i


from a = I, was often written rj, e.g. iroXiin the Augustan period.

remained

elsewhere, and, to distinguish


Tijav, Uprja, etc., especially
c.

For Elean

ai

from a

it

after p, see 12 a.

PHONOLOGY

31]
29.

from

ei

29

The change

in Boeotian.

in pronunciation

which

took place everywhere at a late period (28 a) occurred very early


in Boeotian, and here

t,

showed

century varies between

fifth

itself

et,

and

= Teto-t/ie'i'ij?, eTrt = ivei,


Kinevw; = Kifieva<;.

e.g. Ti-a-ifievei

16), e;^i

= e'xei,

which in the

in the spelling,

h (4.5),

i,

but later

eTrtSet

is

regularly

= iireiBij

(cf.

also

01

V from

30.

ot in Boeotian.

longer than ai (26) or

ei (29),

The diphthong
appearing as

was retained much

ot

oi,

but

the earhest inscriptions especially of Tanagra, as

But in the third century

YheKuSd/jLoe.

probably similar to the


the

V,

with

its

German

o,

sg.

and nom.

became a monophthong,

it

Attic value of m as a basis

a vowel

though

till

pi. -v

(cf.

it is

the end of the century,

= -oi, dat. pi.

ov for

= -ot?.

ButoTftij'

occurs once, also o ttvh?

v, 24),

ot is

at, 26),

= otKi'a,

dat.

followed by
as BottoTu?,

irola.

Lebadea and Chaeronea the spelling

of

also found, indicating the further progress of the

is

(see 28 a), e.g. aurei?

was emthough

b.c. on,

fVKia

e. g.

Where

usually retained (in contrast to

In some late inscriptions

-v<;

of

Xoe/>i\o9,

to denote which, approximately,

ployed with increasing frequency from about 250


not uniformly

some

also, in

oe, e.g.

sound to

= avTol<;.
ax, 1, 01 before vowels

In the case

31.
of

I,

consequent upon

ing vowel,
is

of ai,

is

its

et, ol,

also vi, before vowels the omission

consonantal pronunciation with the follow-

to be observed in various dialects,

anything but constant, and

it is

though the spelling

impossible to

statement as to the conditions of the

loss.

make any

general

Thus, as in Attic 'KBtj-

vaia, later 'KOjjvda, 'A0r]va, Scoped beside Smpeid, evvoa beside evvoia,

vo'?,

vik beside

beside

so e.g. Ion. aTekerj beside areXeirj,

= iroiriaeiav, Lesb. hiKdw; = StKaito?, evvoav = evvoiav,


Tewdot = TevvaCov, Arc. aTopnrdo'; = aa-Tpa7ralo<;, El. ea
fiacrrpda = *ixaa-Tpeia (12 a), Cret. ayeXaoi =
ete =

jroiricTeav

Thess.

vto'?, vlv<;,

et?;,

GEEEK DIALECTS

30

ajeXaloi, Delph. ^amro';

[31

= *(f)aiaT6<i {^aw).

So especially in forms

of TToieco, as Att. Troei, iroija-co (but ttoicov), Lesb.

Boeot.

i-TToeia-e,

Arc. iroevTco, El. etrnroevTcov,

Troj^criB, IpoTrorjrai,

Coan vmroav beside

vaTTOta?.

Owing to the variation in forms

a.

like the above, the diphthongal spell-

ing sometimes appears in words where

it

has no etymological justification,

as late dySoojs, oySou^KovTa, Poirfiiia.

OM, V,
32.
it

In av,

did in

ev, ov,

Ot)

the v remained an M-sound, not becoming

many dialects when not part

not only by Ionic ao, eo

(33),

of a diphthong.

This

is

ii

as

shown

but by occasional varieties of spelling

such as Coriath. 'Ajj;tX\eow, Coreyr. apvrdv, Att. apvTap, Ion.


afVTO, Cret. ctfiefvcraadai,, where f iudicates the natural glide beand Locr. ^afTruKTiov, Cret. (nrofSSdv, etc.

fore the w-sound,


ao, eo

33.

from

av, ev ia East Ionic,

inscriptions (eo also in

tury

once in Chios iu

(eo

eovota, eoepyeTT}';.

ao, eo appear in

Amphipolis and Thasos)


fifth

century) and later,

This spelling

is

East Ionic

of the fourth cene.g. aoT6<s,

raora,

frequent even in kolvij iuscrip-

tions of this region.


a.

show

For
ov

tion of

34.

El. av

from

12

eu after p, see

= V (of. Att. ov from eo), as


= ov in I)elph. averwTos, late

(1)

a.

Some

late

Cretan inscriptions

eXovOepos, iiriTdSovfia.

Lao.

w = avrov,

ov became, in most dialects, a monophthong

The

explana-

etc., is doubtful.

(first g, later u),

though the spelling ov was generally retained and eventually extended to the secondary o. In Corinthian this had taken place at
the time of the earliest inscriptions.
a.

spelling o in early inscriptions


ovK,
eral

See 25

d.

Occasionally words which contain genuine ov are found with the

when

o for secondary o

was usual,

e. g.

ok

^6v = Povv (or = |8(ov? See 37.1). In forms of ovtos, which in genhave genuine ov (e.g. Cret. tovto etc.), this spelling is so frequent in

early Attic, e.g. toto, totov {toto also in Thasos; cf. also Orop. ei/ro^a,
ivravBa = Ivravda), as to point to some special cause. Possibly, as has

i. e.

been suggested, there existed beside the usual forms with genuine ov
(e. g. TOVTO from *to-v-to), a gen. sg. toto (tovtov), formed by doubling of
TO (jm}), which then influenced the other forms.

PHONOLOGY

37]

av,
35. Certain

e\)

before vowels

words show a v diphthong in Lesbian (and in Homer)

in contrast to other dialects, e.g.


a/Sto

aiio)?

irpai), Horn, ijw, Att. em?,

31

*ausds-d), vavo<;

= Dor.
from

Att. veei?, probably

= Dor.

from

etc. vd{f)6';

etc. a(/r)a)? (cf.

Hom.

Lac. vapov),

(cf.

*vaa-p6<i (54/), 8evB

Hesych.

aurora from

*avcrQ><; (cf. L.

= Att. ^eco,

need,

V7)6<;,

from

*Sewo-<B.
a.

In such forms u comes from a combination containing u or ^, not from

simple intervocalic p, which in Lesbian, as elsewhere, regularly drops out


without affecting the preceding vowel. Forms like eviSe from *ipSi are
poetical only,

and due to metrical lengthening or doubling

The consonant-doubling

the ictus.

of the p under

in hypocoristic proper names (89.5)

accounts for the diphthong in Thess. KA.vas, from *KA.c/rds, Calymn. KAeu-

^vos, Neuavros.

avTos, Cret.

36. In words with regular antevocahc ev the natural ghde between V and the following vowel is often expressed by p, as Boeot.

Baev/rat, Cypr. KareaKevpaae, Lac. Ev^aXKrji;

In
tives

late inscriptions v is

of

(T/cewo?,

(/S

= p, 51).

sometimes omitted, especially in derivaLesb. einaKedaavTa,

as Att. jrapea-Keao'fieviuv,

Corcyr. iirurKed^eiv, aKeo6riKa<;, Delph. KUTaa-KediirrjTai.

Long Diphthongs
37.

when
ei,

1.

The

original long diphthongs di, du, ei, eu, 6i, ou, except
were regularly shortened in prehistoric times to ai, au,
ou, or, in some cases, lost the second element. Hence such

final,

eu, 01,

by-forms as ySow? from *^a>v^


bos, Skt. ace. sing,
(cf.

Skt. dydus)

gdm

but

Skt. gdus)

but Dor.

^m

(cf.

Lat.

ySwv also once in Homer), Zevs from *Zi;t5?

ace. Zrjv (cf. Lat. dies),

consonant declension, Z^va,


2.

(cf.

whence, with transfer to

Zijvo'?, etc., Cret.

The Greek long diphthongs may


Most

otherwise are of secondary origiu.

T^va (84).
when final, but

Afjva,

be original

of the latter arose

by

loss

an intervening consonant, as \ats, kXtj^, from *\af t? (cf. Lat.


cldvis), and in the earlier period these were not diphthongs but
of

were pronounced in two

syllables.

So

kXi;i9, xPV^^fo, iroXefi'^io^,

GEEEK DIALECTS

32

[37

Homer, and often in the later Ionic


This pronunciation is also indicated by occasional speULngs

iraTpmio';, etc. regularly in

poets.

such as Iriuoi, 6mii]v,

to

iji

or the loss of the

ei (39)

XP'n^o>, leprjov,

and

understood as

%jO?;t^a), lepijiov.

kprjiov, side

p^/jj^f^w,

when

should accent

But in general

e.g. ic\r]k

it is

it is

impossible to

(:\r;is)

often uncertain whether

or X^t9 (^27?))

Xpi^iK^^, ol/crjio'i, olicrjiov, or olicrjio';, oIkijiov,

texts differ in their practice.

We

and

%/;''?'*'

editors of the

or

same

employ the accentuation which

goes with the earlier pronunciation, though without the


diaeresis, for

(38)

the change from dissyllabic to diphthongal

pronunciation took place, and hence

we

and where we find e.g.


by side, the latter must be

presupposes the diphthongal pronunciation

determine just

On

leprjua, xRV'^^^'^! i^ lo^^c inscriptions.

the other hand the change of

the early Ionic inscriptions

mark

of

and likewise in general,

simply as a matter of convention, in citing forms of this kind in the

grammar.
38.

d,

T],

from

0),

at,

mi.

r)i,

nounced in the second century

In Attic the
B.C.,

ceased to be pro-

and the spelling without

(the iota subscript is a mediaeval device

in inscriptions

is

written

became more and more frequent, and may be found in late inscriptions from all parts of
Greece. But in some dialects this dates from an earlier period.

like other. letters or omitted entirely)

East Ionic has occasional examples


sixth century B.C. on, though

Lesbian has rd

though this

-7)1

-t}i,

from the

the usual spelling.

in a fifth-century inscription (no. 20),

'iiiKiaCoi,

which

century) and no. 22 (324


(3 sg. subj.

is

-7}

possibly only an error due to confusion with the

is

genitive construction

end

-Tjt

of dat. sg.

in no. 21,

-77

For no. 21

follows.
B.C.)

in no.

of the fourth century the

(first

have uniformly
22

see also 149).

forms in

-a, -w,

-77

half fourth

dat. sg. -at, -at

But from the

predominate.

Thessalian has from the fifth century dat. sg. Ta^poSirai to,,
and raya beside arayiai (in no. 33), and in inscriptions in the
Ionic alphabet
subj. -et

(=

T],

we

16).

find regularly dat. sg. -a, -ov

(=

, 23), 3 sg.

PHONOLOGY

40]

Cyprian has
bronze

33

dat. sg. -a, -o, beside -di, -oi,

19) only in the case of the article

(no.

but in the Idalium-

when

followed by

i,

as TO ipovi.
a.
6.

The loss of probably began in the article, which was proclitic.


The fluctuation between the historical and the phonetic spelling in late
i

inscriptions introduced confusion in the spelling of forms with original

hence such spellings as nom.

sg. ^ovXi^i, gen. sg. tS>l Sa/iui,

Such imperative forms in -twi and


the subj. in
39.

that

from

The

rji.

history of

tji

especially in Attic,

two centuries before

at,

an became

In the case of medial


et is

this spelling

was favored by

are especially frequent, notably in Cos.

-^i.,

of at, mi,

where

-a-6<M,

-q,

imv. e^erwt.

i/t

some dialects from


became et (i.e. f) some

differs in

where

it

a, a.

secondary origin

of

(37.2)

the spelling

frequent in the fourth century and from about 300

almost universal,

e.g.

aXet? from

ic\rji<!,

Xeio-r^s

from

B.C. is

Xtjicttij's,

XeiTOvpyea from XtjiTovpyeeo,

In inflectional endings

et is

also frequent in the fourth century

and predominates in the third and second,

e.g. dat. sg. /SovXel,

But here, owing to the analogy of other forms


with 1/ of the same system, as ^ovX'^<;, ^ovXriv, etTriyre, rjt was
never given up and eventually was fully restored, so that the normal speUing in imperial times was rji or 17 (38).
The spelling et beside ijt, partly at least due to Attic influence,
is also frequent in third- and second-century inscriptions of other
3

sg. subj. etTret.

even earlier as in the Heraclean Tables, where we


subj. vifiei, ^epei, etc. (so usually, but twice -r}c, once -rj).

dialects, or

find 3 sg.

The change

a.

a change of

what

later

Dat. sg.

-t is

of

iji

to

is

also

Euboean, where

it

was accompanied by

In Eretrian this was effected about 400 B.C. Someoccurs beside tji at Amphipolis, and pt beside wi at Olynthus.

tot

to

ot.

found also in an inscription from Naples.

Non-Diphthongal Combinations of Vowels


(Contraction
40.

large

Owing
number

to the proethnic loss


of

new

etc.)

of

intervocalic

and

o-,

vowel-combinations arose, and these were

GREEK DIAIECTS

34

[40

subsequently augmented by the dialectic loss of intervocalic f

An

(53).

exhaustive treatment of their history in the several dialects

would require not merely that each


should be considered by

itself,

numerous combinations

of the

but that further distinctions should

be made according to the character

of

the consonant which was

lost,

that of the sound which preceded the combination, the accent, the

number

facts

41.

1.

e,

(spurious

or

d + vowel

et),

West Greek and

at least in

of the

can be stated here.

77,

Only some

See 45.

of syllables in the word, etc.

most important

or

Attic-Ionic a, but elsewhere

r?.

Similarly di or

Boeotian.

tji

from

Examples are forms of verbs in -a<o, as Att.-Ion. vi/care,


+
viKciv, etc., which have 77 in West Greek and Boeotian, e.g. Cret.,
Arg. viKrjv, Lac. evUe, Ehod. dotvfJTai, Meg. ^oiT-qTas, Corcyr.
a

et, -qi.

Ttfiijv,
a.

with

Locr. (TvXiv, Delph. crvXrjv, Boeot. <^variTe (Ar.), etc.

In Lesbian, Thessalian, and Arcado-Cyprian there are no such forms

but also no certain examples of d from

77,

show other types

ae, since

the contract verbs

But rj from
and Arcadian, as well as West Greek
and Boeotian. See 94.6. So far as we know, d from ae is Attic-Ionic only.

in these dialects

of inflection (see 157, 159).

o in crasis is Lesbian, Thessalian,

2.

-1-

o or

(B.

When

contracted, the result is

So regularly in forms of verbs in

Meg. (SeHnus) WKo/ne?,

-d<o,

vlkovti, Locr.

ta

in all dialects.

as Att. nfi&fj.ev, nfiSivTi,

avKovra, Boeot. o-ouXwi/Te?,

Lac. he^ovTi (subj.), ivhe^6hai<; (^/3wo-at9

from

^/SatocraK),

but

rarely, uncontracted as Boeot. laovrv;, Locr. aireXdovTai.

also,

Of. also

Heracl. rerpapov, group of four boundary-stoties, from *TTpa-opov,


irafi&'xp';

(7rayi;^;ecB)

from

*7ra/Ma-o'x,o<;.

tracted in Boeotian (as in Homer), but in


as (^w?

^dcov
etc.

from

<f}do<!

etc., 'A7Xft)-

ao from apo

most

is

uncon-

dialects yields

co,

Hesych. (pavo^opa), Boeot. KaWtfrom ajXao- (*dj\aF0-), Boeot. 'AjXaoSeopof

{*<^aFo<;, cf.

('A^Xao- occasionaEy elsewhere),

am,

aw-, Sco-, from

o-a/r 0? (cf.

Cypr. lapoKXefei}), Boeot. ^dwv, lavKparei'!, l.avyevei'i, etc. (av


from ao is otherwise unknown in. Boeotian and is here perhaps

PHONOLOGY

41]

due to the influence


2aKjoenj9
3.

of a *'S.avo<i like Cret. f^avoi etc., 35 a).

have 2a- (not 2a-), abstracted from Idcov

etc.

Attic-Ionic

-t- .

35

i),

elsewhere

etc.

^\to?

Att.-Ion.

d.

^eXto?) from d/re'Xto? (Cret. gloss d/Se'Xto?), ae'Xto? in

Arc.

(Horn.

Kndar

etc.,

Dor. d\to?, Lesb. dXto?.


i.

d+ o

or

Attic-Ionic

0).

In Attic-Ionic

first

rjo,

ijm

whence em (with shortening


of

7)0,

eta

or w, elsewhere d or uncontracted.

(cf.

often preserved in

8),

lengthening of the second;

cf.

value of one syllable, and which

may

Ionic mostly after vowels,

45.2

(in

Homer,

of the first vowel, and, in the case

cf.

which often has the

43),

be further contracted to
;

<

in Attic not so restricted,

whoUy

but the conditions are comphcated and not

In

clear).

the other dialects the uncontracted forms are most general in


Boeotian.

Gen.

sg.

-do as in

masc. d-stems. Ion. -ew,

Homer

(also -jjo in no. 6),

from

and Boeotian

(rare

-a>

(here Aeolio, beside Ion.

-eto)

in Thessalian), Are.-Cypr. -dv (22), Lesb., Thess.,

(Hom.

Att.-Ion. ew?
Boeot., "West

Greek

Att.-Ion. Xew?,

West Greek

*d/ro? (Skt. ydt'ai), Lesb.,

Xjjo'?,

i'ijo'?,

d?.

vem, ew? (Hom.

^to?

Eub. 'Ayaa-i-

Xifd) fi-om Xdp6<; (seen in proper names of several dialects),

dpdk (but see


I'd-,

35,

54/), in most dialects

compounds as

in

Gen.

pi.

Skt.

always rav, see


but otherwise

*-dfovo<;, ^vvaovei

-&v

from

See

vdp6<;,

but \d-,

45.3.

(also -r)6v in no. 6), Att. -a>v,

Homer

from

(Aeolic), Boeotian (but

Thessalian (rav Koivaovv

-dv), Lesb. -dv,

West Greek 6edp6<:.


Att Koivd>v, ^vvmv.
KVKav

-ecov,

-dsdm) as in

45.4),

Att.-Ion. Oeeopoi

Xd6<;, vd6<;, drii?,

Ad/3i'i^9, vaKopo';, vdirolai.

d-stems. Ion.

-dcov (*-da-(ov,

-d.

from

e!o?,i.e. 1909)

etc. at

Crannon,

"West Greek -dv.

*6edp(op6';, Boeot. didwpia, Lesb. dedpo';,

Ion.

^wemv

Pindar, Arc,

(Hes. ^vvqova'i) from *-dfa)v,

West Greek

Koivdv.

So Epid.

Ilo(TeiBamv

(-ocdj/os),

= KVKeOOV.

Att. Iloa-eiS&v,

Ion. Tloa-eiSemp,

Corinth. HoriSafdvi,

IloTe8avi,

Hom.

UoreiSav,

Boeot.

HoretSaovi,

GEEEK DIALECTS

36

Delph. TloreiSdv

Cret., Ehod.,

TLohoiSav

Sdvo';, 'Lac.

Lesb. Jloaei^dv, Arc. Hoaoi-

(-dvi).

In Ionic, beside usual

a.

{-avo<i),

[41

eo),

there are

some examples

of eo or tv (cf 33),
.

as Oeopos, Oevpoi (Paros, Thasos), gen. sg. -ev (Erythrae etc.).

In Ionic some of the older forms with unshortened

b.

are employed also

by later

writers, as vrjos, Xr/os-

So

r],

^<os in

as in

Homer,

Herodotus and

in an inscription of Oropus (no. 14).

In Thessalian there are some examples of

o.

we

expect a, as gen.

o,

ou (from

ovTos (cf. ik^wpoi, iXcopos).

But the

first

23), where

co,

TloTaSovn, hvXopi-

pi. irpo^evvutw, Toij-^ltovv, Oeovpoi,

three are probably

coristic in -mv,

and hvXopiovros from

42.

+ o.

1.

beside vXd- (see 167).

In general Attic

rj,

elsewhere uncontracted ea or

(9), as ace. pi. Att. errj, elsewhere (f)eTea, (F)eTia.

sionally

in other dialects, as Ion. dvrj

rj

beside usual erea

a hypo-

is

+ vowel

la

vXio-

Ehod.

etc. (cf. 45.2),

(no. 8

But

ace. sg. XeioXr] (no.

(e.g.

Lac. KXeoje'vj], Heracl. f er??, Ehod.

err],

occa-

century)

fifth

93

century), Lac. ace. sg. to/cXe (sixth century), besides later


ples

forms

kolvt]

with dialectic coloring (for such hybrids, see 280), TloraSowi

sixth

exam-

Delph. ivSoyevfj),

some of which may be due to koiv-^ influence.


Even ea from efu, which is uncontracted in Attic, sometimes
becomes ?? in West Greek dialects, as Delph. ivvrj = ivve'a, Ther.

= r)fiia-ea,

^fiia-Tj

ava^. Dor.
Sicil.

k/jj}?

K\r]y6pa<i

= KXeayopav, Ehod. 'Ayrjva^ = 'Aye= Kpea<;, rjp (Alcman etc.) = eap,

(Theocr. etc.)

(Acrae) j)priTiov

= j>pedTLov (cf. <^/}7/ti

CaUim.).

Cf. also

Dor.

^acyiXri (43, 111.3).


2.

+ a.

Proper names in -eas, as Ti/^ea?,

remain uncontracted in Attic

(Ep/jirj<s is

A'^fiea'i,

usually

the Ionic form) and most

though in late times partly replaced by -a?, as Arjfia';,


But
Aafid^.
-^s regularly in Ionic (from -??), as At?/^^?, 'ATreX\^9, and sometimes elsewhere, as Ehod. 'Apia-Trj<}, Ther. KuS/o^?,
dialects,

a(p)prj<s (archaic).

Cf.

tain examples of Dor.


is

doubtful),

influence

r]

Ehod. XaXKrj from XaXxed. All the cerfrom ed are from the islands (Syrac. TvKrj

and hence are possibly due to

but not necessarily

so, cf.

Dor.

rj

very
from

early

ea, above.

lonio

PHONOLOGY

48]

3.

Eegularly contracted to

e.

Ther.

rpets,

from

rp?}?,

forms also occur, as


See

Tff 6Tte9.
4.

et,

or

rji,

7/.

Eegularly contracted to

Ser/i, SerjTai,

SoKiei

tei,

(from

in -K\er)<; occur in

-\9j?.

See 108.1

<j>i\ovfj^v

Most

from

dialects

But uncontracted

et,

-qi,

as ^tXet,

rj,

SoKeii, av^opeei,

are rare.

(9, 16),

See

But

45.5.

see 45.1) are usually uncontracted.

efr],

some

dialects,

though most have only

a.

The contraction

o.

(see 25), as Att.

97

Uncontracted forms, like Locr.

Names
e

or

trayas).

Cret. rpee<s, Spofiee<i, TrXies (9.4), Boeot. fiKa-

Delph. aSiKer), Boeot.

5.

(Skt.

*T/)e'tes

(et)

45.5.

^ikrii, (f>iXfJTai.

.forms like

37

to 6 (ou), as in yevovi

from

*<yeve<To^,

*^t\eto/iei' (but ijSeo? etc., see 45.1), is Attic only.

have

eo or to (9), as yeveo^

i-''^)>

(f>i''Xeofiev (-lofiev).

In Ionic eo often has the value of one syllable in poetry, and


this diphthongal pronunciation
eo = original

ev,

33).

came

by

to be represented

ev

(cf.

This spelling, though found in our texts

of earKer authors (sometimes

even in Homer, as

fiev, <f>i\evvTa<;),

does not appear in inscriptions until the fourth century

B.C.

From

Ionic, eu spread to the Doric islands,

and from the third century

on

etc.

frequent in Ehodes, Cos, Thera,

is

At

this

found in continental Greece, as at Megara, Delphi,


a.

from

Boeotian has some examples of

of the spelling ton

v (24).

Thus

it is

also

etc.

beside 10 (both original and


was supported by the prevalence

iv, lov,

but mostly after dentals, where

o),

time

it

Nfu/Ae6'nos,

viov/jLeivLrj, ioi>Tt/u,v,

AtovKXeis,

but once also 'BiovTrj.


b. Heraclean has to) = eo before a single consonant, as ifnerpiaiijiis, iierpuaIXjoioa. (but Sed/xcva from fo).
c. Contraction to u) is found in certain parts of Crete (see 273) before a
single consonant, as
Ts in
d.

ei)(apuTTu)iJi,e's

(but

koct/xovtcs, see d).

Cf. also ^aipS)v-

inscription of Phaselis.

an
For

compounded

we sometimes

find simply

or

o.

So in Megarian proper names

of 6e6i, in which, nearly always, 0e- appears before a single

consonant, o- before two, e.g. c'Sfapos, OtyEiTos, ti^os, but oKptVr/s,


are com0KA,t8as, 6yvLT<K. Such forms in -, o- occur elsewhere, but
mon only in Megarian. Other examples of o from co (so-called hyphaeresis, cf.

44.4) are Ion.

op-r^, voo-o-ds,

from

etc.) Koa-p^vTC'S! KaroitKovTW, ETreo-TOTOv,

iopn^, vo<r<rds, Cret. (Hierapytna

Delph. miovTOiv (but also

Troteovra,

GEEEK DIALECTS

38

Heracl. TroLWTacrcn,

OoKovTuiv),

[42

Mess. Trotovn, Arc. ttXos from

e^eiroiov,

*7rAeos (113.2).
e

6.

ft)

(but -^Bemv
em, eoi, or

or

Of.

etc.,

to),

In Attic regularly contracted, as 4>t\a>vn,


but sometimes

loi (9),

<f)i\ol

In other dialects regularly uncontracted

see 45.1).

ft),

ot after a

vowel

(see 54.2).

Ion. elSecoaiv but ttoioxtlv, avcoOeoirj but iroiot, Lesb. avaredeeoai,

Delph. ivKokeoi, evSoKecovTL but iroimvri, Locr.

eoi'Tt,

i^aypeov, SoKeot but iroiov, ivTrotol, ttoioIto (also


aSiKicov, eyfTjXrjdicovTi,

irpo^evioi, El.

Heracl.

Troieot),

evdCcofiev, irovioi

but ttoimv, Trotaivn, Cret.

((fxoveoi).
t\

+ vowel

In the declension of nouns in -eu? the

17 of the stem is reHomer, in Lesbian, Thessalian, Boeotian, Elean, and


Cyprian (a few examples also in early Ehodian and Coan), but is
shortened in the rnajority of dialects (/SacrtXeo? etc.), and in Attic
this is accompanied by lengthening of the second vowel, if o or a

43.

tained, as in

(/3oo-t\e'ft)?,

= do,

Tjo

See 111.

/3ao-t\e'a).

seen in Attic

is

in

many

(Herodas

41.4), e.g. iXeft)?

tX7?o? (49.5),

xpe'<"f^"'i'

borrowed from

though the usual Ionic form

Cf. also the


fiev),

Hdt.

subjunctives with

Boeot. KovpovOeCei,

in Eub. 3
(Hdt.),

rja to

pi. elprjrat

or i\eo?

?)

from

etc.,

= Cret.

Coan)

retained in Horn. OrjOfiev {OeCo-

tj

but shortened in most dialects, as Ion.


See

151.2.

(but probably through ea,

tj

from

and in ^aaiXfj

Ionic, in

is reXeto?, re'Xeo?.

detofiev (Att. 6a)fiev), Cret. iv6icofiev, etc.

Contraction of

t\eft)?

(161.2 a), TroXeft)? (109.2), Mil. t'epea)? (111.5),

also re'Xeft)? (Herodas, and,


tcXjjo?,

This "quantitative metathesis"

other words Ionic also (as usually from

*elpriaTai

etc. of

(cf.

Hom.

cf.

42.1) is seen

fie^Xijarai), elpearat

Delphian and most Doric dialects

(111.3).

+ vowel
44.
(cf.

ft)

1.

+ a. When contracted,
+ o, 41.2), e.g. Att.

from a

Tt/ift)i/a|,

'iTTTTwm^,

the result

ijSt'ft),

etc.

is o) in all dialects

Heracl.

/teto)

in "West as well as East

from

Greek

-o{(7)a,

dialects,

PHONOLOGY

48]

from -o-{f)ava^

Ehod.

(for

= to

as Corinth, rcoyadov

+ a.

2.

39

Ti/jLcival see 167).

ayaOov

Cf. also co in crasis,

etc. (94).

Usually uncontracted (Att.

ori), but in Ionic regularly


in other dialects sometimes a, e.g. Eliod. ^oddeco, Cret. ^oddim,

o),

Aetol. /SodSoeo), Att.

fior)9ea),

^orjBpo/Mov, but Coan, Ehod.

matter whether

??

but Ion.

/Sw^e'w, Lesb. ^ddoeco, Att.

l3dBp6fj,io^.

from a or original

is

For Ionic
?y,

cf.

also

and oyBtoKOvra from ovSoT^Kovra (with

078o'j;t,

<

from

oySm

077,

(once)

original

??),

no

and

Hdt. PSiaai, v&erai, aX\oyvd)(Ta<;.


a.

In the termination of

jSodflds, /Sor/^os

beside ^00.660%,

/3(yqd6oi,

whence

also fiodOim, fio-rfiim beside Lesb. ^aOoiio, Aetol. /Sod^octo, hj-phaeresis has
taken place. See i.

+ 0.

3.

Sg. -ov or -co

4.

(3), e.g.

e.

Eegularly contracted to 9

from

'\^^len contracted, the result is the

Att. eXctTTOu? (nom.

afji.7re\at)pyiK6<;,

Att. \ovTp6v

7rpaiyyvo<s

from

from

pi.,

Att. BTjfiiovpyo^ (Ep. Brjfitoepyo^)

So Heracl.

("

mainly from

hyphaeresis,"

MaXoevTi, Arc.

(see 25), as gen.

etc.,

ofe,
cf.

-o(o-)e?)

same

as

from

but Lac.

eXao-o-o)?,

but Boeot. Xeirmpyo';, Heracl.

(Hom. Xoerpov), but Heracl.

*'7rpoeyyvo';.

toStto?, Lesb. (ovtavTo<;, etc. (94.2).


oe,

(on) or

-oto (106.1).

Xmrripiov.

Cf. also the crasis in Att.

But we

also find uncontracted

and, before two consonants, sometimes o

42.5 d),

e.g.

Lesb. ofiovoevre;,

'Eivoevri, Locr. 'OTro'efTt

Xoeerad/jbevo's,

and in the same

inscrip-

tion '07rovTiov<i (see 45.4), Meg. "EeXivoevri but "Eekivovrioi, Cret.


BoXo'ez'Ta, BoXoei'Ttwi/, later 'OXoVrt, 'OXoi'Tt'ot?.
Sij/iiovpyo^,

Ep.

SijiJ-ioepyo^,

and

Saiiiepy6<;

analogy of compounds with original


ber, cf <j>tkepy6<s) at
.

initial

So beside Att.

(with ehsion, after the

vowel in second mem-

Nisyrus and Astypalaea, the form of most

dia-

lects is BriiMopy6<! (Ion.), Sap.iopy6<i (attested for

Arc, Argol.,

Cnid., Cret., Delph., El., Locr., Meg., Mess.).

So Ion. dXopyo^ in

Boeot.,

Teos and Samos.


45.

Notes to 41-44. Some

of the factors

which help

to account

for divergence in the treatment of the same combination of vowels

in the

same

dialect

may

be understood from the following.

GREEK DIALECTS

40

A combination which arises by the loss of

1.

that arising from the loss of

So Att.

tracted only later.


/tV,

or

tr,

f,

may remain

[45

being of later origin than


imcontracted, or be conin contrast to ^t\oS-

TrXeo/nei/, ijSeos, ijSax, ij8e<i)i',

yei/ovs, yevr\, yeiimi, Locr. 'OTrdevrt, later 'Oirmnm.

2.

combination which

is

may be

otherwise uncontracted

contracted

but aXtfis, Ion. MeyafSaTew but Uavafi-vu} (-ai


sometimes after consonants also, but not usually), erm, ereWbut Ovrj, 0vS)v,
aviodfOLri but iroioi. El. Sokcoi but irounro etc. (see 42.6).
3. A combination which is otherwise contracted may remain unconafter a vowel, Att. ySao-tXems

tracted in dissyllabic words, Att.

longing also under

1,

ircos, Bioi, ,iat,

and likewise, though beSuch words may be

Att. veos, Dor. vd6%, Aads.

member of compounds, as Att. ovrtfios,


Cf also Meg. eSwpos, OKpivrp- Perhaps
these forms, as regards their origin, belong under 4.
4. The position of the accent on a following syllable is sometimes a
factor. So Locr. 'Ottoo/tl (later 'OttovvtC) but 'Oirovrtotis, and perhaps all
contracted
vovfirivia,

when forming the

Dor. vaKopoi,

first

Ado-flei/jys.

cases of " hyphaeresis " (42.5

rf,

44.4) originated in like conditions, though

other factors also must be involved in part, and the whole


still

phenomenon

is

not wholly clear.

The

article, as proclitic, is often

Cf. Boeot. Tov

nouns

also),

/jLoxraoiv,

Eub. tZv

the

first

form

8/oa;^/xe<ov.

show

to

Thess. rav Koivaow (Crannon

contraction.

elsewhere

Here belongs probably Dor.

-ai'

in

as in con-

trast to vdds.

The

5.

analogical influence of grammatically related forms in

vowel, either of stem or ending,


acts the

is

normal phonetic development.

forms like

TrdSes,

which the

not subject to contraction often counter-

So Cret. rpees

etc.

with

-cs after

Ion. ^axrikio? etc. (not -ews) after ttoSos etc., Locr. Sokeci

etc. after SoKm/xcv etc.

Assimilation of Vowels

The

46.

and not

assimilation of vowels

characteristic of

is

comparatively rare in Greek,

any particular

dialect.

Here may be men-

tioned 'Opxofievo'i from '^pxo/J^evo';, the regular native form of the

name

of

both the Boeotian and the Arcadian town,

Tpe(pcovio<;,

name

Tpo<f)ol)vio<s

Boeot. F/ieaSa/io?, Delph. ^avareik beside ^avorev^.


I and V,
'AirSWmv,

ples of
Sdv,

from

of the Boeotian local hero, Thess. Fe/ce'Sa/^o?

see 20.

For Boeot. rpeireSSa, see

o^oXo'?, in

which assimdlation

pot necessarj^ assumption, see

49.1,3,

18.

is

For examFor

Ilocrot-

a possible but

PHONOLOGY

49]

41

Epenthetic Vowels
47.

Lesb.

(f>aitii

(from

<l>afii), (\>al(7i,

yeXaifJn, etc. in

grammarians, but not found in inscriptions.


etc. (17). Por epentliesis in the case of origiaal

Cf.

Sappho and

Lesb. alfiia-emv

vi, pi, \i,

see 74 a,b.

Anaptyctic Vowels

and e^Se/*o?

(114.7) from *e^Sij.o-, *eTrT fio-. Other


examples are of only exceptional occurrence, as Att. 'E/e/*^? =
'E/3/X77?, El. l-aXa/xo vd = "EaXfitovr], Thess. 'Aa-KaXairio^. ireXedpov

48.

6/3So/tos

= irXeOpov,

Homer,

in Cretan, Delphian, etc., as in

is

perhaps an

inherited by-form.
Vowel-Gradation

In the system

49.

of inherited vowel-gradation the dialects gen-

erally agree in the grade

shown by corresponding forms

XeXoi-rra, eXi-Trov, in all dialects alike.

of dialectic differences, of
Series,

1.

hiKWTi)

SeiKWfii

Sajv,
I

HoTeihdv,

ffveiKa

XeXoiira,

(cf. hiKT] etc.).

to contamination of SeiKolyo) (*6fiy-).

and

etc. (41.4)

are

e.g. Xeiirco,

some examples

which the following may be mentioned.^

et, oi, i {Xeiira>,

= Att.

But there

and

Slk-.

eXtTroj').

Ion.

Cret. hUvvfii (trpo-

SeKw/M

is

perhaps due

Lesb. oeiyw (*6feiy-)

fjviKa in various dialects (144 a).

with

et

= Att.
Yloau-

(JloTihdv very rare), but usually

in derivatives, as Att. noo-i'Seto?, Ion. Iloo-tSjjto?, Boeot. Hoti-

hdixo'i, Carpath. TioTi^atov (but the

haia),

also

oi

famous Potidaea was nofet-

(assimilation?) in Arc. Iloo-otSai', Lac. noAotSai/,

and Lesb. (?) Il]oToiSavi from Pergamum.


2. Series ep, op, ap or pa (Be'pKOfiai, SeBopKu, eSpuKov). reWepe?,
rerope;, renape;, etc. (114.4). Ion., Lesb., Cret., Mess., Epid., Coan
TlofioiSaia,

eptrifv,

but Att. appriv, Arc. appevrepov, Lac.

Ionic and Coan

beside epa-qv).

apari<s, Tlier. dptrr^v (also

Cf. also El.

pdppevop (from a by-

form with initial f cf. Skt. vrsan- beside Avest. arsan-), later ipae6dpao<i in Aeolic
vairepo^ (Koivrj influence, see also 80). depa-ov
;

fall

where the variation is quite possibly not


into the same system, are included for convenience,

Some

cases

inherited, but

vhioU

GEEEK DIALECTS

42

[49

and in proper names most


frequently ia Lesbian, Thessalian, Boeotian, and Arcadian, as Lesb.
(gram.

Lesb. Oepa-eia in Theocritus),

Thess. e/scrtTa?, Sepaovv, Boeot. epadvhpixo'i, Arc.

e/JcrtTTTTo?,

@epcria<;,

in Aeolic (gram.), but in proper

characteristic of Arcado-Cyprian, as TifioKpeTr]^, StB/c/jeV?;?,

names

Ion. Kpeaacov (in Kpeiaamv, Kpeirrcov, the

etc.

but

= Kparo^

/c/jeVo?

etc.

Cret. KcipTwv

/caprepo^, KpaTep6<;).

(cf.

Delph.

a'7ro(TTpd'\]rai

= airoarps-^aL.

(ajeipco, ayopd), "West Ion.

= 7ravi]yvpt,<;

dyappK

(with obscure

= rpeirco, as

as in Pindar

East Ionic

etc.,

assembly

a'yepa-t,<;

(Naples), Arc. Travdyopai'; (see 5)

For

u).

Cret. Tpdirco

= Tpecfxo,

sometimes in Herodotus, Cret. rpd^co

not original),

is

ei

For

iepo^, iap6<;, ipo<;, see 13.1.

7/3o^ev?, aTpoT6<;, etc., see 5.


a.

The weak grade

KtipTiov,

Spa^fii?,

Epid.

between ap and
etc.
So Cret.

variation

is

in part

op uniformly, as

it

Arc, Cypr.,

<j>a.p^K

Horn. KpaTos and

KapTamcK, Kaprcpos,

Corcyr., El. SapyQw., Cret.

t^paypa,

*<j>pdii'S,

Terapros, Lesb. dp,/3p[o]T;v (6)

also has TropTi

Series e\, ok,

= /SaXXo)

o-rpaTos,

<j>a.p)(/ia,

pa, as in
KapTtrs,

Boeot. werpa-

This
due to metathesis, and clearly so in Cretan, which has

Tos (Horn. TTpaTos)

SeXXm

likewise o-TapTos

SapKva

3.

varies

Kpanpoi and KapTcpo^,

KopTos,

oK

or

n-pofri.

Xa

apapreiv-

See 70.1.

(crreXXto, utoXo?, icrrdXrjv).

Arc,

(cf. /Se'Xos etc.).

Boeot. 6/3eXo'? (rarely early Attic), Thess. o/3eXXo'? (89.3)


(assimilation

?).

West Greek

eVeXoi',

= SeXro?

(but this

Lesb. eraXov, yearling

Lac, Pamphyl. 'ATreXXwi'


Thess. "AttXowi' with
4.

Series

is

= ^ovXofiai.

(cf.

Lat. vitulus).
(o

75.

Coan

Cret, Corinth.,

due to assimilation

?),

ttX.

o or av

Coan, Heracl. rdp^vm

See

a Semitic loanword).

= ^AiroXXwv

weak grade

ez^ (e/i), o;^ (o/i),

= o/SoXo?

SeiXo/iat, 87jXo/i.at, Boeot. ^eiXofiai,

Thess. ^eXXo/jLai, all from a grade in eX,

Cypr. SaXro?

Arc.

Cret., Delph., Epid. oSeXo'?,

(ap,)

{reivm

= Tep,v<o,

from

with

*Ti'6a), t6vo<s,

from erafiov.
For f ^Kart = eUoa-i, etc., see 116 a. For participles with ar beside
evr and ovt, as eacrcra, iarra = ovaa, evrei = ovre^, see 163.8.
TUTO'i).

5.

Ion.,

Series

whence

??, ,

(p'^yvvp.i, eppcoya, ippdyrjv).

a/it

iXrjo';

(Lac. AtXe/ro?),

Att.-Ion. iXeca?, Cret. ?Xeo?, but Arc. iXao<;, as in

Homer

PHONOLOGY

60]

43

For Heracl. ippriyela


iapmyela, Dor. etBa
etKa, see 146.4.
eyKTrjo-K in Attic-Ionic, also in Lesbian and
various West Greek
etc.

dialects (though the examples are late

but

influence),

Epirotan,

and so possibly due

to koiv^

ey/crao-t? in Thessalian (also eVrao-t?),


Corcyraean,

etc.

Meg. IfLiraa-K, Boeot. lirTrao-ts, Arc. ivTratrts contain a differva/m = Ki^fm. See 69.4. n-a./jia and related forms, frequent in literary Doric, were employed in preference to ktyjim etc. in most,
Corcyr.,

a.

ent root

ira-,

like

perhaps

all, the dialects except Attic-Ionic. Cf., besides


I/xtoo-is etc., Cret.
wa/ia, iraoras, owner, ireTrdTai perf. sub]., iratrcTat aor. subj., Arg. 7ra/i,

Heracl.

Locr.

/rafuoyfei,

i^eTrafiiov,

Trajuaroc^ayertrTai,

El. ireiraxTTo, Boeot.

TnrdiMTa, Cypr. UaminrtK, etc.

CONSONANTS
F
In Attic-Ionic the f was lost at a very early period. In
East Ionic there is no trace of it even in the earliest inscriptions
it is very rare in Central and West Ionic
and in Attic the only
50.

evidence of

existence

its

sound before

v,

as

is its

apvrdp

occasional use to express the glide

(32).

In Thera,

the earliest inscriptions (seventh century


Cos,

though here early material'

etc.,

too, it is

B.O.)

is

absent from

likewise at Ehodes,

scanty.

In Lesbian

it

and Sappho, but


which, however, none of any extent

existed, initially at least, in the time of Alcaeus


is ];iot

found in

is earlier

But
it

in

most

survives

till

till

the second.

tions of

inscriptions, of

than the fourth century.

many

dialects it is of frequent occurrence initially,

the fourth century or

Between vowels
dialects, after

it

later, in

where

Cretan and Boeotian

occurs in the earliest inscrip-

consonants in several, and before

consonants in a very few.


a.

In some cases the disappearance of p from inscriptions

is

due to KOLvq

influence rather than to an organic loss of the sound within the dialect.

So

shown not only by its reappearance in the spellsurvival in some words in Tzakonian, the modem

evidently in Laconian, as

ing /3 (51), but by its


representative of Laconian, e.g.

^awe

(vanne), lamb (papv-^.

GREEK DIALECTS

44
Even where there

b.

is

[so

no reason to doubt the actual

loss of the

sound,

natural in such cases, only gradually adapted itself to the


pronunciation, and often there is an interval of considerable length in 'which

the spelling, ^s

is

the older spelling with p and the later spelling without p occur promiscuously, even in the same inscription. In the Heraclean Tables the presence
or omission of initial p is constant for certain words, e.g. always p in pe^,
pUari and derivatives, also percK, piSios, iypr/X-qdiiovTi, but oikik, Ipydtp/juic,
AexacTTos, itros and hicros, etc.
51. /3 for

in

its later

the

in

is

/^

represented by

later inscriptions

of

B.C.

e.g. /Si'Seot, ^iSvoi, title of officials

nos.

70-73)

SiapeTr]<s, (o^d

which we must understand


in numerous glosses and

v),

So frequently in

several dialects.

Laconian from the fourth century

(cf.

/3,

value of a spirant (Engl,

to the second century A.D.,

(ftS-),

Bcopde'a beside Feopdea

= 'Op6ia, Trpo^enrdha'; =:'7rpopenrdaa<!, StaySeVij? =

from *copd, etc. and in Cretan,


;

e. g.

Bo'/a^to?,

^e/cdrepoi, hia^enrdixevo's, vtro/SoiKoi, etc.

^epSrji,

^oXoevra,
also Arg.

Cf.

'Bopdajopa^, Tivp^aXicav = older TlvpfaXiov, Corcyr. op^o<;


El. ^oiKLup = poiKia<;

h6ppQ<;,

jap Koi ^oiKiap, otherwise p


Conversely, p

a.

is

rinthian inscription.

The name

61, in the stereotyped phrase

(no.

Eor

lost).

used in place of

= earlier

/S

initial

in afwipd

of the Cretan

/3/3

= pp,

dfioipd of

see 55.

an early Co-

town Fa^os was sometimes

represented by 'Oo^os, as Lat. -Nerva by Ncpoa.


52.

initially before a vowel.

scriptions of
lects,

polKo<;

most
(cf.

Examples are numerous

in in-

dialects, e.g. peTO<; (cf. Lat. vetus) in eleven dia-

Lat. vlcus) in twelve

dialects,

pUari

(cf.

Lat.

mginti) in eight dialects, /ra'mf in ten dialects, further, in various


dialects, f"'PV^,i F"''TO'i, /^eVo?, penr-, fepyov, p^ppco, piBio<i, pi(TO<s,
potvo<s,
a.
0)

and many others

(see also a, h,

c),

especially in proper names.

In several dialects which otherwise preserve p it is lost before o and


ot), as in Homer, e.g. in Gortynian forms of opao), oii/ij,
etc. without p beside piKwn, piKoxTTOi, poiKetk, etc.
(p6v, povhy anal-

(but not before

i>6iu>,

ogy of pa, piv, etc.). But the precise dialectic scope of this phenomenon is
not yet determined, and po is by no means unknown, e.g. Arc. po(t)XiKoa-i
(no. 16, fifth century; in no. 17, fourth century, 6<^A.ei' beside paarov,
piKo.g-Tov, etc.), Fop6a<7(a, Cret.

Bdpftos, Lac. Btupdia, etc. (see 51).

PHONOLOGY

63]

45

6. Initial (rp yields hp, occasionally written ph (cf. Eng.


which) but
usually simply p, wliich, however, was pronounced as hp (or a sui-d
p), as
shown by the fact that after the loss of p such words have the spiritus

Thus Boeot.

asper.

FAe/ca-&/ioe,

Thess.

FcKc-SaiiAos, Cret., Locr., Delph.,


In some dialects this p Vas lost earlier
than p in general, e.g. in Boeotian, where If (from pi^, i.e. phii, from
*sueks) and iKacrros are frequent in inscriptions which otherwise have ini-

El., Arc. pnauTTfK, later cKacrTos.

tial p, as piKacrnj

kcu.

Iktu) (no. 43.8).

There are also some words with original initial p, not coming from
ap, which have ' in their later forms, e.g. Att. lo-Tcop, lo-Topui (cf. Boeot.
pumap, from piS-, Lat. vid-), hw/u, cx/jia (cf. Cret. prjfua, Lat. ves-tis), Iottec.

pos (cf. Locr. psoTrdptos, Lat. vesper), eKiav

(cf.

Locr. pefovrai, Skt. vaf),

The

oXuTKOjLuu (cf. Thess. paX((T<TKeTaLi, Goth, tvilwan).

some other cases

of secondary

',

in

which p

is

explanation, as in

not involved,

but the following a and analogical influence are the chief


53.

Intervocalic

found in fewer

p.

This was lost sooner than

dialects,

we

and in most

is

uncertain,

factors.

initial p,

hence

is

of these only in the earhest

with and without p from the


same period or the same inscription, showing that it was either

inscriptions.

Often

find forms

weakly sounded, or wholly


case of initial

lost in pronunciation

This inconstancy

in the spelling.
p.

The

is

much

and retained only

greater than in the

spelling with p often persists in proper

names, and sometimes in certain conventional or solemn expressions, longer

Examples

than elsewhere.
are

most frequent in Cyprian, where

uniformly except in some later inscriptions,


Sopevai, /Sao-tXe/ro9, etc. (hut always 7rat9,

it

appears almost

e.g. alpei, ot/ro?, p6po<;,

TratSo'?,

with loss

of p).

Eub. 'AyaffiXepo with p in the proper name beside iiroiea-ev


(no. 9). Thess. Adpov, but otherwise lost, as in hvKopeovTO'i, iaoae
(no. 33). Boeot. liroiipi, eiroipea-e, xa'P^F^Trav, KapvKepio, etc.,
but not found after 450

with TpayapvSo'i

etc.

B.C.

Phoc.

except in a late archaistic inscription


/cXe/ro?,

alpei (Crissa

sixth century).

Locr. Karaipei (also eVif oiko5, fierapoiKeoi, pepaSeKOTa, but see a)

beside ttoj?, 'O-n-oevn, Safiiopyov<;.


Xe'ot,

but see

a),

fiaaiXde?, etc.

but usually

iroieoi,

El. [-n-ojipeoi once (also

awope-

even in the same inscription,

Lac. hiXipoi, vapov, Taiapoxo, apdraTai

(cf.

Lesb.

GKEEK DIALECTS

46

[53

aiidra, El. avdarop, elsewhere contracted to drd, drrj, as Cret. dra,

aTraro?, Locr. dvdT6{<i)), late

tJ/Sa

HoreSdvi, AXpa<;, AafoirroXefio?,


fe(a-)a-av, etc.

There are no examples

f oi/ceo?,

etc.)

At/rt,

Aipovvaio,

Corinth. UoreSdfovt beside


Corcyr. phopalcri, o-tovo-

etc.

the earliest inscriptions of Arcadian


{alei, va6<;,

Arg.

(51).

itroCpehe (also irehdpoiKOL, but see a).

of intervocalic

(cf.

f in even

'iXaov no. 16), or Cretan

except in compounds

(a).

a. Even where intervocalic p is regularly lost, it may appear in compounds or in augmented or reduplicated forms, owing to the influence of
the simplex or of the forms without augment or reduplication, where p has
survived as initial, e. g. Cret. irpoptLiraro, epaSe, and late SiajSenrdfjia/os. Hence
in any dialect such forms are not necessarily evidence of the survival of true

intervocalic p.
b.

36)

The

is

also

use of p to indicate the natural glide before or after v (see 32,


no evidence for the survival of the inherited intervocalic p.

of

p. The combinations vp, pp, \p, and also


some cases see /) are preserved in the earliest inscriptions
some dialects. The loss of p was accompanied by lengthening

of

the preceding vowel in East Ionic, Central Ionic (in part;

Postconsonantal

54.

a-p (in

and Eastern Doric

see a)

(Crete, Thera, Cos,

Ehodes and

colonies),

while in the other dialects, as in Attic, the vowel was not affected.
Corinth. Bevpov, Bev-

f okXt)?, Corcyr.
^evpoi;,

El.

Ion. ^eivo<;,

Cret. irpo-

tt/jo-

^r)vo^,

Cyren. ^iko-

aevpdpeo'i,

^r]vo^,

Rhod. GelvK,

Sevpdpeop

In most dialects
^evo<;,'irp6^vo^

Wir]VOKXrj<;

^evpaTO<;

Ion. eovaro^, Cret. rivaTo<i

evaro<}

*4vpetca, *fji6vpo<;

Ion. eiVEKa, fiovvof

ePKa, fi6vo<!

Arc. Koppa

Ion. Kovpr), Cret. Kcopa

Kopa

Corcyr. h6ppo<s

Ion. ovpo'?, Cret. mpoi,

opo'i

Arc. /cdrappo';

Ion. dpi]

apa

Boeot. Ka\p6<s

Ion. KoXSi}

KaXdii

*6\po<!

Ion. o5\os

o\o<s

{Koprf)

Ther. ovpo^

Boeot.,
*vda-po<!

Cret. plapo<s

Ion. Icrof

tcro9

Ion. vova-o^

v6c70^

PHONOLOGY

55]

To

a.

47

the lengthening in East Ionic there are possibly some local excep-

tions, but, in general,

forms like

^ci/os,

and especially n-po^cvK, are due to

Attic influence.

Similarly in Rhodian etc. where ^aj/os has survived. only


in proper names, and in late Cretan where Trpd^tvos is far more
common
than Trpoliji/os. In Central Ionic the lengthening is attested for Paros and

Thasos, but

it is

uncertain

how

far west this extended.

From many

of the

both Ionic and Doric, decisive material is lacking.


6. Lesb. ^ewos, ewexa, in grammarians and late inscriptions, are probably
hyper-Aeolio, due to the frequency of
from vi, a-u, etc. (74, 76, 77.1).

islands,

Cf. also

lara-oOeotcri

in an inscription of 2-14 A. D.

see 19.8; for Boeot. Aa/io^eivo, 92

Diiierent from oppos etc.

c.

is

For Thess. irpo^ewtoBv

a.

Corinth. Uvppos (cf Arg. Uvpflai, TJvp.

foXiov), probably standing for IIvpp^os (from

*IIijp(r/ros

with early assimi-

pa before p), whence the IXuppos of most dialects.


An example of p after a mute is Corinth. ApivCa = Auviov. Cf Horn.

lation of
d.

eSSetcrev for

e8pewev.

Tp yields tt or

e.

a-a-,

with the same distribution as for original

kl etc.

(81), e.g. Att. TiTTapa, Ion. TOTo-epes, etc. (cf. Lat. quattuor, Skt. catmras).

In West Greek reropes the t, instead of a-cr or tt, is due to the analogy of
other forms such as xcTpaTos, in which p was expelled between the consonants.

from

Cf. also ijpA^a-cK

The

/.

*7jfuTpos (61.6).

history of ap in pia-pcK etc., probably of secondary origin,

distinguished from that of original intervocalic


is

apparently parallel to that of

tr/x

probably come from *va(rpo?

etc.

comes

first

(like a/xe),

whence

dp-p-e),

vcids, vecos

(from

is

to

be

the treatment of which

Thus Lesb. vav<K, Dor. vdos,


which in Lesbian be-

etc. (76).

(cf. vaita, vacr-crat),

whence *vavp<K,

vaBos (35), elsewhere vapos

(41.4).

p before consonants. Corresponding

55.
etc.

*vapp<K (like

a-p,

to Att. pijTpa, epprjOrfv,

verhum)

ppt]- beside pep- in epeoa, cf Lat.


.

we have El.

ppd-

(15), Cypr. ppera (70.3) with its denominative pperdco {eppeTaaarv, also spelled evpperdcraTv indicating an anticipation of the

rpa

p.

Cf.

a and

35.

So also Kevevpov from Kevepov), Arg. peppejMeva,

appereue (with prothetic


El. apXaveo'i, wholly
VTj?

aa<paX'i]<;

aeXkij<;

and

(cf.

Hesych. aXaveax;

aXavi'i

aXr]6e<;), is

(a-peX-), aoW.i]'; (a-pa\-

oXoa-'x^epo)';,

as ia dTtj, avakiaKw).

also

aWa-

from a-pXa-, and related to

with Aeolic

Delph. aXia, assembly, Ion. (Hdt.) aXir}

d from apa

was spokesman, presided.

a), later apijreve,

(also

o,

cf.

5), aXjj?,

Dor.,

from apaX-, with Ion.

GEEEK DIALECTS

48

[85

FP appears as ^p, indieating a pronunciation vr, in Lesbian


words quoted by grammarians and in our texts of the Lesbian
poets (^prJTcop, ^poSov, etc.), though this has become simply p at
Cf. also Boeot.

the time of our earliest inscriptions.

Bpavi8a<; beside

Fdpvcov.

In most dialects p was lost before the time of our earliest inscriptions and we find, as in Attic, initial p, medial pp or p. See a.
a. In the case of medial pp, which would occur only in compounds and
augmented or reduplicated forms of words with initial pp, the p unites with
the preceding vowel to form a diphthong in Lesbian (cf. 35), e.g. evpayrj,
avpr/KTOs (Herodian) from *i-ppa,yrj, *a-/rp7;KTos (Att. ippdyrj, apprjKro^'),
Horn. raXavpivoi from *TaA.o-/rptvos. But elsewhere the syllabification of
the simplex (or form without augment or reduplication) was retained
(i. e. pp with the following vowel), and later this pp became pp or sometimes
p, e. g. Arg. pf.pplp.eva., appireve, later dpijTeue. In Attic and most dialects
augmented and reduplicated forms have pp, as Att. ippridriv (etp-^Ko. is formed
after the analogy of forms like eiXricjia, 76 b), ippdy-qv, eppmya, Heracl.
ippyjya., while compounds also usually have pp but sometimes p under the
continued influence of the simplex, as Att. avapprjOm but also 6.vapyj6a<i,
Delph. hlpj.pprivwv (from. *-^pI-pp7]v, like ^p.i-ovo's, cf. Horn, irokv-ppr/v), but
also h-qiuprp/aw.. Cf pp and p from a-p, 76 h. The development of medial
pk was probably parallel (cf. El. d/rXaveos etc., above), though there is no
example in Lesbian.
.

Consonantal
56.

Original

i (i)

almost wholly disappeared from Greek in prehis-.

toric times, giving

'

or, rarely,

(Lat. iecur), t.vyov (Skt.

initially, as in

g"

yugam),

etc.,

(71, 81, 82, 84),

dropped between vowels, as in Tpeli from


t

(Skt. yas), rjirap

yielding various results iq

combination with a preceding consonant

But between

6'?

and being

*Tpeie<: (Skt. trayas), etc.

and a following vowel, as in

'iinrio';, it

always

existed as a natural glide in pronunciation, and in a few dialects


this is expressed in the spelling.

Pamphylian, as Sad, huapolai,

So,

etc.,

by the

repetition of

early Arg. hd\uo<;, St/eeX/ia?, Ion. (Priene) Auoc^avr;?.


Kapveiia<!, Ion. T^uot, dmuijv (37.2).
acter,

which we transcribe

j,

is

i,

in

and sometimes elsewhere, as


Cf. also

Arg.

In Cyprian a special chargenerally employed, though not

PHONOLOGY

58]

49

uniformly, as in the Idalium bronze (no.


19) regularly before a,
but not before e or o, e.g. ijaripav but lepifijav, feirija
but ei.6v.

The Spiritus Asper.

The

57.
I

spiritus asper generally represents

but in some words

(56),

Psilosis

an original

a-

(59) or

secondary, and sometimes obscure,

is of

origin, e.g. iVTro? (of. Lat. equus; tTTTro? regularly as the second
part of compounds, ''AXt7r7ro9,''Ai'Tt7r7ro9, etc., rarely "Ai/^tTTTros),

asmdn) with after the analogy of vfieh (with


The sound was denoted by H (earlier B) until the intro-

^/iet9, a/*e? (cf. Skt.


'

from

t).

'

duction of the Ionic H


designated.i

But

see

after

??,

which

it

was generally

Psilosis, or the loss of the spiritus asper, is characteristic of

Ionic (whence the sign

was

Elean, Cj^rian, and Cretan


Psilosis is

a.

un-

left

4.7.

left free for


(i. e.

use as

t]

East

see 4.6), Lesbian,

Central Cretan).

shown, not only by the absence

of

A,

but by the presis not changed

ence of phrases and compounds in which a preceding mute


to the aspirate, e.g. East Ion.

d.Tr'

exao-Tou, abr' ov, KaTawep, El. KaTUTTcdl,

But psilosis is no bar to the retention of aspirated mutes


in phrases and compounds which were formed prior to the loss of the asper.
For they would be affected, if at all, only by the analogical influence of the
simplex, as Cret. KaTtoTa/xcv by LO-Ta.fi.ev. Hence East Ion. xaSoSos, El. TrofleAd/xevos, etc. Cf. Mod.Grk. KoBiaTiqiu, dijiov, etc., in spite of the loss of the
Cret. Ka.TUTTa.iLa/.

spiritus asper.

58.

asper,

Even

in those dialects

and which, in

which generally preserve the

distinction

the A-dialects, there are

from those with

psilosis,

many irregularities, partly ia

spiritus

we may

call

special words,

1 In quoting forms from inscriptions, wherever the sign for the spiritus asper
appears in the original it is transcribed h, to be distinguished from ', which is
supplied as a purely diacritical sign, like accent marks, and the employment of
which is, in many special cases, of doubtful propriety. That is, the evidence is
often insufficient to determine whether the omission of the sign of the asper is
merely graphic, in which case we should transcribe the form with ', or due to an
actual loss of the sound, in which case we should transcribe with '. As a work-

ing rule we employ the lenis in quoting forms without h from inscriptions which
have the character or are of a period when it was certainly in common use.

GREEK DIALECTS

50

[58

where by-forms evidently existed, partly due to the weak pronunciation of the

sound in general

(cf.

the variations in Latin speUing).

o, a, etc., appear regushowing that in these proclitic forms it was


either wholly lost or more weakly sounded than elsewhere. So in Locrian
(nos. 55, 56) always d, never ho (cf. also k d), feni. d and ha once each; in
Delphian (no. 51) d as article (A 30, 38, C 19), but demonstrative ho (B 53);

In several dialects the forms of the article,

a.

larly or frequently without h,

Thess. KOI

= Kol ot

(no. 26); d likewise in

some early

inscriptions of Boeotia,

Pamphylia, Syracuse, Metapontum, and Sybaris. The same is probably to


be inferred for Arcadian from the omission of h in the relative, as av = a av
(nos. 16.14, 17.7), with which compare Boeot. 6s = tos (no. 40) and Delph.
as (no. 51

A 28) beside usual

though in most

ho, hoa-n's, etc.,

dialects the h

of the relative is uniformly retained.


b. Other forms which regularly have the spiritus asper, but for which
by-forms with the lenis are to be recognized, are fi/i-ipa, but even in Attic
:

inscriptions frequently l/tepa. Mess, /car afiepav, Ther.


Kiirdinpov, Locr. afjiApa.

lenis in

tepds (hiepos, huapo's, in

Ehodian and Argolic,

as

Rhod. in

numerous

icpems,

Arg.

eV

dfiepas, Troez.

dialects)

lapofji.va.fji.oves

but with
(nos. 76,

77, with ho etc.), Epid. tapo/x/nm/ioves (no. 83, with Ao/iovoois etc.), Aegin.

lapwi (beside Aoikos

6 oucos, xo

ki^'

So

o)-

i-n-'

iapeus in the

inscription no. 92, in contrast to huapov at Selinus, is probably

Epidaurian graver. For Mant.


a/i,S

lepds, see d.

.(Lac. TToff afii, Heracl. hafj.h),

Thess.

or afifiif

rifj.w

but also

but also ta-raKa

Megarian

due to the

(see 57), in Doric dialects

d/is

(Coan

ju.er'

apjiov etc.).

which, vice
versa, sometimes co-raXKa), as Thess. emfrrdKOVTa (no. 33), Mess. Karearad/ti/ie

Amorg.

fitvoi,

ea-TrjKa,

(cf . lo-TaAxa, for

KaTta-Tutarj's.

Several words which regularly have the lenis show secondary forms
with the asper in various dialects. Thus Iros (from /reVos), but Heracl.
c.

iraira-htrriptha (beside /tctos),

in the

koivt^ (cf.

Mod.Grk.

similar phrases.

tSios

Epid.

irevO' err/,

and frequently

Kaff Iros etc.

probably after the analogy of q/iepa in


(from /ri&os), but Thess. Kaff I&Smv, and so often in
e<^Tos),

late inscriptions of various dialects (really koivj;),


<TTov.

the
as

lo-os

KOLvrj,

a)s.

(from

/riirfos),

probably after

ofMioi.

Locr. Ivre

So probably by a

after iweaKaiScKa) Ther. hiKaSi

f(j)LopKiw,

still

but Delph.

hevTe, after

htwm, Delph., Ther.

further extension of the asper

ctxdSi (no. 107).

dxpos, but Heracl.


and perhaps Delph. haKpodiva (?no. 51 D47).
also frequent in the kolvt^, is a contamination of
lirvopKem

haKpoa-KLpm.1, Corcyr. Ad/cpos,

Delph.

(cf. ta-rt),

Heracl. Aoktu (also Theran), hoKraKanoi,

Atrards, all after cTrTd.


(e. g.

probably after Koff tKabut Heracl. AtVos beside to-os, and e<^' mttjs in

PHONOLOGY

69]

and

while Delph.

ec^opiceo),

avypiw

from

icjiaKioiJuu

= Lesb.

(i<f>a.vypa/dav)

51

d/cco/xat is

obscure.

In Thess.

aypio) the asper, as well as the v, is probably

due to contamination with some other word.


d. Besides such special cases as have been noted in a, h,
and c, there are
in some dialects irregularities which seem to be due to confusion
in spelling consequent upon the asper being weakly sounded or on the verge
of
total disappearance, though even some of these may possibly be due
to speLocrian has

cial causes.

-irevTopKuiv

beside hopKov,

6<tw., 'kttux., Karifofievov,

vSpiav (A before v in hmro), and, vice versa, once Hottovtiov beside 'Ottovtiol,
and hdyiv for ayiv (cf iiriyov). In Arcadian, no. 17 has ipMru beside hiiXuru,
.

and once hdv for av, and the very early Mantinean inscription,
no. 16, shows no example of h, though containing not only oiSe (see a). but
otria, lAaov, and tepos for which hiepoi is fully attested in the other Arcadian
inscriptions as no. 16
and among the brief archaic inscriptions there is a
notable lack of agreement in this matter. Heraolean has, besides the cases
mentioned under c, opcK, opL^ot, where we expect hopoi, and hdpvrjO-Ls, hoiiJoTcpas,

a-ovTi,

for apvrjcrK,

At Epidaurus, no. 83 has always drtpoi not hdrtpoq.

oitrovri.

IT.

Loss of Intervocalic

Greek, as in eSo? (Lat. sedeo, Skt. sad-),


sac-), etc.

At

0-,

as

lost, as

Nevertheless there are

by analogy

either retained
o"

from t

eiroiiai (Lat. sequor, Skt.

the same time intervocalic s was changed in the

same way and then


etc.

Original initial s became the spiritus asper in proethnic

59.

in ^eVeo? (Skt. yawasas,

many Greek words with

"La-t.

generis),

intervocalic

as in the aorist, or of secondary origin

(61).

This Greek intervocalic a was subjected to a similar process,

namely became h and was


and Cyprian.
1.

Laconian.

Early

iiroiehe,

AvhiTTTTOv, 'E\evhvvia, etc.


(Ovacri-),

'OvaireXrji;
etc.

Cf. also

in glosses.
earliest
of

most

97

a.

later lost, in Laconian, Argohc, Elean,

viicdha<;,

later Tlahi(f)di, Tr/ao/SetTraAa?, vLKda<s,

UeuKKeiSa

Examples

evhe^ohai<;, TlohoiBavi,

of

o-

(lieicri-),

/SatXe'o?

(/3ao-X.eo?),

omitted are also in Ar. Lys. and

This was a characteristic of Laconian speech from the

known

period,

and

is faithfully

of the early inscriptions.

ism and ignored in the spelling

represented in the spelling

But it was felt as a provincialof some few early inscriptions

GEEEK DIALECTS

52

which were

set

the retention of

up
o-

outside of Laconia (no. 64, ^Xeidaioi, though

in this

non-Laconian name

and in the

no. 65, yvea-ioi, e^daovTi),

usually

show

cr.

later

anyway;
inscriptions, which

is

natural

See 275.

From Mycenae,

Argohc.

2.

[69

early ^pahcapiSa<; (no. 75, fifth cen-

from Argos, early ewoCpehe, 'ApKe-

tury), late iTToXvcoprje (197 B.C.);

hC\a<;, \ha^o\hCai, etc., later Safioioi, (Sa/xoaioi), djjavpop (drjcravpov),

TeXeiTTTTO? (TeXeo-t-),

pdvWo';

{paarv-), etc.

But forms with

fl-

are also frequent at all periods, e.g. 6eaavp6<;, KaTa6eaLo<; (no. 78,

same

century), Kvaiinrov in the

fifth

inscription with TeXewrTro?.

This inconsistency in the spelling, which


Laconian, has the same explanation.

See

is
1,

even greater than in

and

275.

a. Nearly all the examples are from Argos and vicinity, from which one
might conclude that the change was specifically Argive, not general Argolic.
But there are some traces of it at Epidaurus, and the absence of other examples may be due to external influence.

Elean.

3.

In no. 60 (middle fourth century) aSeaXrcihaie,

SevavTi (aor. subj.), beside SafioaicoiJiev, Safioaiaia.

Alexander)

avaOeaiop

<f>vya^

In no. 61

(after

iroirjaaa-ai (irof^a-acrffai), iroirjarai (aor. subj.), beside


etc.

In

the earlier inscriptions intervocalic

all

a-

is

unchanged.
Cyprian.

4.

(f)pove6i

{^povewen), iroe'xpfievov

also in sentence combination

vj(epdv

(tw

ixvpoiv).

(cf.

97

a), as

But generally a

is

ku

(Troa-exop-evov),

a(v)Tv (a? avri),

ra

written.

Rhotacism
60.

Ehotacism, or change of

o-

to p, is

found in Elean, late

Laconian, and Eretrian, rarely elsewhere.


Elean.

1.

Final

appears uniformly as p in the later inscrip-

Most of the
by side without any appara is unknown (cf. 59.3).

tions, nos. 60, 61, e.g. rep, aip-arop, oircop, irdXiop.


earlier inscriptions

ent system.
a.

show

Ehotacism

-?

and

-p side

of intervocalic

In the earlier inscriptions p is relatively most frequent in forms of the


and the indefinite or the relative pronoun, e.g. roip, rip, op, and

article

PHONOLOGY

61]

53

possibly the rhotacism began in such enclitic and proclitic forms.


here there is great fluctuation in the spelling.

Laconian. Ehotacism of final

2.

s is

tions, e.g. viKoap, Bev^iTTTrop, etc.,


3.

Eretrian.

seen only in very late inscrip-

confirmed by numerous glosses.

Eliotacism of intervocalic

tions of Eretria

and Oropus,

But even

e.g. Eretr.

o-

is

frequent in inscrip-

exovpiv, Ovtopiv, iiriSrjfiew-

piv, avveXevOepcopavTi, iraipiv, airrjpiv, 'ApTSfitpia, Crop. Srjfiopicov.

But there are many exceptions, and the use of p is gradually given
up under Attic influence. Although Plato, Cratylus 434 c, remarks
that the Eretrians say a-KXrjpoTrjp for
tional

example

there

<TKXT)p6rr)<i,

final ? except

p for

of

is

no

inscrip-

once oirap dv, for which

see 97 a.
4.

Rhotacism

M//3709

of

a-

= Mtb-70?,

before a voiced consonant

= eoo-Soro?.

(Matropolis, Pharsalus) e6pSoT09


a-

in this position

was pronounced

often indicated by

as

^,

61.

is

v.

is

changed to

The more

as a sonant

(z),

seen in Eretr.

= koctixoi,

Thess.

In most dialects

and in

late times

\jrij<f)i^p,a.

Change

before

is

late Cretan (Gortyna) Kopfioi

of

to (r

very frequently before

a-

i,

precise conditions are uncertain,

and sometimes
and the change

in part independent of dialectic variation, t being retained in

some words in
in all dialects,

But

all dialects, e.g. avri,


e.g.

and in some words becoming

most words hke ^outk

in a considerable class of

distribution of the t-

ble characteristic of

words there

-ti,

West Greek

dialects

-Karioi

= -KOtrioi

for

Examples

and Boeotian

Thessalian are indirectly evidenced

The numerals

a distinct dialectic

-vn, as hi^oan, ^epovrt

SiBcocn, <f)povcn (Arc. <f)epovcn, Lesb. ^epoiai).

2.

is

and u-forms, the retention of f being a notathe West Greek dialects, in which Boeotian

and ThessaUan also share.


1. Verb forms with the endings
ful in all the

a-

(Skt. ga-ti-s), crrda-i';, etc.

by

-vOi.

See

are plenti-

(-rt, -v6i),

and

for

139.2.

20 and the hundreds, {f)iKaTi

(Arc. -Kaaioi).

= eiKoa-i,

GREEK DIALECTS

54
3.

Some nouns and

[61

Most words

adjectives in -rt?, -rto?, -ria.

of

have o- in all dialects. But Apra/jLiTio<; = ApreixCcno-i in


numerous "West Greek dialects, Boeot. EvTprjri'i = 'EvrpTjarig (the
Aeolic form in Homer), Coan, Delph. iviavno? = iviava-io<;, etc.
4. iropTi in 'Cretan, TroTt'in all other West Greek dialects, with
this class

Boeotian and Thessalian,

But Homer has


5.

= Att.-Iou.,

(cf.

etc.

dialects,

t being

is

a-

to

h.

Tlo-

probably due to the influ-

TlocretScov.

TV in Hterary Doric and an inscription of Epidaurus, Boeot.

= Att.-Ion.,

Lesb., Arc. av.

Cret. [^]/AtTi;-6KT0, Epid. hefilreia,

but Att.-Ion., Arc. r/fuav;, Lesb. aifuav;, with suffix

which we
from

tto's.

a.

with Boeotian and

Arc. IlocrotSdv), with the Laconian change of

ence of the usual

Tov

Arc-Cypr.

See 135.6

of the Pre-Doric (Achaean)

aeiSdv in some later Doric inscriptions

6.

tt/jo'?,

tt/jo'?.

= lioaeiStov, the forms with

numerous West Greek


Lac. UohoiSdv is a relic

Thessalian.

Lesb.

irporC, ttoti, as well as

IIoTeiSdwv, IloTeiMv,

attested for

form

'

'

find

Arc, Delph., Epid., Meg., Thess., late


with

*rifUT(:o'i,

suffix -rpo-.

p.

In general

-tv, beside

Cret. ijfMo-ao';

8,7

7 remained simple mediae, but in some diawhich


eventually prevailed even in Attic (cf Mod.Grk. /3 = , S = " soft
63.

/3, S,

lects there are indications of their pronunciation as spirants,


.

th,

7 = guttural
1.

2.

Such are
The use of /S for f in later Laconian etc. See 51.
The representation of 8 by f in three of the very
spirant).

Elean inscriptions,

e.g. fe,

though the others have

B,

elsewhere.

Cf. also early

fia^eie (for

a^

3.
Id),

The

see 89.1)

^e:a, ^iicaia, ^((jjviov,

what was the usual spelUng


= ro'Se (no. 93), and early Arg.

following

Ehod. t6^'

= elSeirj.

occasional omission of 7 or substitution of

ld)v, (Ar.,

p,heid\[av]

Corinna)

(ij,eydXr]v),

various places.

earliest

^a/Mopyia, fei^o^,

= 701,

i,

as in Boeot.

Arc. eiriBudve {iTndiyydvrj), Pamph.

and oXto? (oX/709) in

late inscriptions of

PHONOLOGY

64]
4.

The occasional representation

of

55

7 by fin Cyprian,

as fa (7a),

a^a96<; (a<yad6<;).
5.

Cret. a-TTopSSdv.

See

89.3.

!>.

63.

In general

e,

(f>,
x remained true aspirated mutes, and in
the earliest type of the alphabet, wliich had a sign for 6 but none
for ^ or x> these two were represented by ttA and kH, as at Thera,
or, where a sign for h was not in use, simply by tt and , as in the

6,

GortjTiian Law-Code

(e.g. Kp6vo<;

= xpdvo^,

= <j)vXij).

TrvXd

Spell-

ings like yeypaTr(f>a, SeSoKxdai are mostly late, an exceptionally


early example being Delph. XeKxoi (no. 51

13

dat. sg. of Xexco).

But
hard " th, Germ, ch),
which eventually prevailed even in Attic, may have existed at a
much earlier period in some dialects. Such a pronunciation of is
certainly presupposed by Lac. a- = 6 (64), and probably by Cret.
68 = <t6 etc. (81 a, 85.3). So too en = (t6 in Locrian, Elean, etc.
(85.1) is most plausibly explained as due to the fact that 6 had
become a spirant iu other positions, but remained an aspirated mute
after a and so, in contrast, was denoted by r. A similar explanation probably holds for some other cases where t is used for 6, as
Cret. Tvaro? etc. (66), and Cret. IIvtio?, ie. Ilv^to?, the originally
Delphian epithet of ApoUo, with its hallowed pronunciation rethe pronunciation as spirants (Engl./, "

tetined (also

sometimes spelled

nunciation of V as
64.

Laconian a

ii,

= 0.

with

IIoi'Tto?

Cretan v being u

The use

of

01 to

denote the pro-

see 24).

o-

by Aristophanes in the

Lysistrata to iadicate the sound of the Laconian 6 (and there

is

no good reason to doubt that this belongs to the original text)


shows that it had become a spirant which would strike the Athenian ear as cr, even if not yet fully identical with it. The Laconians
themselves retained the spelling 6 in

but

avea-tjKe (avSrjKe)

inscription,

and ia very

and

aio) (0eov)

all

the earlier inscriptions,

occur in a fourth century

late inscriptions avearjKe, Jiapa-ea (Fop0ca),

Kaaa-TjpaTopiv beside KaOdrfparopiov,

etc.

GREEK DIALECTS

56

[65

Interchange of Surds, Sonants, and Aspirates

Dissimilation and assimilation of aspirates, or transposition

65.

The

of the aspiration.

rpexo} from *dpe'X(o

So Cret.

tion.

Ion.

(Cumae)

from

*6i0r)/ii,

dpe^ofiai), etc., belongs to the proethnic

(cf.

some examples of later, dialectic, assimiladidefievoii = TLde/jLevof, dvxa (i.e. 0v%o) = tvxVj West

But there

period.

dissimilation seen in Tidrjfu

are

0v<f>\6<;

= TV(f>X6^,

Arc.

(f)ap9evo<;

sixth century Attic inscriptions), dvadev

dvariK

logical, 0v(7- as in

etc.),

Lac, Epid.

= 7rap0evo<;

= rvOrjvai

(also in

(in part

ana-

deOp.o'i, Locr., El. de0fiiov

= TeOpLO^, rSfuov, Att. 0ea-fJb6v, 0eafiiov (164.4), Att. (iascr.) ev= usual Att. ivTav0a. Ion. ev0avra is the more original form

6av0a

(from ev0a), whence Att. ivrav0a through transposition of the aspiration

and influence

(124).

El.

cf.

ivravTa

Kav^of

of raCra,

Cf. also

Eub. ivTOv0a like Toina

from ev0avTa, through influence of Tavra (but

Eor transposition

also 66).

Cret.

is

= ;\;a\o'?,

cf.

also Ion. a')^avTO<;

= aKav0o<;,

Thess. IleT^aXo? from I'eTToXo'? (68.2).

There are scattered examples of variation between surd and

66.

and sonant,

aspirate, surd

= re'xvi],

TBKva

etc.,

especially before a nasal. Locr.

Cret. TuaT6<;, TervaKoi;

= OvqTO'i,

reOvrjKO'i,

Heracl.

SiaKvovTcov beside Siaypovreov, Eretr. a7roSeiyvva0ai, Ther. ipSeiyvvto SelKvv/M, Aetol. a'^^vrjKOTa'; beside ayvrj/cw (ayveco

fjLevo<;

Ion.

(Chios)

heixp-a

Trprij^^a

= irapdSeiyfia,

TrprjyfJba,

Epid. ^dpxP'a

probably contain the suffix

= dyco).

= <})pdyfjLa,
-a/Ma.

wdp-

Cf. Te'xvr]

from

*Te'KCTvd.

(So perhaps Delph., Locr. ix0o<s from *e;^To's, this

from

*e/co--To'?.

Cf. early Att. eBox<re etc.)

In Pamphylian vt becomes regularly {v)B


as

Tre'Se

= TreVre,

i^dyoBi

Pamph. arpoTroiai)

= i^dyavn.

In

Locr.

El. irda-Kco

verbs in

(j)piv

= Trpiv is

= ird(Txa>

-o-zcw

not written,
(cf.

69.2),

also

= dv0pa)iro^, dvrpfjiov = dvSpeiov, it is uncertain

whether the preceding p or the following p


factor.

(v

Cret. dvTp6iro<i

is

the more important

probably due to the influence of other

(but possibly like (tt

hexofxai with analogical

is

obscure.

= (t0,

(to Be^ofiai, after

cf.

63).

For Att.-Ion.

^pexeo to ^pe^co,

etc.)

PHONOLOGY

68]

57

other dialects (and Ionic in part) have the original SeKo/iai


{61
ovSeK, firiBei<!, are replaced by ovdei-:, fii^dek, with

Att. SaipoS6Ko<:).

+ the

6 from B

Very

It.

spiritus asper of el?, in later Attic

show numerous examples

late inscriptions

confined to any special conditions, as dSeXwos


irpio-fivTipiK,

Lesb. vwapKOurav

Of the Homeric by-forms

67.

omid

of confusion, not

dSEA.</>ds,

WTrap^ouaav, Lac. 7roiSi;^dv

Interchange of

and elsewhere.

also in Cyprian, rarely in

it

<^peo-|8urjOos

and ttt

and

of ttoXj?

wo'Xe/ios, ttto'Xis is

Arcadian and Cretan, and in Thes-

salian after a vowel, as ol rro\Cap')(oi, ap^cTToXiap')(^evTo<! (tt


TTT, 86.2)

TTTo'Xe/ios is

and in many

TratSiKw.

found in Cyprian

(gloss)

member

dialects as the second

and Cretan

of proper

from

(rare),

names.

Interchange of Labials, Dentals, and Gutturals


68.

1.

Those sounds

speech which are called labio-

of the parent

and are commonly designated as

velars

Greek regularly as

(1) labials before the

qU,

git,

gV-h,

back vowels

before consonants, (2) dentals before the front vowels

gutturals before and after

v.

Thus

ttou, irodev (Lat.

appear in

t,

quod,

but Trevre

(Lat. quitique),

(Eng. queen) beside Boeot. ^avd.


/Sio9 (Lat. vivus),

Kora.
e.g.

Many

^eXo<;

7,

(3)

Osc.

cf.

7re/i-

Xvko's (Eng. wolf),

yvvq

But before

usually

with 8 only in Heracl. ivSeSim/coTa

/3, <^,

e.g.

= ifi/Se^ias-

exceptions are due to leveling between related forms,

after /SaWto, Cypr.

ireia-ei,

Instead of irpea^v;, with analogical

with

e, -q,

pod), oirolo^, but ti? (Lat. quis), re (Lat. que), Cret. oreto?,
TTti?, n-efiTTTO';,

and

a, o, m,

which

is

regular before

/S,

= reiaei

after -iroivd, etc.

several dialects have forms

v, e.g. Cret.

irpeiyv^ etc., Boeot.

irpKryele^ (see 86.3). Examples of the normal relation are Arc.


SeXXco = ^dXXco, West Greek ^Xop-ai, heiXop.ai (75) = ^ovXofiai,
Delph. etc. oSeXoi (49.3) = oySoXo? (but if from the rare early Att.
o/8e\o'9,

o/3eX\o'?

/8 is

may

analogical, as in o/8eXto-09.

belong under

2,

below).

Boeot. 60eX6^, Thess.

GKEEK DIALECTS

58

[68

a notable characteristic of the Aeolic dialects that


they very frequently show a labial even before a front vowel,

But

2.

it is

where the dental

is

(Hesych.,

Lesl). irea-avpef

irevTs,

Thus

regular elsewhere.

= reTTa/se?, Thess.
a-ciTco = relcrai etc., Lesb.
ra/ae?

of.

jriavpe<i),

aTnreicrdTOv,

irelirai,,

TrijXvi

Horn.

Lesb., Thess. Trefiire

Boeot. TreV-

Boeot. iroTairoin-

(Sappho), Boeot. IletXe-a-T/JOTtSas

= West Greek SijXofiai,


heiXofxaL, Lesb. Be'Xc^ot (gloss), Boeot. BeX^oi = Ae\<f>oi, Thess.
BeXcj)aiov = *AeX(f>aiov, Boeot. ^e^vpa = Cret. 8ecj}vpa, Att. y(f)vpa

to T7j\, Thess. /3e'A,Xo/iat, Boeot. ^elXoixai

unexplained), Boeot.

(y

{Oea-aaadai), Lesb.

1^77/)

(though this

/co're?

is

to

Locffeia-TO^

'EpiJ,6-0ea-TO<;,

(gloss), Thess. irecjieipaKovTe';

a case of original ghu not

eo-rtSas

= dijp, Tedrjpa-

5'2^A),

Boeot. ^er-

whence Thess. IleT^aXo? with transposition of the aspiration


@eTT(xXo'?, Ion. etc. ecro-aXo'?. Yet some words always

TaXo'?,

= Att.

(65)

have the dental,


3.

e.g. re, rt?, rtytta,

In Arcado-Cyprian there

before a front vowel

was

is

the reason for this being obscure.

evidence that the sound arising


elsewhere, identical with the

not, as

ordinary dental, but, at least under certain conditions, was a


lant.
<Tt9

Thus Cypr.

= Tts,

eicre

o-t?

= etre

= Ti?
(for

(no.

19),

(no. 16),

dian inscriptions have the usual rt?

hiXXas

= ^aXXto,

and

(Hesych.),

sibi-

and Arc.

the character transcribed a, see 4.4) in

an early inscription of Mantinea


6pov beside SepeOpov

a(=Ti

though

Cf. also

etc.

all

other Arca-

the glosses ^epe-

^dpadpov, and feXXw beside inscriptional

see note to no. 65

2.

Note. The fact that in Arcadian only the one inscription named shows
anything but the dental spelling need not indicate that the peculiar pronunciation was locally restricted. It was probably colloquial throughout
the dialect, but not usually followed in the spelling, owing to external
influence.

Cf. El.

^= 8

only in the earliest inscriptions (62.2), and see 275.

There are some pronominal forms with in place of the


usual TT or t. Thus Ion. kw? = tto)?, KOTepo^:, etc. (but only in
4.

texts of Ionic authors, inscriptions always

Lesb. oKai

= ottj),

Thess.

k^ =

rk,

etc.

showing the usual forms),

Possibly such forms arose

in phrases like ov kqx; etc. with regular k after v (above,

1).

PHONOLOGY

69]
a.

(TTov

59

Puzzling is Thess. Savxva = 8di>vr, (cf. also Hesych.


Savx/nw- VKav^v\ov Sai^wjs). Unless due to contamination with another root (e.
g. that

of &IMO,

SESav/xei/oi/, cf.

Hesych. ^vOixov

Ifnrprja-fiov),

there

an anticipa-

is

tion of the element of the consonant, as in Xvkos.

5.

seen in

change

of 6 to

that

(f>,

= de&v,

^vovre^

(})S)v,

is,

doubtless, of spirant th to /,

is

Ovovte^, of an inscription found at

Dodona.
Nasals and Liquids

Nasal before consonant. The nasal was always assimilated

69.

to the character of the following consonant, but

sounded than in the intervocalic


nected the following

The

1.

position.

was

With

less distinctly

this

are con-

facts.

letter v is freely

used for the guttural and the

labial nasal,

as well as for the dental, e.g. 'OXuvTrto?, avjti, \av)^dva.


2.

lects,

The nasal is omitted in the spelling, occasionally


and regularly in Cyprian and Pamphyhan.

in

aU

dia-

Complete assimilation to a following mute, though not reguin any dialect, sometimes occurred in careless pronunciation, as

3.

lar

shown by

occasional,

Xeadai, Boeot.

and mostly

'OXi'7r7ri';;;^7;i'(late

beside usual "A^a/i/3o?..


assimilation
jToinrdv

is

most extensive

= irofiirdv,

was usual

From

in the

acfxpavco

name

of the

late, spellings, e.g. Att. ^n/S/SaX-

Koivij inscription), Delph. "A ^aj8/8o?

Crete,
(86),

where in general consonant

there are several examples, as

aix<l>dva),

and the assimilated form


town Lappa, whose coins show Aair-

In some cases the dissimilative influence


was probably a factor, e.g. Delph. aveKKk-qrwi

Traimv.

nasal

iirdvaKKov (papyr.)
^eiv

= eTrdvayieov.

Thess.

of a preceding

= aveyK\i]Toa'!,
i^^avaxd^ev = i^avayxd-

perhaps belongs here rather than under

2, i.e. is

to be read

e^^ava (k) a(S) Sev.


4.

efiTrdcri,';.

special case is Boeot.

This

is

from

eWao-t? (uniformly

*efj.-Tr7rd(Tt<; (cf.

rd

rwo'-TTTrao-TO?), the root being Trird- (with tttt

as in iTTTro?),
(49.5).

which

is

so speUed)

jnrd/ji.aTa, @i6-'7nra(TTO<;,

from original ku,

simplified initially to ird-, as in Tra/ia etc.

GEEEK DIALECTS

60
a.

mute

Assimilation of a nasal to the character of the preceding

is

per-

and Cret. SapKva =


Cf. Mod.Grk. IlaTvos from UdrfjuK, Xaxvo'S from AaxA'ds.

haps to be seen in Coan 'Aprrm;^i/os


Sapx/Jui, SpaxfiT]-

'ApurToxxfi^CK,

Transposition of a liquid, or loss by dissimilation.

70.
1.

[69

Transposition within the same syllable.

'A-^ophCra = 'A<ppoSiTTj,

iropTi^

Cret.

-rrpoTi,

which

also Kapro';, a-Tapro';, etc. for

see

49.2 a.
2.

Transposition between different syllables.

Amorg. Tpd^T)
3.

= Td<j)po<;,

rdcjjpr],

Loss by dissimilation.

poTTTpov, dvpcoTov

Syrac.

Spitjyo';

Heracl.

= hC(j>pQ<i

rpdif)o<!,

(Hesych.).

= /5;T/3a, Epid. /aoTrroi'


(^arpia = (ftparpia in various

Cypr. f/jera

from *6vpaTpov,

dialects (Delphi, Cos, Chios, etc.), vice versa <f}pi]Tapxo^ at Naples.


71.

Cretan v from

In Cretan the \ was a deep guttural

X.

(cf.

French autre from

written occasionally,

e.g.

Gortyn. aBev'jnai= aSeX^ai (but usually

closely resembling

aSeXTTto?

= feKfievai,

etc.), pev/Meva<;

numerous Cretan

Kav^o'!

glosses in Hesychius

alter, etc.),

and was

so

= %ix\ko'9. There are


= \, e.g. avao<; =

with v

aXa-of.
a. Cretan t from p in fuurus = paprvi is without parallel, and must be
due to some kind of dissimilation between the two p's of papTvp-.

72.

VT, v6,

from Xr, \d. Several examples

in Peloponnesian Doric

and the

Sicilian

and

of vt

= \t are

found

Italiot colonies, e.g.

Meg., Mess., Heracl., Syrac. ^ivrav {^iXrav), ^ivria^,

etc., Arg.
MivTcav (MiXtcov), kgvto {xeXro) in Alcman, ^CvTaTO<; {<piXraTO<;)
in Epicharmus, jSevnaTO'; (/BeXTiaTo? ) in Theocritus. iv6elv (iX-

Alcman, Epicharmus, Theocritus, and at Corcyra


an Arcadian (Lycosura), a late Delphian, and a late Cretan,

delv) occurs in

also in

inscription.

Double Liquids and Nasals in Lesbian and Thessalian


73.

part a

The combinations

common

treated in 74-76, also 77.1, 79, have in

become double liquids and


and Thessalian, but in other dialects a single

history, since they all

nasals in Lesbian

PHONOLOGY

76]

61

liquid or nasal accompanied by lengthening of the


preceding vowel
(if e or 0, to ei, ov, or r), w, according to
the dialect ; see
25).

74.

p, V,

when preceded by any

1,

other vowel than a or

o.

From *(f>eepiQ,, Lesb. (j^eeppm (gram.), Att. etc. (I>eeipa>, Arc. <j)e^pca.
From *KpU(o, Lesb. Kpivvco (gram.), Thess. Kpevvco (18), Att. etc.
Kptvm. From *TeVtto, Lesb. KTevvm (gram.), Att. etc. KTeivco.
But

a.

same

a or o precedes, epenthesis takes place, the result being the


e. g. xatp<o from
*xapi<, fioipa from Vo/ow, /Saivio from

if

in all dialects,

Xi gives XA. in nearly all dialects,

6.

*<ttIXiw.

But Cyprian has aUos

e. g.

oAXos (Lat.

aliun), o-riXXto

from

(beside aA.(X)d), and Elean once aikorpux

(beside oAAa, oreAAw).

75.

From

Xv.

Att.-Ion.

a-TrfKi].

49.3, 68.2), Lesb.

*(7TdXvd, Lesb., Thess. a-TciWd, Dor.

From

aTaXd,

etc.

*/36\vd, *^6\voiJLai {*Se\vop.at, *^e\vop,ai,

fioWd, Thess. /SeXKo/Mai, Att.-Ion. /3ovXij,

^ov\ofj.ai,

Boeot. ^(o\a, ^ei\o/xai, Locr., Delph. BeiXofiai, EL, Coan, Heracl.,

From *f e'Xi/w,

Ther. 877X0/^04.
etXa),

etXe'ci),

= /reX/ieVos

like Horn. eeX/MeVo?


a.

Forms

is

and KarafeXfievov are

from the same

root,

debar, prevent.

j3dXo/xai,

Cret.

perf. pass, participles,

but meaning assembled.)

with XX in all dialects represent a


by analogy of SeiKvviu etc,).

like oXXd/xi

of Xv (with V restored
b.

*pe\ve(o, Lesb. cnreWco (gloss), Ion.


El. aTro/reXe'oi, -eoiav, Heracl. 7^?;-

etXe'cr^o),

(In these forms the meaning

Xrjdimvri.
FV/ieva<;

Delph.

later treatment

from a form without v, is Arcado-Cyprian, and occurs


(Homer and Eretrian).

also,

beside ^ovkofjuu, in Ionic


76.

Intervocalic

o-

+ liquid

or nasal.

From

*^e(r\ioi

(cf.

Skt.

sa-hasra-), Lesb., Thess. j(^eWioi, Ion. etc. ^et'Xtot, Lac. ;^;Xiot (Att.
j(;tXtot

from

*;y;i'o-Xtot).

cVa"' elsewhere
a/i/ite,

Thess.

et'/^'

a/i/^e,

(o-eXas), Lesb.

From

*ea-fil (Skt. asmi), Lesb. e/i/it, Thess.

or ^fii (25).

elsewhere

From *da-fie

(cf.

Skt. asmdn), Lesb.

a/^e, Att.-Ion. 95/ie'a?.

aeXdwd, elsewhere aeXavd,

From *aeXdavd

Att.-Ion. aeXrjvq.

For o-p cf. Hom. Tpi;p(i>v from *Tpaa-pa)i'(Tjoe'(D from *Tjoa7(D). Butthere
of Lesb., Thess. pp; and the development was not parallel
example
is no
to that of crX etc., assuming that Lesb. tpos is from Hcrpo- (13.1).
a.

GREEK DIALECTS

62
Initial trX etc.

h.

is

became A\

[76

simple A

etc., later

etc.

The

earlier stage

represented by occasional early spellings with \h etc., e.g. Aegin. \ha.-

jSuiv,

Corcyr. phofauri, Mheiiios.

Compounds and augmented or reduplicated forms of such words only


rarely show the development proper to intervocalic crX etc., as Att. akt)^
from *(ria-Xa.<j)a. Usually this was checked by the analogical influence of the
simplex, and the subsequent development was to XA, etc., later (under the
continued influence of the simplex and of words with original initial

simply

etc., e.g.

X.

Hom.

X.

etc.)

e-Wa/Se, a-WrjKTOi, t-ppeov, e-vveov, <^tXo-/A/ia8i;s,

But pp usually remained, e.g. Att. Ippvrjv beside cAajSc,


Dor. -eppvd, though here there is considerable variation, especially in comlater eXa/3e etc.

pounds (Att. irapapvpaTa and irapappvpaTa,

Cf pp from pp, 55

etc.).

a.

VS
77.

/j,rjvo<;),

From

ep,eiva.

a.

from

The

*e(f>av(Ta,

*evefjLa-a,

From

Dor.

long).

fjueivo^),

From

mensis),

Att. etc.

fi,r)v6<!

*eKpiva-a, Lesb.

*efiev<ja, Thess. efievva, Att.

etc. e(j>dva, Att.-Ion. e<j>rjva.

etc.

Similarly

Lesb. eve/i/Ma (gram.), Att. etc. eveifia.

dat. pi. of v-stems, as

but from

*fjL7)va6^ (cf. Lat.

Thess. ixuvvo'i (also

word the vowel was already

(in this

eKpivva, Att. etc. eKplva.

fia; as,

From

Original intervocalic va.

1.

Lesb. /ifjvvo^ (also

Troi/jLea-i, Saijuotrt,

is

not formed from

-ej/o-i,

Pindar) with substitution of the vowel of


the other cases. But in Arc. hi^popvapjova-i the v also is introduced from the
other cases, and this secondary v<j is retained (cf. 3).
-ovtri,

2.

va

-acn (cf.

+ consonant

<f>paa-i

lost its v in proethnic

on the preceding vowel,


a-Kevd^co

e.g. /eeo-ro?

from *avv-aKevd^(o,

etc.

from

Greek without

effect

*Kevo-To'? (cf. Kevrew), av-

So also Epid.

acrTd<!

= avaard';, Delph. a^eroco perhaps from *av^eT6a> =

from *avaTd<;

*ava^eT6a) (but

see no. 53.17, note).

Secondary intervocalic va, in which

a- comes from rt, dental +


had an entirely different history from that of
original va, which was changed before the new va came into
existence. This va is retained in Cretan (i.e. Central Cretan, cf.
273), Argohc (mainly Argive, cf. 251), Thessalian, and Arcadian,

3.

0-,

or T before

i,

while in other dialects

it loses the v with lengthening, in Lesbian


with diphthongization, of the preceding vowel. Thus from *7rdvna,

PHONOLOGY

78]
Cret., Arg., Thess.,

Arc. Trdva-a, Att.

*fj,6vTia, Cret. etc.

where nova-a

*/j.6va-a

exovffa, dyova-a,

efiiovaa,

pe<T0ev(Ta (Arc, Arg.


Sdfj,eia-a, etc.,

sg. fern. pres. part, -i^r-ta, Cret.

examples lackmg), Lesb. exoLaa,

ein^dWovai,

From

-ovtra or -cBcra etc.

From

ea-ireia-a.

pi. -vrt

Chian Xd^miaiv,

irpri^oKTiv, cf. 184), Att.

a.
e. g.

Lesb. exoia-i, ypd^coiai,

In derivatives in

-<tk

not only Cret. av7rav<ns

v<l>av(TLs, etc.,

78.
(77.2),

owing

Final

v<;.

to the

etc.

ava.<f>av<Tvs,

-vm, vo- is

Epid.

etc.).

^epovai.
is

va and the ai from

from verbs in

Arg.

Arc.

TiOeia-i, etc. (so also

-vai is exclusively Arcadian, since this

which belongs both

lect

dat. pi.

etc.,

*eaTrevBa-a, Cret. ecnrevcra,

aor.

(West Greek ^epovn

etc.,

pi.

apfi6^oi(7a,

From

Thess., Lesb. -vreacri), else-

Kpivmvai, iroCevai,

that 3

-eicra.

iXovai, viKaaavai,

iirayyeXKova-i (Arc. examples lacking

where

Prom

fiolcra, else-

Thess. Xeiropevaavaa, aweXevde-

etc.,

elsewhere -ova-a or -coaa, -daa,

pres. part, -vr-ai,, Cret.

Att. etc.

iraaa, Lesb. iralcra.

(not yet quotable), Lesb.

From nom.

or /iwo-a.

etc.

63

oXxiktvs,

Observe

the only dia-

(61) groups.

kept in

all dialects,

but Att.

irp6<f>av<Ti':,

to the influence of the verbs.

Since

i'9 -|-

consonant lost

its

v in proethnic

Greek

the same wOuld be true of final v^ in close combination

with a folloAving word beginning with a consonant. Hence there


arose doublets such as 1) before vowel t6v^, rdv;, 2) before eon-

sonants ToV, Tw.

Such doublets are found

in Cretan, the Gorty-

nian Law-Code still adhering very closely to the original distribution


in the case of the article, e.g. tov<; eXevOepov;, but to? tcaSea-rdv;.

But elsewhere the use of one or the other set of forms has ceased
upon the initial of the following word.

to depend at all

Accusatives in

Arcadian

-09,

-a? are the regular forms in Thessalian,

probably Cyprian -os not

(so

Coan

(-09

beside

dialects

and

in literary Doric

dialects

have

in

-0119),

-ov<;, -av<;,

(e.g.

or forms

(irdva-a etc. 77.S), e.g.

Theran, are frequent

frequent in Theocritus).

Arg.

to'v9,

Other

coming therefrom by the same

development as that seen in the case


251), Lesbian rok,

-09),

and are occasionally found in other Doric

rdvi

of secondary intervocalic
(for

1/9

Argolic in general, see

rak, in most dialects tou9 or tm?

(25), Ta9.

GEEEK DIALECTS

64
Only Elean, in

spite of iraaa,

the Lesbian, yielding

has here a development similar to

and

-ai'i

[78

later,

with the rhotacism

(60.1),

the time of the early Elean inscriptions the diphthong was not yet fuUy developed (pronounced -a*?, -0*9 with
incipient diphthongs) and we find the spelling -o?, -o? beside -at?,
-aip, -oip.

At

happen

*ot9 (there

tions

to

he no o-stem accusatives in those inscrip-

which show -aK).

more usual e?)


ek has a
from the ek of other

Similarly the preposition eV? in Cretan (beside


251), whence ek
genuine diphthong, like rok, and

and Argive

(cf.

or e? (note that Lesb.


so differs

dialects).
Cf. also

the treatment of final

Karadev;

Cret. vLKda-av<s,
HaKcodi]';, Att.

(also

v<;

from

viKaOe';

-vt-?, e.g.

n6ek, Lesb. o-rot^ew, Thess.

etc.

nom.

Latos), Heracl.

sg. part.

kutoXv-

evepyere';, Arc.

hiepoOvTei, Ther. alpe6i<;.


\<r, per

From *ea-Te\aa, Lesb., Thess. ea-reWa, Att. etc. eareiKa, Cret.


From *e^^e/3o-a, Lesb. *e^6eppa (cf. reppat = relpai), Att.
e^deipa. From *xepcr- (cf. Skt: haras, grip) Lesb. x^PP' iX^PP"'''

79.

ecTTTjXa.
etc.

Theocr.), Att. etc.

x^t/s-,

Epid. xvp- (but see 25

6).

But in another set of words \a and pa did not have this


development, but" remained unchanged in most dialects, while in
several this pa was assimilated to pp. Cf. Horn. aXaoi, KeXaai,
80.

eKepaev,
Lac.

apa-ri<;,

Cypr.

(partly in proper

The

ddpaov, Ion., Lesb., Cret., Epid., Coan eparjv,

(Spare, apa-rjv,

[ej/ee/jo-ei/,

names

assimilation to pp

earliest inscriptions

and Odpao^ or

0epa-o<:

in most dialects

only).

Attic as dpprjv, 6dppo<;,

is

etc. (so in

Ionic

etc.,

Arca-

corresponding to ^Oepaai, like

(j)6ep-

Attic writers

is Ionic),

as appeviK&v (Cumae), dyappi<s (N'aples), @appnriS7]<:,

dian as

(l)6epai, (for (f)0eppai,

the

West

pa- in early

Lycophron, not to ^delpai, which would be 4>^fjpai


in Arcadian), appevrepov (but also @epaia<i, and 7ravdyopai<: for
aavre'!

in

which see below,


epaevakepo<;,

pa

a),
is

Elean, as fdppevop, 6dppo<;, Oappev (in later

due to

Koivrj influence),

Theran as \a\{p)peva,

PHONOLOGY

81]

65

a{p)pfj<;, ha{p)pvij,apbo<;, etc. (aU archaic

in later dparjv, dpacov,


Proper names with pp = pa- occur
also in Phoolan (Delph. @app{Kcov, @dppav^po<;,
Amphiss. &dppv^),
and, beside more usual pa, in Boeotian (e.g. &dpoyjr, but

pa

due

is

to Koiv^ influence).

&epaav-

Spov

and Megarian (e.g.


Kdppmv from *Kdpaa(ov

etc. usual)

Cf. also

Xeppia<:, but edpao<i etc. usual).

Kdprav,

(Cret.

81), in

Alcman,

Epicharmus, and Sophron.

Even

a.

analogy,

which regularly have

in dialects

pp, p<r

Att. drjpai etc. after other datives in

e. g.

may be

-crt,

retained

by

KaOapaKs etc. after

other nouns in

-<ns. So Arc. Travayopcrts. But even in these words there


sometimes assimilation, as Att. Seppts, West Ion. ayappK.

is

b. The divergent development of Ao-, pa; as given in 79 and


80, probably
depended originally on the accent, the retention of \cr, per (later pp), being
normal when they immediately followed the accent. In aorists there would

be leveling in both directions, and the development is usually that given in


79, but sometimes that of 80 (Horn. Kc'Atrat, Spcre, Arc. <j>6epaL).

(T(T,

81.

from

Att. TT

= Ion.

or

and

Tt,

Xdaaw

0i,

a-a-

comes from

ki, %t,

and (apparently,

see 82)

seen in presents like (jivXaTTco, ^v-

is chiefly

KopvTTco,

(ki),

TT

Kopvaam

yX&a-a-a (p^t), neXirra, fieXiaaa

(di),

(tj),

in femiuines like yX&Tra,

and in comparatives

like ^ttiov,

same result, e.g.


TTTape<!, reacrepei (54 e, 114.4). Inscriptions show that Attic had
TT from the earliest times, the acr of the early writers being due
TJacrcov (ki), Kpeirrcov,

to Ionic influence.

Attic TT

is

Kpeaatov

Most

a.

(T<j

influence (in

kolvti

irprjTTw, KiTTirj<;).

^/aicto-os

inscriptions

TreTTape<s),

*KdpTTcov), and Euboean,

Oropus (eXdTToav,

in late Cretan, as irpaxxaia, OdXacra-a,


KOivri

ddXaTTa,

((pvXdTTO),

= Arg. eaaaa, KupTcov from

at least in Styra, Eretria,

due to

gives the

t/t

of the dialects agree with Ionic, but the

found also in Boeotian

Cretan (laTTa

is

(tj).

crcr is

(from

*rifu.Tp(K, 61.6),

more common than the

strictly Attic rr); after these also oaacys for earlier otto^ (82).

Some of the

have 66 in words of this class, as 6a\a66a, tadda, also for


those belonging under 82, as 666aKiv, for original o-cr, as fereddi, and for
late inscriptions

or, as id6avT's.

For ad

it is earlier

(85.3).

GEEEK DIALECTS

66

[81

Although the Thessalian inscriptions usually have

b.

a-cr,

there

some

is

evidence that the dialect had tt originally, or at least in certain localities.


Aside from OdXaTra, ttitto., which are quoted as Thessalian, cf the proper
.

names Kottu^os, ^vmoi,

etc.,

and especially IleT^aXos from "ScttoXos (65).


a,

Tt

82.

and

^t give Att.

<t

TT

<j<y,

not tt, and Ion. a (early era often in

poetry, but never in inscriptions) in


{*tie0io<!, cf. Skt.

have

a-a-

or

East Cret.

(for

o-

madhyas).

result, e.g. eKofita-a,

oacro<;,

eZUaaa,
era-

cf.

Heracf.

dental

In

etc.

all

o(70<;,
o-

cnroao';

gives precisely the

same

such cases most dialects

Lesb., Thess., Delph., EL, Heracl., ArgoL,


fiecrcroi},

eSaaa-d/jLeda,

ihiKaaaav), but Boeotian and Cretan have tt,

ArgoL

SiKaaa-eco,

Boeot.

e.g.

otto'tto?, iylra^LTTaTO, aTToXoyiTTacTTr}, Cret. fj,eTTO<;,

haTTadOai.

/ieio-o?

(rt),

fierTO'i,

ottoi, otto'tto?,

In some very early Cretan inscriptions

we

find

^,

as

0^09, avSd^adai.

Note. This

The

is

to be recognized as the

different result seen in the classes of

normal development of
words mentioned in 81

rt
is

and 9i.
due to

the influence of the forms containing gutturals. After a consonant ri gives

in all dialects

e. g. Trdva-a, naxra,

from

Original

Original

83.

retained, as in
e.g.

acr,

which becomes

Homer

etc.,

*ird.vTta.

<7ff
o-

in Attic (ireXea-a,

in several dialects

Lesb. eaa-ovTai, Thess. eacreadeiv, Heracl.

(143), dat.
(107.3).

84.

etc., 82),

Ther.

eo--

pL Lesb., Thess., Boeot., Delph., EL -eaat, HeracL -aaai

For

late Cret. pereddi. etc., see 81 a.

Attic-Ionic ^, which was pronounced zd and comes from zd


Germ. Ast, 'Adijva^e from -a{v)<;-S) or, more often, from yi

(fiei^av,
lects.

icra-rJTai,

Lesb. a-vvTekecra-avTa, ofwaa-avTe'i, Boeot. a-ovvKakeacravTei

a-eiTui,

{6^o<;,

ryevea-i), is

(cf. ocro-o?

ne^mv) or

S_, (Trego's), is also


f in the majority of other diafound in our literary texts and in a few late inscriponly another spelling of the same sound, adopted perhaps

Lesb.

tions, is

o-S,

because ^ was used with the value of 2 in fa

= Sid,

etc. (19.1).

PHONOLOGY

85]

But assimilatioQ

to 8S, initial

Cretan, Laconian, and Megarian

Boeotian, Thessalian, Elean,

S, is

Boeot. ypa/ifiaTiBSm,

(?).

BoKtfidSBa, lapeidSSm, rpeveSSa, Stow

Kd{S)Sev
liotis,

(no.

33

but there

67

(^coco),

i|r a^i'SSw,

Aeu?, Thess. i^^ava-

the only example, so possibly BS only in Thessa-

no evidence against

is

being general Thessalian).

its

El. 8iKd{S)Sm, xpai{S)Sa>, Cret. BiKaBSw, \jra<l>iBSa), ipydSSofiai, j>povTiSSo),

hmm,

Bvyov, Arjva (Zrjva), Lac. yv/jLvaBBoiiat

B(o6<;,

Lys., fiiKKixtBSofievoi,

6'n-i{S)B6[/j,evo'i],

etc.

in Ar.

Aev? in inscriptions.

Aevf

occurs also on a vase from Ehodes, and


dian.

Cf.

the occasional assimilation of

Meg. SS

in Ehodian, 97.4.

is

<tS

perhaps genuine Eho-

in external combination

doubtful (Ar. Ach. fidSSa, xpyBBco, but

only f in inscriptions).
In Cretan and Elean the spelling tt
TiTTft),

is

is

also found, as Cret. ^pov-

iaTrpefifiiTTm (eKTrpe/Jivi^a)), Trfjva, Tfjva (ZTJva), El. voa-riTTot)

(yoaTi^o)), aTTdfj,io<; (ofjy/Ltto?).

There

a.

is

in -^0) or -88(0,

Att.
vi^oi,

<T<f)dTT<i)

some interchange between presents in -o-tro) or -tto) and those


owing to the identity of their future and aorist forms. Thus

= Ion.

(T<f>d^<i>,

and, vice versa, Cret.

Boeot.

ttjooSSoj

cr<l>dSSio,

= Att.

= Att. i/jL^a= Att. -o-arTco.

Thess. iji^vLtrau)

irpaTTO), crwetrcraSSa)

ae
85.

(TT

1.

teristic of

= a-6.

The use

Northwest Greek.

of

ar

It is

for a-6 (see 63)

and early Elean,

as he\e<TTai, hapea-rai,

is

mainly charac-

the regular spelling in Locrian,


as

;)^;/3eeo-Tat,

Xva-daro, and

occurs with some frequency in Phocian, as Delph. irpoa-ra, hiKa^dcTTo, later

r^iveaTm

etc.. Stir. Oeerrcov, cnroTroXiTeva-aa-rai.

also in Boeotian, in late inscriptions of


a-TT] etc.),

where

It occurs

Orchomenus {cnroXoyiTTa-

perhaps due to Aetolian influence, and twice

it is

in Thessalian {TreTreiaTeiv, eXeareiv, Larissa).

But there

are

some

early examples in other dialects, as Cret. p.iaro'i (Vaxos), Lac. airo-

a-rpvOea-TM,
of Greece,
2.

crcr

;)^/37ja-Tat,

and in

late times it is

found in

many

parts

even at Athens.

= a-d.

This

iroirjaaaai (no. 61).

is

found in

late Elean, as aTroSoaaai, (no. 60),

GEEEK DIALECTS

68
3.

= <t6.

66

is

usual at Gortyna and some of the other

central Crete, as Xv(ra66ai, hare 66 ai, Tpd<^e(6)6ai, etc.

of

cities

This

[85

But

(also, rarely, t6, e.g. SeKerdai).

and in the

earliest inscriptions,

m most of the very

found

a-6 is

latest (here koivtj influence).

Assimilation, Dissimilation, and Transposition of Consonants

Many

Assimilation in consonant groups.

86.

of the changes

belonging imder this head have been given already,


69, 74-77, 79, 80, 84, 85.

100.

No

dialects

notice

is

e.g.

under

55,

See also under external combination, 96-

taken of assimUatioji which

and presumably proethnic, as S\

This class of phenomena

is

common

is

to all

to XX, etc.

one in which the difference between

and careful speech is most noticeable, as may readily be


While some assimilations are so uniformly

colloquial

observed in English.

effected that the unassimilated

forgotten, others

being
for

still

much

of the

form

is

completely displaced and

remain colloquial only, the unassimilated form

preferred in careful speech

and writing. This accounts

of the lack of uniformity in the evidence as regards

changes mentioned in this and the other sections.

where the

cases the spelling varies greatly even ia the dialects

change

is

best attested.

Sometimes the assimilation

is

some

In some

imiform iu

certain dialects, but evidently existed colloquially in others also

and only sporadically made


1.

Locr. e(T) ra?, see 100.

its

appearance in the spelling.

wtti' = vvkti, Avtto?

KT to TT in Cretan,

Cf. also SiaXeXerrai, ia

= Avkto<;.

For
an inscription of

Cumae.
2.

ITT to

TT iu Cretan and Thessalian.

irrai, irevTO'i

= Tr^/ttTTTOS,

Xiapxoi, apxirToXiapxevTo<!

combination
3.

0-7 to

Cret.

(n-ToXi's, 67), also

ar tS?

(99.2).

Cf. also Thess. 'At66vito<;

77

in Cretan,

(7)

= yeypa-

^yparrai

Thess. Aerrivaio^ (AeTrTiWto?), ol tto-

'

irpelyv; probably

etc. ia

external

K^dovqTO's.

from

irpeiayv';

(Boeot. Trpia-yele^, 68.1), irpeiyevTo.^, irpdyav, nrpeiyiaro^, late


yia-Tov {Trprjjia-Tevw also Coan).

parallel

seen in Laconian glosses, as KaSixKop

change of

= KaSiaKOi.

aic to

Trprj-

kk

is

PHONOLOGY

88]

Note that the forms

a.

cited, as also Thess. irptur/Sim., are

irpacr- (cf. also Cret. irpa'v

wpia-^vi.

beside

is

irpiv),

not

irpeo--

a hybrid form.

fiea-ra, Lac. /Serrov, dress,

(At., Plato), eVre

formed from

as in Att.-Ion., Lesb.

TT in Cretan, Laconian, and Boeotian.

= i<rT(o

tTTO)

beside

Late Cret. Trpeyyevras

<7T to

4.

69

Cret. fierr

e's

*pear6v (Etym. Magn.), Boeot.

= eVre.

But in the great majority

of

cases (7T remains in the spelling of inscriptions.

pv to vv in Cretan. avvioiTo

5.

Oevvalof

to

6.

/JLV

7.

7^ to

fifi

in Cretan.

icrTrpefifiiTTco

= eKirpefivl^o).

yiyvofiai appears as yivofiai in

v.

Attic (here also, but


(TKco

= apveoiro, ovvida = 6pvi0a, 'E\ev-

= '^\ev6epvaio<;.

= yiyvduTKO)

late), or as

most

dialects except

yiwfji,ai (Thess., Boeot.).

yivco-

occurs in Lesbian and in Ionic prose writers (Att.

and in some

yeivma-KO) very late),

late.

Doric inscriptions. This

is

not really assimilation, but loss of 7 by dissimilation from the initial 7, supported, in the case of yivofiai, by the 761' of other tenses.
87. Transposition in consonant groups.

As

tlktco

from

*titkq),

SuktuXo^ from *SaTy\o9, to which points Boeot.

so probably

SaKKv\io<; (kk from tk as in Thess.

KK from KT would be contrary to

all

ttoa;

kl

from ttot

analogy,

k(,

whereas

But most
more or less

cf. 86.1).

examples are of colloquial and transitory character,

frequently repeated slips of the tongue, or sometimes, without


doubt, only graphic.
^ervv- (^vp-y,

= eypa^jrev
by

Thus from Attic

ev(Ty(^dfji,evo<;

(often

on

inscriptions crxvvap'XpvTeov

= ev^o'dfievo';,

vases), fiea-ojjLvq

a^V')(rj

= necroSfiri

(Sfj,

eypaa^ev

'^v')(rj,

first

to

Vfji.

assimilation).
88.

Assimilation, dissimilation, and transposition, between non-

contiguous consonants.
aspirates in proethnic

Except

Greek

(65),

for the regular dissimilation of

these

phenomena are of the same


They are most fre-

occasional character as the preceding (87).

quently observable in the case of aspirates, or of liquids, for which


see 65, 70.

A na^al

by assimilation
fiat,

= Bvvafiai,

may interchange

with a mute of

its

own

class,

or dissimilation with another nasal, e.g. Cret. vvva(cf.

Mod.Grk MevreXTj

beside UivreXr},

name

of

GEEEK DIALECTS

70

the monastery on Mt. Pentelicus),

or,

[88

vice versa, Att. Tep^ivOoi

beside Tepfuv6o<;, Att. Kv^epvdco from *KVfiepvdco beside Cypr. kvfiepevai,

and ^dpvafiai

also 69.3, end,

and

mentioned Ion.

= fiapva/jbai, which

occurs in certain inscrip-

from Athens, Corcyra,

tions in epic style

Among

86.7.

etc.

afM0peco = apidfiem,

ySo? (Att. usually fj,6\v^So<;), also,

Delph.,

See

(nos. 88, 90).

may

examples of transposition

be

Epid. /36Xifio<! = fioXi-

with assimilation, Ehod.

/36Xi-

ySo9 (prepi^oXi^aerai).

a.

tion,

few

Sifivov

from

examples of haplology, or syllabic

dialectic

may be added

here.

Epid.

loss

by

dissimila-

as Att.

^|nt(/ie)8i;u,vov,

Cret. veoras, body of young men, gen. vtoras

q(fiL)fi.i8ifa/ov.

from

V6Ta(To)i, ace. veoTa

from

Ae/xtSt/ti/xvoi/

ij/tic-

from

vedraTa.

Doubling of Consonants
89.

single consonant

cating a syllabic division


syllable
1.

<raK etc.

sometimes written double, this indi-

by which

and the beginning

cro-T,

is

Such

it

was heard

at the

end

of

one

of the next.

spellings as dpia-aro^, oa-aTi<;, ypdyjraa--

adai, 'Aa-crK'\ijTno<;, KoacriJiol, are frequent, and not coniined to

any particular
101.2.

For examples in external combination, see


(= z-zd) and |^ (= ks-s), e.g. Arg. SiKaa^co,

dialect.

Similarly o-f

Delph. SouXwrfa), Locr. yjrd^i^^K, Boeot. Ae^^Linra, Thess. i^^avaKd(S)Sev.


2.

Before consonantal

3.

Between vowels.

especially Kquids

thong. Thess.
eifi/ieiv,

and

in ThessaUan, as Tro'Wto? etc.

This
nasals,

is

confined

to

See

mostly after a long vowel or diphLesb. irpoa'^prfp.iievco, Ehod.


ddWa-trav, Thess. o/SeXkov, Delph.

fivafJLfJi^Lov, AafjLfidTpeio<!,

Dodon.

dfifieivov, Boeot.

e\7rovo-<rto5, El. avTaTroSiS&a-aa, Cret. (nrofBSdv (spirant S).

also 101.1.

19.3.

continuous sounds,

Delph., Cret. a/jLtjuWeya)

Meg. dfi^eWeyov shows that

it

was

is

from

afijiUT-Xer^to,

Cf.

though

felt as afi<f)t-\\y(o.

Epid. fieSififivov, hifiiStnnvov, laponfivdfiove^ (no. 83). Cret.


aXk6TTpio<s, Arg. 7reT|TjOii;oi' (cf. Osc. alttram etc., frattre etc. ia
4.

Latin inscriptions).

PHONOLOGY

90]

71

In hypocoristic proper names, where it originates in the vocais due to the emphatic utterance in calling. Examples,
though found elsewhere, are by far most frequent in Boeotian, e.g.
5.

tive

and

AyaOOm,

Bi'otto?, MeVi^et, etc.

CHANGES IN EXTEENAL COMBINATION


90.
netics,

The phenomena
such as

in all dialects.

of external combination, or sentence pho-

elision, crasis,

But

consonant assimilation,

etc.,

are found

in Greek, as in most other languages, there

is

more and more the scope of such changes, and


to prefer, in formal speech and its written form, the uncombined
forms. The iascriptions, Attic as well as those of other dialects,
a tendency to limit

differ greatly in this respect

according to their time and character.


The following general observations may be made.
1. The changes occur mainly between words standing in close
logical relation. Thus oftenest in prepositional phrases, or between
the article, adjective, or particle and the noun with which it agrees
frequently between particles like Kai,

ceding or following word

less often

Se, /^eV,

etc.

and the

pre-

between the subject or object

and the following verb, and very rarely in looser combinations.


2. While the less radical changes, such as the ehsion of a short
vowel or the simpler forms of consonant assimilation, are least
restricted in scope
of crasis

and

and survive the

longest, the

of consonant assimilation are the

the soonest given up.

more violent forms

most infrequent and

Thus, in the matter of consonant assimila-

tion, the partial assimilation of a nasal to a following

cially a labial, as in rafi irokiv, is

very

common in

mute, espe-

all dialects

down

and sometimes observed even in loose combinations


but examples like toX Xoiyov, roiiv v6fiov<;, etc. are compara-

to a late period
(cf. 96.1),

tively infrequent

and practically

Some matters which

strictly

restricted to early inscriptions.

belong under this head have been discussed


s, treatment of final ys, etc.

elsewhere, as the rhotacism of final

GEEEK DIALECTS

72
Although the

3.

dialects differ in the

exhibit these phenomena and


the most extensive and radical

some

[90

extent to which they

details (e.g. Cretan

shows

consonant assimilations),

series of

the differences depend more upon the time and character of the

which the language has been formalized.


no consistency in the spelling, even as regards the
milder changes, combined and uncombined forms often standing
inscription, the degree to

There

4.

side

by

is

same

side in the

inscription.

Elision

common

Elision is

91.

to all dialects, but, as in Attic, subject

to great inconsistency as regards the written form,

metrical inscriptions

and

prepositions, and,

ayaOd

TTo'XX'

such as Se

particles

etc.

Xer' av^opelv,

in

most frequent in the conjunc-

is

(^oSe,

ovSe, etc.), re, ku,

aXXd,

etc.,

among case-forms, in stereotyped phrases


The elision of a dipththong, e.g. Locr.

comparatively

is

which even

very often not in accord with the demands

In general elision

of the meter.

tions

is

For

rare.

the
like
Sei-

elision in place of usual

crasis, see 94.

Aphaeresis
92.
rare.

Examples
Ion.

rj

'?,

of aphaeresis,
firj

which

is

only a form of

crasis, are

'Xda-aove^ (Chios, no. 4), Locr. I 'SeXcfiiov, e

''Xeird/iov, fie 'TToa-rafiev, El. fie 'vrroi, fie 'irtiroeovTOV, fie 'iridelav,

Lesb. cr[TaX\]a Vt.


Shortening of a Final Long Vowel
93.

The shortening

so well

known

Cret. jxe eKrfi

Cypr.

of a final long

in poetry,

(fir)

exo),

e| (^ e|) with

fie

vowel before an

initial

vowel,

occasionally seen in inscriptions,

is

evSi/cov, etc.,

from

Meg.

e.g.

cTretSe "lKd<no<s.

So

forms of the article with the

fol-

e (9.3).

Crasis

94.

Crasis,

lowing word,

mostly of
is

icai or

found in the early inscriptions of

all

dialects,

PHONOLOGY

94]

73

though the uncomhined forms are more frequent. As between the


phonetic principle," where the result of crasis is in
accordance
with the regular laws of contraction, and the " etymological prinwith lengthening

ciple,"

6 avrip, the

former

is

second vowel as in Att. avrjp

of the

almost,

if

not wholly, predominant outside

of Attic.
o,

1.

(ow),

(o,

+a

Similarly I^sb.

(ht.)

Ion. covrip, Tcoya>vo<; (rod ay&vo's),

(cf. 44.1).

with the regular contraction to

to,

mvrjp, Arc.

where Attic has dv^p,

TdyS)vo<;.

Karoppevrepov (Kara to appevre-

Delph. TcoTreXXaiov (rov AireXkaiov) tcottoXKcovi (t&i 'AirdXBoeot. roiroXKovi (rol 'AiroXKcovi), Coruith. T07re(\)\ovi

joov),

'

XtBw),

(tmi 'A-rreWcovi), rcoyaOov (to ayaOov), Meg. op'^eSafie


Safie),

and

so regularly in literary Doric.

according to the " etymological principle,"


in the few examples

Elision, rather
is

2.

o,

o (ov),

+e

Lesb.

Aegin.
e/c)

+o

(Ut.)

(to apiaTepov),

(6

'AyeXacSa tov

'A/iw^tSe^to)).

Att.-Ion. rovvofia (to ovofia), Lesb.

(cf. 44.3).

(oviavT0<; (6 eviavro's), Locr.


3.

(ra

Ta(iJi,)<f>iSe^i6i

'Apye-

probably to be assumed

like Corinth. rapia-Tepov^

Arg. Tapyeloi (toI 'Apyeloi), TiayeXaiSa Tapyeio


'Apyeiov), Cypr.

(cS

than crasis

OTrdyov

(6

eirdymv).

Dor. x'^ (''' o)> Ioh-j Cret. k&J (koI 6),


KWTTi, (koL ottl). El. KoiroTapoi (koI oirorapoi). Cf.
(cf. 41.2).

y^oXetfta'i

(kuI 6

Att.,

iXe<f>a<;)

with double

crasis,

hke

x'^"^ {""^ o

in Theocritus.

a + o (cf. 41.4). Meg. aXvvin,d<; (a, 'OXvv'ind<;).


a + e (cf. 41.3). Locr. ha/mpoiKCa (a eiripoiKia).
Att.-Ion. Kdyw (koo iyco), k&ttl (koi eiri), rav
6. a + e (cf. 41.1).
(t^ iv), etc.. West Greek ktjv, ktjk, KTpri (koi ev, koI ex, Kal iiri),
4.
5.

etc.

So also in Thessalian

Kifie (koI

i/jie)

(no.

33) Kip and re? (ra

e?).

Lesbian has

in an early ins^cription, though the texts of the Aeolic

poets have mostly

kcL- (KafjLo<i etc.);

and Arcadian has

Ke-rri.

1 We continue, as a matter of convention, to transcribe in tlie form of crasis


where the combination belongs to those which commonly suffer crasis, even in
cases where we believe the phenomenon is elision. For it is impossible to draw
the line between crasis and elision with certainty. See also under 7, 8, 9.

GREEK DIALECTS

74

With words beginning with

7.

[94

Inscriptions some-

a diphthong.

as Delph. KTjiiKKeia (ical

times show the regular crasis with

ev-,

Eu/eXeta), Ehod. ovSa/Mo (o Ev8d/Xov),

but otherwise the diphthong

unchanged, that
Thess. Kol

(Kal

is,

what

ol),

is

probably elision rather than

Delph. Kovre (km ovre).

OtVoTTt'S?;?),

crasis, e.g.

Ion. TolKoireSov (to olKOTreSov), koIvottiStj';

Attic and Ionic literature (also %ot

and in Theocritus. Forms

Similarly kov, kovtc,

= kuI

and

ol,

etc. in

= xal

xev-

(jeal

ev-),

Herodotus and

like wurd? (6 avro'i) in

Theocritus, amoXo'i (o aliroKosi) in Theocritus, iccovSev (koX oiiSev)


in Epicharmus, are rarely attested in inscriptions (once Ion. coiavfivjjTr]<;

=6

yerav

{icaX

But the proper transcription

alav/j.vqTrj';).

the pre-Ionic alphabet

sometimes uncertain,

is

With words beginning with

El. KvTraBvKioi (kuI vtto-),

In such cases there


V or

was lengthened,

have here simply


9.

or

v.

Delph. KlSimrai

Cret. Kvlee<: (kuI utVe?),


(ical

ISiMTai).

course no evidence as to whether the

is of

as usually in Attic-Ionic, but probably

{to iapov),

(tol eiriapoi),

napo

article

the final vowel or diph-

and even tuvto

(to)? avTco),

This

but an extension of the principle of


inscription.

final

consonant.

(rS iapSi), Ttapol (rol lapoi), Teiridpoi

lapoixdap Tcop 'OXwrriai).

an Attic

we

elision.

In Elean in the forms of the

Thus riapov

in

forms in

(o oIko<;') or hoiKo<;.

thong disappears, sometimes even the vowel with

(Tft)/)

of

Thess. Kevpep-

evepyerav) or Kevfepyerav, Boeot. rivTpiTicfxivTO (ral

EvrprfTK^avTw) or TevrperitpavTo , Aegin. hoiKo<!


8.

e.g.

Once

Top lapofxdop ToXvviriai

clearly not crasis proper,

is

elision.^

El. toI

Cf.

'vtuvt

Ovlwi (t&i viai)


iypafievoi with

aphaeresis.

Apocope
95.

Apocope

inscriptions,

prepositions.

but

unknown in Attic-Ionic
usual in other dialects for at least some of the

of prepositions is almost
is

All of them have av (or

6v, iiv)

has av in literature and a few cases of

See footnote,

wdp

p. 73,

and irdp (even Ionic


in inscriptions).

waV

PHONOLOGY

96]

and

TTOT are

found in nearly

all

the

ia Cretan, and rarely in Argolic),

But these are mostly confined

75

West Greek

dialects (but not

and in Boeotian and Thessalian.

to the position before dentals, espe-

forms of the article. Before other consonants they occur,


with assimilation, in Thessalian and sometimes lq Boeotian and
Laconian; /car also in Lesbian and Arcado-Cyprian (lq Arcadian
cially

before all consonants in early inscriptions, later only before the

icd

article,
(cf.

otherwise /carv formed after awv).

also Tre/aoSo?

= 7repioSo<;),

Elean

Delphian

irep occurs iq

{>rdp),

and Thessalian

Lesbian (Alcaeus), and in a few proper names ia Locrian


dapidv), Cretan, and Laconian.

ostt,

ctt,

vtt

of TreSa is seen in Arc. ire rot?

Apocope

is

ir.

An apocopated

i.e. -n-eiS) rot?.

most extensive in Thessalian, which has

-TTOT, irep, air, iir, vir.

(Ile/jpo-

are Thessalian only,

except for two examples of eV in Boeotian before

form

also in

av, Trap, kot,

Tlie Thessalian genitive singular in -oi

is

also

by apocope, beginning with the


which was, of course, proclitic like the prepositions (cf. 45.4).
Apocopated forms are more common in early iascriptions than
later, when there is a tendency, partly due to Koivrj influence, to
best explained as arising from -oto
article,

employ the
Forms

a.

full forms.
like /carov, wordv, instead of kcit tov, ttot tov, occur not only in

early inscriptions where double consonants are not mritten, but also in the

some dialects. For the most part the matter is one of


but in some cases such forms represent the actual pronuncia-

later inscriptions of

spelling only,
tion,

due in part to actual simplification of the double consonants, in part


from Ka(Ta)

to syllabic dissimilation or haplology, as in later Attic KaraSe


TctSe.

So in Arcadian the

spelling

is

almost uniformly Ka (early KaTovw,

KOKpive, etc., later KwraTrtp, Koxaixhiav).

expand the forms

In doubtful cases

to Ka(T) Toi/etc. in our texts, if only

f<?r

it is

better to

the convenience

of the student.

Consonant Assiinilation

Assimilation of final

96.
1.

v.

To the class of a following labial or guttural. Cases like t^/x

iroXtv,

roy KrjpvKa,

vvp. fiev, are

likewise ia the other dialects.

frequent in Attic inscriptions, and

So also between object and verb as

GREEK DIALECTS

76
Delph. TOKiofi

{jtepero),

[96

Arc. iroa-o^on iroevTw, and in looser combina-

tions as Att. iaTl/i irepl, Arc. iv eiriKpLai^ Kardirep, Arg. Trotoiey

Kara.
2.

To

Kos (a?
Sirji

cr

Te a-reXep.

3.

ecrTQ)(?)

2e\eu-

(Tv^niravrav, Delph. a?

avXeovre^, Epid. to? aaKov.

Cf. Ion.

iraaav-

beside TravavSirji, and Lesb. TraeravSidaavro^.

Before

arise

rm

Att. e? ^d/Mcoi, Ion.

<r.

= dv),

+ consonant.

Att.

So Ehod., Cret.

e'.cr

arijXrji

but oftener

e arriXtfi, also

ra crrdXav. These do not

e crraXat, El.

by assimilation but by regular loss of v. See 77.2, 78.


To X. Att. eX XifivAK, rb\ Xoyov, Ion. eX Aapva-crm, Delph.

TwX Aa^vaSdv,
Cf. a-vXXeyco,

Lac.

aXXvco

e'X

AuKeSuLfiovi, Epid. roX XCOov,

dvaXvw,

4.

To

a.

In Cyprian, where v before a consonant

/3.

t&X

Xcdtov.

etc.

Att. ip 'PoScoi, Top 'PoSiov.

Cf. crvppiirTco etc.

is

always omitted in the inte-

rior of a word, it is also frequently omitted in sentence

combination as

Ta(v) TTToXlV.
97. Assimilation of final
1.

To

V.

Delph.

Toiiv

?.

v6p,ov<;.

Cf.

'

vrjcrov).

2.

To

vda(a)a';

fi

To

and f

= ra?

iu Cypr. ko,
3.

X.

Cypr. pewo^ii) fieya

To

S.

= feiro's

pavdaam. In the same way

fiev,

p^eya, Ta(/r)

arose

a =

fa-

/ca? (icai)

Arc. ko, f otKtot?.

Att. ToX Xido'i, Cret. toiX Xeiovai, tIX XSi (rt?

Lac. eX AuKeBaifiova (eX


4.

(IleXoTro?

YieXoirowTja-oii

= e?),

So regularly in Cretan,

Kaa-reptov, iraTpoB SoVtos.

Be (no. 93), fiaTp6{S)

Be,

Xijt),

toi(X) AaKehaifiovioK.
e.g.

rdZ

hai(no<;,

Earely elsewhere, but

Ta{B) Bevre'pat.

cf.

raS

Se,

eS

Si-

Ehod. Zev{S)

Assimilation in the oppo-

seen in Arg. /ScoXa? a-evrepat (no. 81).


Cretan only, as t^O Ovyarepa'i. Cf. Cret. 00

site direction is
5.

To

medially
a.

e.

= ad

(85.3).

Before a word beginning with a vowel final s may be treated as intervoLac. AtoAi/ceVa AioXevOepiS = Aios IkItov Atos iXevOepiov (cf 59.1),

calic, e. g.

Cypr. KO a.(v)n,

to.

v)(pov (59.4), Eretr. oirtop av (60.3).

PHONOLOGY

100]

98. Assimilation of final p to


Boi,

vaTeS

and

Soei

77

So regularly in Cretan,

S.

7raTe(S) Soei, inre(S) Se.

aveS

e.g.

Of. Cnid. 7ra(S)

Adfia-

Tpa (wap Aa/nar/aa).


99. Assimilation of a final mute.
1.

Final

The apocopated forms

t.

they occur otherwise than before r

Kara and

of

lated (sometimes with further simplification;

= TTjOO?

KUTT TVaVTO'i, TTOK kL (tTOT Kl


KaTOTrTw;, Lesb.

in compounds,

kuk

cf.

95

(Sappho),

(Alcaeus), KaXX.vovro<;, Arc. Kaieei/j-evav, icaKpive, Lac.

Final

er Tol.
3.

tt.

So

etc.

Ka{h)Ba\eoLTO, Ka{6)9vTd^, Lesb. /ea/S/3aXXe

ra^aTov), KajSatvcav (Alcman),


2.

Thess.

a), e.g.

Tt), BoeOt. TToS Ad(pVr], TTOK

Ke(f>dXa<; (Alcaeus), KUfi ixev

e.g. El.

ttotl, so far as

95), are generally assimi-

(cf.

Thess. cnr,

em-

But tO

etc.

= airo,

is

Ka/Sara (Ka-

often unassimilated.

dr

are assimilated in

iirl.

ra?,

Cf. 86.2.

Final

k.

See 100.

In most

100. e|.

dialects, as in Attic, e|

becomes

e/e

before a

consonant, this appearing often as 1% before an aspirate, and 67


before sonant mutes and X,

usual before
vowels, and

all

/x,

e/c (i'x^,

v,

p,

until late times

The general

consonants.

rule

is,

when

is

then, e^ before

But the antevocalic form

iy) before consonants.

ef occasionally appears before consonants in various dialects (so


regularly in Oyprian, as e^ toi

In Locrian

it is

etc.).

fully assimilated to all consonants, whence,

the simphfication of double consonants in the spelling,

simply as

e,

it

with

appears

e.g. e Ta<;, i Sd/io, etc., i.e. e(T) ra?, e'(S) Sdfio, e'(p) poi-

vdvov, e(9) OdXaa-a-wi, e(X)

Xt/ievo';, i(y)

'NavirdKTO.

In Thessalian, Boeotian, Arcadian, and Cretan the regular form


before consonants is
iaXiaivco

(cf.

e?, e.g.

Thess. es rdv,

also ia-K-qSeKaTrj

from

ef).

ia-So/jLev,

Boeot.

e's

tS>v,

Arc. e? rol, eVSe'XXoi'Tes,

ifTTrepaa-ai, Cret. e? top, ia-tcXTja-ia, Thess., Boeot., Cret. ea-yovoi;

eKyovo<;.

AH

these dialects have ef before vowels except Boeotian,

where e%? appears in an early


i^ei^mv,

ecrtTeifiev.

This

is

inscription, but usually

eo-?,

as eo-?

probably a transfer of the anteeonso-

nantal form in an intermediate stage of

its

development

(e^, eVs,

e's).

GREEK DIALECTS

78
a.
e'^,

of es in other dialects

There are some traces

e.g. Cypr.

es irdAtos

St/ceA-uas,

ck or

and

iroXios (but see note to no. 75), Sicil. I<7k\ij-

Rhegium), Delph. tayovoi

Tos (Syracuse,

which generally have

(Hesych.), Arg. e(s)

es ttoO' IpTrti- iroOev i]Kfis

according to some

[lOO

(?

no. 51,

45).

Consonant Doubling
101.

1.

Before vowels. Cret. raw e/^iWi/, o-vw-lt, Boeot., Corintli.

avv-eOrjKe, Att. ^vvv-ovtl, also

This

tion.

iji'i'

e^wy,

av, in a Koti'^ inscrip-

toi'!'

a compromise between phonetic and etymological

is

and the examples, though

syllabification,

rare, are

mostly earUer

than those for the similar doubling in internal combination

With

2.
etc.,

oo-cttk; etc. (89.1),

compare Att. etV?

ti]V,

(89.3).

Epid. eV? to,

Coan tov a<rT^dvov.

or Epid. to craKeXo'i,

V movable

The

102.

movable in the dative plural in

verb forms in -ai(v) and


Ionic,

where

it

-e(i') is

marked

-a-i(v)

and in the

characteristic of Attic-

appears from the earhest inscriptions on with in-

creasing frequency and before both vowels and consonants. (In Attic
its

use becomes gradually more and more uniform before vowels,

and

it is also

somewhat more common before a pause in the sense


Only in the dative plural does it appear in other

than elsewhere.)
dialects,

and even here only in Thessalian

Heraclean (evTaaaiv

etc.).

In verb forms

(xpefiaa-iv, no. 33)

it is

and

wholly unknown in

the older inscriptions of other dialects, and where found

is

a sure

sign of K0CV1] influence.

Note. In the

dat. pi. -cnv the v is

due to the analogy of pronominal


aixfii, in which v is in-

Lesb. afifuv and


herited (beside a form without v). After the dat.

datives like Att.

-o-i(v),

ij/tiiv.

Dor.

d.fi,iv,

pi. -<7i(v)

arose the 3 pi.

e.g. 3 pi. <j>ipov(n(v) after dat. pi. part. <^joou<ri(v), then also 3 sg. 8t-

8ft)cri(v),

TiOrfTiiv), etc.

etymological

v,

aU forms with
forms with

Another source

is

3 sg. ^ev (originally 3 pi. with

163.3) to 1 sg. ^a, after the analogy of which arose -(v) to


1 sg. -a, as olSev, W-qKev,

from which it extended later to


which are not found in the

1 sg. in -ov, as eXcyEi/, iXajSei', etc.

earliest inscriptions.

PHONOLOGY

103]

79

ACCENT
103.

one

of

Of the dialects outside of Attic-Ionic, Lesbian is the only


whose accentual peculiarities we have any adequate knowlThis was characterized by the recessive accent,

edge.

a6(f)o<!, ySacrt'Xeu?,

The Doric accent

is

said

by the grammarians

to be processive in

certain classes of forms, e.g. iXd^ov, ardaai, alye';


(TTrjaai, alye^.

But the statements are too meager

eralization as to the

= Att. eXa/Sov,

to

admit

of gen-

known whether
Hence the practice now

system as a whole, nor

Doric dialects had these

all

e.g. TroVa/ios,

XeO/cos.

peculiarities.

is it

frequently adopted, and followed in this book, of giving Doric forms

with the ordinary Attic accent.


dialect forms can be little
o.

A question of

of practice

among

tional forms

detail,

In general our accentuation of

more than a matter

touching -which there

editors of dialect texts,

which

is

is

of convenience.
considerable difference

whether, in the case of

differ in their quantitative relations

inflec-

from the corre-

sponding Attic forms, to adopt the actual accent of the Attic forms or to

change the accent to accord with the Attic system,


Kpiviiv,

or Kptvev, ace. pi.

e. g. infin.

xpivev lite

like ^epofievmn, or <^EjQo/xevos, Cret. Kaip-

<j>ipoix,ivfK

Tovavs, cTTaTyjpavi like KpuTTOvws, (TTaTTJpa^, or KapTovavi, (rraT-qpavs-

question of the true accentuation

is

The

a complicated one, differing in each

and impossible of any certain answer. But practical convensome cases, as in the accusative
plural to distinguish it from the nominative, and we adopt this alternative
class of forms,

ience favors the use of the Attic accent in

in

the cases mentioned.

all

The pronominal adverbs in -a, -at, and -m we accent as perispomeua,


following here what the grammarians laid down as the Doric accent, since
working rule, and, for -a), serves to distinguish
But it is far from certain that the accent was
uniform, and that we should write e.g. dAAei, oAAat, TravrSi, as we do, and
not, with some, aXXa like Att. oixa, and oXAou, n-d.vra.i like Att. aXX-g,
TravTj;. And as between mrei and oiret, etc., about which the grammarians
this affords a convenient
e. g.

Tovrm from gen.

were in doubt, we
beside
oiKoi,

ttov,

tovto).

definitely prefer

in spite of avrov etc.).

though

evSot etc. (cf. ivravdoi)

oTrei, oirai, oTrrt, oirrj, oirui

We

accent

may

also

(cf . Att. oirov

evSoi, e^ot, ^x'' ^*'' ^^^^

be defended.

INFLECTION

NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES


Feminine a-Stems
104.
2.

1.

NoM.

Gen. Sg.

oiKiav, ^afiiav,

Dat. Sg.

Boeot. -at

dialects

{-ae,

-r),

which have

6.

Gen. Pl. -awv, -eav, -mv,

7.

Dat. Pl. In early Attic,

and

after

also -d,

See 38, 39.

-rj, -ei.

assumed in the other

-ot (106.2).

NOM. Pl.

-dv, Att.-Ion.

-ijv.

-di (Boeot. -ae,

Attic.

-t),

26).

-dv.

See

41.4.

-dcn(v), -7]cn(v),

In
In

B.C. -at?.

and probably

beside -dv in early

-d<s

this is to be

Aco. Sg.

420

whence

-rji,

and

26),

5.

rare

Arc. -dv after the masculine, as

ra?,

-di, Att.-Ion.

4.

-riia-i(v),

-17.

-579.

but only at Tegea, and here

and always

inscriptions,
3.

-d, Att.-Ion.

Sg.

-a?, Att.-Ion.

sometimes

-dicn(v),

Ionic, -r)iai(v) regularly, -ai? being

Lesbian,

this occurs, rarely, elsewhere.

-aicri

Most

(but always rat?),

have

dialects

-at?

from

the earliest times.


8.

Ago. Pl. -av;, with the same development as has -ov? from

o-stems,

namely

(see also 78)

-av^, -ov;

-a?, -0?

Cret.,

-av<i, -ov;, Cret.,

Arg.

Arc, (Cypr.?)

Thess.,Ther.,Coan

-a?, -ou? or -60?

Most

dialects
80

-at?, -ot?

-a?, -ai<i, -aip

Lesbian

-o?, *-0t9, -oip

Elean

INFLECTION

106]

81

Masculine d-Stems
105.

1.

Att.-Ion.
a.

NOM.

Sg. -a? (with secondary

after the analogy of -09),

?,

-??.

Forms without

occur, several in Boeotian (Trvdiovuca, KaXXla,

s also

and a few from other parts of Northwest Greece. Cf.


Xeora, though this is possibly a form in -to. like Horn. hnroTa.

etc.),

Gen. Sg. -do (with

2.

whence Are.-Cypr. -dv


Att. -ov
a.

is

in place of

o,

(22),

elsewhere

s,

also El. tc-

after that of o-stems),

-a, Ion. -e<o,

-ta.

See

41.4.

not from -do, but the o-stem form taken over as a whola
in TXa<Ti/ro, Ila<naSapo, of

-dfo,

Corcyra (no. 87) and Gela,

form was already

-d,

two metrical inscriptions from

a reminiscence of the epic -do (the spoken

is

which appears in other equally early

inscriptions, as

'ApvuiSa no. 88, A/rcvux no. 85) with the introduction of a non-etymological
p, either representing a glide sound before the following o (cf. dfvrav,

See 32), or due to a false extension from forms with etymological

no. 88.
p, as

XapAs

= Hom. Xdo^.

Forms

b.

in

-ds,

with the old ending unchanged and belonging with the

nominatives in -d (above. In), occur in scattered examples in Megarian


(no. 92)

and from various parts of Northwest Greece.


names in -ip, from the fourth century on, frequently

Att.-Ion. proper

c.

form the genitive

after the analogy of cr-stems, e. g. Att. KoAAtdSovs (after

Aij/MxrOeyov; etc.), Ion. AcaSeos,


dialects, e.g.

Rhod.

'

ApurrclBeiK-

This type spreads to other

MvcoviSevs.

0-Stems
106.

Gen. Sg.

1.

-010

(from

*-oo-to, cf. Skt. -asya) as in

whence, with apocope, Thess. (Pelasgiotis)


Elsewhere, with loss of

Cyprian -ov beside


etc.,

lows

-o (at

and

-01,

contraction, -ov or -m (25).

Idalium

but also apyvpo, dXpo, before a consonant,

a. -oto is

^*'-

In

fiurdov, apyvpov, ^iXoKvirpov,

and so usually -ov in nouns, whether vowel


;

Homer,

as rot, XP^'-'

or consonant fol-

and always

to).

often employed in metrical inscriptions, in imitation of the


But in Thessalian it also occurs in a few prose in-

epic, e.g. nos. 87, 88.

scriptions,
-010.

and the grammarians often

refer to the Thessalian genitive in

This, together with the fact that apocope

is

more extensive

in Thes-

saJian than in any other dialect (see 95), makes the derivation of the usual

GEEEK DIALECTS

82

[lOG

from -mo far more probable than other explanations which sepafrom this and so from the forms of all the other dialects.
For the added v in Cyprian no explanation that has been offered is adequate.
Thess.

-ot

rate it entirely

2.

Dat.

ot in

23).

-at in

Sg.

inscriptions

most

dialects,

whence

Arcadian, Elean, Boeotian

from various parts

of

also

-co

(38

(-oe, -v, -et, 30),

Thess. ov,

and in

later

Northern Greece (Delphi, AetoUa,

Acarnania, Epirus, Cierium in Thessaly, Euboea).

-m and may be derived from it, like


But in general -ot is rather the original locative (cf.
oiKot) in use as the dative. In some dialects the history of the dative is
obscure, owing to the lack of early mateHal or the ambiguity of -01 in
a.

-t

In Euboea

from

-rji

-ot replaces, earlier

(see 39).

the pre-Ionic alphabets.


,

3.

NOM. Pl.

-ot (Boeot. -oe, -v, 30).

4.

Dat. Pl.

-oia-i(v),

it lasts

of -ot?, especially in
T019).
5.

as in

somewhat longer than

West

Elsewhere only
Ace. Pl.

-01'?,

Homer,

in early Attic, Ionic,

in Attic (but

Ionic),

some

where

early examples

and Lesbian (but here always

-ot? (Boeot. -v?, -et?,

Elean

-oip).

with the same development as

-av<;.

See

78,

104.8.
6.

Gen. Dat. Dual, -ouv as in Homer, whence -oiv in most

dialects in
after the

which the form occurs

at

all.

Elean

-oiok, -oioip,

analogy of the dative plural, as Swotot?, airoioip.


Consonant Steins in General

107.

1.

Ace. Sg.

-av in place of the usual

-a,

with

2;

added

after

the analogy of vowel stems, occurs in Cypr. Ijarepav, a(v)Spijd{v)rav, Thess. Kiovav, El. a'yaXp.aToj>5spav (but possibly -(fxopdv

nom.
2.

-^topa?),

and among

Nom. Pl.

-ev

from

late inscriptions of various dialects.

for usual -e?

originated in pronominal forms.

occurs in late Cretan, having

See 119.2

a.

Dat. Pl. -eaai, as in Horn. TroSeercn, probably an extension of


the form of o--stems, is characteristic of the Aeolic dialects, Les3.

bian, Thessalian (Pelasgiotis),

and Boeotian, and

is

also found in

early Delphian, East Locrian, Elean (cjivydSea-a-i no. 60


-ot?),

and in inscriptions

elsewhere

of various Corinthian colonies (Corcyra,

mrLECTION

108]

Epidamnus, Syracuse).
a-iv

(perhaps originally

with

ei'T- of

83

Heraclean has -aaai


=

*aa-(7i.

Skt. satsu,

in pres. part. evTaa-

then

evTei etc.), irpaa-aovTaaai, etc.

evraa-a-i

oi'i,

by fusion

as Travrot?

etc.,

after the analogy of o-stems, is characteristic of Locrian, Elean,

and the Northwest Greek

Koivrj,

whence

finds its

it

way

iato

various dialects in later times.


4.

haps

Ace. Pl.
first

-69

in place of -as,

i.e.

the nom. for the ace, per-

used in the numeral rerope? owiug to the influence of

the indeclinable irevTe

seen in Delph. heKareropei (no. 49,

etc., is

early fifth century), reropes, SeX^iSe? (in an inscription of early

fourth century

but otherwise in Delphian only TeTopa<!

and

etc.),

regularly ia Elean ([Tero/aje?, sixth century, irXeCovep, ^^dpiTep,


no. 61, etc.)

and Achaean

(iXda-a-ove'i, Safiocno<f>vX,aKe<;, etc.), also

in the very late inscriptions of various dialects, even Attic.


-av<:,

after the analogy of a-stems, in Cretan, e.g. OvyaTepavs,

a-Taripav;, etc.
(T-Stems
108.

Gen.

sg.

(9), -v?

1.

All dialects except Attic have the uncontracted forms.

in most dialects -eo?,

whence

Proper names in

sg.

in

Euboean

Boeotian, Cretan,

Ace.

-la (9), occasionally

-kXci^s, -kX^s.

(beside -kA^s), Boeotian (-xXres,


in

-to? in

in later Ionic, Ehodian, etc. (42.5).

ace. pl. neut. -ea,


a.

whence

Cypr.

-KXe/res,

-KA.t7s) till

sg.

etc.

masc. and

(42.1).

whence

-icXei^ in

Attic

about 400 B.C., and regularly

(gen. -Kkim, 2), but in the other dialects regularly -kX^s- Gen.
(= Horn. -kX^os, cf. 16), Att. -kXeous, but

Cypr. -nXipttK, Boeot. -kXcios

most dialects -icAeos.


For names in -icXeas instead
2.

of

-likeifi,

see 166.1.

Proper names often have forms which are modeled after the

analogy of the masc. a-stems, and this not only in Attic-Ionic


(e.g.

Att. 1,a>KpdTT]v, ^coKparov, Eretr. gen. EvKpaTco, TifioKXew),

was especially favorable to


Thus ace. sg. in -fjv {-rjv -779 =
Boeot. AafioreXeiv etc.. Arc. ^iXokX^v, and even in

where the agreement in the nom.

-rj<;

this, but also in the other dialects.

-dv: -as), e.g.

appellatives in Lesb. SajJLOTeXrjv

etc.,

Cypr. itreXev.

Dat.

sg.

in

84

GKEEK DIALECTS

Lesb. KaX\UXr]i.

-jjt,

perhaps,

also,

etc.

(or

nom.

xe(o)?

?).

-???

in

sg.

?),

in Thess. 'liriTOKpdTet'i

105.2 I)

^epeKpdre'; (no. 33

(like -a)

-rj

in Lesb. @eoyepv

sg. in -v (like -d)

(like -a?,

by mistake

for gen.

Voc.

Gen.

[108

or ^epeKpa-

in Arc. 'AreXrj etc., Delph.

IIoXw/ejoaTT;.

The numerous Boeotian hypocoristic names in -ei as Mevvei,


^iWei, @dX\ei, Bevvei, are also best understood as vocatives of
this type used as nominatives. They correspond to names in -i;?,
in other dialects, but in Boeotian follow the analogy of

-7]To<;,

(T-stems (gen. sg. -tos, ace. sg.

-eiv).

i-Stems
109.

In

1.

dialects except Attic-Ionic, and, for the

all

most

part, in Ionic too, the regular type of declension is that with

throughout, namely

(Gret.

-ts, -to?, -I, -iv, -tes, -icov, -uri, -is

-tz/?)

or

-ia<i (rare).

2.

is

The type

in

(from

-t?, -eoj?

almost exclusively Attic.

in Ionic,

Homer),

as in

-ei, pi. -et?, etc.

and Thasos, and Swdp^i in Teos

scriptions of Chios (no. 4)

But otherwise

-r)o<i,

In Ionic TroXem? occurs in early

and always in other

dialects,

nom.-acc.

pi.

-eis,

inscriptions of
dat. sg.

-et

and

and

many

-eai, are

the

dialects it is

In general,

to be adopted, next the

first

lastly the gen. sg.

(no. 3).

forms of this

type are late and to be attributed to Attic influence.


the Attic datives,

in-

-ea><;.

common

Thus

in the later

to find gen. sg.

-io<;,

but

-ei.

gen. sg. TTo'Xeo?

is

found in the

and in

Koivrj,

later inscriptions

of various dialects.
3.

Lesbian has a nom.

pi. -Z?

(Trb'Xt?,

no. 21), perhaps the ac-

cusative used as nominative.


4.

Cyprian has such forms as gen.

iTToXipt.

The p

is

to the analogy of v5.

and 9;u-stems

transfer to the type

characteristic of

sg.

Tifioxapipo^, dat.

certainly not original here,

and

is

sg.

perhaps due

(gen. -vfo^, -ipoi).

-ts, -tSo?,

Euboean proper names

as frequently in Attic, is
in

-t?,

as ArjfjLO')(dpiSo^.

INFLECTION

UlJ

85

\)-Stems

110. Nearly all the iuscriptional forms occurring are the usual

ones of the type

with the dareoi

Boeot. [f]dano<;

-u?, -vo?.

of non-Attic literature.

Nouns

The stem

111.

For

from

e,

agrees

9)

see 112.2.

in -us

throughout, nom.

is t]v, rjf

(i

vti5?

sg. -eu?

(from -tjw,

cf.

37.1), gen. sg.^-jj/ros, etc.


1.

The

original forms in -7?fo?,

without the

bian (^aa-i\rjo<;

etc.),

salian (/Qao-tXeto?
2.

-Tjfi, etc.

are preserved, with or

f, in Cyprian (;8ariXef 09, 'ESaXtl/rt, 'ESaXte/res), Les-

Boeotian (IlToiepL, ypafinaTetoi},

etc.),

Attic only are

and Elean

/Sao-tXeo)?,

Thes-

etc.),

(ySao-tXae?), as also in

Homer.

^aaiXed, with quantitative metathe-

But from the beginning of koivi^ influence 0aai\.a)<; is one of


the Attic forms most widely adopted by other dialects.
3. Most dialects, namely Ionic and the West Greek dialects exsis.

cept Elean, have /3acrt\eo9, ^acriXel,

with shortening

etc.,

of the

rj.

Generally these are the forms of even the earliest inscriptions


(Cret. foiKo<; etc.),

which has
Ehod.

but

also 'AX/cTytSe? etc.

later

Ace. Sg.

Hepae

always

iepel etc.),

(no.

101,

and once

Beside -eo? sometimes -eu?

common than

(cf.

te/ji},

-ij

fiarfj,

Coan

rence,

and due

jSaa-iXrj, etc.

But in Delphian and

(see 42.1, 43) is the regular form, e.g.

/3acn\rj, Lac. ^acnXri,

(no. 76, fifth century),

Nom. Pl.

in the genitive of o--stems.

-ea in Ionic, Locrian, Cret^an.

of the Doric dialects

Delph.

teprji, TloXifji, etc.

Meg. lapds, but, owing to the confusion with the nominative,

this spelling is far less

Mess,

iepri,

Meg.

ieprj,

Mycen.

Arg. ^aaiXrj, Ehod. ^aa-tXrj,

In these dialects

rypafi-

-ea is of later occur-

to koivt] influence.

-ee? in

Cretan

ally contracted to -eli.

Also

in early Attic,

Coan

and Arcadian

{Mavnvi)<;).

lape;.

Coan

find

'ISa/iVrjo<; (cf. TlovTooprjiSo';).

42.5),as

most

we

(e.g. Sjoo/aees)
-jj?

and elsewhere, but usu-

(in part at least directly

(reTajOTTj?),

Laconian {Meyape<i

At Cyrene

from

etc.,

-^es)

no. 64),

occurs nom. and ace. pL

GREEK DIALECTS

86
Ace. Pl.

when not

in Ionic and Doric (Cret. Spofieav;,

-ea<!

replaced by

of the

-ei<s

Arcadian has nom.

4.

[ill

sg.

in

-?;?,

cf.

107.4),

koiv-i].

as

^ove<; (Cyprian

lep7]<;, rypa(f)i]<;,

also once ye/sl?, but usually -ev?), ace. sg. hiepe v (cf 108.2),
.

nom.

pl.

-ev? are also found elsewhere.


'M.avnvrj';. Some proper names in-?j?
5. In Miletus and colonies occurs nom. sg. I'epeeos, gen. sg. lepeat,
likewise at Ephesus gen. sg. <E>\et) belonging to <I>\eu?.

Some

Zew. Zew
uncertain origin, in an
112.

cf.

1.

Att.

AieiTpe<j>rj<;,

Nouns

Irregular

or Aev? (84).

A((f)o'?, At(/r)t

inscription of Corcyra

as in

Homer,

and one

Dodona
But

of

Cypr. Aipei6efiK), Ai(p)a, in most dialects.

East

also in various dialects (attested for


El.),

(also Atet, of

Ion.,

Coan, Ther.,

Zrjpa (Cret. Afjva, Trjva,

Ztjvo';, Zrjvi,

Cret.,

etc., 37.1).

Late forms with a are hyper-Doric.


2.

Aside from the o-stem forms, the inscriptional

viv<i.

vlo'i,

occurrences are as follows, mostly from a stem viv-:

Nom.

Sg.

vw?

Cret.,

Lac, Att.

(Att. also

Gen. Sg.

uteos Cret., Att.

Dat. Sg.

vlel

Ace. Sg.

vivv Arc, Cret., Locr., etc.

Nom. Pl.

ArgoL, Phoc, Att.

utVes Cret. (as in

Dat. Pl. vicun


Aco. Pl.
3.

fi'qv.

p,rivvo<s,

Thess.

Hom.)

Att. vleh.

Cret. (as in Horn.), after

vlvvf Arg., Cret.

Stem

vv<i, us).

Thess. Auto? (no. 33).

*p,7)vc7-

fieivv6<;,

(cf.

Att.

analogy of iraTpaxn

etc.

vlel';.

whence (77.1) Lesb.


The nom. */jli^v<; became

Lat. mensis),

Att. etc.

iJLrjv6<;.

+ cons., but later than the assimmedial va), whence regularly (78) Ion., Corcyr., Meg.
Heracl. /^?j?. In Attic, /xet? was replaced by /jltjv formed after

*/aei's

(vowel-shortening before- v

ilation of
fiek,

the analogy of original v-stems

due
4.

-rjv, -rjvo<;.

to the analogy of Zeu?, Zt]v6<; (above,

\a?,

Hom.

\da<;.

Elean

fiv<s is

perhaps

1).

Originally a neuter o--stem to \da<!, becom-

ing 6 \ao9, o Xa9, after the analogy of o \i6o<; etc


tive beside Xao? also Att. Xaov (Soph.), Cret. \a6.

Hence

in geni-

INFLECTION

114]
5.

f rj/ia nom.-acc. sg. = e^yiia, but gen. sg. ra? prjiiofs from
So also Cret. *afi<^Lhr)fjia, ornament (cf. StdBrj/jia),
-fia.

Cret.

a stem in

but gen.
6.

sg. a/jbiriBT^fian.

which in Attic

x^'>>

and remains so in

declined as a consonant stem (gen.

Ionic, e.g. ace. sg. X"^^} g^n.

See 27

XW-

Xe'P.

is

properly a contracted o-stem (from xF-) like TrXoO?,

sg. xoo'f); is

7-

113.

Beside

1.

T<ov (both
2.

x^^-

of Adjectives

both with anomalous

K/oetTTtoi',

*iMeyia)v) in Ionic

For Dor. Kappwv,

*KpeTia>v) in Ionic.

(-TrXewi no.

21) and Cretan

TrXies, ifKiav^, ifKia, beside ttXlovo^, irXiova, ifKiov.


ros, is in origin a I'-stem form, cf. 77.1 a).
cf.

= irXeov.
= TrXeto-ros is

El.,

Cf. also

(e.g.

TrXe'e?,

Gortyn.

ifklacriv,

Dre-

Arc. ttXo? (from

42.5 d) adv.

Heracl. TroXtcrTo?
3.

we

Cret. a/3-

ir-stem forms, like Horn.

pi. TrXeove?,

TrXe'tai',

occur in Lesbian

*7r\eo?,

et,

and Arcadian, and

from *Kdpria)v) see 49.2 with a, 80, 81.

Beside

7r\e'a9,

and

/ieifft)!'

normal fie^mv (from

Kpeaaav (from

pi.

6, 79.

Comparison

find the

87

(also

Lac. a(a-)(Ti(TTa

in

formed directly from


from

(this regularly

from the compar. aatrov

= a7jj;to-Ta,

Aesch.)

ttoXu?.
is

formed

*d<yxi.'')-

NUMERALS
Cardinals and Ordinals

114. 1-10.

1.

Nom.

ov8i<s), Cret. eV? {evS S-

*evs.

as in

Cf. 78.

Fem.

sg.

Homer. Also mase.

irpdro^
2.

is

S-,

to? (cf.

Hom.

= e/eeti'o?.

West Greek and

uncertain (not

etc.

979

(cf.

Lac.

see 97.4), from

dat. sg. neut.

[Boeot. la

now

Boeot. irpdro';.

la>)

i'a,

in Cretan,

in Corinna.]

The source

of

*-7rp6aTO';, cf. 44.1).

Svo (Boeot. Siovo, 24) in aU dialects.

ending of consonant

eh, Heracl.

Law-Code IX. 50

but, of different origin, Lesb., Thess.

fiia,

but with pronominal force


Att. etc. n-pSiTO';,

masc. Att.

= evs

Lac. once Sve with the

stems. Sveiv = Bvolv

in late Att.

and

koivi^.

GEEEK DIALECTS

88

Plural forms
3.

in various dialects, e.g. Chian, Cret., Heracl. hv&v,

hvoK, Thess. 8m?, and hval{v) in late Attic and

Cret.

45.5.

[ll4

Att. etc.

Ace.

from

Cret. r/see?, Ther.

T/aet?,

with

See

numerals,

the nominative or the accusative is used for both cases in


dialects,

namely nom.

r/jet?

and elsewhere, and

in ^Attic

25,

introduced anew

of the indeclinable

Under the influence

rpiSiv etc.).

*T/3e?.

t/st}?, froiji

Cret. t/>ui'? (for t/jiV?

T/ot9,

Koivrj.

some

ace. r/at? in

Boeotian, Heraclean, Delphian, Troezenian, and perhaps in Lesbian.


TpiTo^, Lesb. repro^ (18).

Att. TeTTa/aes, Ion., Arc. reacrepe'i (also Teacrape; in Ionic

4.

Boeot. ireTrape'i, Lesb. jreaavpe'i

Koivrj),

Greek

TeTope<;.

From

*qTi'etuer- (cf. Lat.

(Horn. Triavpei),

and

West

quattuor, Skt. catvdras),

the differences being due to inherited variations in the second

and

syllable {tuer, tuor, tur, tur),

gM

(68)

and tu

(54

Hom.

TeTapro<;,

irevTe, Lesb.

5.

e^,

to the divergent

development of

81).

See 49.2

TeV/aaTo?, Boeot. Trerparo';.

Thess.

a.

irefiire (68.2).

Cret. irevTO'i (86.2).

irefjj'rrTO'i,

6.

e,

Delph., Heracl. f e'f.

Cret.,

See 52

For Boeot.

6.

ecr-Kj;-

SeKOTrj, see 100.


cTTTa.

7.

e/38o/tto9,

but Delph.

Ae'/3Seyu.os

(cf.

Delph., Heracl.

i^SefiijKovTa, Epid. e/SSe/^ato?).

oKTw, Boeot., Lesb. okto (like Swo), Heracl., Ther. hoKrm (58

8.

Elean ottto (with


ei/i-ea,

9.

Delph.

tt

from

eVvj} (42.1).

But

*ei'f a in Att. ei'ttro?, ivaKoa-ioi,

Ion. eiVaro?, elvaKocrtoi, Cret. fivaTo<i, etc.

Delph., Ther. AeVaro?, see 58


10.

See

6,

Se'wa,

116

Arc.

Se'/co

c),

eiTTd).

c.

See 54.

Lesb. eVoro?, see

(SutoSe/eo).

Se/caro';,

6,

Heracl. hevvea,
116

a.

Arc, Lesb. Sckoto?.

a.

115. 11-19. evSexa, rarely Sewa el? (e.g. Heracl. SeKa hev).

Att.

and Hom. SmSeKa, but in most

(e.g.

Boeot. SvoSe'/caro?), Delph., Heracl. Bexa Svo (also late Attic).


Sea, also indecl. rpeia-KaiSeKa (Attic after 300 B.C.) and

dialects BvcoSeica, rarely SvoBexa

T/3et9 /tat

rpia-KaiheKa (Boeotian etc.;

cf.

114.3);

also heKa rpeh, especially

INFLECTION

117]

when

89

the substantive precedes (so Attic even in

Similaa- variations for


ei/Se/caro?,

StoSe/taTO?,

13th-19th, Att.
Tpia-KuiBeKhTo^,
116. 20-90.

SucoSeKiaTo?,

kuI

TpLTO<;
etc.,

fifth century).

14-19.
hvoheKaTo<i

Se'/earo?, etc.,

(see

above).

but Tpeta-KaiSeKaTO'; or

in East Ionic, Boeotian,

and Lesbian

{-Skoto<:).

ecKoai (from *i-fi'Koa-i) in Attic, Ionic, Lesbian,

Arcadian (no occurrence in Cyprian), but fUari, ikutl {I, cf. Ther.
hiKaSi, no. 107; for h see 58 c) in West Greek with Boeotian and
Thessalian, with

not

feiKan beside pUari

et,

and t retained
due

is

The

(61).

to the influence

Att. etc. TpiaKovra, Ion. rpii^Kovra.

ei

of Heracl.

of Att. eiKoai.

TerrapaKOVTa, reaaepaKovra,

Tea-a-apaKovra, TreTTapuKovra (see 114.4), Delph., Corcyr., Heracl.

reTpatKovra (so doubtless in

Attic influence).

all

"West Greek dialects previous to

TrevrriKovTa, e^ijKOvra {pe^rjKOVTo), etc.,

in all dialects (but Ion. o'ySaiKovTa, 44.2).

with

tj

Delph,, Heracl. he^Se'

See 114.7-9.

Gen.

where the use

of such

fiiJKOVTa, Heracl. hoySon]Kovra, hevevijKovTa.

Tea<T[ep']aK6vTO)v, "TrevT-qKovToav, etc. in Chios,

inflected genitives (also SeKcov) is one of the Aeolic features of the

dialect

(cf. Trefiireav,

Sexav in Alcaeus, also rpirjKovrwv in Hesiod).

Att., Ion. etKocTTo? etc., Boeot. fixaa-To^ {-KacrT6<; doubtless in all

West Greek

dialects also

but Thess. Ikoo-to's), Lesb.

et/cota-ro?,

rpid-

Koia-TO<;, i^i]KOia-TO<;).

The

form of the ordinals is that in -kootos (from -kmt-to-,


Under the influence of the cardinals in -Kovra
this became -koo-to'; in Attic etc.; in Lesbian, under the same influence,
*-KovoTos, -whence -koujtik (cf. 77.3, 78). To the same analogy is due
a.

cf.

earliest

Skt. trihfat-tama- etc.).

the o of a.K(Kn, and of the hundreds in


instead of the

more

-Kacrioi (cf. e/cardv,

-koctioi (e.g. rpiaKoa-ioi after' rptaKovra),

original a in pUaTi (Skt.

Skt. fatam, Lat. centum).

vihfati-,

Lat. vigintl), -Kanoi,

It is possible that a still further

extension of this analogical o is to be assumed in explanation of Arc.


Arc, Lesb. Sckotos, Arc. 84ko, Lesb. tvoros.

hcKOTOv,

117.
2.

1.

100. Att.

200-90Q.

doubtless Thess.)

West Greek

a).

etc.

eKarov, Arc. heKorov.

Att.-Ion., Lesb. -Koa-ioi,


-kcitioi.

See

6,

West Greek,

116

a.

Boeot. (and

Arc. -Kacnoi (with East Greek a, but

See 61.2, 116

a.

["7

GREEK DIALECTS

90

The a

extended to Simcocnoi

of TpLCLKoaioi. {Ion. rpivcoaioi) is

(Ion. ScrjKoaioi.),

of TerpaKoaioi, e-n-TaKoaioi, evaicoaiot. to

and the a

irevTaKoatoi, iJ^aKoaioi, oKTUKoaioi (but Lesb. oktcokoo-ioi).

1000. Att.

3.

from

x'>-">'

from

Lesb., Thess. j(;eXXiot,

*xJ-Xtot,
*xea^\i'Oi.

but Ion.
See

Lac. x^Xtot,

xe''A.toi,

76.

PRONOUNS
Personal Pronouns

Singular.

118.

with

1.

Greek

or

e/A-

The stems, except in the nominative, begin


2. original tu, whence East Greek a-, "West
re). But enclitic rot is from a form without u
1.

/u.-.

t- {Teo<;, riv,

>

and occurs also in Ionic (Horn., Hdt., etc.). Horn, reolo


3. original
and reiV are from the possessive stem teuo- (120.2).
'.
su, whence p- in some dialects {feo<;, poi, flv), otherwise
Skt.

(cf.

fe),

NoM.

2.

6706, e^div (Boeot. tw, Iwv, 62.3).

See

Dor. TV, Boeot. tov.

(7v,

Gen.

3.

Ion. -ev, Att. -ou.

Locr. f eo9.

Dat.

4.

Tot), ol,

West Greek,

Dor.

lit.

jjlol,

ifioi, poi,

Ace.

1.

-01,

Epid.

aoi, croi

(lit.

lit.
/^e.

rot,

Dor.

though

efiiv, lit.

119. Plural.
tain, apart

1.

The forms

from the endings,

yusmdn
As

e (fe); also

3.

etc.),

whence

reo?,

e/xe'o?,

Dor.

rot' rot, lit. Ion.

/rot).

-tv in

6.

West

lit.

fJLoi,

also rot'), as Cret., Calymn.,

Dor. tCv, Cret. piv.

lit.

lit.

Dor. and Epid. tv (nom.

Dor. and Epid.

of the first

aa-fi- (cf. Skt.

Dor. re (Cret.

vCv.

and second persons con-

asmdn

etc.)

Lesb., Thess. a/i/^-, Lesb.

and

v/ti/i-,

uo-ju.- (cf.

elsewhere

the personal pronouns, especially in the singular, are of comparatively

rare occurrence in inscriptions,

from

Dor.

lit.

later

-eo,

e^ei'.

Att.-Ion., Lesb. o-e,

2.

Tfc, written rpe, in Hesych.); also

whence

but mostly in the enclitic forms, as

and

ol,

e'/ite,

used as ace).

Skt.

as

ifieSev,

ot (Arg., Cret., Delph., Cypr., Lesb.

Ehod., Delph., and


5.

as

a. -ot, as ifxoi,

Greek (where also


never

-eo? in

&.

-0ei',

c.

Att.-Ion., Lesb., Arc.

(Horn, ifieio etc. like tolo),

-eio

a.

61.6.

literary sources,

Kiihner-Blass

I,

some forms are added which are quotable only


of the great variety, for which see

but only a few out

pp. 580

ft.

INFLECTION

121]
a/i- (Att.-Ion. rittr) or a/A-,

or lenis in the
2.

NoM.

aU

in

-S

replaced by

In late Cretan

76,

and, for the spiritus asper

6.

dialects except Attic-Ionic,

Lesb.

-et?.

See

vfx,-.

person, 57, 58

first

91

Dor.

a/i/xe?, u/i^e?,

where

it

was

etc. o/ie?, i/xe?.

was frequently replaced by d/iiei/ under the influ-;u.s was often replaced by the KotviJ
That is, aft-iv for d/u.'s after ^ipoiixv for ^ipofxjei. From d/xei', -ev was
-/lev.
extended to other pronouns and to participles, as ^jucv, tivcv, dKoixravrei;, etc.
a.

ence of 1

3.

a/ies

verbal forms in which Dor.

pi.

Gex. -etwr (Horn.

rjiieCwv),

whence

-etov,

-uov

(9), -Siv.

Lesb.

Thess. afifieovv. El. afieav, Dor. afiecov, a/iicov (Cret.),

afip,(ov,

later dfiav.
4.

Dat.

Lesb. dufuv,

-t(i').

So Dor.

^/ity, vfuv.

Dor.

dfifii, etc..

o-^ti', <r<^t,

but Att.-Ion.

a/niV,

a-^icri,

ir/iti/,

Att.-Ion.

Arc. a^ei<i, the

latter not satisfactorily explained.


5.

Ace.

-e

in all dialects except Attic-Ionic, where

placed by-ea9,-a9. Lesb.,

d/ifie, vfifj-e,

Thess.

dfifie,

Dor.

it

was

re-

etc. dfie, vfie.

Possessives

120.

1.

iiju)<i.

PL Dor.

etc.

(Lesb.

dfi6<;

and

d/j,fio<;)

a/xeVe/ao?

(Lesb. afiixerepo';, Att.-Ion. 57/ierepo9).


a.

2.

tuo-, Att. etc.

in literature only).
a.

3.

cro'i?.

6.

teuo-, Dor.,

Lesb.

Both forms in Homer.

SUO-, Att. etc. 09, Cret. /roV.

Both forms in Homer.

PI.

6.

a^6^ and

seuo-,

reo'?,

Boeot. rto?

PI. v/xoV

Dor.

and

(lit.),

(all

vfj.eTepo<i.

Thess.

eoV.

a-<f>eTpo^.

Reflexive Pronouns

121. Aside

from the

pronouns as given in

which

is itself

reflexive use of the forms of the personal

118, 119, especially that of the third person

a reflexive in origin, various forms of expression are

employed, as follows

Combinations of the personal pronouns with

1.

ing

its

avrSi

own

inflection, as in

eavra.

TO, eavTT]';.

Cf. also,

Homer

(a-ol

avrai

with the possessive,

avT6<;,

etc.).

Cret.

each keep-

So Cret. piv

ra pa auras

GEEEK DIALECTS

92

[l2l

2.

Compounds

same elements, with

of the

contraction, leaving

Att. i^iavrov, aeavTov or aavTov,

only the second part declined.

Coan tjvt&v
The
(lit.) ifiecovTOv etc.
the Attic, and probably

eaVTOv or avrov (also late earov, drav, with a from dv

with

7]

from ea

Ion.

Thess. euTot, evrov).

forms found in Ionic inscriptions are like

are Attic.
3.

avToi alone, as sometimes in Homer.

ifiavTov (SGDI. 2501.4), El. avrap

= eavTov
4.

Thus Delph. avrov

eavrrj'; (no. 61.17),

Lac. avrS

(no. 66).

avTo?

aiiTO'i,

either with each declined separately, or, oftener,

merged into compounds


This combination

is

types mentioned under


Boeotian, but

is

of

somewhat varying form.

comparatively

and

It is

3.

late,

replacing the earlier

most frequent in Delphian and

found in several of the other West Greek

and probably even in Attic (Kiihner-Blass

I, p.

600, anm.

a.

avros a^Tss.

Delph. avroi TrortaiTous, Boeot. xar'airii

b.

avTocravTos.

Delph. avTocravTov

etc.,

Boeot. {nrip

(=

dialects,
5).

airoi)

avrocravtii),

avroii'.

Heracl.

fitT airrocravTlov, Cret. aiTotravTois, etc.


c.

Delph. aixravrov

averavTos.

etc.,

Boeot. ava'avrutv,

Cret. avcratiTaSi

Argol. (Calauria) avo-auTas.


d.

dcravTos.

Boeot. derauTv (late).

e.

avo'WTO's.

Delph. aicrwras
Heracl.

f. avrauTos.

etc.

a.vra.vTo.%

See 33

(as in

a.

Sophron and Epicharmus), Aegin.

avravTOv.
g.

Sicil.

gen. sg. airoira (Segesta), gen. pi. avriivra (Thermae).

ably from avraTov, avTarSiv

(cf. late earoij,

Prob-

above, 2), with transposition of

the last two syllables.

Demonstrative Pronouns
122,

Greek

The

article.

the analogy of

have

',

Nom.

see 58

o,

fj.

For the

o,

a.

Forms with added


and Boeotian

For

as in Homer, in the West


and in Boeotian. Att. etc. oi, ai, after
a in some dialects which in general

pi. rot', tui,

dialects except Cretan,

i,

used like

(rav-i, toi-i, tv-i).

relative use, see 126.

ohe, are

found in Elean

(ro-i, ra-i)

INFLECTION

126]

93

= 6Be.

123. Thess. o-ve, Arc. o-vi, Arc.-Cypr. S-vv,


reive,

and, with both parts inflected

Toti/eos, gen. pi.

Tovvveow.

Boeot. TrpoTTjvi (136.1).

rdvvvv, Toavvv.

pi.

sg.), Toivi, etc.

ovTcov, etc.

after

Cypr.

Interchange

Tavra.

125.

from

ov throughout

1.

of

av and

ov.

is

throughout, ovrov,

Att. gen.

pi. fern,

tovtwv

So also Delph. rovra, rovTa<; (but


instead of OV, see 34

Ion. Keivo's, Lesb., Cret., Ehod.,

iKelvo<;.

Cf.

avrai,

Boeotian (ovto, ovto) and Euboean {tovtu,

= ivravda).

For the spelling with

*Ke-evov.

'

West Greek

etc. ovroi,

vice versa El. neut. tuvtcov, due to influence of

rovret, also ivTOvOa


also TavTai).

Cf. also

vv.

roOrot, ravrai, like to(, rai, in

Boeotian, with t replaced by

masc, neut.

sg.

Cypr. ovv, Arc. raw, tovvv, also (late)'

(examples from Cos, Delphi, Ehodes, Selinus). Att.


after ovtov etc.

Thess. rove,

Horn. Tota-Secn), gen.

Arc. roovC (gen.

Cf. Horn., Boeot.,

Nom.

124. 0VT09.

(cf.

25 with

a.

Trjvo';,

Coan

a.

Kfjvo<;,

both

of different origin (*Te-ei'09),

in Delphian, Heraclean, Argolic (Aegina), Megarian, as well as in


Sicilian Doric writers (Theocr., Sophron, Epicharmus).
2.

Neut. avrov in Cretan, as sometimes in Attic inscrip-

aiT6<;.

tions.

Relative, Interrogative, and Indefinite Pronouns

126.
of

The

relative o? occurs in all dialects.

forms of the

article,

frequent in

But the

Homer and

relative use

Herodotus,

is

usual

in Lesbian (so always in the earlier inscriptions and nearly always

and Sappho;

in Alcaeus
influence, as

o? in later inscriptions

shown by the

(rd, KaTTairep,

Greek
late

oi, oi).

o-jrep,

rai, rol'i, etc., Cypr.

etc.

o,

but also

tov, etc.,

So also in Boeotian in a fourth-century inIt is also

Hera-

so often in Epicharmus), but in most

West

dialects it occurs,

if

(cf.

For the demonstrative

Lesbian).

at all, only in later inscriptions (so in

Delphian and Cretan, never in the

(L33).

to koivij

spiritus asper, kuO' oy, etc.), Thessalian

scription (no. 41), but later only 09

clean (tov, rd,

due

but also o? in an early metrical inscription), and

Arcado-Cyprian (Arc.
Arc. dv, Cypr.

is

earlier period).

.use of o?, cf. Heracl. at fiev

Si Se

GREEK DIALECTS

94

[i27

127. Cret. orepo-;, which of two, is the true relative correlative of


n-oTepo-!

Skt. yataras- beside kataras),

(cf.

and so related to the

oTTOTe/oo? as otos to oirolo^, ore to mroTe.

usual

128.

Ti9, Ti?.

Cypr.

at';,

Cret. dat. sg.

see 68.4.

Arc.

tIixl,

see 68.3, Thess. nk, Kt?

ffi?,

m. oTifii

= orivi,

and

fi-^Sifii

(/cti'e?),

= fj-ijTivi,

from *Ti-aiu with the same pronominal sm as in Skt. kasmin,


Meg. (Ar.) ad = Tiva from *Tta,
kasmdi, Umbr. pusme, esmei, etc.

cf Att.-Ion. cLTTa,
.

129.
1.

The

offTK,

indefinite relative oarK;, otk.

with both parts declined, in various

hoinve'i, Cret.
2.

e.g.

oTt?,

La

dialects, e.g. Locr.

Boeot. mariva';.

ol'rti'es,

with only the second part declined, in various

Delph. ortvo?,

*6B-TL,

aaaa

from *aTta.

otivl, Cret. orifii (128).

and by analogy oTTtre?

etc.

dialects,

Lesb. otti, regularly from

Cf. also Lesb. oinraxi, oirira, etc.

other dialects the double consonants are simplified, presum-

all

ably under the influence of the simple rt? etc.

On account of

Locr. /roTi (no. 56) it is generally assumed that the first


not from a form of the relative stem seen in os, oerris, which
was originally jp- (Stt. ya-') but a generalizing particle o-f o8, related in form
and use to the so in Eng. whoso, whosoever (Old Eng. swa hwa swa). But so
long as the one occurrence of Locr. port is the only example of a form with
f (even the other early Locrian inscription, no. 55, has Adrt), there is decidedly a possibility that this is only an error.
a.

part of OTIS

is

3.

Neuter forms in

-ti,

with only the

first

part declined, in Cre-

tan, e.g. an = driva, on i.e. Sn = ovnvo^.


130. Cret. 6Teio<; = ottoioi;, but used hke

Ka

oreto? Se
Se

(sc.

K6a-fio<; firj jSepSrji,

yvvaiKi) irpodff eSoKe.

TToiov, KpTjre?), cf.

Horn, reo,

131. Interrogative

adjectival o(Tn<;, as

yvvd oreia Kpe/jbara


For the form

(also

/ci's

oreiai

reo), etc.

pronouns used as indefinite

larly in Thessalian, e.g.

fie exei,

Hesych. Teiov

ke 'yivveiTei

= oo-rts

relatives.

So regu-

dv yiyvrjrai,

Sie ki (in

ySeWetret

= Sto'rt, ttok ki (in form irpo'i ti) = on, <f>vXd<} Trotas kc


= (^wXtj? ottoiIi? (^crrtvo?) dv fiovXrjTai. Elsewhere the

use of

= oo-Tt?

form Sid

Ti)

Tt'?

is,

with some rare exceptions in literature, found

only in late Greek. In Cypr.


tive force is given

by the

oiri ai<;

oVt,

Ke

= oa-n<; av, the indefinite rela-

an adverbial form

of obscure formation.

IKFLECTION

132]

95

ADVERBS AND CONJUNCTIONS


Pronominal Adverbs and Conjunctions of Place, Time, and Manner
132.

Place where.

-ov.

1.

These are of genitive


-ei.

2.

Att.-Ion. ttov, oirov, avrov, o/xov, etc.

and are specifically Attic-Ionic.


Place where. These are the West Greek equivalents
origin,

the Attic-Ionic adverbs in -ov (above,


dialects, in

Delphian, and in Boeotian,

of

occurring in various Doric

1),

e.g. el, irel, irei (Cret. ai

wei

eX TTOv), oirei, reiSe, Tovrel, rrjvel, avrel (Boeot. avri),


li-qhajxel, ovOufiei.

X&J?,

and Delph.

Here

also,

The ending

iirexei.

even in Attic-Ionic in ixel


3.

(cf.

is of

where, formed from ^%{

With

(5 a).

-?,

ol, irol, ottol, etc.

Delph.

049.

This ending, like

and means simply ^Zace where

is

in

numer-

Cf. also Crop. tJxoi,


-ec, is

of locative ori-

(cf. oiicoi, 'la-ff/xol),

pronominal adverbs the prevailing force

but in these

whither.

Place whither (also where).

4. -VI.

Cret. vt, oTrut, with -9, giving


Ehod. vh, Arg. u9 {for whatever purpose), lit. Dor. irvi,

-VK or

-U9,

Ehod.

07ru9.

TTTjXvi,

and occurs

locative origin,

also eVei).

Place whither (also where),

-Of.

ous dialects, as in Attic.

gin,

aWei, dfiei,
by analogy, Heracl. worexei = irpoae-

Cf. also Cret. ttXioi (to 7rXie9, 113.2),

aXkvi, Delph.

from the stem

evSv<;.

lit.

Lesb. TvlSe,

This type originated in

*Trvi, ottvi,

ttu- (I.E. qifi/^, cf. Skt. Icu-tas,

whence, Osc. pu-f, where).

Place where, whither, and especially maruhow and where in various Doric dialects, in
Delphian whither, Lesb. ^inra where, aXka elsewhere (a from -di,
see 38), Cret., Corcyr. aXXat otherwise, Heracl. iravrac in all directions. The indefinite ttui (cf. Corcyr. oWm irai in any other way)
5. -at (Att.-Ion. -7)1).

ner.

is

Thus

ai, irai, ottui

used in Cyprian as a strengthening

Trai,

and

particle,

anyhow, indeed

indeed, iSe irai, then indeed, no. 19.4,12).

(ko,';

Cret. ol, oTrat

are used in the sense of as, in whatever way, but also as final con-

junctions,
a.

and

at is also used as a temporal conjunction.

Beside these dative-locative forms in

Lac. ravTo.

ha.T

-at

there existed a type with

probably of instrumental origin, to which belong


ravrrj gre, in such a way as (no. 66), Dor. a^i, where (Etym.

original -a (Att.-Ion.

-1;),

GREEK DIALECTS

96

[l32

Horn, ^x'- ^'^^^ particle -xt- But for the most part it is
impossible to distinguish this from the commoner type in original -at, to
which many forms in -d may equally well belong (as such we have reckoned

Magn., Hesych.)

In Attic-Ionic there is the same ambiguity (the traditional spelling varying between -y and 1;), with the added possibility that
a given form (e.g. owrj, where) may belong under 6, below.
Lesb.

oTTira etc.).

Place where and time when.

-;.

6.

when,

oire,

ravTe, [rJeSe, in this place,

same formation
7.

are

rj

Meg.

17,

where, but usually

= irco-iTOTe,

= el

whether, Cypr. e
-^ei').

(134.1), El. eire

Lit.

Dor.

TwSe, Locr. ho, hoiro, Coan, Mess. tovtS).

foiK<o,from the house. These are of ablative origin

(S,

El.

Of this

rlSe, aXke, here, elsewhere.

Place whence (Att.-Ion.

-to.

o, OTTO,

Cret.

as, ire-'KOKa

where and v}hen, Lac. AoVe,

= eireC.

ttw, etc., Cret.

Similarly Delph.
(I.E. -6d, cf. early

Lat. -od, Skt. -dd).


a. These adverbs are not to be confounded with another class, mostly
from prepositions, meaning /)Zace where or whither and occurring in AtticIonic also, as av<i>, Kario, l^a), etc. To this belong Delph. tvSoi, within, Coan

kKariput,
b.

on each side of (ci. iKacrripu)).

Although probably all the West Greek dialects formed the pronominal

adverbs of place whence in -u, forms like odiv being late, the -Oar appears in
adverbs derived from place names, as Arg. 'iopaiOoOev, Corinth. TiepaioOev.
Cf. also 133.1.

Manner,

co?, tto)?, oTraj?, etc.

8.

-6)9.

a.

Final conjunctions,

of these

oirojs is

by

ws and

far the

oirtos

more

9.

once, ai (above, 5).

ha

is

though &s is not uncommon,


Early Cretan uses neither, but rather

rare, except in very late times.

Time when,

-re, -Ta, -ica.

ore, rare, irore in Attic-Ionic

Arcado-Cyprian (Arc. tots, Cypr.


bian, oKa etc. in
oica, Toica, iroKa,

are the usual final conjunctions, and

frequent,

especially in the earlier inscriptions.


OTrai or,

in all dialects.

West Greek (and presumably

Boeotian), e.g. Cret.

Lac. TreTroica, El. toku, Delph. oxa, -voku.

occurriug in Ehodian, Laconian, and literary Doric,

Even

Attic has -ra and -ku in

and

ore, fieiroTe), ora, ttStu in Les-

some words,

is for

(oKKa,

oku

a.)

as etra, eireiTU (Ion.

also eireiTe), qvlKa.


a.

Temporal conjunctions. Besides

temporal use of Cret.

ai, ^, oire

ore.

etc.

(above, 5, 6).

and liru (above, 2), note the


For so long as, until, we find

INELECTION

183]
1)

lojs,

Arc.

as (41.4), 2) loTE,

135.4), 3) Cret.

ei/TE (cf.

Thess. /u.eWo8t, Horn.

ixvtt',

tion, 4) /J-ixph -XP^>

^th

97

jaaT</)a, all

and without

/icerro (also prep,

related,

oE, 5) eis o,

ixerrk),

but of obscure formae's

6) Boeot. iv toi'

o,

136.1).

(cf.

Prepositional and Other Adverbs

133.

-dev, -8e, -6a.

1.

In adverbs

like irpoadev, Lesbian has

usually -6e (nearly always in inscriptions

and

West Greek

-6a), while the

Attic in evda

(gram.) irpoada

Delph. TTpoa-Ta
vSo6ev.

etc.,

and

-6e, -6ev.

Arc. -Ba

ej(66<!

ogy of other adverbs in

-o)

From

ei'Sow

is

(132.7 a)

Cf.

and

= 6vpa^e,

avadev, dvw6a.

Hence, after the anal-

-ot (132.8), Delph.,

besides

Cretan), evBodi, Ion. evSoVe (Ceos)


(after ei/ro's),

avwSa.

= c/ero'?, see 66.

formed

are

seen in dvpSa (Hesych.)

is

ex6a), Epid. ex6oi.

5.

(85.3),

Cf. also Arc. irpocrdayevi^i;.

For Delph., Locr.

4.

also

but also Meg. irpoade, Argol. ep-nrpoade, Cret.

probably avoB' (no. 16.17)

3.

is

Lesb. irpoade, evep6e, Dor.

Heracl. ep,Trpoada, avmOa, Cret. irpodda

(85.1),

-Se {-^e), -So.

2.

but also

etc.),

in the lyric also -dev

show -6a (which

dialects

Att.-Ion.

Cret., Delph.,

Epid.

evSo6ev

Meg., Syrac.

(also
eVSo's

Delph. evSa, Lesb., Epid., Syrac. ewSot, Delph. evSw?.

Beside e^ta (132.7 a) are formed, after the analogy of other

adverbs, Lac. e^ei, Cret., Syrac. efot, Dor., Delph. e^o^ (after aero?
etc., cf. ivSo'i).
6.

-49, -IV,

Forms with

-t.

adverbial

-?

or -v sometimes inter-

change with each other and with forms without either -s or -v, as
the numeral adverbs in -kk, -klv, -kl. Thus in most dialects -Kts,

sometimes

-ki,

but -kiv in Lac. rerpaKtv, hrraKiv, oKraKiv, Cret.


Likewise -iv in other adverbs of time (cf. Att.

6d6dKiv = 6adKi<i.
irdXiv), as

Cret.

Cret. ainiv,

avrap.epiv

Eheg. avOiv (Hdn.)

= av6r]p,epov.

El.

varapiv

= avTi,<;,

av6K, avOi,

= vffrepov.

Here

also

Thess. div beside Lesb. at (also aliv Hdn.), Ion. au' (also aihaap.o's,

under perpetual
/riV,

in

*a4fe9, etc.,

-49 is

lease)
cf.

= usual

ate?,

ot'et, atVi/ (all

from

*at/ri, *at-

Cypr., Phoc. alpeC), while a corresponding

form

to be seen in Cypr. iipak, forever, a combination hke Att.

GEEEK DIALECTS

98
containing

ets aei,

but

liar,

= etri

i)

and ak from

= avev

(Meg. and late

after xw/ot'?),

el

Greek

dialects

and

all

the

West

Cyprian.

e (^) in

is

efi-irTj<i,

and Ar-

in Attic-Ionic

al in Lesbian, Thessalian, Boeotian (^),

cadian

e^fj<;.

The conditional conjunction,

1.

lit. avi<s

Dor. efiirdv (Pindar) beside e>7ra?

Coan, Rhod., Ther. e^av


134.

f pecu-

*alfi<s (omission of

cf. Trat?, 53).

Cf. also Epid. avevv, El. avevf

formed

[l33

^ in other dialects than Cyprian is ^mply whether, e. g. Heracl. Tab.


In Cretan there is no true conditional ^ beside at, as was
once supposed, but rather a temporal ^, for which see 132.6.
a.

(no. 74) 1.125.

dv

av, Ke, Ku.

2.

is

only Attic-Ionic and Arcadian.

dialects the unrelated e, /ca is used,

Thessalian, and Cyprian,

Arcadian once had

a.

In

ku in the West Greek

dialects

other
icev),

and Boeotian.

Cyprian, and a relic of this

kc, like

all

in Lesbian (also

tee

is

to be seen

in the k which appears, where there would otherwise be hiatus, between

and a following av, which had regularly replaced k as a significant element


(probably through prehistoric Ionic influence, cf. p. 7). Thus regularly ei
K &v, or better tix av, since

beside oi), but

some assume a

8'

eik

has become a mere by-form of

Once, without av,

av.

(like ovk

cIk tTrt So/ua Trvp hroiai,

significant k in place of usual Sv,

where

but best classed with the

subjunctive clauses without av (174).

In Attic-Ionic,

h.

to

ti

combines with

av,

in Attic

to eav or dv, in Ionic

rjv-

c.

The

substitution of

(Koarq) influence in the

for al belongs to the earliest stage of Attic

West Greek

dialects,

but that of av for xa only to


is almost wholly

the latest, being rarely found except where the dialect

Hence the hybrid combination a


most West Greek dialects.

Koarfj.

the rule in the later inscrip-

ko. is

tions of
3.

of

Arc-Cypr. wa?

KaC.

which

(as of

(also kol, for

Mantinean

this occurs only in the early

where
4.

Kai.

he.

L 45

is

is

see 97.2), the relation

obscure.

In Arcadian

inscription, no. 16, else-

See 275.

Thessalian uses

^UTfia, TUfi

which

the rare Cypr. kot') to icai

fiefi

lav

jxa,

Ta/i

related to
/icL

due to koiv^ influence).

aWav

fiev,

for

8e',

(no. 28.22;

e.g.

to fik

yfrd-

rdv Be aXXav

INFLECTION

135]

99

with -w in Arc.-Cypr. 6vv = oSe (123), and with


occurs as an independent particle in Cyprian and
Boeotian, e.g. Cypr. Svfdvoi vv, Bokoi vv, Boeot. aKovpv vv 'ev6a>.
vv, identical

5.

Horn, vw,

vv,

6. tSe, in form
Horn, the, occurs in Cyprian introducing the
conclusion of a condition {IMirai then indeed, ISe then no. 19.12,25),

or a

new

sentence (tSe and no. 19.26).

PREPOSITIONS
Peculiarities in

Form

1. For apocope of the final vowel, see 95.


For assimilation of final consonants, see 96,

135.
2.
e/e,

97, 99.

100.
3.

= avd,

For 6v

= Kara.,

22.

vTrd

4.

iv,

The

ek.

Locr., Phoc.

is

e?

Iv = iv, 10. cnrv = utto, 22.


= vtto, formed after the analogy of Kara

see

6.

Elean (viraSvycoK) and Lesbian


use of Lat. in)

=
Karv
etc.,

inherited use of iv with the accusative

e? in

an early Delphian

the

(cf.

retained in the -Northwest Greek dialects

but once

in

(gram.).

(El.,

inscription, no. 50)

together with Boeotian and ThessaHan, and in Arcado-Cyprian

Elsewhere this was replaced by an extended form

iv-i,

(Iv).

whence

ets,

See 78.

e?.

Similarly evre

= eare

Northwest Greek

in Locrian, Delphian (hevTe, 58

koivi].

But Boeotian, in

c),

and the

spite of iv, has erre

= etrre.
5.

fJ.Td, -TreSd.

weSd, unrelated to fierd in origin,

is

used in

its

place in Lesbian, Boeotian (probably in Thessalian too, though not

yet quotable). Arcadian

(ttc,

95), Argolic,

(Most of these dialects show also


influence

is

ireSdyayov,

probable.)

= /leTOiKoi,

(or -to?)

= Att.

= neremv,

and proper
The name of the
IleSa- and Mera-) Hera-

ireSiov

IXeSa'/cptTo?.

HeSaryeiTWO';- or (by fusion of

jiTWO<i

Cretan, and Theran.

but at a time when koiv^

So also in compounds, as Cret. ireBexeiv, Arg.

irehdpoiKoi

names, as Boeot. YlehdKOiv, Argol.

month

/lerd,

MeTayeirvuov occurs in Ehodes, Cos,

GREEK DIALECTS

100
Calymna, Megara,

Sicily,

[l35

and Magna Graecia, where ireSd alone

is

not attested.
6.

There are two independent series of forms, one with

jrp6<!.

and one without the


Horn.

1)

each with variation between final

TTjOOTi (cf. Skt.

Pamph.

Cf. also

TTjOo'?.

p,

and -n.

-?

prati), Cret. Tropri (70.1), Att.-Ion., Lesb.

irepT, I^esb. (gram.)

paHi) in the West Greek


and Boeotian, Arc.-Cypr.

Tr/ser.

2) itoti

dialects (except Cretan)

(cf.

Avest.

with Thessalian

'jr6<i.

a. Although the relation of tt/oos, ttos to irporC, irori can hardly be the
same in origin as that of StStucrt to Si'SmTt (irpoa-C, iroari are unknown, and
moreover the assumption of apocope is unlikely for Att.-Ion. tt/jos), and
indeed is far from clear, yet, barring the appearance of irporri, ttoti beside
irpds in Homer, the distribution of the t and cr forms is the same. See 61.
But note that Trpds is universal in wpoa-Oa etc. (133.1).
b. Another form, Trot, is most frequent in Argolic, where it occurs regu-

larly before dentals, e.g.

iroi

tov Oeov, iroidip^v, iroiTa(Tuav (but irori^Xeipwi,

There are also several examples in Delphian, all before dentals


except TTOiKecjidXaun', and one each in Locrian, Corinthian, Cretan, and
Boeotian (IIoiSikos, very likely an alien).
irtrr

avTov).

Just

how this

is

before dentals, that


7.

But

aw,

arose

Trot

the most plausible

is

uncertain.

ttoti

became

^vv, as in

^vv.

Cypr. v

= eTrl,

e.g.

wot

through

Homer,

Ion. ^vvo'i fromi *^w-to'?.

8.

Of the various suggestions

perhaps, since with but few exceptions


loss of

offered,

occurs only

t by dissimilation.

in early Attic, elsewhere avv.

Cypr. vyyep^o';

Tv%a

iroi'

= evrt

rvy^r),

Probably cognate with Skt. ud, Engl, out

avWa^'i] (Hesych.).

ix^pov

= eTriy^eipov.
= Skt. ut-

(cf. va--Tepo<;

There are traces of the same prefix in a few Ehodian and


Boeotian proper names.
taras).

Peculiarities in

136.

Dative instead of the usual genitive construction in

1.

Arcado-Cyprian.
^ai.

wepl

2)

Meaning and Construction

e'|.

Toir-vl,

i\evdepiai.

1) airv.

Arc. airv rat

Arc. e? rol epyoi, Cypr.

Cypr. irepl TratSC

5) viro.

(sc. a/iepai),

e'^

4) virep.

tm

^ai.

Cypr.

airii

3) irepL

Arc. vTrep rat

rai

Arc.

ra<i Tro'Xto?

Arc. irdvToov tS>v yeyovorcov evyvfo/Movav inrp

INFLECTION

136]

ral

iroXi.

6) irapd.

Arc. irapa rai ISiai ir6\i,from their

ire rot? foiKidTai[<;].

7) TTeBd.

101

ivC

8)

e| with dative occurs also in Pamphylian


Boeot. irpoTqvi, formerly,

i.e.

own

city.

iirl ie[pofivdfjLocri To]t?.


;

with dative in

-n-po

irpo rai-vi (sc. ajxepai.

xnrirpo ray, sc. afiepa<;, just previously, no. 28.43,

Cf. Thess.

and Boeot.

iv rdv,

sc. a/iepav, until, no. 43.49).

This growth, at the expense of the genitive, of the dative (locative)


which in the case of most of the above-mentioned prepositions
was also an inherited one (cf. irepi, wro, etc. with dative), and its extension
even to airv and ii, was probably furthered by the influence- of the most
a.

construction,

frequent locative construction, that with iv


2.

Trapd

in the

at, with,

(tv).

with accusative instead

Northwest Greek

This

of dative.

found

is

and Boeotian,

dialects, including Thessalian

and in Megarian and Laconian, e.g. Thess. rot m-ap' afifie TroXirevfiaToi; (no. 28
corresponding to rov irap'vfilv iroXnevfiaTO'; of Philip's
;

letter in the KOLvrj), Boeot.

pajxeivdrm he

Much

^ikw

crovyypacfyo'; Trap Yi<j>idSav,

Delph.

irapa M.vaa-t^evov, El. -rreTroXiTevKoip Trap'

iraap-e.

and rarely seen in dialect inscriptions, is the more genbetween the dative with verbs of rest and the accusative with
verbs of motion, and the final supremacy of the accusative construction, as
a.

later,

eral confusion

ifuivav
3.

as tov mkov-

TTjOo'?,

in Elean.

by,

in the sight

of,

with accusative instead of genitive,

on

ofioaavTei irbir) rov Oeov tov 'OXwinov,

Ka(X)\iTepo<; ey^ev 7ro(T) rov

Oedv,^ peppev

airov

he shall he jvdged guilty in the eyes of Zeus.

Sokcoi

rov Aia,

7ro(T)

In a later Elean

same idea is expressed by (jtevyerco irbir) tm Aiop


rmXvp.irim atfiarop, where both the genitive construction and the

inscription the

use of ^evyco instead of the genuine Elean peppco are concessions


to Attic usage.
7r/>o'?,

4. El.
5.

This Elean use

in relation
dvev^

to,

= dvev, with

Kard, according

Locrian.

Kaff cSv

tSs ffwy/SoXas.

is

only a step removed from that of

with accusative.

to,

= kuB'

ace. instead of gen., as dvev;

^oXdv.

with genitive instead of accusative, in


d,

Ka(T)

rovSe

= Kara

rdSe,

Ka(T)

GKEEK DIALECTS

102

eVtwith the dative

6.

[l36

This

of the deceased person, in epitaphs.

occurs in a few early epitaphs in Lesbian, Phocian, and Locrian, but


is

common

especially

in Boeotian, e.g. eTrt YheKaSdfioe

In most dialects the

/Sae.

name

efii, iirl

'0t-

of the deceased appears in

the

nominative.
7.

In most dialects afi^i

afji,^i.

afi^i nva,

which survives

and Ehodian

contend about a slave,

avirl

awl

SdXoi fioXidvn, if they

rhv halaiv, about

the division.

Besides the usual meanings instead of, in return for,

avTi.

8.

In Cretan

concerning (as in Homer),

aboul^,

with dative' or accusative, e.g. at Se k

Argive

also in Attic prose, it occurs in

in Argive also once in purely local force.

used freely in the meaning

it is

In the phrase ol

is obsolete.

which are found everywhere, the following uses are worthy

of note.

The original local meaning, before, in front of, occurs in an


Attic and in a Delphian inscription. So frequently Cret. avn fiai1)

Tvpov, in the presence of witnesses.

From

2)

return for, with verbs of buying, selling,

etc.,

the use of uvtI, in

arose a freer distribu-

tive use, e.g. Arc. rpi? o^eko'i o<^\ev avrl peKaerTav, one shall

fine of three obols

51

A 45)

Kara

is

for each (wagon).

So Delph. avrl

probably /or each year, yearly

(cf.

pay a

/rereos

Hesych. avrl

(no.

fifjya-

though generally taken as in course of the yeair, in the


same year (cf. Hesych. avTerow rov aiiTov eVon?. AaKtoves) and
firjva),

explained otherwise.

Coan avrl

vvKr6<;

though without distributive force

night,
origin.

Cf.

Hesych. av6'

^/lepa^

Si

(no.
is

101.43), during the

perhaps of the same

o\r)<; ttJ? rffjJpa's.

An

extension of the regular use of ef (or aTro) with the


genitive to denote material and source, is seen in certain expres9.

e|.

sions of

amount

or value, e.g. Att. a-recfxivcoi airb

with a crown worth 1000 drachmas,

\ov

fxev

;)j;t\itBi/

Bpax/J-oiv,

Ion. (7Te<\>avS)aai M.avcraw-

eK SapeiKMV irevTijKOVTa, 'Aprefiia-irjv Se

iic

TpirjKovra

SapeiKwv, crown Maussolus with a crown worth fifty darics, Artemisia with one worth thirty,
Att. KpiO&v
n-padeiaayv iic

Tpi&v hpaxp-SiV Tov

(lehifivov eicaaTov, barley

drachmas a medimnus, and even more

purchased at three

freely

Ther. irupSiv iy

INFLECTION

138j
fiehijxvov

kuI tcptO&v iy Svo

103

a medimnus of wheat and

jMehitivrnv,

two of barley.

Noteworthy combinations are Thess.

10.

Arc. eTre? from iiri and e?

and on

= e^

vir-irpo,

(cf. uTre'/c, Ste/e,

just before, and

irapeK),

meaning for

occasion of, hence emphatic just for, in particular for.

VERBS
Augment and

Most

137.

peculiarities are

Reduplication

such as are due to divergence in the

form of contraction where a consonant has been


cf.

the treatment of consonant groups, as Att.

25), or in

Phoc.
after

lost (elj^oii or

from *(7ea\d^a (76 h), but Ion., Epid. XeXd^rjKa


with original initial X, Arg. fefpifjJva, but Att.-

elXd(j)ei,

XeXonra

etc.

lon. etpjjKa after forms like eiXr](}>a (55 a), Cret., El. eypa/Mfiai
ypa/ji/jLai,

Note

like

ri')(ov,

elXT]j>a,

Ion. eKTijiiai = Att. KeKTqfiai,

also Cret. i^rypaiMftai,

= <ye-

eyvcoKa in all dialects.

with which compare

rjOeXov, ^^ovXofirjv.

Active Personal Endings

138.
-si) is

1.

Second singular. The original primary ending

preserved ia Hom., Syrac.

so perhaps regularly in

intervocahc

Greek

West Greek

second singular

of the

o-

dialects,

icra-L,

are, naturally,

sg.

and

dialects (inscriptional examples

very

rare),

being due to the analogy of iaai.

where 3

-si (Skt.

also in Epid. avvTiOrjai,

TiOrjn became

the retention of

But

in the East

TiOrja-i (61.1), Ti0rj<; etc.,

with secondary ending, were employed.

Thematic

^e/aet?

etc.

in nearly all dialects, but there

evidence of ^epe?, probably due to the secondary

ec^epe?, in

is

some

Cyprian

and Doric (Theocr. and gram.).


Also -ada, starting from olada, rjaOa, with the original perfect
ending -6a, is widely used in literary Lesbian and Doric, as in
(glosses of Hesych.)

Homer
2.

(Ti9r}a-&a,

^dXoicrOa,

etc.).

The original primary ending -ti (Skt. -ti) is


Tidrjn, BiBcori, etc., whence East Greek
Greek
"West

Third singular.

preserved in

TidTjcri, SiScoa-i.

See

61.1.

Thematic

(jjepei etc.

in all dialects.

GEEEK DIALECTS

104
3.

First plural.

West Greek

-/^e?

mos), originally the primary ending,


the secondary ending.
;

4.

See 223

[l38

-mus from

Skt. -mas, Lat.

(of.

East Greek

originally

-jxev,

a.

Third plural, primary. "West Greek -vtl (Skt.

-^ti),

East Greek

Thus, in thematic verbs, West Greek ^epovn, Boeot., Thess.

-(v)(ii.

(pepovdi (139.2), Arc. tpepovai, Lesb. (and Chian)


^epova-i.

See

So also in

whence

<f>epoiai,,

Att.-Ion.

61.1, 77.3.

jtw-verbs.

Att.-Ion.

West Greek ivn,

elcri, <f)aa-i,

(fiavri,

riOevri, SiSovn,

Ion. (with the accent of contract forms,

But Att. ndedai, SiSoacri, etc. represent


formation, with -avri (^-dat) added to the final vowel of the

see 160) jidelcri, SiSovcrt.

a later

stem, as also iu Boeot. perf. SeSoavdi.

Of. Boeot.

e6eav

etc.,

below,

5.

-an (-nti, Skt. -ati in


redupl. pres. dadhati), whence also -dcri. Thus Phoc. lepTjTevican,
Delph. KaOea-Tciicari, Hom. 7re(j>VKacn, Arc. [po](f)\eaa-i. But in most
In the perfect the earliest type

dialects this is replaced

by

is

that in

-avri, as Cret. icrraXKaPTi, Att.-Ion. -dcri.

Late inscriptions of various dialects have also the secondary -av,


as Cret. earaXKav.
5.

Third plural, secondary,

in the /ii-forms, as eOev, ehov,


as in

Homer. Likewise

Hom.

e^epov

etc.

So also
dialects,

-v

-nt) in

pass. eKvffev, iXeyev (from -i]vt,

but also sometimes

lar shortening),

sons), as

(from

which are retained in most


-tjv

(with

rj

with regu-

from the other per-

pLidvdtjv, Cret., Epir. SieX^yrjV, Corcyr. ia-re<f>avd>0rjv,

Delph. aireKvdrjv.

But Attic-Ionic has edeaav, eSoaav,


taken over from the

o--aorist,

with

-a-av

dialects

have

iXvdrja-av, etc.,

as also ^a-av,

where most

^v

(163.3,4). Similarly -v is replaced by -av (also mainly after aorist


forms like eXva-av or fjviKav) in Boeot. avedeav, avedeiav, avidiav
(9.2),

irapeiav (irapricrav), Cypr. KUTeOtjav (from KUTeOeav,

cf. 9.3)

and in Thessalian by -ev (an inherited ending seen in Hom. ^ev, or


perhaps from -av, cf. 7, 27), as eSowaefi {eBcoKav), ovedeUaev (beside
oV^deiKav), and, with diphthongal ai

from ae, aveOeiKaiv, erd^aiv {ci.


probably due to Thessalian influence, in a Delphian inscripalso once even in a thematic form, ivefavia-aoev = iveAdvi^ov,

iScoKaiv,
tion),

INFLECTION

189]
In the

a.

koivt^

the ending -aav spread even to thematic forms and to the

and such forms occur in

optative,

Boeot. iXA^ocrav, Delph.

late inscriptions of various dialects, e.g.

)(oiaav.

Third dual, secondary.

6.

Att.-Ion.

Boeot. avederav, Epid. avedyjicdTav.

elsewhere

-fi-qv,

105

-rrjv,

elsewhere -rdv,

e.g.

Similarly 1 sg. mid. Att.-Ion.

-/^ai/.

Middle Personal Endings


139.

1.

Third smgular.
Arcadian has

-ret (27).

Primary

due to the influence

able),

-rat,

pi. -vtol is to

Secondary
2.

-to,

(26),

Thess.

but not quot-

Cf. also 2 sg. Ketoi

change

= Keia-ai,

be assumed, though not quotable.

Cypr. -tv

(22).

Third plural. Usually

in the perfect

-jr)

of the secondary -to (before its

to -TV), e.g. jevrjToi, Se'aroi, ^oXeroi.

and 3

Boeot.

-rot (perhaps also Cyprian,

But

-vrai, -vto.

and pluperfect

also -arai, -aro, mostly

after a consonant (e.g.

but also after a vowel in Boeotian

see below)

(-adt],

yeypd(j)aTai),

and

so regu-

larly in Ionic in the perfect (e.g. Horn. ^e^X'^arai, later elpearai,

contracted elpijTai), pluperfect, and optative, and even in untlie-

matic presents and imperfects,


arai, to

SvvrjfjLi,

e. g.

TcOearat and also Swearat, lapve-

KLpvrj/M (with suffix vd,

weak

va), after the

analogy

of Tidearai to riOrfixL.

Boeotian and Thessalian have d in these endings, doubtless owing


to the influence of -fieOa, -ade, and from these the 6
to the third plural active endings.

Middle.

Boeot. ahitciwvOr)

Thus

{-vrai),

(-arai), i-n-oieiaavOo, a7reypd-s{ravdo, etc.

and
et

i<f)dvypevdeiv

from

ing

cf.

at (27)

= etpatpovprai,

and an added

was extended

ia-TpoTeva6ij,

fiefuadwadr}

Thess. iyevovOo, eiXovOo,

^iWovvQeiv

= ^ovKwvrai,

with

v (perhaps the active secondary end-

the double pluralization in the imv. -vrmv).

Active.

Indicative and subjunctive. Boeot. iwvQi, Sdcovdi,

Soavdi, etc.

Thess. KaToiKeiovvOt (pres. subj., 159).

Boeot. evOco, avypa'^dvOm, etc.

near the Boeotian frontier,

a-n-oSe-

Imperative.

So also from the Phocian

$e'Ka)v6i, la-rdvOm, la-rdvOiov,

Stiris,

GREEK DIALECTS

106

[140

Imperative Active and Middle


140.

In the third plural the dialects exhibit the following types.

Observe the divergence between the active, where

a and 4 a are

the usual types, and the middle, where the corresponding 3 & and
4 6 are rare, the usual type being 2

The same form

1.

2.

Rare, and only in the

Corcyr. KpiveaQio, iTriSavei^ea-0(o, Calymn. eTna-afiaivea-da),

middle.

Coan

h.

as the third singular.

aipeia-Oa, Thas. Oecrda.

formed from the third singular by the addition

a. -Tcov,

of

Homer, in Ionic only. A


corresponding thematic (f>epTa)y is unknown.
l. -<t6(ov.
^epea-dojv etc., the usual form in most dialects. Lesb.

the secondary ending

i-TTifieXeadov
3.

(cf.

-vrov,

formed

a. -VToo,

-v.

earcov, as in

5).

after the

TiBeuTco, etc. in Arcadian,

analogy of 3

pi. indie,

Boeotian (-vdm,

139.2),

-vn.

^epovrco,

and the Doric

dialects except Cretan.

Note. Later Doric inscriptions often show the Att. -vt<ov beside -vt<o.
Conversely the later Delphian inscriptions often have the general Doric -vtw
beside -vtwv, which is the form of the earliest Delphian.
Epid. (pepoaOo, Lac. aveKoaOo,

and so probably here


Coan iireXavra). For
-oaOa from -ovadco, see 77.2. But Corcyr. iKXoyi^ova-dm comes from
-ovffdco of later origin and with later treatment of va (77.3,
78), and
6.

-(v)a9(o.

(rather than under 1) Heracl. eTreKaaOw

it is

4.

and

possible to read (f>ep6a6o


a.
3.

etc.,

(cf.

likewise early Att. -oadrnv (4

6).

-VTav, with double pluralization, a combination of types 2


(fjepovrav, nOevreov, etc., as in

Homer, in

Attic-Ionic, Del-

phian, Elean, Cretan.


b.

5.

-(v)a0c0v.

Early Att. eiritieKoadfov

-VTOV, -(tOov, probably

etc.. El.

from -vrwv

after the analogy of 3 pi. e^sepov etc.

ti/mo^tov.

(4 a), -adiuv (2 &)

This

is

Lesbian, e.g. (fiepovrov, KoXevrov, iinp.e\e(76ov,


(e.g.

ohv

= ovTov),

influence, in

Ehodian

and

also appears, probably

an inscription

dialect,

with -ov

the regular type in

and Pamphylian

through Pamphylian

which is otherwise in the


and in a Ehodian decree at Seleucia in Cilicia.
of Phaselis

142]

INFLECTION

6.

-Taa-av, -adwa-av, with -v replaced

107

by -aav (ef. 138.5). Att.


^epeToxrdv (more rarely <f>p6vTeoaav), iTniMeXeaOaxrav,
after about 300 b.c., hence in later iascriptions
of various

ea-Tioaav,
etc.,

dialects.

Future and Aorist


141. Doric future " in -aea.

Attic-Ionic

(Hom.

fined to the

ea-arelrai,

West Greek

Except

for a

Att. irXeva-ovfiai,

few middle forms in


this type is con-

etc.),

dialects (examples in

most

of the Doric

and in Delphian in Locrian and Elean no futures occur).


Thus, from the very numerous examples, Delph. rayevaeeo, KXeyjreco,
dialects

Cret. atr&xrim

from

(i

e,

^oaOrjaiovri, TeiaTJrai, irpa-

9), 7rpa^iofj,ev,

Epid. ^XayjreiaSai, Coan, Cnid.

^rJTai,

Ehod.

Troirja-elrai,

uttoSo)-

aevvTi, Thpr. OrjaeovTi, -n-pa^ovvn (with Att. ov, as often in the

Doric KOLvq, see 278).

Heraclean has eaarfTai, ipja^rjrai,

etc.

ambiguous, but probably to be accented

(the active forms are

iroiTjael etc.),

but in the

third plural cnrd^ovTL, ea-a-ovrai, apparently of the ordinary type,


since

In

from the -a-eco type we should expect -aiovn

all

late,

and

clearly

due to

142. I in the future

avavyeXiovn).

kolvi] influence.

and

I, which is regular in the


-fft), which regularly have

'^piracre

aorist of verbs in

era-, a-

(SiKacrco, iSi/cacra), is

Homer

beside rjpira^e) and Hesiod

phenomenon

it is

The extension

-^<b.

of

case of guttural stems, to other verbs in

isolated examples even in

it is

(cf.

other Doric dialects, however, forms of the ordinary type are

(TroXe/xi^Ofjkev,
(^7}fii^(oa-i).

characteristic of the

But

West Greek

seen in some

as,

conversely,
as a general

dialects,

where

almost universal except in Argolic, together with Boeotian

(in

part), Thessalian, and Arcadian. Thus, from the countless examples,


Cret. Si/caKo-ei, Ehod. Sioopi^avro, Coan ipyd^aa-Oai, Ther. Seiirvi|ev,

Meg.

erepfiovt^av, Corcyr. cnroXoyi'^aa-Oai, Heracl. irepfia^av

(f in forms of 12 verbs, but also

enced by

eacoa-a

from

o-cow),

icaTead)ia-afie<!,

probably influ-

El. -n-oTapfio^aiTO, (Locr. i|ra'<^t|^ts,

see below, a), Delph. ayMvi'^aro, Thess. facj)i^a<70iv, Are, Trape-

GEEEK DIALECTS

108

in Argolic the f formation is avoided

But

when

a guttural pre-

Arg. iSUaaaav, ipydcra-avTO, Epid. ipydaaadai, ava^io'-

ceded, e.g.
crai,

[142

beside aywvi^aer9ai,, 7rpoae(f>a.vi^.

Boeotian has, from different localities, both f and tt


82), e.g. iKO/ii^d/ieffa, eireaKeva^e, ifiept^e, iapetd^acra,

similar extension of guttural stems

forms, e.g. Heracl.

iroTt/cXotyo)

Theocr.), KXaiKToi, Lac. KcKe^

ir/joo-KXa'o),
lit.

KeA,i;s,

6pvi6o<s, Cret. \pa.<j)iyixa (also ypd.i^ip.iia)

and especially the frequent abstracts in


(89.1), Corcyr.

^a.<fiiiii<;

143.

(TO-

X'^ipiii^,

and

in the future

an Aeolic

ending in
a-dfjLTjV

cr

-|ts

-o-ts,

as Aetol.

\pd.<t>iiK,

Locr.

ending in a short

of era

from ereX^cr-aa to iKdXe-trcra

Lesb. [KaXejaa-drcoa-av, op.oaeravre'i,

Other dialects

or a dental, as

(Cret. tt), later

Dor. opvti, gen. opvix''' = opvK,


Lesb. ij/d<j>iyyi = i/fi/<^t8t,

tj/rj<f>icriMi,

aorist of verb-stems

characteristic.

Boeot. crovvKa\ecTcravTe<;.

is sometimes seen in other


ArgoL, Mess. kXiu^ (as in

Cret. ^ijjouiti^is.

The Homeric extension

vowel.
is

Att. a;

Kara(TKvdrr7], iy}ra(})iTTaro, aTroXoryiTTatTTrj.

fievoi,

a.

(=

and KOfurrd-

ireXeaaa or

with one a

may have

era-

from stems

iSiKacrcra (Boeot. tt), iSatr-

(82, 83),

but always eKaXeaa,

wfiotra.

144. Aorist in -a.

e%ea
to

(e.g. Ion. av<y')(eaL, no. 2).

many
a.

ehra and r]ve^Ka,

Arc. part, airv^oat

dialects.

other verbs,

TJveiKa, or IjviKa in

various

aTroSow, Lesb. e^eva, elsewhere

In

late times this

type

is

extended

e.g. rfxOa, 'yevdfjLevo's.

ijvaKa or ^vLKa, not ^veyKa, is the

form of most

dialects except Attic,

e.g. Ion. ijveiKa (Horn., Hdt.), ivaKavTwv (Chios), also i^ivixO^i (Ceos);

Lesb., Delph., Argol., Calymn.

and 3 pi. eiVi^av, the


usual aorist forms in -crav.
not

ei)

145.

^vi/ca,

Boeot. ivevixOaa

latter

showing a fusion of ^vtKav with the

Future passive with active endings.

(i

probably original,

Ehod.

e-Tnp.eX-qOr]-

aevvTi, airoa-TaXrjcrel, Ther. crvvw^^OrjaovvTC, Cret. avaypaefyr/crlel],

and ^avTjaelv, Seix^rjaovvTi in Archimedes. Although the

inscrip-

tional examples are, as yet, confined to the Doric islands, it is not

improbable that thig wEis a general Doric or


teristic,

West Greek

charac-

INFLECTION

147]

109

Perfect

146.

This

K-perfect.

1.

But there

are

usual for vowel stems in

is

some few forms without

k,

gular, like Horn, fie^daa-i beside ySe/3j;a9,


etc.,

e.g. Boeot. airohehoavdi,

fefVKOvofieiovTtov

Arc. [fo]<^\eao-i,

all dialects.

outside the indicative sinKeK/jLTjax:

beside KeKfir)Ka^,

Kara^e^deov, SeSwcoar)

= SeSwKvlai,

oikovquijkotcov, 7reTriTv6vT<Tai, TreTTOiovTeia-a-i,

[po](j)\eoi.

(but part. fo^\eo'o-t).

The gradual extension of the K-type to other than original vowel


stems is by no means confined to Attic (cf. e.g. Arc. itpOopKw^,
Att. e<f>6apKa but also e<f>6opa),

and some verbs which usually have


show dialectic forms with a vowel stem and .
So dvSdvco, Xafi^dveo, with usual edSa, eiXrj<f>a (eiXacjia), but Locr.

the strong perfect

fSfaSeKora, Ion., Epid. XeXd^rjKa (also in Archim.), formed from


the vowel stem which

XV"^!

is

many

present in

Usual

fj^fidOijKa, etc.).

e\ip\.vda,

aeiXOeiKe (part. aTretXdeiovre's without


2.

the aspirate
3.

is

due ultimately to the


la-acTi after

Stecr-

k, see above).

it is

in various dialects.

unknown

Even

in Attic-Ionic,

pi. indie. <ye^pd-\jraTai,

with

a-

probably

influence of the 3 pi. aor. -crav (cf. 3 pi. perf.

the analogy of 3

la-a/ii.),

aOdxrarai

rerv-

seen in Arg. Se'So);^[e]. Cf. iKeKparepixv H-^'' in Sophron.

In Heraclean occur 3

also Dor.

(cf.

Examples occur

Aspirated perfect.

in the case of the K-perfect, where

verbs in -ava

but rjXdrjKa in Boeot.

and 3

Or formed

pi.

pluperf. laav

from

pi. subj. /jLefJ^iadmacovTai (to

*tS-a-av,

an

to the fut. perf. fieniaOoiaofiai

whence

indie. *iJLeiM?).

4. Dialectic variations in the grade of the root (49) are not infre-

quent, e.g. Cret. dfiTreXri\ev6ev

Xov0a), Heracl. eppriyela

from

iTifii

(cf.

For

a/j.cjieXri'KvOevai

= Att. ippcoryvla.

Dor.

etc.

(Hom.

eiXij-

:= Att. eka

eppcoya from priyvvfjn), also, in the middle, Heracl.

avhemaOai, Arc. a^emcrdoi)


5.

= Att.

(so

aviwvTai Hdt., d<^ecovTai N.T.).

the reduplication, see 137

for the third plural ending,

see 138.4.

Thematic forms in the perfect. Aside from the subjunctive,


optative, and imperative, which regularly have thematic inflection,
147.

Ve

find

GREEK DIALECTS

110
Indicative.

1.

[l47

inflected like presents are often

Forms

employed

the Sicilian Doric writers, e.g. Theocr. SeSoLKco, -jreTrovdeK, Tre^v-

by

e.g. TTi/j,dKi, yeyovei,

Cnidus and Carpathus,

of

some iascriptions
ia-Taicei, and occa-

Epich. yeyddei, Archim. reTfiaKei, and occur in

Kei,

sionally elsewhere, as Phoc. elXd^ei.

Forms

Infinitive.

2.

are found in Lesbian

in -eiv

and

instead of -evai

in

Delph. airoTeTeiKev,

Te6ea>prjK7)v,

TeBvaKTjV,

{-ev, -rjv)

some "West Greek

{-efiev etc.)

dialects, e.g. Lesb.

Cret. ainrekifkevOev,

Calymn., Nisyr. BeSwKev, Ehod. jeyoveiv, Epid. XeXa^'^iceiv.

So Pin-

dar KexXdSeiv, Theocr. SeSvKeLv.


Cf. also Heracl. ire^vTevKruiev etc.

from

-e-e/iev

instead of simply

-ejjLev.

Participle.

3.

The thematic

inflection is regular in the Aeolic

dialects; e.g. Lesb. KaTeKrjXvdovTO^,

KaTearaKovrcov, Thess. ire^ei-

pdK0VTe<;, iTreardKovra, Boeot. pepvicovofietovTcop, BeScocoa-r] (146.1).


Cf.

Hom.

Ke/cXijyovTe'i.

There are some feminine forms in -ova-a in later Delphian (e. g. Se8ci>and elsewhere, but these represent a more restricted phenomenon,
quite independent of the preceding. Cf also Hom. lo-raSo-a, Att. inrrSxra.
a.

Kou'cras),

148.

The

participle in its regular (unthematic)

the feminine in -via.

and elsewhere,

e.g.

But forms in

-eta are

form usually has

found in

late Attic

Heracl. ipprj'yela, Ther. ia-TaKeia.


Subjunctive

149.

The subjunctive

of

everywhere V/^^ as in Attic.


in

-7),

not

Cyprian,
o-e?).

So uniformly, from the earliest times, in Arcado-

-r]i.

e.g.

Arc. Xeye,

Lesbian has earlier

ex>],
-rji,

century on nearly always


fourth century), but
Tre/xird (a

thematic forms. The mood-sign is


But the third singular sometimes ends

r],

15),

Cypr. \vcre, i^opv^e (also 2

but from the

-??,

e.g. i^eXOrji etc.

ififievr] etc.

Epid.

TreTTj,

in no. 21

in no. 22 (324 B.C.).

Coan

sg. feC-

last quarter of the fourth


(first

half

Cf. also El. e/e-

Xddrj.

view that these forms are not equivalent to the


Attic, but represent the more original formation, in which the endings
were added directly to the rj (ixV'^' ^X'I'(j))> without the t, which is due to
a.

It is the prevailing

INFLECTION

161]

111

the analogy of the indicative forms in -?, -a. But this is far from certain,
as it is quite possible to view the --q as coming from ->ji. Even in the case
of the Aro.-Cypr. forms there
tinctly

more probable that the

is

nothing decisive against

later

spite of the fact that in no. 22 the

150.

The subjunctive

unthematic formations

Lesbian
i

is still

-r]

Horn,

and

it is dis-

earlier

-Tjt

(in

written in the datives). See 38.

of the o--aorist.

(of.

this,

comes from the

i'o/xei'

As

in the case of other

to tfj^v), this

was

originally

%, and only later came to follow the


long-vowel type in '^. Aside from Hom. ^rjaofiev

a short-vowel subjunctive in

more common
etc.,

short-vowel forms are found in East Ionic, Lesbian, Cretan, and

occasionally elsewhere.

East Ion.

ironfjaei,

Kard^ei, eKKoyjrei (no.

Teos), airoKpvip-ei, iirdpei, i^ofioaei (likewise,

from the

KaTeCirei) beside fieOeXriL etc., further KaraKTeivoaiv


-too-t),

Cliian irprj^ouTiv (with Lesb.

otcr

from ova,

extension to the thematic aorist) reKoiat.

(i.e.

77.3).

3,

a-aorist,

-ova-i,

not

Lesb. (with

Cret. heUaei, ahucqaei

beside aireXdr]!, etc. (hence the forms of the Law-Code are to be

transcribed

-ei

not

-ei),

beside Xaxcovn, etc.

iKa-avvrjcreTai beside einhiriTai, o/ioaovTi

Cf. also

Coan viroKvfei, Astyp.

So'^et.

151. The subjunctive of unthematic vowel stems. There are two


distinct types.

The endings

1.

are added directly to the long vowel of the stem.

With very few exceptions,


of

which

this type is

found only in those forms

the correspondiug indicative has the short vowel.

So espe-

vvvavn, beside
cially in the middle, e.g. Cret. Swafiai, vvvarai,
Searot (cf.
t'o-raTow,
indie.
indie, hvvdnai. Arc. eirurvviaTaTai beside
d, Cret. ireirdSearo), but also, when the indicative also has

Hom.

Further, in the active. Mess, rid-nvri beside


fiv-rai = <S<n, Delph.
indie. TiOevTi (hence also, beside evrl, Mess,
rai, Ther. -ireirparai.

^^j

^ ^)_

rfpdcjirjvn beside indie. eypa<pev, etc.,

but also Calymn.

e[y]pvai to indie. Epid. i^eppvd.


arose also an
After the relation of lo-Tarat to icrrdTai there
^(oXevaa beside indie, ad, e.g. Cret. Trapevadrai, Arc.

aor. subj.

{59.S),<f>vyaSevavTL (no. 60),


advrai, likewise in Elean, with loss of a
TTotTjarat (no. 61).

GREEK DIALECTS

112

[l5l

stem
2. The usual type is that in which the long vowel of the
was followed by the short vowel subjunctive sign %, this being
Further change
(cf. 150).
generally replaced by the more usual

due to the shortening, in the majority of


stem vowel before the following vowel (43).

is

fiev),

hmojiev,

dijrj'i,

hanj,

etc.

Hom.

0'^ofiev (deio-

a-TroScoei,

Delph.

Bmi],

(from *<j}acovn), Thess. Svvaerai, but

^avn

avnirpiariTai, Heracl.

with shortening Ion.

Boeot. /cadia-rdei,

long

dialects, of the

Att. dcofiev, Cret. evdicofiev

0ea>fji,ev,

Hom.

Similarly in the aorist passive,

(i

from

Bafi-qrf;, ixur^rirp,

e),

Boeot.

Kovpcodeiei, iirifj^Xeideiei, KaraaKevaadeiet, ivevix^eiei, Arc. KUKpiXvOea/jiev, Att. \v6ebfiev, Cret. ireiOdi-

with shortening Ion.

6ee, but

covTi (cf. ivdicofiev),

Heracl. ijfrjXrjdicovTi, Ehod. ipjaa-Oecovn, etc.

Optative
152.

2.

by

-v after the

Unthematic.

is

pi.

analogy of

The extension

Ionic and late Attic,

due

Late Delph. 3

Thematic.

1.

-ev replaced

of

6e\oiv, Trapey^^oiv,

etc.,

with

e<j)pov etc.
irj

to the plural, as often in

seen in late Delph. airohihoirjaav, doubtless

to KOLvrj influence.

3.

Unthematic type in contract verbs.

4.

(T-aorist.

in Attic-Ionic,

a from the

The
is

so-called

See 157

Aeohc type in

h.

-eia<;, -ete, -eiav,

common

seen in El. KaTiapavcreie, later aSeaXrcohaie with

But most

iudicative (as in the usual -ai).

at throughout, as Cret. vcKdaai, Locr. avKdaai, Arc.

dialects

have

(jtffepai, etc.

Infinitive

153.
1.

The

infinitive of

-eiv or -r]v,

thematic forms.

Att.

according as the dialect has

et

(j>epei,v.

or

r)

from

So Att.-Ion., Thess. (Thessaliotis), Locr., Corinth., Ehod.


Lesb., EL, Lac.
.

2.

-ev.

(or -ev

?),

e (25).

-eiv,

but

-r)v.

So in Arcadian (but
Delphian, and

Cret., Ther.,

-|-

Coan,

etc.).

many

--qv

at Lycosura,

of the

near

Elis),

Cyprian

Doric dialects (Heracl., ArgoL,

INFLECTION

155]
3.

Some

of these dialects

have

-ei;

113

even from verbs in

Cret. Ko<7iJ,ev, ivpocicev (but also KaXrjv,


fjLoXfjv

tyna), Ther. Stot/ceV,

The

154.
1.

Coan

infinitive of

Calymn. /xaprvpev, Arg.

Seivve'v,

-rrcoXev.

vmthematic forms. Att. ehai.

So in Attic-Ionic and Arcado-Cyprian,

-vai.

elvai, Bovvai,

-eco, e.g.

both types at Gor-

Cypr. Sofevai (probably -fevai, like

e.g. Att.-Ion.

-/j^evai),

KVfiepevai,

Arc. ^vai.
2.

So in Lesbian, as in Homer,

-fievai.

e.g. ep-nevai,

deiievai,

Bofievai.
3.

Sofiev etc. in Thessalian, Boeotian,

-fiev.

West Greek
4. -firjv.

Cret.

5.

So/Meiv etc. (probably

-fieiv.

colonies (Phaselis in
also at

Ehegium

formed from -/lev

vicinity (Carpathus, Telos)

PamphyHa

-/lev is

after the analogy

and the Ehodian

Gela and Agrigentum, in Sicily

and unthematic types

extended to thematic forms

(Pelasgiotis), as
e.g.

the

no. 100).

155. Interchange of thematic


1.

all

TjMvetc. (but also ^fiev; both types at Gortyna).

Ehodes and

of -eiv) in

and nearly

dialects.

sometimes in Homer

Boeot. ^epe/iev, Thess. vTrapxep'SV.

in

of infinitive.

Boeotian and Thessahan

(cf. el-n-efiev,

and

elirefievai),

Cf. also Cret. irpopeiirenev in

an early inscription of Lyttus.


2.

The

aorist passive infinitive,

which

is

regularly unthematic

foUows the thematic type in LesLesb. i'n-ifieX'^djjv, ovredrfv, etc.. Arc. Bvadev

(Att. ypatfxfjvai, Dor. ypa<j>fj/jLev),

bian and Arcadian,


or 6va6ev

(i.e.

-q-v

e.g.

with v added to the

complete assimilation to
3.

aor. pass, stem, or -ev

with

virdp'^fev etc.).

In Lesbian the present

infinitive of

vmthematic vowel stems,

as well as of the contract verbs, which otherwise follow the imthe-

matic type

(157),

ends in

-v,

not

-p-evai, e.g. SiScov,

koXtjv, crTe<f)dvcov, KareCprnv (KaOiepovv).

arav (but usually


4.

Once

Kepvav, op,vvv,

also aor. infin.

tt/jo-

-fievai, as Oefievai, Sofievai).

For the thematic forms

of the perfect infinitive in various

dialects see 147.2.


5.

For Euboean ndelv

etc.,

and even eh beside ehai,

see 160.

GEEEK DIALECTS

114

-ai (27),

Boeot.

-ffdr),

and

-arr)

Thessalian (Larissa) has

-adai.

with

tj

The

from

Arcado-Cyprian,
evepyevTea-cn,

(26).

= aO,

For ar

with

see 85.1.

contract verbs, sometimes

known

characteristic of Lesbian, Thessalian,

is

e.g. Lesb.

-ei

Verbs

Inflection of Contract

/tw-inflection of

the Aeolic inflection,

etc.,

after the analogy of other infinitives.

added

Unthematic
157.

and

SeSoadeiv, ea-aeadeiv, jreirelareiv, eXea-reiv,

ovypd-tp-eiv,

from

infinitives in -aai

The

156.

[1S6

as

and

KoKrjfu (Sappho), icaXevTov, KardypevTov,

[oJ/tovoei'Te?,

uTotpjjet?

Thess. e(j>dvypevdeiv

(78),

i^aipovmai,, evepyere; (78), crTpaTayevTO<; (but hvKopeovTO'i in no. 33,


Thessaliotis), Arc. iroievai, iroevrm, aSi-

and so perhaps always in

KVTa, Kveva-av, fuepodvre'; (78), ^a/Miovrco, KaTa(^povrivai, Cypr. kvTeKe(T<\)opevTe<s in

fiepevai.

an inscription

of

Cyrene

the pre-Doric (Achaean) element in Thera.

relic of

also quoted as Boeotian

/xt-forms are

by the grammarians, but the

show only the usual type

(crTpaTayiovTo<;

probajjly a

is

inscriptions

etc.).

The stem ends

a.

(though

also,

in a long vowel, which is regularly shortened before vt


with analogical tj, Lesb. KaToiKi^vTwv in contrast to usual eiiep-

and

ye\nta(TL etc.,

vpovorjvTcu, Siaira^ijvrat, like Att. St^ijyrot, in contrast to

Thess. <l>dvypv9av), but

is

otherwise retained throughout, e.g. Lesb. oinj-

Tot, koXtjcOcu,, eirt/teXijcrfla), tfufxiuxTOio, irotij/xevos, irpoa.ypyjfLfx.evto,

Xeu^epo(7^etv, Sieaatftfi/xa'a, Arc. dSuc^/iei/o;, ^ajuuxrOot (no. 18.28,

uncertain).

Thess.

aTre-

but reading

This type, then, follows the analogy of that seen in

I/SXtji/,

PX^To, j8\ij/tevos, hliripiai, etc. rather than that of TiOr/fu, nOtp-ev, rSipuarcK,
with vowel-gradation. But even the latter sometimes shows an extension
of the long vowel from the singular active, e.g. Lesb. [ir/3oaTt]6ij(r[flov],
SiSmrOaj., like

Horn.

TifliJ/xevoi, TtSij/icvos.

The more limited

6.

tract verbs, as in Att.

Ion.

a.vu>6(.ovq

enrol.

beside

extension of the /ux-inflection to the optative of con-

tjjiXoirp/,

irotoi,

pMrdoCr/v, etc., is occasionally

El. o-v\ate, hapjocnoux

(=

-oiij)

found elsewhere.

beside 8oKeoi,

iroieoi,

Cf. also the infinitives El. hapoaiSipiai, Cret. ^a/uB/ui/.

Middle Participle in -ei(i,Vos


158.
-eco,

The middle

as if

from

participle in -eifievo<! (or

-e-e/tevos

instead of -e-ofievo^,

-rjfj.evo';)

is

from verbs in

characteristic of the

INFLECTION

161]

Northwest Greek
Delph.

(or

from

ri)

TToiovvTai,

due to the analogy

is
e-e,

formed

forms which regularly had

dStKiJ/no/os, etc.

Type

Forms

of

in

Phoc.

Cf.

iroieivTai.

-ti<o,

do not belong here, but among

See 157

a.

<|>iXT\a>, o-T(|>av(0(o

-tow,

with the long-vowel stem

of the other

tenses extended to the present, are found in various dialects,


Lesh. aStKjjet, Thess. tcaroiKeiovvOi, (3
hov\a)T)i,

Phoc. KXapweiv, Boeot.

inscriptions of

and
25

pi. subj.),

hafiuoefiev,

Delph.

to Aetolian influ-

Calymn. a^im may be from

so belong here, but contraction

from

e.g.

o-Te^ai/tueToj,

haynmovTe; (only in late

Orchomenus, and probably due

Ther., Ehod., etc. crTe(f)ava)i,

ence).

ei

after voielaOe.

the other /u-forms of these dialects.

159.

Locr. ewaXei/ievo?,

e.g.

as the infinitive KaXelaOaL.

Lesb. koXij^evos, Arc.

a.

and Boeotian,

dialects

KaXet'/ievos, Troiei/ievoi, etc., Boeot. Set>ei/os, El. Ka{S)Sa\e-

This

fievo<}.

115

-taet,

-oei is also possible (cf.

a).

Transfer of
160.

The

|jli-

Verbs to the Type of Contract Verbs

transfer of certain forms of /it-verbs to the inflection

of contract verbs is

found in various

dialects, as Att. iriOei, iSiBov,

Delph. a.7roKadiardovTe<;, SiBeova-a, but

With

Tidel etc. in

and the Euboean

Homer and

is

most wide-spread in

Ionic.

Herodotus, compare SiSot (MUetus)

infinitives ridelv, BiSovv, KaOicrrav,

and even elv be-

side eivai.

Some Other Interchanges


161.

1.

Verbs in

-evto

in the Present

System

form their present in

-eiw in Elean, as

= (ftvyaSeveiv, beside aor. ^vyaSevavn, also (with a after


= KaGiepevav, beside aor. KaTiapavaeie, and \aKariapauov
a)
12
p,
So also fiaa-reieL =
rpailofievovj, Xarpeiofjievov = XaTpevofievov.
(jivyaSetTjv

fiac7Tevei, in

an

inscription of Dodona.

This represents the normal

phonetic development from -efuo, the usual

-evco

being due to the

influence of the other tenses.

show forms in -em in various dialects, but, with


few exceptions, only where the e is followed by an o-vowel, e.g..
2.

Verbs in

-aco

GREEK DIALECTS

116

aside from Kterary examples

(as

[i61

Horn, fievoiveov, Alcm.

ope'eov,

Theoer. opeOa-a), Delph. avXeoi, av\eovre<; (but (TvXrjTco), eTririfieovrey,

dcoeovrmv (Ait. 6dav, Locr.

and

TifiowTe'i

also

Aetol. viKe6vT0i<;, Ehod.

ffoiea-To),

(Agrig.), El. ive^eoi, Cret. (with

rt/jielv

9.4) i^iov, iirapioiievov, /jioiKtov (fiotxao)).

from

e,

According to some this

upon an actual phonetic change of ao to eo, the ao (w) in


Attic and elsewhere being a restoration due to leveling with the ae
forms. But we may have to do simply with a transfer to the -eco
type, which was mainly favored where it offered uncontracted forms
rests

was uncontracted until late, but ee contracted


TifiovPTe<; the ov is an Attic substitution for

(in

most

all

forms like Ehod.


a.

dialects eo

Conversely Delph. ^rjda/Mu for usual

)(pr]iofjuu

seen in Meg.

in

eo).

ffp-qtUrOia,

El. ^pelcrdai, Boeot. T^eteio-flat, Att., Ion., Heracl. ffpija-dai (Att. )(p3xTdiu is
late), Cret. ^TJdOai,

Delph.

^tifjitvo's

Lac, Locr. y^crrai,

Ion.

Among other, more individual,


may be mentioned

162.

p^pEai/uei/os,

Rhod. ^ev/icvoi,

(158).

cases of variation in the

present stem,
1.

= -00),

-1^(0

especially in

(Delph. BovXoco intrans.


pi^co,

= Att.

West Greek.

Boeot., Phoc. BovXi^a

BovXevco), Delph.,' Thess. aTreXeu^e-

Delph., Ehod., Mess., Cret. opKi^a (but also Ionic

and Attic

sometimes). Dor. a-Te^avi^co (ia-recjidvi^a Ar. Eq. 1225).


2.

-aco

= -oco.

Lesb. a^idw (a^udaei), Thess., Dor. icoivdm, Phoc.

= cricrjvovv,
dporpov.

(TKavev (also Att. a-Krjvav)


ap6(o.
3.

Cf. Cret.
-oco.

dparpov

Heracl. apdco (apdcrovn)

Sicil. a-Kevoco = aKevd^co,


= ireidco, Heracl. irptoa) (subj. irpiSa from *7rpLd>rji, 159)

Delph., Arg., Meg., Cret., Ther.,

Boeot. inOom

= Trpiai.
4.

jeXafii,

iXavvco, in

= yeXdco,

Coan

eXafu

eXdvrco, Arg. TroreXdro, Heracl. iireXdadm (140.3

h).

in Epid. SieyeXa, KaTayeXdfievo<!.

Locr. aireXdovTM, though

it

could be from eXdai, probably belongs

here.
5.

Boeot., Thess. yivvp,ai

6.

Aetol.,

= <yivop.ai, with transfer to the vw-class.


dyw, but mostly in the perfect, as

Lac, Cret. ayvem

Aetol. ajvrjKm^ etc. beside other tenses from ayco.

INFLECTION

163]

For Att.

7.

?^? from

rw,

(Boeot., Cret. Staw) as in

*^i^to

II7
most

etc.,

Homer. These

are

dialects have ^dom


from inherited by-forms

of the root.
Cret. \aya(a>, release (cf.

8.

Horn. Kepaico (also Delph.),


yd^to, aor.

To

9.

Xaydaaai
mvem

iXevcrio)

airoXdya^Ks, like

Tetft)

1.

ti'vco,

reiaco, eTeicra (cf

or

West Greek

attested for various


Epid.,

lit.

Doric), Boeotian

it
cf.

of

See

with

7](7T(o,

Tj

61.1, 77.3.

cf.

Ved. Skt. as)

is

dialects (Acaru., Corcyr., Delph.,

Arcadian, and Cyprian, and

Most

dialects

had ^v

is

^ev),

the old

(see above, 3),

literary Doric, Delphian,

and Lo-

Trapelav, Att.-Ion. rjcrav, see 138.5.

But

late

of rjv etc. after the analogy of e.g. o-Tj?Tto to ecrrqv.

El.

Third singular imperative, earm in most

5.

Osc-

Skt. dsan).

which are found in

For Boeot.

Skt. santi,

was replaced by ^v (Hom.

Third plural imperfect.

crian.

(cf.

^9 (from *^a--T,

(Tra/set?),

except Attic-Ionic, where

examples

whence Lesb.

76.

all dialects (for Locr. ev, see no. 55.9, note)

third plural (from *^aev,


4.

*evTL

evTi, Att.-Ion. elai.

West Greek

probably the form in

a-etVo), etc.).

substitution of e after the analogy of the

Third singular imperfect.

3.

cret'co,

*eV/ii^

See

^yiii'.

Third plural present indicative.

other forms,

fjTO),

elfii

to be

First singular present indicative.

Umbr. sew^), whence, with

(cf.

sometimes in Homer.

formed to

Thess. eVA"', elsewhere

2.

a).

= fitSca/it.
The Verb

163.

142

Cretan has the active forms

eirekevaaL, iireXeva-av, etc.

Bicoko), as

11. Cypr. Svpdvco, Scok(o

12. Arc.

but also Xa-

XP'ni^o-ri^i-'i,

(ovev, mvioi), sell, e-rreXevael, will bring

oia-co), aor.

10. Cret. Siofiai

e/M/Mi,

Xaya-pd';), aor. Xarydcai, like

Trevdo/iai, coveo/iai, iXevaofiai

Trev^w, inform,

Hesych.

(cf.

\7y7ftj,

aor. e/3a'(a-)a-at (cf. 143),

also with analogical

rj

but with retention

dialects.

of a:

Third plural imperative. Arg. evTw, Boeot. evOco (139.2), Cret.


evTcov, formed from 3 pi. indie, ivri. Also thematic iovTw, iovrwv,
6.

e.g. in

Delphian.

Ion. earcov, Attic ovtcov

and

late earaa-av.

GREEK DIALECTS

118

Present infinitive.

7.

and

(154)

also in the

The

[163

difference in the form of the ending

development

of

+ nasal

cr

(76) explains

great variety of forms, Attic-Ionic elvai (also Eub.


Lesb. efifievai, Thess.

rival,

or ^/iev (25),

Ehod.

eifieiv,

Present participle.

8.

elv,

"West Greek and Boeotian

e/xfiev,

most

dialects, Att. oov.

*6VTe? vsdth e as in evTi, above,

eaaia

(also

in some Doric writers

Arc,

Arg., Mess, eatrcra, Cret. Xarra,

satl,

el/iev

Cret. ^nr}v.

eo>v in

are also unthematic forms, as Heracl. eVre? (also quoted

man from

the

160), Arc.

cf.

2),

with the substitution or prefixing

from Ale-

fem. Lesb., Epid.

= ova (a

ladOa

But there

(all

of e after

eo-cra

Plato Crat. 401c),

from *aTia

= Skt.

the analogy of the

other forms).
a.

in

This unthematic feminine formation in -arta (from

some forms quoted by Hesychius, namely

(ycKaOd)
9.

iKovcra, lacrcra ('EiruMTcra)

Middle forms, as imperf.

jjrat at

10.

Delphi, 3

pi. subj.

avvreXeaOai

seen also

iovaa.

ijfiriv etc.,

are late.

Cf. 3 sg. subj.

^vrat at Andania.

In a Cretan inscription of Dreros

= ecrofiac,

-ni-ia) is

iKoxraa (dKacr(ra), Cret. peKadda

= avvea-eaOai.

(no.

113)

we

find reXo/iai

WORD-FORMATION
On the Form and Use

of Certain Suffixes

and Certain Peculiarities

of

Composition
164.
(this

1. -Tjto? 1

= Att. -eto9.

again in part from

Att.

-eio': is

-rjfio's, cf.

tained iQ various dialects,

in part derived from

Boeot. KapvKepio),

e.g. Ion. lep-qiov,

Delph.

which

lepijiov,

-r]io<!

is re-

Lesb.

IpiJLov, Ion., Cret. oIk^io';, Ion., Lesb., Cret. TrpvTavtjiov, Ion.,


Cret.

avSp7jio<;, Ion. ^aaiK'qio'i, tjtoiviKijta,

centuation of these forms, see


2.

Delph.

On

-n-atSijia.

the ac-

37.2.

Adjectives of the type xaptew are from -fevr- (Skt. -vant-).

The feminine was originally -faria (Kke Skt. -vatl, from the weak
stem -unt- cf. eaaaa 163.8), whence, with substitution of e for a
;

from the analogy

of the

forms in

-[f)ea(Ta or -(/r)eTTa (81).


pe{<r)a-av,

Pamph.

and in

pena, this yielding

The genuine Attic forms have tt,


MvppivovTra (iuscr.), those with aa- being

Tiixdpe{(r)aa.

as ixeXtTovTTa {Ax.),

poetical

-pevr-, arose

Cf. Boeot. ;)(;a/3tfeTTai', Corcyr. arovo-

Most

origiu Ionic.

adjectives of this type are

poetical only, except in substantive use especially the

names
a.

of places in -o?, for

A
(cf.

arioi

relic of

the

weak stem

which
-par-

$Aioi)s) or 'Avayvpdcnoi

hyphaeresis of

o), in contrast to

is

(cf.

numerous

see also 44.4.


seen in a few derivatives, as $Xta-

'Avayupom), from

the usual

-ovriot, -ovvrioi,

-o(/:)dTioi

or

-ovo-lol,

(with

from

-opevTioi.
3.

-Tt9 -o-t?.

See

61.3.

For

-^t? see 142 a.

We

find -aa-K instead

of usual -(TK in Arg. a\ida-aio<;, Epid. CTeyda-crioi;, Troez. epp-daa-io'i,

Boeot. ayopaa-aiv, in

forms like
''

which the

first

er

is

due to the influence

of

crTejaa-TO';, areyaa-fia.

For convenience the form of the nominative

the stem.

119

is cited,

rather than that of

GEEEK DIALECTS

120

[164

In most words a has replaced, by analogy, an


=
earlier dental, which is sometimes preserved, as in Horn, ohfiri
Att. oafirj. So for Att. 0eo-/io's, eea-/j,io<;, we find Dor. redfio^, Te0fiio<i
4.

-a-fio^,

(Pindar;
Bfio:;,

-ana.

also Delph., tS/juov Boeot.),

Ted/J.d'i

and Lac, Epid.

After the analogy of forms in

Locr., El. deOfiiov (65).

= r^pafifm.

especially y^ri^iaiia, vofucrfia, arose Arg. ypdcra-fia


Cret.

\jtd(f)iyij,a, yjrd^i/ifia,

5. -Ttjp

the older

most

= -tt;?
-Trjp

(-Ttt?).

For

see 142 a.

a productive suffix of nouns of agency

As

has been very largely displaced by

fully in Attic prose.

6e-

-(Tfia,

As forms with

-tjj? (-rd<s),

-rrjp = usual

but

-tt;? (-ras)

are not infrequent in poetry, e.g. Horn. edeXovTrjp, Hes. avXrjrijp,

sometimes in the

so they occur also

SiKaaT'qp (but in

Delph.

most

dialects, e.g. Locr.,

Corcyr. SiopOarijp.

/Sey8atti)T7?jt),

Pamph.

dialects SiKaa-Ta<;, like Att.-Ion. Si/eao-T^s),

-to?

= usual larpoi}.
= -eo9. In adjectives

-to9

(which

Cf. also

Cypr. Ijarijp like

Horn, larrip
6.

have

as Lesb.

j^/ouo-to?,

7.

Lesbian and Thessalian

Boeot. -to?

may

^a\Kto?, apyvpio'i, Thess. \t^to?

but in most dialects

-cov,

of material

not from -eo?

is

be

(cf.

-to? or -eo?),

Horn. Xt^eo?,

\l6ivo';).

-r]v=-a)v. Hypocoristic proper

names in-T/vinstead of the usual

as 'Apxv^jT^i'M^, are very frequent in the Corinthian colonies of

ApoUonia and Epidamnus, and


8.

-mvScK, -ovScK.

are occasionally found elsewhere.

Patronymics in

-covSa/;,

as 'ETrayiteti'wi'Sa?, are

most common in Boeotian, but are not infrequent in Phocian and

Euboean

(-oji'St;?),

The

ported.

while elsewhere they are rare and probably im-

parallel,

but less common, -oKSa?

tian, Thessalian, Loorian,


9.

is

attested for Boeo-

and Euboean.

Individual cases of dialectic variation in suffix are of course

frequent.
v6fiaio<;,

So, for example, Thess. \i6io';

Locr. vofiioi

= avaXcofia,
Thess.

= vo'/it/io?,

Xidivo<i (cf. above, 6), Ion.

Thess. ovaXa (but also ovaXovixa)

= TrpoaoSo';,
= avyKXijTO'; skkXt)-

Boeot., Epir. Trodohajxa (after avaXwiia)

avvKXek (stem -kXtj-t-,

aia, Cret. rjixlva

= to

rj/ji,i,a-v

cf.

ivpo^Xri^ etc.)

(also Sicil. rip.iva, used, like Epid. hifiC-

reia, in the sense of rifxCeKTov), Cret. 6lvo<i (from *di-iv6i;

formed

WOED-FOEMATION

166]

from

ei6<i

after the analogy of hvdpcim-ivo'i),

121

hdivo^

= delo'i, evBeo^,

Att. aSeX<j>6<i but aSeXcfyeo^ in other dialects,


Delph. jdiMeXa
ycifierr)^)

= yafiijXia.

(cf!

165. 1. -Tepo<i. Noteworthy examples of the use of


this suffix to
denote contrasted relations (not merely those of degree
as in the

comparatives), as in Be^trepos, apia-Tepoi, are Arc. appevrepo'i,


El.
epo-em irepo? (for at cf. yepairepoi, iraXacTepo^), e-qXvTepo'i.
-tSto?

2.

forming adjectives from adverbs or adverbial phrases,


So El. 7rpoa0iSio<i (irpoa-TL^Cdv), Cret.

as ai^io^, eiriffaXaa-a-iSio^.

ivSoOiSiov (ivSodiSiav BoXav household slave), Epid. ivSoadiSioi


{ivSo(70iSia entrails

= e^
3.

amount

quisites
(of

so ivToadiSia Arist., Hipp.), Cret. i^apxiBio'i

From words

-rpov.

som, the suffix


or

"'PXV'' 'ytyvofievoi;.

like

Xirpov means of

release,

hence ran-

to be used freely in words denoting reward

Ion.,

reward of victory, Epid. larpa perCoan reXearpa expenses of inauguration

Coan

reXeto inaugurate), Cret. KOfiia-rpa gifts

paid, as viKatrrpov

for healing.

the priest.

(more

came

Cf.

specific?), and,

even from a numeral, Cret. rpirpa the

three-

fold amount.
4. -(ov, -(ov in nouns denoting place, as avSpcov (Ion. avSpemv,
Pamph. a(v)Spuov), afiireXcov, vexpcov, opviOdiv. To this large class

belong Heracl. TO(f>uov

of earth

(cf.

This class

is

-ewv but Dor.


166.

1.

(t

e,

9.6)

lurial-place,

not to be confused with nouns of agency in Ion.

etc.

-amv, -av, as Ion. ^vvedv. Dor. Koivav.

common

Phocian, and Aetolian.

(i.e.

and Thessalian

41.4.

as 'Itttto-

in Thessahan, but also occur in Boeotian,

Ai6a--SoTo<;,

under

-eas.
cf.

Aiocr-Kovpoi)

@6^oTo<;, Slo^otoi (formed after Ato'o--SoTo?,


siod), instead of

See

-/cXe?;?, -kXjj?,

-/e\eas is a modification of -KXer}^

the influence of hypocoristics in


Aio^OTO'i

yaiwv heap

^o<i)v cow-shed. Ion. a-Te<f>a>v ridge.

Proper names in -\ea?, instead of

xXeas, are most

2.

= ra^etoi'

yaemv from Halaesa),

cf.

and eLoa-SoTa,
6e6a-SoTo<; in

He-

usual Ato'Soro?, @e6SoTo?, are frequent in Boeotian,


also has @e6^oTo<;, toforo?,

and &e6pSoTO'!

Elsewhere such forms are rare and doubtless imported.

(60.4).

GREEK DIALECTS

122

[l67

vowel stems in the first member of a compound, or before a derivative suffix, is sometimes dialectic. Thus TifioKXrj^, TifjuoKparrjii, etc. in most dialects, but Ion.

The interchange

167.

of diiFerent

Cnid.

TifjLr]K\rj<;, T!ifirjKpdTri<;,

iroXi'!,

Ehod.

TifJLdKpa,Tr)<;,

Ttfia-

Thess. vKa>p6<; {hv\6 peovToi) from *v\o-

Tifiava^ (*Tt/io'-(f)amf).

and

pwpo'i,

Arc,
olKerr}';

so related to

from

oiKog (f otweu? is the

from

v\0T6p.o<; to

oIkIu, for usual

form used in Cretan, as sometimes

Ion. iroXi-qTr]^, Cret., Epid. iroXiaTa'i (also Pindar), Cret.

TToXidTevaj, Arc. TroXtart?, for

Ion.

voixo'i,

from *v\d-pa)p6'i as

i)\?;a)/5o?

Locr., Thess. otKiara^ (or poiKiara'i)

ia Homer).

with

Ttfi,dK\ri<s,

Likewise Ehod. Tifiava^ {*Tifji,a-(f)ava^) instead of usual

TToXi.rjo'xo';

-ovxo'i

usual ttoXitt;?

etc.; cf.

Heracl. TroXta-

(Epic), Lac. TroXidy^o'; (but Att. iroXiov'^^o';

from KXrjpovxo'S

etc.).

Late Att. iepdrevo}, Locr., Phoc.

leprjrevco

(also in

some kocv^

inscriptions), Lesb. Iprjrevai, Cret., Cyren. lapiTevm, Mess, iepnevco,

Chalced. iepa)Tev(o, lepaneCa


Carpath. Safierw;, like

conversely

oIkottj';

in

(cf.

Att. iepaxrvvrj).
for usual haixora';,

oliceTq<;,

an Attic inscription.

So

as

hrjp.oT'q'i,

Cret. yStero?

(cf.

= Kioto's. Ehod. 'iTTTre'Sa/ios = 'l7r7ro'Sa/io?, but


Ehod. ApxoKpdT7]<! = 'Ap')(eKpdTr]<;, Cret. MevoKparrji; = MewK/aatt;?, Meg. 'AyoXao!; = 'A7eXao9.

Astyp. Bt'eTTo?)
'

After the analogy of names containing inherited t-stems arose


also forms

'Ap'x^iXo^o';, 'Ap-)(iSaiJ,o<;, etc.

lilce

(cf.

apxireKTcov) in

various dialects, Ehod. MeviSaiJt,o<;, El. Sai'/cXa/jo?, Coan, Msyr.,

Mel. AaLcrTpaTO<s, Nisyr. Aaccrdevrj^.


a.

The well-known lengthening

ber of compounds, as in aviavu/ws,


Att. avcpLOeuTo^.
of the
^oX-q

To

vowel of the second

iraviljyvpi's, is

seen in Ion. avnpideuTiK

the analogy of forms like

eirdfcoos, einyKOos,

Use

which are

same kind, is due the iira- of Cret. kwapoXa share (cf. Hesych.
and Hom. e7ri?/8o\os. Cf Karrj^oX-^ in Euripides.

/xcpos)

168.

mem-

of the initial

iinj-

of a

patronymic adjective instead of the genitive

gular of the father's name.

Though

sin-

occasionally found in literature,

as in Horn. TeXa/Movios Al'a?, this is the regular practice in prose

WOED-FOEMATION

168]

123

only in the three Aeolic dialects. Thus Lesb. MeXavxpo<; IliO(oveio<:,


^Apx^'TTra 'Adavdeia, Thess. Ivxovv 'Avriyoveio';, Nt/co'Xao? 'A7to-iato?,

a.

Boeot. toTrojUTro? 'OXuyLtTri^^to?, 'Ep/^ato? NiKt?jo9.

When

the genitive

the father's
is

name

is itself

but later the adjective forms like


6.

Under

a patronymic form ia -8as or

regularly employed in Boeotian

-tos,

so also in early Thessalian,

'EiriKpariSatos, Ti/xowiSaios are usual.

Koanq influence the use of the adjective

of the ordinary genitive construction.

Thus

was given up

in favor

in Boeotian the genitive

usual after about 250 B.C. and occasionally found earlier.

There

is

is

some

evidence that the Plataeans adopted the Attic usage at an early date.

See

no. 42.
c.

There are

also examples in Thessalian

and Boeotian of adjectives in

agreement

-with appellatives, in place of a genitive of possession.

UoXviofaia

cju/xi (sc.

d.

genitive

tive, as in

Hom.

d <7T<iAAa),

may be

etc.

Thess.

See the following.

used in apposition to that implied by the adjec-

TopytiTj Kefjiakij Setvoto ireX.utpav.

a KvAif) TO Kcvrpovos, Topyivioi

e/u,t

Boeot. Ka(X)Xuii e^i

(sc.

o kotuXos koXos K[aX]6, Lesb. (r[TaAA]a

'SiOfveuu l/x/u TO NtKtai'oi (dat.) to TavKio (gen.) the son of Mcias, the son
of Gaucus, where VavKLo is also a patronymic adjective, but in apposition
with the genitive implied in NiKiatoi.

Vt

SYNTAX
169.

Although the syntax

gation than

it

of the dialects deserves fuller investi-

has received, yet syntactical differences between the

much less striking than those of phonology and inflecTo a considerable extent they consist merely in the conservation in some dialects of early forms of expression which have become
rare or obsolete in literary Greek, and in a less strict formalization
of usage. Some peculiarities have already been mentioned in condialects are

tion.

nection with the forms,

e.g.

in the use of certain pronouns (121-

131), adverbs and conjunctions (132-134), and in the meaning and

construction of prepositions (136).

It is necessary to

add here only

a few comments on certain uses of the cases and the moods.


other,

more

Some

observed in the notes to the

isolated, peculiarities are

inscriptions.

CASES
The Genitive
170.

Genitive of Time.

is especially

with the dative


the article

is

The

genitive of the 'time within wliich'

frequent in the early Cretan inscriptions, although iv


is

already the more usual expression.

used, while in late inscriptions

the dative and without the article.

Of.

TreVr a/xepav release within Jive days,

So in Locrian, but without the

we

Law-Code,

but

article,

1.6

In both cases

find only ev with


1.25 Tuiyda-ai,

iv rat? Tpial

rdv

afj,epai<:.

rpiov fievov beside iv rpcd-

povT afidpaK, as also in early Attic inscriptions.

Aside from the adverbial phrases vvkt6<;

etc.,

the use of the geni-

most persistent in dating, as /i?;vo9 e^S6/j,ov etc., the


usual expression in most dialects. More noteworthy is the phrase
tive of time is

Kal troXeiMov

(-co)

kuI

eny decrees of various

elpr)vr)<; (-a<s)

dialects,

which

is

common

in the prox-

though eventually replaced in

by iv TToXefiai kt\.
124

many

SYNTAX

174]

The genitive

of

time

also in Attic, e.g. ra?

Kar

125

used distributively in various dialects, as


or ra? aixepa<; fKd(Tra^ daily, beside

is

a.fxepa'i

afiepav.

171.

Genitive of the Matter involved, in legal phraseology.


Alof the charge or penalty is common to all dia-

though the genitive


the genitive

lects,

is

nowhere

denote the matter involved,

used so freely as in Cretan to


KaTaSiKaKa-drd ro eKevdepo SeKa

else

e.g.

Mm

ararepav^, ro SoXo ireine shall condemn


to a fine of ten staters
in the case of a freeman, five staters in the case
of a slave, tS Se
Kpovo Kpivev decide as to the time, di peKacrro eypajTai as is prescribed

for each

case.

The Dative
172.

The adnOminal

Greek, and

is

dative

is

more common than

ia literary

especially frequent in the introduction to inscriptions

d ppdrpa rok faXeioi^, Locr. rb


HvTroKPa/MSioK Aoppots, Phoc. 6fji.o\oyia rd iroXei

or their separate sections, e.g. El.


refffiiov rot's

"Zreipicov ical

rd

Tro'Xet

MeSemviav, Boeot. hiaiypa^d

drrap'X^e rddevaiai, ypafifiureii^ rrji ^ov\r]t

For the dative instead

Kal ran

NiKape'rri, Att.
hdixa>i.

of the genitive construction

with various

prepositions in Arcado-Cyprian, see 136.1.

The Accusative
173.

Arc.

el

A
fj.e

noteworthy accusative absolute construction

the Fifty or the Three

instances

is

seen in

rraphera^afJLevo^ ro^ irevreicovra e to? rpiaKocrio<; unless

where the

Hundred

approve.

This

is

an extension from

participle agrees with the accusative of a pre-

ceding clause, as Arc.

fie vep,ev fie re

^evov fiere pacrrov,

doCvav hiKOvra. Of. also Arc. Kardrrep

el p-e eiri

ro<; i-ma-vvicrrafievo'}

yparrroi as is prescribed in the case of those

who

ye-

conspire.

THE MOODS
The Subjunctive
174.

The subjunctive without dv

or ica in conditional, relative,

and' temporal clauses, where the particle

is

regularly employed in

GEEEK DIALECTS

126

Attic prose, though frequently omitted in

elsewhere (Kiihner-Gerth

[l74

Homer and sometimes

426, 449, 474),

II, pp.

attested for

is

common

several dialects, though always as the less

construction.

Locr. at SeiXer avxopelv, at rt? avxopeei (no. 55.7,26


ples with

Ka in the same

tUum), and

contrast to usual

eU av

(no. 19.25,31), Cret.

ter

(Law-Code

iirl Sofia nrvp e-iroiae (no. 17.21)

(see 134.2),

dvyaTpl I

VI.l).

iinOudvi (Co-

inscription). Arc. ei Se rts

probably. Arc. sIk

so,

ten exam-

SiSoi,

Cypr. o i^opv^e, ol

when one

gives it to the

Examples are not infrequent in

in

loai

daugh-

later Locrian,

Phocian, and Delphian inscriptions.

The Optative
175.

In Elean the optative with Ka

tions, e.g. crvvfiax^a k

is

ea e/carov perea

the usual "form of prescriplet

there he alliance

fivak Ka airoTivoi peKaa-ro';

each

for a

pay a fine

hundred years,

fe/ca

of ten minae.

Similarly in Cyprian, but without Ke, e.g. ScaKoi vv

let

^aa-iXeiK; the king shall give.

The subjunctive without Ka


Elean inscription
176.

1.

is

used in the same sense in a late

(no. 61.32,36).

The optative in conditional clauses survives in several

dialects, although, except in Elean, it is

the subjunctive, and indeed

is

much

than

less frequent

almost wholly eliminated in favor of

the subjunctive in Attic-Ionic inscriptions, and in Lesbian, Thessalian, Boeotian,

Cyprian, Heraclean, Theran, Coan, Ehodian,

fact in the majority of dialects.

sometimes used with a

still

Where

offers

In the Gortynian Law-Code,

the fullest material, there are in conditional clauses

Some

about 50 optatives to about 80 subjunctives.

where the contingency


(e.g.

in

it is

recognizable differentiation from the

subjunctive, but oftener without such.

which

the optative survives,

is

VII.9, hut if there should not he

any free persons,

plated in the preceding subjunctive clauses


deny), others as

of these occur

obviously one more remotely anticipated

mere variants

even identical contingencies

I.ll,

as contem-

hut if one should

of the subjunctive for parallel or

(e.g.

opt.

IX.18

= subj.

VI.25).

In

SYNTAX

176]
Locrian, no. 56

pon

A has the

127

optative onlj-

(cf.

also the relative clause

whereas no. 56 B and no. 55 have the subjunctive


In Delphian, no. 51 has the subjunctive usually, but al S'e^t-

crvXda-ai),

only.

A 17, in

opKeoifii

also ai

8'

an oath, where Attic also -would have the

i^iopKeoi

C6

Tcov irapfidXKoiTo 025, C50,

Dl7; and

in the

The

tov-

numerous Phocian

and Delphian manumission decrees the optative


occurrence.

optative,

(here indirect discourse), and ai Se

is of

very frequent

optative, beside the subjunctive, occurs also lq

Corcyraean, Achaean, and in the Northwest Greek kolvti

(e. g.

no. 62).

In Argolic, the archaic nos. 76 and 78 have the optative only, and

some

this occurs in

of the later inscriptions (but in no.

84 the

opta-

In Arcadian, nos. 16 and 17 have

tives are in iudirect discourse).

the subjimctive only, but in no. 18 there are some examples of the

Even

optative.

and optative

is

irapa/Mevoi or el 8e
2.

same clause the

in the

not infrequent,
nroieoi

firj

rj fir)

alternation of subjunctive

Delph.

e.g.

ei

he

Ka

fir] iroiTJ

rj

jii)

See also no. 18.6, note.

irapafievrf.

In relative and temporal clauses of future time, the predomiis even more marked. Noteworthy is the
where oan<: with the optative is used in the curse
while in the postscript warning against harming

nance of the subjunctive

Tean

curse, no. 3,

proper,

1-34,

11.

on which the curse

the stele

inscribed, U. 35-40,

is

we

find o? dv

There are a few examples of the optative iu

with the subjunctive.

Cretan (Law-Code IV.14, and a few others), Locrian (see above),


Delphian, and elsewhere (see 177).
3.

But

in Elean the optative

is

uniformly employed in condi-

tional, relative, and temporal clauses. For examples in conditional


and relative clauses, see nos. 57-59. In the later no. 60 the sub-

junctive also occurs, but with future perfect force.


4.

In

final clauses

eo-rao-a/ie?
deCrf,

Lesb. no. 22.13

ififievoiev.

the optative occurs,

avx<opi^avTe<;

But

ff.

Aw?

eTrifJ.e'KecTdai

it is

e.g.

Heracl. Tab. 1.53

f.

KaraXvfJ.aKcoOrj': dBrfXco-

tcardypevTov

very rare, and most

subjunctive with or without dv (ku,


indicative.

fir)

we), or

dialects

<u9

ice

have only the

sometimes the future

GEEEK DIALECTS

128
177. There are

some examples

ditional clauses, etc., as

of

vvvaTo<i

/IT)

Se

Ka

[Ti'i]

voiTO,

Ach.

e'iri,

Epid. at

Ka

Both the imperative and the

scriptions.

is

(no. 56.4), Cret. at

Ka

Delph.

el

pv k ap^d ye-

airohoiev.

prescriptions, often side

the infinitive

(Kiihner-Gerth II,

irddoi, Corcyr. a^'

The Imperative and the


178.

Homer

avXoi

ica vyirj viv Troi'^a-ac (no. 84.60),

icjjdTTTOiTO, i-jret icd

ecrre

xa with the optative in con-

sometimes ia

pp. 482, 453), e.g. Locr. al k aSitcof

[ill

by

side in the

more frequent in

For the Elean use

Infinitive

infinitive are freely

same

inscription.

used in

In general

early, the imperative in later, lq-

with the same

of the optative

force,

see 175.

WORD OEDER
179.

A peculiarity

of

word order which

is

worthy

the position of rt? before Ka in the phrase at

This

is

the regular order in the

not only with Att.-Ion. edv ra,


e Ke

<TL<;,

Tt9 Ka.

rjv

of

also,

though

mention

is

Ka, al he rt? Ka.

dialects, as contrasted

tk, but with Arc.

el S'

Lesb. at Ke tk, Thess. al [fi)d e at?, Boeot.

Boeotian has
7]

West Greek

rk

less frequently, the

dv
rj

rt?,

Cypr.

Se Ka

West Greek

rt?.

order

SUMMARIES OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF


THE SEVERAL GROUPS AND DIALECTS
180.

The following summaries, while not exhaustive, are intended

to call attention to the

most important characteristics of each group


These are indicated in the briefest manner, sometimes
by a mere example, sufficient to identify, but not always to define,

and

dialect.

the phenomenon in question, and these brief indications are always


to he interpreted in the light of the sections to which reference is

made
of the

in each case.

Of peculiarities
most striking are mentioned.^

in vocabulary only

some few

To avoid needless repetition, many phenomena which are peculiar from the standpoint of Attic or Attic-Ionic, but are common
to all or most of the other dialects, are usually omitted, e.g.

= div. 163.9
= 134.1
arepo<s = eTepo<:. 13 a
to-ria = ia-ria. 11
<yivoixai = jiyvo/jLai. 86.7
SeKOfiai = Se')^ofiai. 66
ovvfia = ovona. 22 h

1.

Original d unchanged. 8

11. icov

2.

d from

do, dco. 41.4

12. al

3.

7)

ae. 41.1

13.

4.

Absence

of v-movable. 102

14.

5.

Apocope

of prepositions. 95

15.

6.

itoXk, TTo'Xios,

7.

d/jie},

from

vfi<;,

qfieK
8.

9.

10.

etc. 109.1

16.

ace. dfie, vfj.e=

18. Sa/jLtop<y6<;=Sr]fii,ovpy6<;. 44.4

etc. 119.2,5

19. >jveiKa,7jviKa^7]veyKa.

Infin. -/iev. 154.3

3 pL edev, eSov,
ri<;

riv.

17.

el.

li^a

= KTrjfia. 49.5 a
= ^kco. Glossary

20. irap.a

etc. 138.5

21. lkq)

163.3

EAST GREEK
Attic-Ionic
181.

Important characteristics of Attic-Ionic (1-7

lon., 8-9 in
1

An

common

specific Att.-

with Arc, 10 with Arc-Cypr.)

exhaustive list of peculiarities would- also include proper names which


to, or especially frequent in, a given dialect.

are peculiar

129

GEEEK DIALECTS

130
from

a. 8

1.

T)

2.

Quantitative metathesis (Xem?


etc.). 41.4,

43

[181

6.

edeaav, eSoaav,

7.

^1/

8.

Conjunction

9.

Particle

sg.

etc. 138.5

imperf. of
el.

134.2

3.

I'-movable. 102

4.

5j/its, ace. -ea?, -a?. 119.2,5

10. Infin. -vai. 154.1

5.

TTOv, oirov, etc. 132.1

11.

ai'.

Very early

163.3

elfii.

134.1

loss of f. 50

Ionic

The

182.

chief characteristics of Ionic, as

are as follows.

Some few

8, 9, 14, 20, 22),

but most are

indeed to

all

of these are Ionic

common

compared with
only (notably

Attic,
1,

to various other dialects,

also

some

except Attic, being repeated here from 180 to bring

out the contrast with Attic more fully.

common

are not general Ionic, but are

few

peculiarities

which

to all branches except

West

Ionic, are included.

from d even

1.

7)

2.

ea, eo, eco, eoi

after

e, t, p.

usually uncon-

= eo, from IV cent. on. 42.5


o, o (ou), a},+a =
as TcoySivo^ = Att. Tayai-

3.

ev

Crasis of

vo<;.

5.

co,

94.1

54 with a

8.

= Att. TT. 81
= Att. pp. 80
rjv = Att. idv, av.

9.

a-stems, gen. sg. m.

6.

O-O-

pa-

t/3o'?

19.

/ieftBi/

23.

-eco,

163.8

-e'os, etc.

Mke

75 h

beside lepo^. 13.1

= Att. fiel^av.

113.1

=Att. SeiKWfu.

49.1

= Att. eaetvo?. 125.1


fuvo? = Att. Koivoi. 135.7
KapTep6<; = Att. KpaTep6<;, in
meaning = KvpLo<;. 49.2 a,

24. S9?/ttto/37o'9=Att.-ouj0'yo'9.44.4

25. to-Tta (to-Tia)=Att.


26. rjveiKa, jjviKa

eo-Tt'o.

11

= Att. ijveyKa.

Hi a

111.3

12. -k\7j<;, -K\eos. 108.1a

= ^ovXo/iai.

(t/Jo?)

Glossary

-m,

41.4, 104.7

13. /it-verbs inflected

eto. 139.2

21. Keivo<;

134.1 h

10. 7ro'\i?, TTo'Xios, etc. 109.1,2

11. ^aa-iXevi,

18.

22.

gen. pi. -eav, -av, dat. pi.


-r}i(n.{v).

17. ^oXofiat

20. SeKVv/ii

^elvo<;, Kovpr/, etc.

7.

15.

nOearai

ia>v = Att. mv.

16. Suffix -5;to?= Att. -eto9. 164.1

tracted. 42.1,5,6

4.

14. 3 pi.

27.

t6l,;?

= Att. ei6'i5?.

contracts, as nOel, ndelv. 160

Glossary

SUMMARIES OF CHARACTEKISTICS

188]

183. East Ionic


1.

3.

further characterized

is

Psilosis. 57.

ao, eo

2.

Short-vowel subj. of

The

184. Chian.

which are

teristics,

= av,

by

ev from fourth century on. 33.

o--aorist. 150.

dialect of Chios contains a

Xd^coiatv,

few special charac-

Aeolic origin

of

1.

2.

Inflected cardinals, Sskcov, TrevTrjKovrmv, etc. 116.

pi.

Note

with la from

irprj^oLo-iv, etc.,

also jeymveco call aloud, as in

The

131

Aeolio doubling of nasals (73

va: 77.3.

Homer.

seen in tlie names of the


mountain XltXiwaiov in Chios and the promontory "Apyevi/oi/ opposite Chios,
a.

also in the personal

wise Aeolic
of a time

is

name ^awodtfiK

the Phocaean

when the

ff.) is

in an inscription of Erythrae.

Ztovi;((7ios)

19.1.

Like-

All these features are relics

between the Aeolic and the Ionic colonies was

line

far-

ther south than in the historical period.

from East Ionic in the absence

185. Central Ionic differs


losis, etc. (183).

a, in

Note

also the restricted use of

H, i.e. only =

the early inscriptions of some of the islands.

West

186.

Euboean,

Ionic, or

differs

of psii?

from

4.6.

from the other divisions

of

Ionic as follows
1.

TT as in Attic, not

2.

pp as in Attic, not pa: 80

3.

|e'z/09 etc.

4.

-et,

1^0?.

-04

81

aa-.

as in Attic, not |et-

54

from

-cot

-Tyt,

tria about 400

(in

5.

tovtu, rovrei, ivrovOa

gen. -Kkea. 108.1a

6.

-kXc't??,

7.

Proper names- ra-i?, gen. -tSo?,


as often in Attic (East

Ere-

Central Ion.

39 a

B.C.).

= tuv-

ra, TavTrjL, evravda. 124

8.

and

-to?). 109.5

elv beside eti^at. 160

In addition to the other Euboean peculiarities,


Eretria, seen in inscriptions of Eretria and Oropus, is

187. Eretrian.

the dialect of

by the rhotacism of intervocalic <y,


The use of av (Oropus), idv (Eretria)

specifically characterized

exovpiv

= exovaiv,

60.3.

as
is

due to Attic influence.


188. Attic influence.

Ionic was the

to Attic mfluence, and after the fifth


tions that are

whoUy

free

first of all dialects

century there are few

from Attic forms.

See 277.

to yield
inscrip-

GREEK DIALECTS

132

Aecado-Cypkian

= ev.

1.

Iv

2.

Gen.

3.

ir6<;

10

sg. -av.

=
=
ai
/ea's

(but Arc. usually

134.3

(1

common

/ii-inflect. of

7.

iv (iv)

8.

r),

(0

191.

2)

8.

49.2

= oSe.

Noteworthy

e?

In Arcadian.

e|

^
:

(but

cons,

before
e|).

100

Masc. o--stems, ace.

11.

te/3^s

sg. -j]v

(Arc. also voc. sg, -;). 108.2

= te/36W, etc. (but usual

only in Arc). 111.4


Subj.

-f??, -v-

149

13. Article as relative. 126

ov. 25

the considerable

known

mainly Homeric. Some

evxo\d prayer

136

and various

KW.Grk.)

10.

12.

is

123

Cypr. also

number

of

words or mean-

only, or with rare exceptions, as

of the

In Arcadian and Cyprian,

alone,

etc.

-Kperj}'! = -Kparrj';.

75 &

ings which are otherwise

1)

Dat. with aTro, i^,

contractvbs. 157

= ek. 135.4
= spurious ei,

poetical,

7.

9.

6.

4.

ovv

to Arcado-Cyprian

Infin. in -vai. 154.1

5.

3.

(but Arc. usu-

6.

Att.-Ion., 2 Ion., 3-6 AeoL, 7

^oXofiM = ^ovXofiai.
aTTu = aTTo. 22
6v (vv) = avd. 6, 22
op = ap.5

2.

= rt?

a-L<i,

ally t). 68.3

190. Characteristics

other dialects

aL<;

^
:

5.

22
135.6

tt/so'?.

/cat).

1.

Special characteristics of Arcado-Cyprian

189.

4.

[l89

most

striking examples are

ala-a share

(also

Lac), ot(f)os

or imprecation.

Seafiai, airvat

summon, KeXevdo^ road,

Zcofia

temple, afiap (but see no. 16.21, note).


3)

In Cyprian, pdva^, avcbym, avrdp,

yvTiTO'! (also Lesb.

e'A,os

meadow,

possibly Thess. KaTiyv[eiTO<;'\),

on (Horn. XP'^vco graze),

iSe,

Ijarijp,

y(^pavofjiai

KaaC-

border

vv (also Boeot. 134.5).

1 Several of the characteristics cited below under the head of Arcadian or of


Cyprian, for which corresponding forms are lacking or ambiguous in the other
dialect, probably are also Arcado-Cyprian. See also 199.
" In this and similar captions "special" is not to be taken too rigorously.
Some few peculiarities of which occasional examples are found elsewhere are
included, e. g., in this section, Iv = iv, which is regularly found only in ArcadoCyprian, but of which there are a few examples elsewhere.

SUMMARIES OF CHARACTERISTICS

19S]

133

Arcadian
192. Arcado-Cyprian characteristics.

common with

193. In

Lesb., 5 Aeol.,

15

6, li,

1.

Conjunction

Particle dv. 134.2

3.

SeKOTO<i

4.

Pass, infin.

5.

TreSd (Tre)

6.

Traperd^covcn etc. 142

134.1

= Se/taTO?.

= pa:

-t]v.

pp

"Trdwra etc. 77.3

9.

Ace.

-v.

imv.

13.

the

135.5

15. loSeXo?

-01.

nom.

18.

/r

Special Arcadian:

Gen.

sg.

2.

fem.-aw(Tegea). 104.2

pi. -vtri. 77.3

5.

= -rac. 139.1
BeKO, heKOTOv = Se/ca, eKarov. 6
Numerals in -Kcunoi = -k6-

6.

ovi

4.

sg.

mid. -rot

aioi. 117.2

= oSe.

(no. 16),

-vTto. 140.3

TJfiia-vi;

(but also

latter). 61.6

= 6^oX6<:.

49.3

in early inscr. initially

and

but lost be-

tween vowels

iuitially

tillabout300B.C. 52,53,54

8.

= Kard. 22, 95
ttXo's = TrXe'oK 113.2

9.

eoK dv. 134.2

7.

Karv

11. Se'XXto

= dirohov^.

10. dirvh6a<;

= /SaWo).

144

68.1

12. 'n.o(roihdv='n.o<rihS>v. 49.1,

123

61.5

195. External influence in the dialect.


49, agreeing

153.2

after cons.,

106.2

194.

the spiritus asper. 58 a, d


part.

Subj. Se'drot etc. 151.1

1.

3.

3,

16. /ieo-T Mwfo7. 132.9

hiepoBvTe^. 78

11.

2 Att.-Ion.,

17. Peculiarities in the use of

pi. -0?,

10. Dat. sg.

pi.

14. ^iJua-a-o<i

80

7.

8.

12. Infin.

155.2

= //.era.

(1,

West Greek)

2.

el.

See 189-191.

various other dialects

The

fact that ko?

and

with Cyprian, are found only in one early iascription

while

all

others have kuC and

rt?, is

ternal influence, though not specifically Attic.

probably due to exSee 275. The Tegean

building inscription (no. 18) of the third century shows some few

Attic KOLvrj forms, as irXeov instead of

From
dian

ifXo'i,

the latter part of the third century on,

cities

once gen.

when

sg. -ov, etc.

the chief Arca-

belonged to the Achaean, and for a time to the Aetolian,

League, the language employed in most of the inscriptions

is

neither

GREEK DIALECTS

134

[195

Arcadian nor Attic Koivq, but the Doric, or in part Northwest Greek,
of
Koivri. See 279. But the decree of Megalopolis (Ditt. Syll. 258)
about 200

B.C.,

though showing a remarkable mixture of forms,

is

mainly in the native dialect.


Cyprian

See 189-191.

196. Arcado-Cyprian characteristics.

common

197. In

with various other dialects

e before vowels. 9.3

from

7.

Dat.sg.-o,-abeside-ot,-at.38

8.

Ace.

9.

^aa-iXem, -epos. 111.1

1.

2.

Glide sound after

3.

al\o<;

4.

Psilosis. 57

5.

Tret'o-et ^

6.

Occasional omission of intervoc. and

expressed,

as Ijarepav. 56

= aXKot.

10.

74 b

68.1,2

= av.

f in

12.

Ijarepav

etc. 107.1

pi. /eare'^ijav. 138.5

11. Ke

= reiaei.

sg.

134.2

all positions.

52-55

final a. 59.4

198. Special Cyprian


1.

Gen.

sg. -ov. 106.1

6.

irai indeed. 132.5

2.

TTToXifi etc. 109.4

7.

3.

3 sg. mid. -TW

8.

Bvpdva),Sc!}KO)=BiSto fit. 162.11

9.

fpera, fperda. 55

4.
5.

22

= ya, etc. 62.4


=
v
135.8
fa

= el.

134.1

e'iri.

199. It
-ev

= -TO.

or

-ev,

is

uncertain whether the infinitive should be transcribed with

the accusative plural with

-os, -os,

In the absence of

or -o(v)s.

any evidence to the contrary, we assume -ev and -os in agreement with Arcadian. But the dative singular is to be transcribed -ot, in spite of Arc. -ot,
on account of the frequent omission of the final i (38) and the third plural ending is transcribed with -trt, not -(y)(Ti, in spite of Arc. -vo-i, on account
;

of <t>povoi (59.4).

200. All dialectic inscriptions are in the Cyprian syllabary.


inscriptions in the

The

Greek alphabet, beginning with the Macedonian

period, are all in the Kocvq.

Given under

this head because of the agreement with Thessalian and Boeoalthough this agreement is accidental, Cyprian not sharing in the general
phenomenon to which the Thessalian and Boeotian forms belong.
1

tian,

SUMMAEIES OF CHAEACTERISTICS

205]

135

Aeolic

common

201. Aeolic characteristics,

Boeotian

(6 also

Delph.

etc., 7

to Lesbian, Thessalian,^

1.

Labial instead of dental in

5.

= fiia. 114.1
pe = pi. 18

2.

Perf.act. part. -0)1', -oi'To?. 147.3

6.

Dat.

3.

Patron, adj. instead of gen.

7.

po

7re/*ire

= TreVre, etc.

of father's

4. ta

68.2

sg.

name. 168

pi. Tro'Seo-o-i etc. 107.3

= pa, etc. 5
epa- = @apa--.

8.

202. Aeolic characteristics,

and

also Arc.-Cypr., 8 also Arc.)

common

to Lesbian

49.2

and ThessaUan ^

(4-7 also Arc-Cypr.)

Double

1.

liquids

and nasals in

a-ToXXa,

ifi/ii,

etc.

157

79

77.1,

5.

aype(o(dvypeoi))=aipea>.G\os-

2.

6.

sary
^3.

from

7.
I

Arc,

etc.

143

204. Characteristics
(of

common

to Lesbian

and Boeotian

(2

Cret., etc.)

ixaXe-aaa

1.

6v = avd. 6
airv airo. 22
ks = dv. 134.2

before vowels. 19

203. Aeolic characteristics,


also

/it-inflection of contract verbs.

4.

74-76,

2.

common

which, however, only

1,

= /lerd.

135.5

Thessahan ^ and Boeotian only

to

which

veSd

is

Homeric, belongs to the Aeolic

elements of these dialects)


1.

Infin. 4>petiev etc. 155.1

5.

%e6^0T0';. 166.2

2.

3 pi. -vOt etc. 139.2

6.

e\e|e

3.

et

4.

yivv/xai = yiyvo/jiai.

t;.

16

= etTre

in

the

official

language of decrees.

162.5

Lesbian

205. Aeolic characteristics in

other Aeolic dialects.


1

common with one

or both of the

See 201-203.

214,
In some cases only East Thessalian (Pelasgiotis). See

GREEK DIALECTS

136

common with various

206. In

= spurious

1.

1), ci)

2.

Pinal

-a,

from end IV
3.

other dialects

25

ov.

ei,

= -di,

-r), -co

[206

-rji, -coi,

cent. on. 38

(8,

7.

Article as relative. 126

8.

Infin.

9.

Perl

-rjv.

153.1

infin. -vv. 147.2

10. Pass, infin.

PsUosis. 57

11.

4. Dat.pl.-ato-t,-otcrt. 104.7,106.4
5.

/SatriXeu?, -Tios, etc. lli.l

6.

Masc. o--stems,

ace. sg.

with Arcadian)

-r)v.

155.2

SeKOTO<i = SeKUTOi;.

12. Early loss of f. 50

-tjv,

gen. sg.

-r),

etc. 108.2

207. Special Lesbian (1 in part Elean)


1.

from

1(7

TOi<;,

2.

aifMtrv;

pi. (f>epoiai. 77.3,

= '^fjucrv;,

etc.

Infin. efifjievai etc. 154.2


Infin.StSfi)i',e/ji'ai',etc. 155.3

8.

9.

Eecessive accent. 103

78

17

35

3.

avco'!, vavo<;, etc.

4.

ora

5.

oTTt, oinrci'i, etc. 129.2

= ore.

6.

7.

as ace. pi. Tai5,

v;,

pi.

10. TT/ooVaw? (rarely Att.)=7r/3u-

132.9

ravK. Glossary

208. External influence in the dialect.

period on

imv. -VTOv, -adov. 140.5

and very few

Prom

the Macedonian

of the inscriptions are earlier

there

is

usually some admixture of Koivq forms, as avd beside 6v, nerd be-

But in the main the

side TreSa, ore beside ora, etc.

employed in inscriptions
tury

B. c.

till

dialect is

about the middle of the second cen-

Its use in inscriptions of

represents an artificial revival.

Eoman imperial times

(cf.

no. 24)

See 280.

Thessalian
209. Aeplic characteristics in

other Aeolic dialects.


210.

West Greek and Northwest Greek

223.1,2,4,6,

and

(-Tt

etc.

3.

not quotable, but -vdt

4.

from

-vTi), iKari, ttot, Tio-

reiSovv. 61
'(/can

or both of the

characteristics

(cf.

226.1,4,8)

Eetention of t in BiSmrc

2.

common with one

See 201, 202.

= ^LKOQ-i, U6

yfra^i^aa-Oeiv etc. 142


iap6<!

beside

lep6<;.

13.1

6.

= ek.
(TT = ad

7.

irapd at, with with ace, 136.2

5.

135.4
(rare). 85.1

SUMMAEIES OF CHARACTERISTICS

213]
211. In
1.

from

common with

e).

various other dialects

vowels (but

e before

oftener

137

9.7

9.

Psilosis in article. 58

10.

init. till

f
11. Gen.

about 400

a
B.C.

2.

Final -a, -ov (from

3.

es

4.

Trdvcra etc. 77.3

13. /8a<rtXeu9, -etos, etc. 111.1

5.

Ace.

14. Plural inflection of Sveo, as

6.

TT

7.

TTToXt? beside ttoXi?. 67

8.

SS

(from

= e|

38

Sva<;. 114.2

15.

NtoK\^as

etc. 166.1

16. Article as relative. 126

common with

See 204.

Boeotian only.

Special Thessalian:

213.

ov

CO.

11. ove (rove, TotVeo?, etc.)

23

2.

Gen.sg.-ot(butsee214). 106.1

3.

Ki?

4.

More

= rk

(but see 214). 68.4

ly in /COT,

Trap, trep,

tto't,

ov, air, err, xnr.

Consonant-doubling in
Xt09, ihhiav, Kvppov
piov,

tto'X,-

14.

16.

Sie

3pl.eve^ai'icro-oV, eSov/caea,

19.

20.

etc. 138.5

mid. iy}rd^icrri

8.

9.

3 pL mid. icftdvypevQav

etc.

21.

etc.

22.

Larissa only. 27

Larissa only. 27, 139.2

only. 27, 156

= 8e.

fJi.d

134.4

fiecTTToBi = eo)?. 132.9 a


"AttXow = 'ATTo'Wa)!'. 49.3
UerdaXo'; = ecrcraXo'?. 65,

68.2

18.

6.

10. Iiifin. SeSoo-Oeiv etc.

ttoZo?.

= ^ovKoiiai. 75
=
\i6ivof.
164.6,9
Xi^to?
Savxva = Sd^vrj. 68.4 a
ovdXa = avdXco/xa. 164.9
Xifi-qv = ayopdviarket-place
(ayopd being = iicicXrja-La)

17. fieXKofiai

7.

sg.

13.

= kv-

etc 19.3

= Sid.

kk,

131

15.

95

= oSe.

123
12. Relative use of

extensive apocope than

in any other dialect, name-

5.

12. Gen. pi. -aovv, usually -av.

86.2

84

sg. -do, usually d. 41.4

41.4

78

pi. -o?.

= ITT.
=

-COL, -r)i.

-ei

before cons. 100

212. In

1.

= -di,

ri)

-co),

Larissa

/ciftJi'

often used in place of

o-TciXXa

(o-T'^Xtj)

23. Ta7o'? as title of a state or

municipal

official

GREEK DIALECTS

138

The form

214. Differences within Thessalian.

which

known

best

is

of

is that of Pelasgiotis, represented

inscriptions of Larissa,

which show some


The

Thessalian

mainly by

special local peculiarities


dialect of Thessaliotis,

Crannon, and Phalanna.^

(213.8-10),

[214

represented mainly by inscriptions of Pharsalus and Cierium, differs

from that

of Thessaliotis in

of o-stems in -o, -ov, not -oi,


-eiv,

not

-efiev.

The

two important

respects, 1) gen. sg.

2) pres. infin. of thematic verbs in -ev,

early inscription, no. 33,

from Thetonium in

the neighborhood of Cierium, shows, in addition to these


of difference, tli

not

fiacnv) not -ea-at (as

peovTOi not -evroi, uncontracted gen.

name

have

on tt beside

-at, -oi.
crcr,

On

see 81

(?

in -ao, gen. sg. of father's


see no. 33.11, note).

dat. sg. -oi, -at,

find -ov, -a, just as in Pelasgiotis,

84

sg.

instead of patronymic adjective

inscriptions of Cierium

arajiac points to

two points

consonant stems in -aiv (xp^well as in Pelasgiotis), hv\dPharsalus


as
at
Kt?, dat. pi. of

SS

and in

though

Late

at Pharsalus

Taya beside

no. 33 eV

we
iv

f in i^^avaKd(S)Sev, no. 33, see

&.

From Histiaeotis and Perrhaebia the material is very scanty.


From Magnesia there are a few fragmentary archaic inscriptions,
but most are late and in the Attic koiv^.

An

early inscription of

Phthiotis (Me^iVra? Uidoweio-; "ArrXovvi IG. IX.ii.l99) shows conclusively,

what was only natural to expect, that its dialect was also
But nearly all the inscriptions date from the period of

Thessalian.

Aetolian domination and are in the Northwest Greek Koivq (279).

Many

of the characteristics cited in the preceding sections are

as yet attested only in the inscriptions of Pelasgiotis, but, except

where there

sumed

it is

to be as-

provisionally that they are general Thessalian.

For the

is

evidence to the contrary as stated,

points of agreement are

more pronounced than the

215. External influence in the dialect.

differences.

Occasional koiv^ forms

appear in the inscriptions of the third and second centuries

B.C.,

especially avd, cnro, irepl, Kara, he, gen. sg. instead of patronymic
1 Really in Perrhaebia, so far as this was recognised
Thessaly, but in the part near Pelasgiotis,

9,

distinct divisioil of

SUMMARIES OF CHARACTEEISTICS

219]

139

adjective,

t) (not et), yivofj.ai (not yivv/iai),


etc.
But the dialect as a
employed in inscriptions until about the end of the second
century b.c. and occasionally later.

whole

is

Boeotian

216. AeolLc characteristics in

common with one

AeoKc dialects. See 201, 203.


217. West Greek and Northwest Greek

or both of the

other

and

223.1-10,
1.

SiStoTt, piKUTi, etc. 61

7.

2.

fiKan

= ei/coa-i.

8.

3.

irevraKarioi etc. 116 a, 117

4.

e'7reo"/cewa|e

tt).

Toi, rat

6.

iap6<;

218.

116 with a

etc.

10.

122

12.

11.

= 01,

at.

= lep6<;.

(cf.

"Apra/iK; ^''Apre/j.K. 13.2

= Ke, av. 13.3


= Tr/aaJTO?. 114.1
avTl,ve.avTei = avTov. 132.2
iv =
135.4
Seifievo<; = Seoftevo^. 158
Ka

Trparo'i

el<;.

13. irapd at, with w. ace. 136.2

13.1

common with

In

9.

(but oftener

142

5;

characteristics

226.1,2,8):

various other dialects

(20,

mainly

21

Boeotian)

from

e before vowels. 9.2

1.

2.

co

3.

TT in ddXaTTa

4.

TT in

= spurious

etc.

ov.

11

Dat.

25

etc.

/xerTO?, i-^a<j)iTTaTo,

6.

e?

^.

12 ^aiTL\v<;, -etos, etc. 111.1


13 avTOcravTO^, ava-avrd';, etc.

15.

3 pi. avideav, aveOiav, etc.

16.

220.1). 100

138.5

= 7rpecr^ev<;.

7.

Trpiayeth

8.

p between vowels

68.1

till

about

B.C.; initial till

about

200B.C. 50,53

m. -a beside -a?.
a
Gen. sg. m. and gen. pi. in
sg.

-ao, -dcov (but rav). 41.4

219. In

common with

pi.

imv.-VTo)

(-vdco): 140.3

17. Perf. aTToSeSoavOi

out

K.

etc.,

with-

146.1

18. evTco (evda>)

105.1

10.

(-V).

14. rav-i etc. 122

84

= e^ before cons, (see also

Nom.

-01

(-7)),

121.4

SS, initial S

9.

-ai

104.3, 106.2

81

82

5.

450

sg.

= ovTtov.

163.6

19. AtoKXe'as etc. 166.1

20. Consonant-doubling in hypocoristics. 89.5

21.

Patronymics in -aJi'Sd?. 164,8

Thessalian only.

See 204.

GEEEK DIALECTS

140

Most

220. Special Boeotian.

[220

of the peculiarities of the vowel-

system (221) also belong here

= ef

1.

eV?

2.

eTTTrao-t?

ovTO<;,

3.

4.

eivi^av

6.

^eiXofj^ai

ovra,

etc.

69.4

124

6.

The Boeotian vowel-system.

221.

= rjveyteav. 144 a
= ^ovXofiac. 75

before vowels. 100

= e'/t7raa-t9.

'

Hypocoristics ia

The most

striking

consists merely in the retention of the original sound,


11.

But even

its

peculiarity

namely that

change ia spelling to

this led to a

on the other hand the v with

Attic value of

108.2

and obvious

One

characteristic of Boeotian lies in its vowel-system.

of V as

-ei.

ov,

while

as a basis

was

o, which the
The other peculiarimonophthongs and of more

used to indicate approximately the sound, probably

diphthong

oi

ties consist in

had come
changes

to have.

of

See 24, 30.

diphthongs to

open to closer vowels, such as eventually prevailed everywhere and


led to the

The

Modern Greek pronunciation.

chief orthographical peculiarities,

of their introduction, are as follows


I

=e

before vowels.
t,

et.

e, ei, h)

9.2.

V cent.

with the approximate date

B.C. (in

the epichoric alphabet

SUMMAEIES OF CHAEACTERISTICS

224]

141

contract in the Nicareta inscription (no. 43. VI). But most of


the
inscriptions are substantially dialectic until the second half
of the

second century

B.C.

WEST GEEEK
General West Greek characteristics

223.
1.

2.
3.

SiBcori etc.

Eetention of t in the verb-endings -ti, -vti, in /rtKUTi and the hundreds in -kcitcoc, in ttoti (Cret.Tro/art), IIoTet-

Sdv, TV, and some other words which show the change to oin
the East Greek dialects. 61
(/r)iKaTt
eiA:oo-i. 116 witha
12. otto) = dTro'^ei/, etc. 132.7

rpt.aKa.TiOL

etc.

-Koenoi.

116 a, 117.2
4. iBiKa^a etc. But restricted
in Argolic. 142
5. Toi,Tai
oi,ai. But Cretan

122

ot, ot.
6.

iap6<; (lap6<i)

Cretan

13.1

Ka, TOKa, TTOKa, oku, ya. 13.3

9.

7rpaT0<;

= Tr/seoTO?. 114.1
= oTTOv, etc. 132.2

11. OTTT} etc. 132.6

But

restricted in

Heraclean. 141
15. Put. pass, with act. endings.
145

= TerTa/oe?.

114.4

17. TeTpdoKOVTa^reTTapaKOVTa.

But

'A/STe/it?. 13.2

8.

10. oTrei

14. 'Fnt.-aeoi.

16. TeTope<;

= iep6<;.

="A/0Te/it9.

7. "A/ara/iii?

13. <^epo|iS etc. 138.3

116

21.

= ifioi, etc. llSAb


= i/xov; etc. 118.3 h
rj/Mcra-o'} =
61.6
6Se\6^ = o/3o\o?. 49.3

22.

Word-order

18.

ifj,iv

19.

e/u.e'o?

20.

rj/jLia-v;.

at rt? ku. 179

Although, only a part of these characteristics are actually quotable


from every one of the West Greek dialects, some indeed from only a few,
a.

it is

were

probable that, except for the divergence of Cretan in 5 and 7, they


common to all, and that the absence of examples in any dialect is

accidental.

Thus, forms like

<^/9o/xc$

are attested for Phocian and most of

the Doric dialects, but there is no occurrence of a first plural form in Locrian and Elean, and in Rhodian only from the time when -/itv had been

introduced from the kolv^, just as it was at Delphi before the end of the
fourth century b. c. The early substitution of the kolvq forms of the numerals and the rare occurrence of the personal pronouns in inscriptions, account
for the incomplete representation of 2, 3, 16-19.
6.

The

first

ten of these characteristics are also Boeotian (217), several


and a few also Arcadian.

also Thessalian (210),

224.

There are various other phenomena which are common to the

West Greek

dialects,

but are not confined to them even iu the widest

application of the term.

Several of those mentioned in 180 are often

GEEEK DIALECTS

142

casually referred to as " Doric," e.g. al


iKco,

el,

^?

[224

= ^v, a/ie?, edev, ira/ia,

but none of them has any claim to be regarded as specifically

West Greek, with the


Even

possible exception of

77

from ae

(41.1

with

a).

223 some consist merely in the retenwhich must have! been universal at one time and
that TOL, Tat or pron. datives like i/uv still existed in East Greek in the historical period is shown by their appearance in Homer. Some others also
may prove to be of wider scope, e.g. ottci, since ottov is, so far as we know,
only Attic-Ionic. But so far as the present evidence of inscriptions goes,
the peculiarities given in 223 are distinctly characteristic of West Greek.
a.

of the peculiarities cited in

tion of the original forms

The declension

225.
is

common

to

of

nouns in

-ev<;

with gen.

sg. -e'o? ace. sg.

Delphian and the majority, but not

The 3

See 113.3.

dialects.

pi.

imv.

-i'to) is

all,

common to

dialects except Cretan, but the distribution of -z'tw

not coincide at

all

of the
all

-97

Doric

the Doric

and -vrmv does

with the East and West Greek divisions.

See
There are various peculiarities which are West Greek in a
limited sense, but demonstrably not general West Greek, e.g. t^w?
140.3,4.

= e'/BCiTO?

avToa-avTo'i

(125.1),

(121.4),

irpocrda

= irpoaOe

'AireXKwv

(49.3),

\w =

use of

in certain verbs (162.1), of a-Kevom

-tfcr)

-o'(B

eeXat (Glossary), vt, ve'= Xt,

of yeXafii, e\afj,i (162.1,3,4) is

not yet

Xd

(133.1),

(72).

The

= (TKevd^co, and

West Greek, but how wide-spread

is

clear.

Northwest Greek
226.

The

chief

characteristics of

Northwest Greek

as distin-

guished from Doric, including however some which are not common to all the dialects of this group and some which are not
strictly confined to
1.

eV

them, are

= ek.

Also Thess., Boeot.,


and Arc-Cypr. (Iv). 135.4

2.

/caXci/xez/o? etc. (El. -T]ij,evo<s).

3.

<f>a.pa)

o-T

5.

4We, Delph. AeWe

Also Boeot. 158


etc.

But

6.

7.

rare in Delph.

12

= a-e.

85.1

example in

8.

= <rTe. No

El. 135.4

TraWois

etc., dat. pi.

But

in

Delph. only late and due to


the N.W.Grk. Koivq. 107.3
TeVopes etc., ace. pi. El.,Ach.,
but not Locr., and rare in
Delph. 107.4
irapd at, with w. ace. Also
Boeot., Thess., Meg., Lac.
136.2

SUMMAEIES OF CHAEACTEEISTICS

231]

143

There are various other peculiarities the scope of which coincides even
with the Northwest Greek dialects proper, but the spread of
which in the northern part of Greece is noticeable, e. g. masc. ci-stems with
nom. sg. -d, gen. sg. -as (105.1a, 2i), patronymics in -wSas or -dvSas (164.8),
proper names in -K\eas (166.1). Note also the peculiarities common to Boeotiali and Thessalian only (204), most of which are not Aeolic.
o.

less definitely

Phocian (Delphian)

West Greek

227.

228. Northwest

characteriatics.

Greek

229. Aeolic elements


107.3.

Here

poetical),

Horn.)

See 226.

characteristics.
Traz^Tcaori in all

the earlier inscriptions.

the words Tayoi; (also Thess., Cypr., and

also, perhaps,

KepaCm

See 223-225.

= Kepdvvvfu,

(also Horn.)

8iBrjfj,i

(also Boeot.

and

= Seo).

230. Other characteristics, mostly in

common with various

other

dialects
1.

initial till

about 400

B.C.;

intervocalic only in a

VI

Pecuharities in use of

spir.

etc.

132.7

14. evSo's, evSa, eVSw?. 133.4

Aa^vaBav, rovv w'/ious,

Tft)\

o'lKodev.

poUfo

15. iroi

asper. 58 a, c
3.

12.

13. ex^o'?, exdo. 133.3

cent, inscr. 52,53


2.

11. rffvoi (Trivei)=iKetvo<;. 125.1

(beside

ttoV)

tt/jo'?.

135.6 h

16. 3 pi. perf. in -an. 138.4

96,97

17. Infin.

-ev.

153.2

4.

afi^iKXeyeo. 89.3

5.

SeiXofiai

6.

lapr\iov etc. 164.1

19.

20. ttolcovti, ttolovtcov. 42.5 d, 6

8.

ivvri = evvea. 42.1


he^Beixo^ = el3So(io<;.

9.

avTocravTo'i, avaavT6<i. 121.4

7.

10.

= ^ovXofiai.

Tovra = ravra.

75

114.7

= avXdco. 161.2
(nej,av(iia> = (7Te4>av6(o.

18. crvXem

159

21. iroieivTM. 158


22. fjTai (late). 163.9

124

The temple accounts of


Attic influence. With the

231. External influence in the dialect.

353-325

B.C.

show plain evidences

Aetolian domination (278-178


of the

Northwest Greek

mixture

(e.g. dat. pi.

B.C.)

of

new element

is

added, that

Koivrj (see 279), resulting in the striking

iravTeaai, iravToi's, Traat) seen in the

numerous

GREEK DIALECTS

144

[231

proxeny and manumission decrees, some of them as late as the


first and second centuries a.d. There are even some few traces of
Boeotian influence, as in iaTuvdco, deXwvdi, KXapmal

(t

= el)

from

Stiris, near the Boeotian boundary, and the spellings kti (= Kai),
aa-ovXov in a decree of the Phocians. The Amphictionic decrees

immediately following the Aetolian conquest are in the pure Attic


Koiv^, but the dialect was gradually resumed, in the mixed form

which

it

shows in the other

classes' of inscriptions.

Locrian

232. "West

Greek

characteristics.

233.

Northwest Greek

234.

In

common with

See 223-225.

characteristics.

See 226.

various other dialects


Ka(T) tov, iroir) tov, etc. 95 a

1.

Ko6ap6<; (TIeppoOapidv). 6

5.

2.

'07r6iVTi, 'OTTOi'Tt'ou?. 44.4

6.

ix^di

7.

Trot

initial

and sometimes

inter-

= iKTo^. 133.3
= Trpo'?, once. 135.6 6
Set Xo/xat = /So y\o/iat. 75

3.

4.

Peculiarities in use of spiritus asper. 58 a,

vocalic. 52,53

8.

235. Special Locrian


1.

Assim. of eK in

e(T) Ta<;, e'(\)

\tyueVo9, etc. 100


2.

(ppiv

236.

= Trpiv.

66

The only
is

hapea-Tai

Kara according tow. gen. 1S6.5


pon beside Hon. 129.2 a

5.

fifth

century and from western Locris.

from a much

Greek kolv^ was used, at

later period,

least in

when

western Locris.

y^prj/jidTecra-i (107.3) is

noteworthy.
Elean

237.

West Greek

238.

Northwest Greek

characteristics.

common with

See 223-225.

characteristics.

See 226.

various other dialects

All

the Northwest

See 279.

few inscriptions from eastern Locris the appearance

239. In

12

inscriptions in the pure dialect (nos. 55, 56) are

both from the early


other material

= eXea-Oai.

3.

4.

In the

of datives like

SUMMAEIES OF CHARACTEEISTICS

241]

= spurious

1.

>?,(

2.

Psilosis. 57

ei,

ov.

3.

SS (also tt)

pp

5.

Ehotacism

6.

Loss of intervocalic

84

^.

of final

60.1

?.
a-

(late).

etc.

olKLa<i.

51-55

= aXKorpia.
in ea

12.

Nom.

sg.

13. Dat. sg.

25. /it-forms a-vKaie, 8ap,oaioia,

75

8afj,0(7ia>fj,ev.

TeXeard. 105.1 a

-ot.

26. eypa(fi)fievo<!

106.2

vo<i.

10. Trd(TK(o

15

Tj.

not only before

e,

p,

but

3.

iroXep

4.

5.

(TO-

v, etc.

=S

12. avevi

= 7ro'\t9.

= avev,

13. Opt. w.

18 6

66

and used w.

Ka in commands;

also subj. (late). 175

(only in earliest inscr.).

14. Opt. regularly in fut. condi-

= a-6
fiev<;

tions etc. 176

(late). 85.2

iMrjV.

15.

112.3

Dual hvoCoi's, avroioip. 106.6


Verbs in -etw (-aito) = -euoa.

= effTCO.

ForpecuUarwordsandmeaniugs, see, in Glossary, 7/3a-

^09, SiKaia,

8ic}>vio<;,pppo),

KaTiapaico, IfiderKto, drfKv-

16L1
riaTW

= irdajfoa.

ace. 133.6,136.4

62.2

9.

yeypafi/Me-

137

11. rlapo, TeTTidpoL, etc. 94.9

12 with a

8.

157 &

Special Elean

after p, before final

7.

a {(jmyaSevavri,

Troi'^arai). 151.1

24. 3 sg. opt. -aeie (-haie). 152.4

11.

6.

133.6

153

-r]v.

23. Aor. subj. in

elr),

31

= ypa(j)ev<!. 5
S'^Xo/iai ^ ^ovXa/iai.

2.

74 &

'ypotf)ev<i

=
=

= varepov.
= iTTTo. 135.3

varapiv

20. U7ra

113.3

raSe. 122

22. 3 sg.subj.-Tj (iKirefiTra). 149

Omission of

a
a

To'Se,

21. Infin.

aiKorpia

1.

= dy^^ta-Ta,

rat =

^oiKiap=
9.

240.

18. TOt,

nants,rarely intervoc; late

8.

10.

17. dcra-ia-Ta

19.

even before conso-

init.

78

16. /3ao-t\ei5?, -fjos. 111.1

59.3
7.

-at/3, -oip.

ally -ok). 107.3

80

jOff.

14. Ace. pi. -at?,

15. Dat. pi. ^i;7aSe<ro-t (but usu-

4.

25

145

163.5

241. Koivrj influence.

Tepo<;, eperevaiTepoi;.

In the ammesty decree

second half of the fourth century KC.,ap from ep

(no. 60),
is,

from the

with one excep-

tion (va-rapiv), given up, as in drjXvrepav, ipa-evairepav (note also

GEEEK DIALECTS

146

ipcrev-

and

earlier pappev-),

TrepC (earlier Trap,

though pa from pe is seen in Kanapalmv


(earlier

jrdaKw)

(no. 61),

with apocope),

has

Trcio-^m

the characteristic Elean words feppm

technical sense, Sl(J>viov

the usual

[241

(fjevyto,

hiirXdcnov,

from the

first

and

(^i<f)viov),

and

'ypd^o<;

ypdfifia.

its

usual form

= (fievyco in its

have given place to

The Damocrates decree

half of the third century

B.C.,

has

ep,

never

and shows considerable koiv^ influence in the


Kadap {ica6d)<s), ejiCTr)cn<}.

ap, viro not inrd,

vocabulary,

On
sist,

is

e.g.

the other hand most of the characteristics of the dialect per-

and, in contrast to earlier inscriptions, the rhotacism of final 9

uniformly observed.

and the

inscriptions

Some

of the differences

between these two

due to chronological and local

earlier ones are

variation within the dialect, e.g. in both aa, not


intervocalic

in no. 60 tt, not SS,

in no. 61 subj. in prescriptions.

o-t,

= ad,

loss of

dat. pi. (^vyd^ecrcn (not -ot?)

f,

Even

in the earlier inscriptions

there are some indications of local differences, but

it is

impossible

with the present material to define their scope.

The

definite substitution of the Attic koivij in public inscriptions

of Elis belongs to

the end of the third century

B.C.

Doric
Laconian
242.

West Greek

243.

Other characteristics, mostly in

characteristics.

See 223-225.

common with various

other

dialects
1.

77,

6)

= spurious

ei, ov.

25

9.

4.

from e before vowels. 9.5


h from intervoc. cr. 59.1
Ehotacismof final? (late). 60.2

5.

6.

IIoAoiSai'

7.

'ATreXXcov

8.

2.
3.

=6

(late in inscr.). 164

nocretSoJi'.

49.1,

61.5

reflex. 121.3

11.

Adv. Tavrd, hdr,

ireiroKa.

132.5a,6
12. da-a-ia-Ta
13. Infin.

= dyxiara.

-r)v.

113.3

153

14. 3 pi. imv. -vtco. 140.3 a

= 'AttoXKcov.

49.3

about 400 B.C.; intervocalic in early inscriptions;


sometimes /S. 50-53

initial tiU

later

o^to?

10. rerpaKiv etc. 133.6

SUMMARIES OF CHAEACTERISTICS

248]

244. Koivq influence.

147

Inscriptions from the second century B.C.

(from the fourth ajid third there

very

is

little

material) and later

are not even in the Doric koiv^ (278), but substantially in the Attic
Koivq,

with but

slight dialectic coloring.

of the dialect in

some

On

the revival of the use

inscriptions of the second century a.d., prob-

ably representing crudely M'hat

survived as a patois, see notes to

still

nos. 70-73.

Heraclean

245.

West Greek

246. In
0)

common ^ith

= spurious

1.

7j,

2.

3.

ave7riypo<f>o<;. 5

from

various other dialects

, ov. 25

e before vowels. 9.6

6.

Tafiva)

= TCfivto.

initial,

7.

75

pi. 114.3

= eKecvo^.

125.1

13.

pi.

imv.

-vT(o. 140.3

= ovre;.

163.8

15. avhewaOai. 146.4

16. Article as relative. 126

Special Heraclean

1? li/TaffO-i, TrotoVrao-o-i. 107.3

5.

ippijyeia

6.

KXaiyco

7.

TroXtcrTo?

ippayvia.

146.4,

148

yeypd.-\jraTai, fiefnaddxrcovrai.

146.3
3.

= ^ovkofiai.

nom.

14. evre;

50 b

asper. 58 c,d

2.

Tpi<;

12. Infin. -ev. 153.2

many irreg-

Peculiarities in use of spiritus

247.

Si]\oiiai

9.

11. ava)6a, efiirpoa-ffa. 133.1

49.4

but with

ularities.

8.

10. T>]VO'!

4. Ko6ap6<i, TO^idiv. 6
5.

See 223-225.

characteristics.

efiTpioifJ.e<;,firpiafJ.evaiA2.5b

= KXeico. 142 a
= TrXeto-ro?. 113.2

4. m-e<f>VTVKr]fiev. 147.2

248. Koiv^ influenca

koivtj

forms appeal-

now and

Heraclean Tables, especially in the nimierals.


rpi<!

Teaa-ape;,

-Koaioi beside

from

etKoa-i,

then ia the

Thus TpeK beside

reaaapaKovra beside rerope;, TerprnKovra

-kutioi

beside fiKuri

x^^'''-

el

^^^ XV^'-'-

beside al

F^^Kari, with

hoi beside tol.

ei

GEEEK DIALECTS

148

[249

Argolic

West Greek

249.

characteristics.

But

See 223-225.

Siicda-a-ai,

not SiKa^M, 142.

common with various

250. Other characteristics, mostly in

other

dialects

tu

ace. sg. 118.5

1.

Intervoc. o-toA,andlost.'59.2

11.

2.

Trdvaa, iv;, tov;, etc. 77.3, 78

12. viv ace. sg. 3 pers. pron. 118.5

3.

Iap6<s

4.

iroC

with

58 h

lenis.

5.

dXCa(y(yL<i etc. 164.3

6.

17,

7.

= spurious

ei,

some-

times. 9.7
ypocfyevi; etc.

TreSa

10.

163.8

164.4

TjOeiiB

initial

B.C.

till

'

cities of

note

official

title.

the Acte.

of the inscriptions of

But these

to the fact that Attic influence

No.

78.2, note

differences between the dialect of

and that which appears in most


and other

Vanished.

he

(j)evyo}

78.5,

23. dprvvai,

52-55

some

No.

f in all positions in earliest

251. There are

= overa.
= ypdfifia.

19. ecrcra, eacra-a

20. ypdacrna

22.

135.5

inscriptions

due

17. Infin. -ev. 153.2

21. d(f)pr]Tvco preside. 55

= p^rd.

about 400

133.6

18. 3 pi. imv. -vrco. 140.3 a

times. 25 a

9.

= dvev.

16. avvridrjai. 138.1


ov,

from e before vowels, some-

8.

125.1

14. ex^oi, cpSol. 133.3,4


15. dvevv

135.6 &

to

= eKelvo<;.

13. ttjvo^

before dentals.

7r/3o?,

are mainly,

was

earlier

if

Argos

Epidaurus

not wholly,

and stronger

in

Thus the loss of intervocalic o- and the retention of va


characteristics which persist in Argive inscriptions till within

the east.
are

the second century


ples

B.C.,

but of which there are only a few exam-

from Epidaurus. In general, Attic forms

daurian inscriptions of the fourth century

Early inscriptions
in contrast to Arg.

Hermione
in

-ca, -ft)?.

of

Mycenae have

iv<;,

t6v<;.

e?

B.C.,

and

fere

frequent in Epi-

and

later.

rd'; (less

probably

Of. Cret. toi beside t6v<;, 78.

are also found genitive singular

ro';)

Erom

and accusative plural

SUMMARIES OF CHAEACTERISTICS

259]

149

Corinthian

252.

West Greek

253. In

characteristics.

common with

4.

= eXOelv. 72
= deXto. Glossary
'ATreWcoi' = 'ATro'X.XeBi'.
=
112.3

5.

Hypocoristics in

6.

TTo'Seao-i etc.,

1.

2.
3.

See 223-225.

various other dialects:

ivOeiv

7.

ivS6<;,evSoi,e^oi. Syrac. 133.4^

Xm

8.

9.

f in early

165.7

-7)v.

imv. -vrm. 140.3 a


inscr. in all posi-

sometimes

B.C.;

/3.

400

51-55

in various colonies. 107.3

254. Special Coriuthian.


ov.

pi.

tions; init. tUl about

fii]v.

iiei<;

and

49.3

Very

early monophthongization of

et

28, 34

255. After the early but brief inscriptions in the epichoric alphabet, there is

turies B.C.,

but scanty material until the third and second cen-

when the admixture

of koivt] forms is considerable.

Megarian
256.

West Greek

257. In
1.

aiJ.^i\\eyto. 89.3

2.

eu

= eo, late.

initial in

3.

characteristics.

common with

4.

42.5

cent.,

but lost

between vowels.
258.

See 223-225.

various other dialects

Gen.

sg.

m. ^dyd<;

etc. 105.2 h

112.3

5.

fiek

6.

Xw =

7.

'Kd^oftai,=\an^dvco. Glossary

fiijv.

0eX(o. Glossary

Special Megarian

1.

06So)po9, OKXetSa?, etc. 42.5

3.

alcn/jLvdrat;, aia-i/jivda)

= altrv

the difference of vowel, the

and

2.

ad

= Tiva.

128

Apart from
words are peculiar to Megarian

/jiv>]T7]<;,

alcrvfivdw. 20.

Ionic.

259. Except for the early inscriptions of Selinus and a few others,

the material

shows KOLvq

is

from the end

influence.

-of

the fourth century or later, and

GEEEK DIALECTS

150

[260

Rhodian
260.

West Greek

common with

261. In

= eo. 42.5
= spurious

1.

ev

2.

7j,co

See 223-225.

characteristics.

ei,

various other dialects

ov, in

some

words. 25 a

with

16(00?

4.

OTTW, vk. 132.4

5.

oKKa
262.

58 6

lenis.

3.

= oA;a

e^av

7.

imv.

8.

Tt/^iea)

9.

Tt/idv/j ar?;? etc. 167

pi.

133.6

-vtoo. 140.3

= ^e\o).

161.2

Glossary

132.9

Eh odian:

Infinitive in

ktoiW, denoting

154.5.

-yueti'.

a territorial division like the Attic deme,

and Carpathus.

e^ij?.

= rifidco.

10. XPV''^^

kos.

Special

6.

found only in Ehodes

is

fiaarpoi as the highest officers of the state are

peculiar to Ehodes.
263. Koiv^ influence

century
later,

Most

B.C.

and

is

shows

itself to

a slight extent in the fourth

of the material is

from the third century or

in the Doric koiv^ (278),

though with frequent reten-

tion of the characteristic infinitive in

the dialect

is

-fieiv.

one of the longest to survive,

appearing in inscriptions of the

first

In this mixed form

many

peculiarities still

and second centuries

a.d.

Coan
264.

West Greek

265. In

2.

= eo. 42.5
q,co = spurious

3.

Ta/JLVO}

1.

characteristics.

common with

ev

ei,

some

ov, in

words. 25 a

4.

= Te/jLva). 49.4
Si]\ofiat = j3ov\oij.ai.

5.

Ace.

6.

^aaiXevi, -ios,

pi. -0?

266. There are

= i^rj'i.

7.

e^dv

8.

Aor. subj. mroKv^ei. 150

9.

Infin. -ev

133.6

also in contract

verbs. 153.2,3

15

10.

beside -ov?. 78
-r\,

See 223-225.

various other dialects

but early

-fji, -t]S.

no very early

from the fourth century

B.C.

3 pi. imv.

-i'toj.

140.3 a

11. xP'n''^<^= GeXm. Glossary

113.3

and only a few even


The most important of these, the
inscriptions,

SUMMAEIES OF CHAEACTERISTICS

271]

151

calendar (nos. 101-103), already shows some Koivq forms,

sacrificial

as iepevv beside iapev'i, elKd<s beside tas, ace. pL rpek, ea-ria beside

but preserves some forms which are never found later

t(7Tta, etc.,

as

leprji,

Teraprrj^ (later always

specific Ionic

the material

-ei, -ew, etc.).


There are also some
forms in use in Cos, as reXeo)?, cnroBe^avTO). Most of

is of

the third and second centuries, and in the Doric

KoiviQ as described in 278.

Theran
267. "West Greek characteristics.

common with

In

268.

= eo. 42.5
= spurious , ov, in some

1.

ev

2.

q,m

3.

ovpo'i

words. 25 a

from

lost in

4.

5.

pp

6.

B'TjK.op.ai,

See 223-225.

various other dialects


7.

Acc.

8.

irehd

78

fierd. 135.5
i^av = ef
133.6

9.

tj?.

10. Subj. weirpaTai etc. 151.1

opfo<;. 54

the earliest times. 50

= pa. 80
= ^ovKojiai.

pi. -09.

11. Infin. -ev;

also in contract

verbs. 153.2,3

75

269. Except for the numerous, but brief, archaic inscriptions,

the material

is all

inscription, the

from the period of

WiU of

many

characteristics of the dialect, but also

The
and

though

inscriptions of Gyrene,

spurious

et,

ov,

The longest

Koivrj influence.

Epicteta (SGDI. 4706), exhibits most of the

and show some

late,

Koivq forms.

have regularly

(o

rj,

special peculiarities, as iape^

nom.

acc. pi. of iapev<} (111.3), Te\eo-(^OjoeVTe9 (157).

Cretan

West Greek

270.

characteristics.

See 223-225.

and "Aprefui not "A/jra/tw?.


271. In common with various other

But

ol, al,

not

Tol, Tai,

co

= spurious

1.

7),

2.

fjjvo?

3.

from

from

et,

ov. 25

^evpo-s, etc. 54

e before

Psilosis.

iait-

57
till

HI

cent.

/8

pia-Fo<;

B.c.

vowel. 9.4

sometimes

49.2

tervoc. only in cpds. 50-54

4.

TpoLTrm,

5.

A7re'X\Q)i'='A7ro'\X<Bi'. 49.3

Tpa.(f)a).

6.
7.

dialects

8.

Trctvaa etc. 77.3

in-

GEEEK DIALECTS

152
9.

ToV? beside

roi;, etc.

[271

22. avTi

78

in presence

of,

afj,(j)l

10. TT in -TT-pdrTto etc. 81

concerning. 136.7,8

11. rr in ottotto^ etc. 82

23. Aor. subj. Xa^ao-ci etc. 150

12. 5S, S (sometimes tt, t)

f.

24. Subj. TreirdTai etc. 151.1


25. Infin. -ev; also in contract

84

= TTT. 86.2
TT = 0-T (rare). 86.4
e? = e^ before cons. 100
avTov neut. = avro. 125.2
oTTVi = oiroij etc. 132.4
TrpoeOa. = irpoade. 133.1

13. TT

14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

verbs. 153.2,3
26. Verb-forms
-ato.

28.
29.

20. avTiv, avTUfiepiv. 133.6

2 1.

Trefia

272.
1.

= /^cTa.

v=X before cons., sometimes.


60 (rarely

t6')

7.

Trpecyv^,

5.

Sfi/jio<!.

12. plv

avToi,

eavT&i,

6.

4.

161.2

= ovaa. 163.8
Xa> (\eia>) = deXco. Glossary
TTo'Xts =
Glossary
/capTepof = KpaTepof,
in
meaning = Kvpiov. 49.2 a,

Special Cretan

= era, late.
TT = KT. 86.1
vv = pv. 86.5
/i/i =
86.6

3.

Glossary

135.5

71
2.

-ew (-i)

27. iuTTa

30.

19. evho';, e^oi. 133.4,5

in

^^

= aO.

85.3

an,
14. OTeio';
15. oTepo';
Trpeiyi-

= 7r/3e'a-/3u?

etc.

86.3

= fidpTvp-.

/jiaiTvp-

Assimilation

dat. sg.

17. TTopTi

in

= 7rp6<;. 70.1,
= alpem. 12

19. Infin.

-pi,r)v

sentence

20. dlvo<;

71

21. TeXofiai

sive than elsewhere. 97.4,5,

22.

11. Ace. pi.

coz/eift),

beside

6elo<;.

135.6

-ixev.

154.4

164.9

ecrofiai.

163.10

Trew^Q), iXevereco. 162.9

23. XayaiQ) release. 162.8

10. Aec. pi. of


-av<;.

129.3,

= 07r0409. 130
= oTTOTepo';. 127

combination more exten98

oTifjii.

16. otrai as final conj. 132.5,8 a

18. alXeo)

9.

128

Trpeiymv,

8.

avTa<;

13. OTK, gen. sg. oti, ace. pi. neut.

81 a

yttl".

uTO'}, etc.

pa

TO,

TO, eavT7J<!. 121.1

cons,

stems in

107.4
T/otiz/?.

24. K6afio<;, official

sary
114.3

title.

Glos-

SUMMARIES OF CHARACTERISTICS

273]

153

273. Cretan, as commonly understood and as described above, is


the dialect of the inscriptions of Gortyna (which is by far the most

represented) Cnossos, Lyttos, Yaxos, and the other cities of the

fiilly

great central portion of Crete.


as Central Cretan.

much

lect is

less

This

is also

known more

Eastward, at Olus, Dreros, Latos,

uniform

and

m the inscriptions

specifically

etc.,

the dia-

of cities of the

eastern extremity of the island, as Hierapytna, Praesos, and Itanos,

and again
istics

from the

in those

Aptera, Cydonia,

etc.,

many

cities of

of the

the western extremity, as

most striking Cretan character-

Hence the terms East

are wholly lacking.

reckoned from Hierapytna eastward, and

Cretan, usually

from Lappa
But there is no sufficient
the behef that the East, West, and Central Cretan are
^^'est Cretan,

westward, are sometimes employed.

ground for
fundamental divisions

of the dialect, or that

they

reflect to

degree the various constituent elements in the population.

any
The

East and "West Cretan inscriptions, the latter very meager, are comparatively late, and

show a

large degree of obvious koivij influence,

partly Attic, pai'tly the Doric Koiv-q of the other islands.

absence of

many

of the Cretan characteristics

may

The

well be, and

is, due to external influence, which was felt earlier and


more strongly than in Central Crete, where, especially at Gortyna,
most of the peculiarities persisted until Roman times. However, an
actual divei'gence of development, for which external causes are at

probably

least not apparent, is to be recognized in the treatment of eo, which,

instead of becoming
(42.5

nia

c,

(Koer/jL6vre<}

appears as o in close,

also at Aptera, Oleros).

local vaiiations.

period,

lo,

d), e.g. KOfffiovTe;, i-jraivrnfiev, at

it is

But,

if

(o

in open, syllables

Hierapytna, Allaria, Cydo-

There are also a few other

we had ample material from


we should find that in

highly probable that

the early

the main

the characteristics of Central Cretan were also general Ci'etan.

SUEVIVAL OF THE DIALECTS. GEOWTH OF VAEIOUS


FOEMS OF KOINH
274.

in earlier times, but also, in

Not only

long after Attic had become the

employed

its

own

dialect,

of internal concern,

norm

and in those

of a

honor

character, such as decrees in

tian city
is

is

of Greece,

both in private and public monuments

more external

or interstate

of foreigners, decisions of inter-

state arbitration, treaties, and, in general,

different states.

most parts

of literary prose, each state

communications between

Thus, for example, an honorary decree of a Boeo-

in the Boeotian dialect,

no matter whether the

recipient

a citizen of Athens, Delphi, Alexandria, or Tarentum.

Eleans honor Damocrates of Tenedos, the decree


the time (no. 61).

If

is

If the

in the Elean of

Mytilene honors Erythrae, the decree

Lesbian and a copy in this form

is set

up

at Erythrae.

Such

is
is

in

the

usual practice, examples of which could be cited by the hundred,

and any departure from which

A decision of the Argives


lus

is

sions

the exception.

in the Argive dialect (no. 81).

And

so in general such deci-

were regularly rendered in the dialect

inscribed in this form


at

is

in a dispute between Melos and Cimo-

by the

of the arbitrators,

and

states involved in the dispute, usually

home, but sometimes also in one of the great religious

centers,

The extant texts of treaties are, as a rule, in


the dialect of that party in whose territory the text was found, and
it is to be assumed that the version inscribed by the other party in its
home was likewise in its dialect. Thus, for example, the monetary
agreement between Mytilene and Phocaea in the Lesbian version
as

Delos or Olympia.

found at 'Mytilene

Heraea

(in

(no. 21),

the treaty of alliance between Elis and

Arcadia) in the Elean version found at Olympia (no. 58).

In communications between states using different dialects each


party employs

its

own.

For example, when Philip


164

of

Macedon

YAEIOUS F0E:MS of KOINH

275]

155

sends certain recommendations to tlie city of Larissa, he writes in


the Attic KOLvi^, which had long been the language of the Macedonian court, but the decrees which the city passes in response are in

An inscription of Mytilene contains


the text of a decree of the Aetolian league in favor of Mytilene, in

the Thessalian dialect (no. 28).

Aetolian (Xorthwest Greek Koivq) form, a copy of which


had been brought back by the Mytilenaean envoys, followed by a
decree of ilytilene in Lesbian, quoting from the former decree and
ordering the inscription of both. The regulations of the religious
sanctuaries of Greece are drawn up in the dialect of the state which
has direct charge of them, no less in the great Hellenic centers
its original

than in those of local fame.


decree wliich

is

known

So, for example,

an Amphictionic

to us only in the copy set

up

at

Athens

is

in the Delphian dialect.


275. In the period before the rise of Attic as the language of
literary prose,

no one

other dialects except

dialect
\\"ithin

was in a

position even to influence

narrow geographical

Yet

limits.

it is

probable that even then external influence was not wholly absent.

There was no lack of intercourse to awaken consciousness of the


peculiarities of one's

Some

own

dialect as

compared with those

of these pecuharities, especially

with the practice of

all or

nearly

all

of others.

such as were at variance

other dialects, might

come

to

be regarded with disfavor as pro^^ncialisms, and be avoided in

and even in speech, or at least less consistently observed.


For example, the Laconians and the Argives, who were well
aware that under certain conditions they omitted, or pronounced
as a mere breathing, what was a o- in the speech of most other Greeks,
writing,

may have
was a

felt

that this,

unhke some

of their other pecuharities,

sort of weakness, wliich did not deserve to be exploited in

writing.

This would explain the inconsistency in the treatment of

which is to be observed even in the early


inscriptions of Laconia and Argohs, before any specific Attic influence is possible. See 59.1,2. The fact that Arcadian *? and /ca?,
agreeing with Cyprian o-t? and /ca?, are found only in one early
intervocalic

<r

(A or a)

GEEEK DIALECTS

156

inscription (no. 16), while all others have

[278

tU and

Kal,

may

also be

ascribed to the combined influence of the other dialects, just as in

when

a later period,

specific Attic influence is

was replaced by the usual irXeov, in


equally marked peculiarities like Iv
Eleans gave up

more probable,

ttXo?

spite of the fact that other

= iv

The

were unaffected.

even in the sixth century their use of f for the 8

of other dialects,

and

spelling only,

none the

it is

as is likely, this

if,

was a concession

in

less in point.

276. Traces of Ionic influence are seen in the Doric islands,

though the

earliest evidence of this belongs rather to the history

namely the spread of the Ionic H = >? (4.6). It is


not accidental that ev for eo, though occasionally found in contiof the alphabet,

nental Greece,

mainly found, outside of Ionic, in Ehodes, Cos,

In Cos occur such

Thera, etc.

Even

aTToSe^avTco.

show

lalysus

is

in.

the

fifth

specific Ionic

forms as TeXea^ and

century the coins of the Ehodian

'leXva-iov beside 'laXvaiov.

Through the medium

of

the Doric koivt] of the other islands (278), some Ionic peculiarities

have even spread to Crete, e.g. at Itanos ev=eo, eo=ev, and y^peco/ieda.

The Attic

277.

acy of Attic
century

is to

tcoiv^.

In this

B.C.

important as

it is,

of the ultimate

we

refer to

suprem-

something more than the

that in this period Athens

tual center of Greece


prose.

The foundation

be sought in the political conditions of the

became the

and Attic the recognized language

It is within the sphere of influence represented

federacy of Delos and the Athenian empire that Attic

advance as an ordinary

medium

of

Ionic which shows the

first

to lose its identity as a distinct dialect.

first

of literary

made

its first

all dialects

signs of Attic influence

Some

fact,

intellec-

by the con-

communication. Of

it is

fifth

and

is

the

traces of this

influence &ve seen even in the Ionic inscriptions of the fifth century,
especially in the islands,

inscriptions

show

and in the fourth century the majority

at least a

mixture

of Attic forms,

of

and some, even

from the early part of the century, are substantially Attic. After
this,

Ionic practically ceased to exist as a distinct dialect, though

some Ionic

peculiarities are occasionally

found in

much

later times,

VAEIOUS FORMS OF KOINH

278]

157

mostly in proper names and certain conventional words or phrases.


It

this Attic, already well-nigh established in Ionic territory,

and
some respects modified by Ionic, that the Macedonians took up
and spread, and whicb is henceforth termed the Koivrj, or, more
is

in

specifically, the Attic koivij.

The Macedonian

period, indeed, forms the principal

For

the evolution of a standard language in Greece.

landmark in

in

it

the Attic

Kocvq was spread over a vast territory and permanently established


in places

which were

to become leading centers of Greek life. Yet


marking neither the beginning, as we have seen,
the end. Excepting Ionic, and Cyprian, of which we
record, the other dialects, though showing more or

this is only a stage,

nor, still less,

have no later

common

remained in

less Koivi^ influence,

use in inscriptions from

But eventually the koivij


attained complete supremacy both as the written and the spoken
language, and from it is descended Modern Greek. The only .imone to upwards of three centuries

portant exception

is

later.

the present Tsakonian" dialect, spoken in a

small portion of Laconia, which

is

in part the offspring of the

ancient Laconian.

The Doric KOLvq. In most of the Doric dialects Attic influence shows itself, to some extent, even in the fourth century B.C.,
and there was gradually evolved a type of modified Doric which
278.

prevails in the inscriptions of the last three centuries

conveniently

known

as the Doric koiv^. This

retaining a majority of the general

with a tendency to eliminate local

admixture

of

forms from the Attic

West Greek
peculiarities,
koivi].

and the retention

ties, e.g. the infinitive in

-fj-eiv

amply

and

is

characteristics,

but

and with a strong

In spite of some variety

in the degree of mixture,

siderable unity,

B.C.,

substantially Doric,

is

some

of

at Rhodes, there

sufficient to justify

is

local peculiari-

yet a very con-

us in speaking of a

distinct type of kolvti.

That the mixture

is

not a haphazard one

the fact that the substitution of

is

shown, for example, in

el for al, side

tention of Ka, resulting in the hybrid e? a,

is

by

side with the re-

very general, while the

GREEK DIALECTS

158
opposite, al av,

is

unknown.

show the forms

als

Iap6<s is

the Attic

of

replaced

Koivrj, e.g.

[278

by iepo';. The numeraoc. pi. rpeh for t/jw,


elicoai for l/can, recr-

not TeTopei,

reacrepe'; (or Tea-aape<;, TeTTape<;)

aepaKovra (recraapdicovTa, TerrapaKOVTa) for rerpcaKOVTa, ScaKotrioi


etc. for -KaTLoi.

but

In t-stems we usually find

7ro'\to9, 7ro'\te? retained,

Nouns

in -eu? follow the Attic

TToXei, TToXea-i, ace. pi. iroXeif.

type except in the accusative singular,


^aa-iXeh, but ace.

The substitution

TToXeffl? rare.

there

sg. ^acriXr).

of 04, ai for rot,

great variation in this respect, roi

is

infrequently even in the

same

inscription.

uniformly in
-ev9, e.g.

ov,

eft)

also

which have
by the
ending

find inscriptions

Ehod. iyKoXovvrai;

is

etc.

Attic ov from eo

but 'IcroKparev;

etc.

is fre-

(SGDI. 3758),

(SGDI. 3206). Attic a

in verbs than in nouns.

In

dialects

or fetvos etc. (54), such forms are often replaced

Attic, especially in the case of jrpo^evo'i.


-yue? is

frequent, but

which have the verb-forms

'A-pi(TTOfji,eveo<; etc.

more common

^iji'o?

is

ol occurring not

but the genitive singular of c-stems in -eos or

Core. iroioiivTe's etc. but

from

tuC

and

pi.

usual, but Att.

is

In some places, as far apart as

quent, especially in verbs in -em.

Ehodes and Corcyra, we

nom.-acc.

e.g. ^aaiXeco';,

So Att. ^acnXe<o<;

generally replaced

by

-fiev,

though

it

The

first

plural

persists in

some

places.

There are various other Attic forms which are not infrequent,
but

much

less

common than

the dialect forms,

imperative ending -vtcov beside

-vrca, tt/jcoto?

e.g. (Sv

beside emv,

beside Trpdroi, Trpo?

Many of the dialectic peculiarities persist with scarcely

beside ttotl.

any intrusion

of the corresponding Attic forms, e.g.

= Att.-Ion.

Ka, verb forms like SlScoti, (pepovTi, Doric future, future

in f (142),

dfie<;

povai are almost

etc.

Att.

r],

dv,

and verb-forms

unknown except

Attic KOivr) as a whole

and

tj,

aorist

like SiScoai,

<f)e-

when

the

in the very last stages

is practically established,
a is sometimes
tMrd century a.d., but only as a bit of local
color, perhaps artificial, in what is otherwise the Attic Koivrj.
279. The Northwest Greek Koivri. This is very similar to the
Doric Koivrj, showing about the same mixture of Attic with West

found as

late as the

VAEIOUS FORMS OF KOINH

279]

Greek forms. But

most

it differs

from

it

characteristic features of the

compared with Doric, namely eV


sonant stems in

-ot?.

The use

ia that

it

159

retains

Northwest Greek

two

= ek, and the dative plural

of this type is closely

the political power of the Aetolian league.

We

of the

dialects as
of con-

connected with

find

it

employed,

in the third century B.c. and later, in Aetolia and in all decrees

Western Locris (Naupactus was incorB.C., the rest of Western Locris somewhat later), Phocis (Delplii was in the hands of the Aetolians by
at least 290 B.C.), the land of the Aenianes, Malis and Phthiotis,

of the Aetolian league, in

porated in the league in 338

which became Aetohan in the course of the third century B.C.


Without doubt it was also used in Doris, from which we have no
material, and in Eastern Locris. In Boeotia, which was in the
Aetolian league but a short time (245-234 B.C.), it was never
employed, though there are some few traces of its influence (222).
The only extant decrees of Cephallenia and Ithaca, of about
200 B.C., are in this same Northwest Greek koiv^, reminding us
that Cephallenia, of which Ithaca was a dependency, was allied
all of

with the Aetolians (Polyb. 4.6). Parts of the Peloponnesus were


also for a time under Aetohan domination, and the characteristic
dative plural in -ots is found in Arcadia, Messenia (also iv = ek),

and Laconia.
(\t/ieVots

There

is

one example even as far away as Crete

SGDL4942 6; 159-138

B.C.),

but clearly an importation.

Aetolians had taken part in the internal wars of Crete, and Cretans
had served in the armies of both the Aetolian and the Achaean
leagues (Polyb. 4.53).

The

inscriptions

Achaea, including

of

this

decrees

period from Acarnania, Epirus, and


of

the

Acarnanian,

Epirotan,

and

leagues, are not in the Northwest Greek Kotvrj as de(they do not have iv = el<:, or the dative plural of
above
fined
consonant stems in -ot?), but in the Doric koivij. At this time

Achaean

and Epirus was not essentially


Corcyra, nor that of Achaea from that of

at least the speech of Acarnania

from that of
Sicyon.
and
Corinth

different

GREEK DIALECTS

160

[280

In the Arcadian inscriptions of this period the native Arcadian


forms are wholly or in part replaced by West Greek forms, and
this is probably
K0IV1J of the

of

due in large part to the influence of the Doric

Achaean

But the Aetolians

league.

also held parts

Arcadia for a time, and, as noted above, there are some exam-

ples of the dative plural in

Greek

-oi<;

borrowed from the Northwest

Koivrj.

Some more

280.

upon the time and extent

detailed observations

have been made in connec-

of Koivrj influence in the various dialects

Summaries

tion with the

of Characteristics (180-273),

and in the

notes to some of the late inscriptions.

What

has just been noted in the case of the Doric Koivri

in all dialects, namely, that of the dialectic peculiarities

given up

much

earlier

than others. Furthermore

usual to find hybrid forms, part dialectic, part


future with Attic ov, as troirja-ovvn

contamination of a? and

fUan

and

e'Uoa-i,

eco?,

etc.

Heracl.

it is

feiicaTi,

a contamination of

Boeot. eKjovoK

with dialectic case-ending, but Attic ex- (pure Boeot.


pi. yivofievof;

(pure Thess.

'yivv/ievo';),

but Attic stem

e<op-

Doric

Boeot. aws, a

Boeot. ^uxovffi with dialectic present stem and

personal ending, but Attic ^ (pure Boeot. SauovOi),

Thess. ace.

true

nothing xm-

Koivrj, e.g.

frequently,

is

some are

i(ry6v(o<;),

with dialectic case-ending, but Attic stem

from

Epid.

eiopr)

with Doric ending -rj from

-ae,

*^o'/3-.

Besides such hybrids, hyper-Doric or hyper-Aeolic forms are


occasionally

met with in late inscriptions, though less often than


Thus the Attic term e(f>ri^o<; (with original

our literary texts.


cf.

Dor. rj^a),

when adopted

the pseudo-dialectic form

in
t),

was sometimes given


in some late Doric and Les-

in other dialects,

e<j)a^o<;, e.g.

bian inscriptions, in imitation of the frequent equivalence of dialectic

to Attic

T).

Conversely the Attic form was sometimes

retained in opposition to
lent, as in

Doric

'KpaicXrji!

on Cret.

what would be

Boeotian usually

and

IIvtio<;, 63.

its

e<j>ri^o<;,

its

true dialectic equiva-

rarely e<^et/3os.

derivatives keep

t)

Similarly the

in Boeotian.

Cf. also

VARIOUS FORMS OP KOINH

280]

In

Eoman

161

imperial times the antiquarian interest in local dia-

lects is reflected in the revival of their use in parts of

for

some two

centuries previously the Attic Koivrj

eral use, at least in inscriptions.

Lesbian

(cf.

no. 24), Laconian

(cf.

So, for

Greece where

had been

in gen-

example, in the case of

nos. 70-73),

and

to

some extent
first and

in Elean, where examples of rhotacism reappear in the

second centuries A.D. It

is

whether this was a wholly

impossible to determine in every case


artificial revival of

long ceased to be spoken, or was an

a dialect which had

artificial elevation to

written

use of a dialect which had survived throughoiit the interval as a


patois.

The

nos. 70-73).

latter is true of

But

for

most

Laconian

dialects

(see 277, end,

and note

we have no adequate

as to the length of their survival in spoken form.

to

evidence

PART
The brief

SELECTED INSCRIPTIONS

II:

introductory statement to each inscription gives

its

provenance

and approximate date, with references to several of the most important

The

lections.

extensive bibliographies in these collections

col-

make it unneces-

numerous special discussions in periodicals etc., except


few recently discovered inscriptions. For the abbreviations

sary to cite the


in the case of a

employed, see pp. 281

References to the collections are by the numbers

ff.

of the inscriptions, unless otherwise stated, while those to periodicals are

by pages.
It has

seemed unnecessary to

the alphabet

is

state in the case of every inscription

the epichoric or the ordinary Ionic, since this

is

whether

generally

It may be
taken for granted, unless otherwise stated, that inscriptions of the fifth cen-

obvious from the date given, as well as from the transcription.

tury B.C. or earlier are in the epichoric alphabet, those of the fourth cen-

Hence comments on the form of the alphabet


employed are added only in special cases.

tury B.C. or later in the Ionic.

The

transcription of texts in the older alphabet

is

a matter of editing.

The

signs

no matter whether the later spelling


e, o.

The

spiritus asper,

leaving the use of

'

the following signs

when

is

rj, to

is

such as to give the

in the original

or , ov, are transcribed simply

expressed in the original,

as a matter of editing.
is

is

and what
E and 0, when representing long vowels,

student some assistance, without confusing what

is

transcribed

A,

The use

of

See p. 49, footnote.

to be noted.

no longer

[ ]

for restorations of letters

< >

for letters inscribed

( )

for 1) expansion of abbreviations, 2) letters omitted

legible.

by mistake, and

to

be ignored by the reader.

by mistake,

Obvious corrections are given thus, without


adding the original reading. Less certain corrections are sometimes
commented on in the notes, with citation of the original reading, as
3) corrected letters.

are also obscure readings due to the mutilation of the letters.

often this

is

not done,

it

But

being thought unnecessary in a work of this

kind to repeat the full critical apparatus of other


a lacuna, where no restoration is attempted.

- - - - for

163

collections.

GfiEEK DIALECTS

164
.

for a similar lacuna

where

it is

[No. 1

desired to show, at least approxi-

mately, the number of missing letters, each dot standing for a


ter.

let-

In general, these are employed only for short lacunae.

for the beginning of each

new

line in the original.

for the beginning of every fifth line in the original.


I

for the division

between the obverse and reverse

sides, or

between

col-

Used only where the text

imans.

is

printed continuously.

Ionic
East Ionic

Sigeum. Early VI cent. b.c. SGDI.5531. Hicks 8. Hoffmann III.


Michel 1313. Koberts 42 and pp.334fE. The second version (B) is

1.

130.

in Attic.

^avoSiKO

efjkl

Topfji,oK\pdTeo<i

to

TlpoKovvrj^alo

Kpr)Trjp\a he

KaX

10 vTTOKiprjTTJpiov kIuI Tjd fiov ?

lApvTavrjLov

eBcoKev ^[lyelevo'ijv.
II

B
5

<^avoSiKO

Tepa

eifil

to H^epfiOKpaTot to 'n.poKo(y)\ve(rio- Kayo xpa-

KairiaTaTov KaX he&^jMV

e?

irpVTaveiov elSoKa fivefia 2f-

10 7e(t)|e)crt,

ehv Se

n 7rao-j^|o, fieXeSaivev

fie,

xai fi

o St^etes.
|

e7ro||(ie)-

aev HatVoTTO? xal haSe\<j)oi.


1.

Monument of Phanodicus of Proc-

ences are due merely to the absence of

onnesus, recording his gift of a mix-

signs for

and a winestrainer, to the Sigean prytaneum. The


pillar was prepared and furnished with

or are accidental, as

ing bowl, a stand for

its

it,

Ionic inscription at Proconnesus,

which was a colony of Miletus. The


Attic version was added at Sigeum,
which was already at this time occupied by Athenians.
The divergence between A and the
corresponding portion of

is

partly

due to the normal differences of dialect, e. g. Ion. KpriTrjpa with i; after p,


irpvrav^utv = Att. irpvTaveTov^ and TopliOKpireos with psilosis and consequent
crasis and unoontracted -eos in contrast
to Att. TO Hfp/WKpirSs. So iwoKpifT'^piov,
in contrast to Att. iTrla-Tarov, is an Ionic
form found elsewhere. Other differ-

ri

and w

in the Attic alphabet,

where the spelling


date

is

ei

efi,l

in A,

etfU in

B,

at such an early

as exceptional in Attic as

it

would be in

Ionic, or dat. pi.

A,

where the use of v movaboth dialects.

ble

-euo-i

is

8.

in B,

-eSa-iv

in

"variable in

Decree of the council of Halicar-

nassians and Salmacitians and Lygda-

mis regarding disputes over real estate.


Lygdamis is the tyrant who drove Herodotus into exile and whom a revolution eventually expelled from the city.
It is probable that this inscription dates

from a period when the citizens had


arisen and restored the exiles, but had
come to terms temporarily with Lygdamis. The disputes would then be
concerning the property of the former

IONIC INSCRIPTIONS

No. 2]

165

2. Halicarnassus. Before 454 B.C. SGDI.5720. Ditt.Syll.lO. Greek


Inscr.Brit.Mus.iyi.886. Hicks 27. Hoffmann III.171. Inscr.Jurid.I,pp.
Iff.

acter

MicheUSl. Roberts 145 and pp. 339 ff. Solmsen45. For the charT, see 4.4. Letters which, though now lacking, are found in Lord

Charlemont's copy, are printed without the marks of restoration.


Ta'Se o <7i5\Xo[7]o? i/SoXevaaro

Kol AvySafiK iv

Ki\Tea>v

7re'/x||7rTijt

larafievo,

e-rrl

riji

'

A\iKapvaT[eca']v kuI ^aXfjiaayopi)i,

'7rapa\SiS6\yail nrjTe yfjv fiijTe

i'e|[(B7r]ot[a).

toI<;

ot/;[i]|a]

\a)\viSea) to AvySdiJ.io<; iJ,V7)fiove\vovTO<;

'^piJ.aiaivo<;

fir}vo<;

to 'OaraTto?

7rpv\Tav[evov]TO<;

Ae'oi'TO?

2a[jOiiT]wX\o to e/cutXco

/ca|[i]

te/3'>j[t]

fivi^fiovai

tJo<;

'AttoX-

fivijfioa-iv iirl

yrj<i

Il[a'\\vvcvrio^.

r^v

tk

Se

aSo<; iyeveTO

av

otIi]

voficoi

elBeeocnv,

tovto

OT[eo]

cnr

fiTjcrlv

Se OTa7r[e]||jO vvv o/)K6o<t>o-(a)t

ol fivijfiove<!

15

deXrjt EiKci^elcrdai irepl

oiKiav, e7rtaX[e]|T(B iv oKTcoKaiSexa

rj

10

koI Tlavafivio to Katr/SmlX-

Xt09 Kal 'EaXfiaKiTemv ixvr}\iJ.oveu6vTO)v MeYa/Sarea) to ' AM)vdaio<;

Koi ^opfiLavo<; to

firj

SiKaa-Td<!

to<;

KapTepov evai.

rjv

20

Se rt?

vaTepov

eTTiKaXfji

tovto to

'X^povo

tmv oKTcoKaiBeKa
I

firjvwv,

opxov

evai

"7J]a)i

exiles

(cf.

nowhere

vefJLOfievmi Trjy yfjv


no. 22),

although this

rj

is

Salmacis was a town

stated.

merged with Halicarnassus,


and reptesented with it by a common
council, though still retaining its own
ofBcials. Halicarnassus was originally
Doric, but had already become Ionic in
speech. Many of the proper names are

partially

to, ot/i;|[i]a,

opKov he

SiKaa-Tat 25

to<s

be only tentative and subject to further litigation. The phrase used in


1. 30 'whenA. andP. werecommission-

has reference to future suits, and


not inconsistent with the view that

ers'
is

these men constituted the incoming


hoard at the time of the decree.
16 fi. 'Any one wishing to bring suit

'The mnemones or commission-

must prefer his claim within eighteen


months of the time of the decree. The

ers are not to transfer lands or houses

dicasts shall administer the oath (to

incoming board consisting of


ApoUonides and his colleagues. That
is,
apparently, property which had
been in the hands of the commissionto be turned over to

the one bringing suit) in accordance


with the present law. Whatever the
commissioners have knowledge of (e.g.
through their records) shall be valid.'
22 ff. 'If one prefers a claim after
the prescribed period, the one In pos-

the presumptive owners instead of to

session of the property shall take the

of Carian origin.
8

ff.

to the

'

ers for settlement, or perhaps in sequestration,

the

was now

new board,

in order to secure

an

immediate disposal of these matters,


even though this might in many CEies

oath (that

is,

he shall have the prefer-

ence in taking the oath


dpKnirepos in th

cf

the use of

Gortynian Law-Code),

GEEEK DIALECTS

166

rbv Se opicov el\v\ai Trapeovro'; to evearr)-

^fiL\[e]KT0V 6e^a//.eVo9
30 KOTO'S
'

K\apTepo<;

elvai jfj^ Kal

8'

[No. 2

A.iToXKiovC8r)<i Kal Ilava\iivrji eiJivr}p,6vevov, el

tov vojxov tovtov

paa-av.

Sa-Te

33 \{rfj(f>ov

fir)

rjV
|

Til

tot el^ov OTe

oIkIcov oItivc^

||

va-Tepo\v aireire-

firj

deXrji avyx^ai,

7r;OO0^Ta|[i]

rj

avTO

elvai tov v6p,o^ tovtov, to, iovTU

Kal tcottoXXcovo'; elvai lepa Kal a\vTOV <f}evyev aleC-

ada>

ireirpr]-

he

rjv

fir]

a^ia SeKa

avT\S)i

fji

40

Kal

iJ,7i[B]\\a/JLa

o-TaTijpcov,

'

Se TO}(T crlvfnrdvTcov TOVTcoi eXevdepov i^ai, 09 av

KaT^^ep

45 ^aivTji,

opKia eTa/iov Kal

to,

a>s

"OffTt?

iSicoTTji,

Klevov airoXXvaOai Kal

ddXaaaav

KaT\a

irapa-

fnfj

al^^vrbv

rj

KaT

fjireipo^

Hoffmann 111.105.
to ^vvov ^

lUrjiouTi^

hrfXriTr^ia iroiol eirl

<l)dpfiaKa

Kal lyeVo? to Kevo.

e? yrjv TTjV TrjiTjV K\a)Xvoi criTOV eadyecrOai


10

TavTa

yeypain'^ai ev tSu 'AttoX-

3. Teos. About 475 B.C. SGDI.5632. Hicks 23.


Michel 1318. Roberts 142 and pp.336 f. Solmsen42.

5 eir

i^aymjrii

AXiKapvaaaecav

iiriKaXev

X(B[i/t']cot

eV

avTov [ir^eTrprjadai

KtidoSov elvai e? 'A\iKapv\ria-<T6v.

TS'^yrji

rj

rj

6(TTi<i
|

firj'x^av'^i 17

ecraxdevTa aveodeoirj, kSi^ov

rj

airoXXvadai Kal avi'^v Kal y eve's to Kevo.

[1,

2 fragmentary] octti? Trjicov e^udlvvooi

6 deo^(ir])

eiraviCTTalTO

rj

{rj

ala-v[^fi]vi]Tr)i [aTret-

aiavfAvrjTrji), airoXXva-dai

Kal

avTOV

II

The

dicasts shall administer the oath,

allowed to return.'

41

ff.

'Of

all

the

who does not

receiving a twelfth of a stater as fee,

Halicarnassians any one

and the oath

taken In the
Those who
held the property when ApoUonides
and Panamyes were commissioners

transgress these things such as they


have sworn to and as is recorded in
the temple of Apollo, shall be at liberty

shall be the legal possessors, unless they

tQv

shall he

presence of the plaintiff.

have disposed of
o-ttv:

it later.'

airir4pa-

d7ro7rrpio-Kai,notfound elsewhere.

32ffl.

'

If

any one wishes to annul this

law or proposes a vote to this

effect, his

property shall be sold and dedicated


to Apollo,

and he himself

exile forever.

worth ten

If his

staters,

shall be

property

is

an
not

he himself shall be

sold for transportation

and never be

to prefer claims.'

two- o-unirdvTuv

(runrdiiTay. 96.2.

3.

Imprecations against evil-doers,

A1

ff.

Against those

turepoisons.

who manufaCT

t6|dv6v: adv.acc.,osa

community.
6 ff. Against those who
interfere with the importation of grain,

avuScolt]:

contrasted with

7roiorl.2.

See 42.6, 1676.


B3fl. Againstthosewhoresisttheau-

thority of the magistrates.

The

eOSuKos

IONIC INSCRIPTIONS

No. 4]

Koi

TO

76110?

7rpo8o[t7;

[iv

v]\\i]a-o}i

ap(Sp)[a]<i

to

0a[Xao-(77ji]

rj

a[7ro]T|ei'et[e]

KaX 7jjv]

TTjly] 7ro'|\[ti'

.]

outj? to Xoitto alcrv/Avcov iv Tewt ^

Keiv\o.

[aSiK](<o)9

Trj\\^r)i

167

ttjv 'Y7){\a>v

\oivo TrpoSo[irj

.]

Ki^a]\X\evoi

rj

rj

dvSpa<:

ap6[p]r]i irepl 15

7r6[Kiv

[etS]|(B9 lo

To\y<s]

rj

eV

fiere

jfji ttii

apov va

(|a\X,a?

VTrollSe- 20

j^otTO

Xrji^oiTO

17

X]77tcrTo? inrohe')(piTO et|Sa>?

r)

[^]|a\aT7/9 KJiepovTw;

17

^vpo

elSa><;

"EXXiyva?

7r[po<;]

rj

^laiv

ei'

Kat

^ap^dpo\v'i, airoXXvcrOai

oiTive<: Tifioj(^eovTe<s

11

Tr/v eiraprfv

^ KUTU^ei

ve^a<} TTOtijo-et,

kSvov

a7ro'X||Xv<70(Zi

V cent. B.C.

rj

jjut]

<^oiv\t,Krjia iKKO^yfrei

Kai avTov KaX

7|ei'09

30

'Hpa-

09 av Ta(?) crT^Xla?,

A.ioia-iv, iv T^Trapfl\\i e^x^ecrdai.

rjirapr) yeyp\a7rTai,

4. Chios.

rffi Trjirj'i

Svvdp.ei Kadr/fievlo TcoyS)vo<i ' AvdecrTTjpiokaiv Kal

7rot770-ea|i' eTrl

KXeoicrtv

to Kevo.

ryevo'i

ttjOo?

97

KUL av^Tov Koi

ew 7^?

K]\aK6v ySouXeuoi irepl T[r}i]\\(ov to 25

[ti

rj

rj

35

d<f>a-

\to Kevo].

40

Hoffmann 111.80. Michel 1383.

SGDI.5653.

Roberts 149 and pp.843 ff. Solmsen 41.


-09
T/3e9

airo TOVTO p-ixP''

TpidSo,

\jV'^'\

'9

rj

'^ffficovocraav [^Jle/aet,

diro T7J9 TpioSo d[')(\^i 'Epfi(ov6crarj<; 69 Trjv TpioSAov e^9

cnrb TovTo /^^/ot to

AtjXi'o

T/3e9

avvTravTe^

TMV

opcov TOVTCov

Kl\r}t,

7179 7ro'Xe(i)9,

^dvTcov

8'

tovtoiv eWco, irdcra

opa)i'

''''^''

0(717

i^eXrji

rj

iKUTOV

o^o(f)vXaK<;

must have been a superior

official like

ixe6eXr)l

rjv

Se /i^

official to

The

often an extraordinary

the

Roman

dictator,

but

8ff.

Against unfaithful and treason-

able magistrates.
11.

8-18

is

The

uncertain.

magistrates

who

imprecations.

fail to

The

restoration of

29

ff.

Against
prob-

ably the regular annual magistrates,


like the

ov:

archons elsewhere.

iroiijo-eioj'.

Ka6T]|i4vo

31.

iroi'/)o-e-

Svvdftci: see 109.2.

Tu^uvo; ktX.

'

ti^ TJItva 10

eV

dhi-

during the

o^etXoVTtuli',

assembly at the Anthesteria, etc'


ff.
Against those who damage the

stele.

Kard^ci

etc.:

aor. subj.

150,

176.2.
4.

Decree fixing the boundaries of

a district called Lophitis, followed by


provisions for

its sale

and a

list

of the

purchasers.

FortheLesbianelementsintheChian
184 with references. For

pronounce the

ti;oOxoi are

avTot

7rj097|f ottrti',

35

possibly a regular magistrate at Teos.

rjv

A.o(J>Iti<!.

d\<^avea iroirjcrei

rj

a\TaTripa<i o^eiXeroi) oTt|Uo9 e<TT<o, irprj- 15

the ordinary cWukoi or auditors.


alaviiviTTji is

rj

i^So/iiJKOVTa

oplot

irevTe.

dialect, see
irpijloio-ii',

short-vowel subj. like Troiiio-ei,

For

see also 150.


/Sao-tXeis

eo

(C 8)

eu (33).

is

7r6Xeus, see 109.2.

the earliest example of

GREEK DIALECTS

168

[No. 4

20 TrpTj^dvTfov 8' ol 'KevTe\KaiBeKa to? opo<^v\aKa's

?
5

[ol

20

on

T0<;

jMrj

Trprj^oi-

Trevr

'

rjfjLe-

Se Krj^vKa<; hia'ire\fi-^avTe<; e? rja? X(opa<; Kr)[p'^viT-

KaU Sia

10 (TOVTcav

T^v

^o\rj[v iv]\eiKdvTa>v [iv]

e?

7r[|e]i'Tea[t Se:]|a

j07;[t]||o-ti'

15

Se

rjv
||

iv eVIajO^t earwv.

(TLv,

rrj'i

aSrjvea^

7ro'\|e(B9

a7roSewi'|Te?

'ye7(BJ'eoi'Te|?,
|

^/U.edl?;!', 17J/ ai/ Xa/Sojltcriz',

Kcti

to

TrpoffK^rjpvcrcrovToov,

7r\pfj')(^fUl

a/M fieWrjlli irprj^eaOai

25 o-olz/e?

Kar/SiKaadv^rcov rpiTiK0(7^i(ov

'\da-

f/,r)

avrjpi6SjT0i eoVre?.

[^v Se Tik To^

Ofievoi

-Trpiafievo'i a-TroKXi^iWiji]

7r[o']\t? he^afi[e\v\r]

7)

ScKd[^riTai, to? a7roK\|77]t-

rj

BiKa^eadco Kav

5 Tail Se 7r/Jta[/U.]||eV(t jrprj'X^fia ecTTCO fiTjSev.

Tea[?]

TTOlrjl,,

KaT auT[o]

eirapdcrdoi

av

[v]\Trepa7roS6Tco

to,'! irprjiri';

ySacrtXeo'?,

o(J)\t]1,

[o]]?

eirrjv

aicpa-

Ta<i

vo-

/u.[a]|ia?

eTrapaf TroirjTai.

Ta? 7ea? koI

10

Sav

'I/ce'crto?

15 KOVTCOV,

11

ot/ci<e>a[?]

to,^

KoX oKTUKOcricov [iirj^rd

'

'H[/3o8o']to

7ra[t]-|

ray

K.ap,ifj,iJT]i

to, ip, M.'e\aLVr][i\

Bia[?]

['X^eiXicov eva\Koaia)V

toi'

iirraKoo'imv

j^eiXt'[a)]|i'

/i;o[t]||z'07ri'S7;?

K^^to?

25 '^eXioiv eTrTaK\oa-ia)V evevrjKOVTCov

twv 'Avviko)

ZrjvoSoTO tclv [^'^vdhrjicriv BLa'x^eiXimv

4>t\oKX'j?

20 i[7r]\TaKOCTi(ov, @eo'7r/307ro?

iirpiavTo

H7e7ro'Xfo? '7r\evTaKicT')(eiXieov Tpi,T]K[o']\a icov Te(ra-[ep']a'

' A6['r]'\^va'y[6']p[ri'\';

apye\eo[<;'\

||

x^[e\k\uov

'Akttji Tpia-

'Ao-kS.

Aev:|(7r7ro?

UvBo)

tII^I'

oIkCt)V

10 t[^]|j' 'Ai'SjOeo? 7r[e]]i'TaK0trta)i' Trlez/TT^/co'i'TtBi'

Si'aii'

"Acr/xto?

15 TTO/iTTO? 'A|7i'ato rai' Oi.'|(Bt )(eLkicov T\pir]KO<riaiv Slexcov

aio TO $^\|(Bi/o? 2T/3aT[i|o]? AfCTftj

'Inthecaseof alawsuit(5r/)^X*'),

the Fifteen are to bring

it

council within five days and

before the

make pub-

announcement of it in the villages


and in the city.'
C 1-8. If any one excludes the pwrchasers from possession or brings suit
against them, the city, taking up the
lie

cause of those that are excluded, shall


sustain the suit, and, if
Ifv^rse

them.

it loses,

The purchaser

reim-

shall he free

Svaip

11

@eo''I|ke-

TOi|[o']7re8oi' 8t7;K|[o]o-t(Bi/ ew'?.

from litigation. Whoevermakesthe sales


invalid, him shall the jSao-iXeiis curse,
when he makes the customary imprecortions.
lOS. There purchased lands and
houses: from the sons of Annices, Hi-

eesius,
ters),

son of Hegepolis, for BS40 {staAthenagoras, son of Herodotus,

for 1700; from Thargeleus, Fhilocles,


son of Zenodotus, the property in Eua-

dae for S700;


811s

etc.

koI OlvoirlSm.

19, 20.

Kolvoir(-

IONIC INSCEIPTIONS

No. 7]

About 357

5. Errthrae.

Hoffmann

rrji.

^ov\[rji kuI rmi

MoXacrjea,

elvai eoepyeTrjv tjj?

Koi eairXovv koI eKirXovv

7r]epl ttjv iroXiv rr)V

[TroXJem? kuI irpo^evov koI 5

7roXi'|[Tjji']

M]ava-(rQ)'K.Xo[v 'E];aT[o'-

S-tjficoi

av^p aya66<i [iye\veTO

iirel

'E/>u||[^pai]a)j/,

Hicks 134.

Ditt.Syll.107.

Michel 501.

III. 96.

["ESo^ev]
fJ-vo)

SGDI.5687.

B.C.

169

[/cat] TroXe/to

koX

elprjvr)^

a(TvKe\i
|

/cat] aa-rrovBei,

koI areXeiav a[i

elvai a6\[Ta)i\ Kal iKyovoK.

iv

riji a\[yopr)]i

Kal

||

a-rrjaai Se a[6\T0 K]at

'ApTefiia-iT)<:

elKOva

raora Se

TrploeSpiijv

eUdva

10

y^aXKrjv

[kiOiJvrjV iv tmi 'KB-q|

vaimi, Kai

[aretfi^avaiaai
||

Kovra,

Kal

e(9) <TrriKri\y
|

MavcraaXXov

fiev

[e'/c

Sap^etKcov irevTrj-

Se eK rpiijKOVTa Sape[i\Ka)v.

'ApTe\[fJ.t(7irjv']

ro 'AdTjvaiov,

o-tjjo-oJi e?

[eVt/ieX7;^](77)i'ai [Se 20
||

Tou? eferacTTa?].
Central Ionic

6. Naxos. Found at Delos. VII or early VI cent. B.C.


HofemannIII.30. Michel 1150. Roberts 25. Solmsen46.

^iKcivSpr)

fj.'

aveOiKev heKTjfioXoi

^hpdhao

7. ISTaxos. Found at Delos. YII or


Hoffmann III.33. Roberts 27.

[rjo
5.

Decreeinhonorof Maussolus, the

memory

the

famous Mausoleum was erected by

his

satrap of Caria, to whose

widow Artemisia.
6.

15

See 136.9.
Inscribed on an archaic statue of
fl.

Artemis found at Delos.

and

and for

from

is

used as

but not for


original 17. See 4.6, 8 a. In Acivodlicrio
and a{X)\-^oi/ the endings, as the meter
A

he,

rj

Homer. See 41.4. The character which appears before 0- in NaAffio


etc. is D, probably only a difierentiated form of B, though some take it

a(\)Xriuv,
S" aXo)(^6<;

VI

cent. b.c.

v[yv].

SGDI.5421.

a<^eXa<;.

as a sign for f

and transcribe

Nafo-io

etc.

On

7.

the base of a colossal statue

of Apollo at Delos, dedicated

I am of the same stone,

ians.

pedestal.
8.

a,

shows, have the value of one syllable,


like eu in

early

apvTO XiOo e/u avSpia<; Kal ro

SGDI.5423.

io')(eaipr}i,

lop-q Aeivo^SiKTjO ro NaAcrio, hao')(0<;

Aeivofieveoi Se Kacnyverrj,

For Afvro

by Naxand

statue

see 32.

Burial law directed against ex-

travagance in the funeral

rites, like

those enacted at Athens under Solon,

and at Sparta under Lycurgus.


'With two exceptions (ffdi'i;!,
d^i)

is

used only for the

a (or from
8

ci.

15

ypd-^^ai raora

ea,

as

hr-fiv, e&r]).

1;

Stapai/-

from

See 4.6,

GREEK DIALECTS

170

Last quarter

8. lulls in Ceos.

v6[/j,]oi irepl

TOP Oavovra

ev

rwy

Kara

T/3|t]cri

efii,aTio[c?

T]dSe 0d[7rT]ev
|

aal iv8vfiaTi

\evKol<;, crrprnfiaTi

Kal iv i\da-[a]oa[i,

SGDI.

Micliel398.

Inser.Juri(i.I,pp.lOfe.

KaTa(})0iix[e]va)[v.

e]7rt/3\e/iaTt, i^epai Be

5 [Kal

IGr.XII.v.i.593.

cent. B.C.

5398. Dltt.'SyU.877. HoffmannIII.42.


Solmsen47. Ziehen, LegesSaorae 93.

OtSe

[No. 8

TrXeovo'i a^i-

/i||e]

OK

rpLal eKarov

TOi<;

[K]\al

7ro[S]t

Se olvov eirl to

<l)pev

'ir\eo\y\

10 P'S

Kokvirrev,

/te

\^epev

to,

ev6\<;,

ex<f>epev Be

Sp[a\x]lJ'e(ov.
to,

Se

K\.ivr)i a-^rjvo-

6\[o]a-xep[e]a Tot[? e/taT]|iot?.

S'

[/a]e

(rrjfjba

iy

TpiS)V

[TrXe'oi']
|

x^v

rov 6av6\y'\Ta

ajyyela airojiepeaOai.

||

KJaraKeKaXvfifjLevov

a-KOTrrji P-eypi

to

[iirl

Kal eXaiov

irpo-

(r~\rjfia.
|

T^qy kXivtjv airo To\y]

a<f>a'YLa}i [y^^pecrOai KaTo, to, 'n\aTpi\a.

[jit]aTo[?]
15

KOI T[a]

crlTpSJ/jbaTU ecr(j)epev

Trji

ai^-

Se va:Tepai\r]i

ahr]opaLvev Tr)V olKirjv iXevffepov 6aXd[(TcrTj\i] TrpwTov, eireiTa S[e]


vadnrcov o[lK]eT7][v i/jL^]\dvTa
oIkitjv

20

evBoae.

TO

KOI OvT] 6vev

eTrrjV

Se Biapavdrib, Kadaprjv evat ttjv

ra? yvvaiKai

e(^t'[a-Tt|a.]

to,';

[r|oucr[a]9

ainevai TrpoTepa<; twv {av)avBpa>v airb [tov]

Ki)S[o';']

[c'JttI

arjfiaTo<;.
||

T&i Oavovn

eiri

Tj0t7jKo'o"T[ta fie

Tr]oiev.

fie

inroTidevai kiiXiku vtto

TTfy [^KXiMrfV fjiiSe to vScop eK'X^ev fieSe to. KaXXv[c7fj,d]^Ta <j>epev

TO afjfia.

CTTt

OTTOV

25 7r[/oo]? T[r)V orVjcirjV

av

Odvrji, eirrfly e]|^ew;;^^et, fie levai yvvaiKa<;

aXXa9

ra?

fiiaivofieva';

fiia\lve(T6'^aL Se

Tepa Kal yvvaiKa Kal aSe[X(^eA? K\a]l dvjaTepa'i

yvvaiKwv,

fie 7r[\e'oi' 7r|e']i'Te

neath the corpse, one wrapped about


it, and one over it.'
7. (le KaXiirrev

ktK.

they are not to use a special cov-

-.

ering for the bier, but cover


bier

all,

the

and the corpse, with the cloths

before mentioned.
12.

irpo(r(t>a7t(i)i

perform the

9.

ancestral custom.'

x^v: see 112.6.

kt\..

sacrifice

'they are to

according to the

By the law of

Solon

was forbidden.
and the coverings,

the sacrifice of an ox

13

f.

The

bier

like the vessels

(1.

10), are to

tt/oo?

fiTf-

Se ra^rat?

iralBat: Se t\S)v 6'\vy\aTpS)v K\a\ve:<^l,S)V,

'a clotli under-

o-TpdjioTi kt\.-.

3.

be brought

liome,.instead of being left at the tomb,

15

f.
The house is to be purified
with sea-water by a free man, then
with hyssop by a slave. But the resto'

first

'

uncertain,

ration

d[i/c]^r)[<' ^;itj3]tlKra is

At Athens ceremonies

20.

of the
third,

in honor
dead were performed on the
ninth, and thirtieth days. The

last are expressly


21.

forbidden here.

Directed against certain supersti^

tiouspraotices,thesignificanceofwhich
is

not clear.

27.

rairais

due to Attic influence.

dat. in -ais

IONIC INSCEIPTIONS

No. 12]

aXXov

Se fi[]8eva.

171

tov'; /ita[{i'o/ie'||i'ov?] \ova-afievov[<;]

[{JSarJo? [xjvo-i Ka[6ap]ov'i evai eco

30

West Ionic (Euhoean)

VII

9.

SGDI.5292. Rev.Arch. 1902 1,41 ff.

cent. B.C.

iwoieaev

'n.v{p)po<; IX

'

AyaaiXif 5.

10. Cumae in Italy. Yl


mann III.6. Roberts 173.

Taraies
11.

III.4.

X|epv0o?

e/il

cent. b.c.

Ao?

8'

dv

IG.XIV.865.

/jLe

SGDI.5267. Hoff-

/cXe<^cr|et, 0v(j)Xov ea-rai.

Cumae in Italy. VI cent. b.c. IG.XIV.871. SGDI.5269. Hoffmann


Roberts 177 a.

hviri) rei

Solmsen48.

xXivei Tovrei Aevo? hvirv.

12. Amphipolis.

357 B.C. SGDI.5282. Ditt.Syll.113. Hicksl25. Hoff-

mann III.14. Michel 324. Solmsen49.


ESofei'

Tftjt

Kal Trjy

Xi\v

TratSa?, koL
vriTTOLveX

hrjiimi

$i'|A,Q)i'a

rifj,

'A/i^iVo-

reOvdvai, rd he y^prjixaT avrcbv ^Tifioaia etvai, to


|

\lrri<f)i^ei 17

auTO

'AlTro'XXftji/os

Koi to

'^TfJkifj-ovo';.

e(?) <rTi]Xrjv Xidivrjv.

tovto?

:aTa8||ej^j;Tat
S7;/i|o'o-ta eo-TO)

not stated. Probably manu-

factured in Boeotia by a Chalcidian

?;

to';

Se Tt? to

-^i/
|

TeYi"!??!

Kal aiiTO^

9. On a lecythus, now in the Boston


Musemn of Fine Arts, the provenance
is

(fyeoyeip

Kal avro<; koX to?


kuX

tto aXi\cyKa)VTai, irdcryeiv aulro? a)9 TroXeyitios

dvaypdi^ai aurlo?

of which

Koi Sr/oaTOKXe'la

yfjv Tr)v 'Afi(jJlf,TroXiTcov ai<f)vyi\Tjv

Karov ipov to

yiittT'

S' eVItSe- 10

Se 7rpocrT\dTa<;

\{ri](f>iafj,a

fji-qyavfn OTetoiov,

(fyeoyeTco 'AfJ,<j}iTroXiv

of his opponents.

Among

this

Ta XPV'

dei(j)vyir]V.

against

whom

Cf. Dlod.16.8.

number were
this decree

the two men


was enacted,

Chalcidian dialect. Note the retention

one of them, Stratocles, being Itnown


as one of the two envoys who were sent
to Athens for aid. Cf Dem. Olynth.

of intervocalic f in the proper name


'AyaaOdfo (which later became !47a(ri-

Amphipolis was a colony of Athens, but the population was mixed. Cf

potter, or at least inscribed

Xeifl),

though not in

11.

nos.

In

tomb

olis in

1.8.

At

Thuc.4.102ff.

ivoleiTev.

this niche of the

Toixii: see 124.

12.

in the

rests

kviev:

Le-

vircffri.

this time evidently

the Chalcidian element predominated.


3.

<|>cd7eiv

When Philip captured Amphip-

are the only

347 B.C., he caused the banish-

cu(33).

cf. 0eo7^<<>, 1.24.

These

West Ion. examples of eo=


19. dvai|(T](|>C| for rii, 39 a.
:

15

ai/a-

ment

11

20

GEEEK DIALECTS

1'72

(A) End of

13. Eretria.

SGDI.5308.

[No. 13

(B) middle of IV cent. B.C.


Michel 341.

cent. B.C.,

Hoffmann III.19.

Ditt.Syll.47,48.

"ESo^ev Tel ^ovXrji '-UyeXoxov tov Tapavrivov irpo^evov


Kal evepyerrjv Kal avrov [a]l TraiSas Kal a-LTrjptv e2va\i koI

@eoi.

6 el\vai

||

avTWL Kal
10 e? Tovi;

B
5

OTav

traiplv,

aywva'i

ft5s

e|[7r]t87;/xe(B|0ti', /cal

a\vveXevdepcopavn

"ESo^ev Tel ^ovKel Kal toI ^jmoi.

ttj/j,

areKeriv Kal

7rpoe8pir]P
|

air 'Adr]vdeov.

iroXiv
||

'UpuKXeiTov tov TapavTlvov


\

irpo^evov elvai ''EpeTpi&v av\rov Kal iKjovov;, elvai Se aiiTol

Kal

eBpLTjV

Kal

piv,

criTrjpiv

TOL

aXXa,

14. Oropus.
Syll.589.

Kal

aii\Tol

Kal iraiplv, oaov av y^povov

Trpo||

iTriStjfiea)|

dWoi<; Trpo^evoK.

Ka6\d'rrep toI^

IG.Vn.235.

411-402, or 386-377 B.C.

SGDI.5339. Ditt.

Hoffmann 111.25. Michel 698. SolmsenSO. Ziehen,LegesSa<;rae65.

Tov

@eoi.

lepea tov

'

Afi(j)i,apdov (poiTav

ek to

iep^v, eweihdv

yei/Miiv irapeXOei, /"%/


5 rifiepa<;
firivo<;

Kal

11

apoTOV

eXaTTOV

BeKa

r]

Tpel<;

^fiepa\<;

tov

Kal iiravaiyKdi^etv tov v\ea>K6pov tov re lepov

etri-

/ieveiv ev toI iepol

eK\d'\(rTO.

ttXeov SiaXeiTrovra

(Bjo|7j? firj

fieXelarOai KaTo, toIv vofiov

fir)

Kal twv

rj

a<j)iKve(o)iJ,eva)v

eh to

lepov.
[

10

av he
13.

Tt? dStKel ev toI Iepol

t)

^evo<;

This and no. 14 are in the Ere-

trian variety of

Euboean, for which

87 (60.3).
A. Ships of Tarentum formed part of

see

the Peloponnesian fleet which defeated

rj

St^/xo'tJI?;?,

^r)fuovT(o 6 lepeiK

the Boeotian and the subsequent A the-

nian domination.

But from the end of

the fourth century the inscriptions are


in Attic.
1

fi.

Tlie priest evidently passed the

the Athenians off Eretria in 411 B.C. and

winters in the town, leaving the tem-

so led to the Athenian loss of Eretria.

pie entirely in the charge of the custo-

Cf. Thuc.8.91,95.

It is in gratitude

for this that Hegelochus of

Tarentum

honored in this decree.


is later than A, but
was inscribed on the same stone, because both recipients of honor are from
Tarentum, and possibly relatives.
14. Regulations of the temple of
Amphiaraus at Oropus. Oropus seems
to have been an Eretrian possession
before it passed into the hands of the
Thebans in the sixth century, and preserved the Eretrian dialect throughout

and

his sons are

B. This decree

dian.

Butwiththeendof winter, when


became more frequent, he was

visitors

expected to go to the temple regularly,


never missing more than three days at

a time and remaining there at least


ten days each month. He was to see to
it that the custodian took proper care
of the temple and its visitors.
9ff. 'If
any one commits sacrilege in the tempie, the priest shall have the right to
impose a fine up to the sum of five
drachmas and take pledges of the one

penalised.

If

UQh a one

offers the

IONIC INSCEIPTIONS

No. 14]

173

upt? kuI ivexvpa Xafi^aveTco tov i^rjfjucoeKrivei to apyupiov, irapeovToi to lepeo<; e>/Sa(X)\eT<B

liexpi TreVre Spax/iecov

av

fj.\evov

6'

ek TOV

0T}(Tavp6v.

^e\\v(ov

97

ixe^ova,
trdcov.
I

Kicov

j;;j^of

eKao-Toi? ai hU\at ev

KpodKoKeladai 8e Koi
av Se o avTiSt/co? fj.rj

TOV 6eov

ISiei aSiKrjOei
|

tuv

rj

hpaxp-emv,

to,

t&v
ek t^v

a-vvxleopei,

e\v

toI lepol aSi-

vaTeptjv

hUr) 20

f)

/ieXkovTu Oepaireveadai ihro

to/jl

TrojOejo'i'TO?

tov vecoKopov

Trapel, tov lepea,

oTav Se

iep5>v kuI
p,rj

11

tov ^(Ofiov e-jnTiOelv,

e7r|i

irapel,

- -

tov dvovTa, Kal Tel

Se 6vofievo)v iv rot

ie||pot

iravTOiv to Sepfia [Xa/ji^dvetv].

i^eiv airav oti av ^oXtjTai eKaaTO';

TOV

Te/ieVeo9.

toI Be

money, he must deposit it in the treasury in the presence of the priest. If


any one suffers a private wrong in the

t&v

lepei

Se KpeS)\v

fir)

twv

Oveiv Se 30

elvai iK<po-

BiBovv tos dvovTa<; wiro tov

amount

inscribed, the

had

of the fee

no more than three drachmas, but


more important cases shall be tried
before the proper courts. The summons for wrongs done in the temple
shall be made on the same day, but if
the opponent does not agree, the case

been raised, ^nd at the same time another provision, which followed after
veuK6pov in 1. 24, had been abrogated
and erased.
25 ff. 'The priest shall
make the prayers and place the victims
ou the altar, if he is present, but, if he
is not present, tlie one who gives the
offering.
At the festival each shall
make his own prayer, but tlie priest

may

shall

temple, the priest shall decide matters


of

the

go over

IkcLittois

till

clp{]Tai:

17.

34 a, 134.

21

next day.'

the

for the several


see 43.

offenses.

4vT66a:

10. dSiicCuv:

dSUiov

see

= idl-

'The one who is to be


treated by the god shall pay a fee of
not less than nine obols of current
money (no bad coin was to be palmed
off) and put it in the treasury in the
KTi/jM.

fi.

presence of the custodian.'


\ov

is

ivveop6-

crowded into a space where a

shorter woi-d had been erased, presum-

ably Spaxi^vs-

Since the law was

first

make

fices in

the prayers for the

behalf of

tlie state,

sacr'i-

and he shall

receive the skin of all the victims.'

30

ff.

8utiv Sc IJeiv ktX.

i-estriction as to the

there was no

kind of victims to

be offered, such as is often made in


temple regulations, but in any case the
flesh was

\T)Tai

not to be carried

so,

not

off.

31. P6-

|8o\TjTat (^oiiXijrai),

for an

Eretrian inscription of laterdate, which

never has
fivov.

32

priest is to

ff.

ou,

25

Ova-iei

a\vTov eavTol KuTevxeadai exaaTOV, tS>v Se SjjLuopts)!' tov lepea,

16.

15

eXaTTOv evveo^oXov SoKifiov apy\vpiov kuI ifi^dWeiv

fir]

KaTevxeadat Se tmv

prjv e^Q)

Be

vo/mok elpfjTai, ivToda ycve-

toI<;

avOrj/jLepov irepl

he hiBovv

eirap\x'>]v

TOV Briaavpbv

OTav

av rt?

Twi/ BrjuoTecov ev toI lepol, /xexpi Tpi&v

TeXeio-06).

et?

SiKd^ei\v Se tov lepea,

reads pSXrirai,

TOI 8 Upi kt\.

/3oX4'

the

have the shoulder of each

GREEK DIALECTS

174
36 iepriov ewla'ffTO

tov

orav

w/jlov, ifKrfv

'Ka/M^aveTco wfjiov a(^'

SjjfjLopicov

fj

[No. 14

eoprr) el- rare Se

eKciaTov

tov

Se TOV Seco/ievolv

Trj<;

TreTevpoi a-lKOTrelv

tov ^o\op,evoi.

Tot

"jrpo

Tro'Xeo?

Tos avSpwi, %&)/3t9

rjio'i

- -

t\ov vecoKO-

kol iK\Ti0e2v iv toI iepol <ypd<j)OVTa ev

pov Koi avTOv Kal

45 %&>/3k fiev

vav

to ovofia tov

vofioif.

toI<}

7reid6iJ,\evov

oTav efi^aXXei to apyvpiov, ypa^ecrdai,

40 iyKadevSoiJlh-oi;,

tu)V

a7r|[o

eyKaOevSeiv

leprjov.

||

ev Se toI KoifiriTr]pio\i xaOevSeiv

Se ra? jvvatKa<;, Toiii fiev

TOV ^w/iov, ra? Se yvvaiKa^ ev toI Trpb

dvSpai iv

neaTre\y)r)<;

TO KOifjLJriTripiov tov<s iv\[KadevSovTa<i


.

X]6yov

Arcadian
VI

V cent.

SGDI.373. Ditt.Syll.625.

Roberts 23Ia.

16. Mantinea. Vcent.n.c. rougeres,B.C.H.XVI,568ff.

Homolle,ibid.

15.

or early

B.C.

A.M.XXI,240fE.; XXX,65.

Ka/Ao vve6v(7e rat Koppai.

Baimack, Ber.Sachs.Ges. 1893,93 ff. Keil,Gott.Naclir.l895,349fl.


Danielsson,Eraiios 11,8 ff. Foug6res,Mantin^e,523 ff For na, which is tran580 fE.

scribed

ff,

see 4.4.

[Fo]^\eacTi ocSe Iv 'AXeav

[11.

2^12 proper names]. ^\efia\v-

[fo]^\eot av y^pecTTepLov KUKpive.

15 8/309
I

victim, except

when

there

is

a festival,

and then only from the victims


for the state.
38.

36.
The

'

offered

38. Up'fjov: Upijvov. 37,

86|i,vov

41.46.

a]v oaiai Kaicpidee


the west.

hE(rir4[pi)s

H, as in no.

'

Ae

46. t|os

see

designated by

6.

15. Dedication inscribed on a bronze

9.1.

Se6/j,evov.

e'[t
||

women to

the

to inscribe the

cymbal, which, according to the more

name of each one who consults the oracle, when he has paid his money, and

probable of two varying reports, was


found near the modern Dimitzana in

39

ft.

place

'

it

custotiian

on a tablet

that any one

who

lYKaBciSovTos

is

in the shrine so

wishes

may see

it.'

as elsewhere, those

wishing to consult the oracle went to


sleep in a room of the temple assigned
for this purpose (see following),

received the

43

ff.

oracle

in

and

dream.

Iv S Tot KOiii'qTTipCoi ktX.

'

the

men and women are to lie in separate


places, the men to the east of the altar,

Formerly read Kifuivv ^6vae


and ascribed to Thessalian, later

Arcadia.
kt\.

But the use

as Ka/ib vv iSvae.

of ivi-

confirmed by a later
dedication reading iavKias iviBvae rot
Bvae

aviSi^Ke is

Havl, in

which the

by i,vi..
Judgment

earlier iv (6, 22)

is

replaced
16.

against certain per-

sons guilty of sacrilege toward

Alea, whose temple had been

Athena

made

the

AECADIAN INSCEIPTIONS

No. 16]

Tov

x^pefj.a.TOV,

aaa-adai

rot?

ire
|

avoS'

Ta<;

f otKtaTat(s)

Bed ivai,

ra<s

ko,

[e7r]et rot?

id(cr)a-a';.

175

fo^Xiicocn

poiKia^ Sd-

iirl rolS' iSiKci-

aaiiev,

a re ^eo5 a?

TO Xa'x^o^,

ol

cnre)^ofj,{vo<;
|

Tol lepol, tXaov ivai.

Eu;^o\a

evai.

BiKaaaTal,

el 3'

aSe

[S']

||

<yevo^ ivai

aX[Xo]

e[-\|r]eTot

rov y^pefidrov

a'7rv[S]eSo/iiv[o<;'\

Karoppevrepov

cti?

20

afiara irdvTa cnrv

[ejarot Karovvv,

toi a[XtTe^tot]

lv/iev<f>e';

el at? iV To(t) 25

11

lepol TOV T6r\e cnrvdavovrov

aK

vov'\

(j)ove<! ecrrL,

Karoppevrepov, elae t[ov avSpdv'\

^[e? evai a]|TO j^peareptov


e(Ta-r[i ettre]

<f>ove<;

Oavovrov Iv [rot tepot]


scene of a bloody fray.

a?

Most

of the

tation have been cleared up, but

points are
1

still

some

uncertain.

146.1.

Cf.

[F'o]<j>Xea(ri

uxfiMiKaai.

with the more usual aorist,


and for the whole

iipXkv Iv SSLfiov, no. 17.4,

episode, Att. otSe cJ^Xo;' Ari\lav Airepdas


,

deKpvyia,

rb

TlfiTjfia

Sn

t6

iTvwTov.

i-Tri'yeypafifjiJvQv

Kal

ix tov iepov tov * AirdWajvos

TOV AriXiov ^yov Toii

Kal

AfiiptKTtiovas

IG.II.814,p.281.

131

*^-

form of the name


shows (cf. 1. 30), was a foreigner from
Attic or Ionic territory. As such, and
because his guilt was in question, his
case is treated separately, and his penalty depends upon the decision of the
lutpSfms,

oracle.

is

the

^e/iavSpoi; 30

fE.

Tore aTTV-

toi/

ro pe^pyov toOJIto

We should expect elx

Hv.

KaKpiSei:
18

et
||

iv (134.2 a).

151.2.

aor. subj. pass.

Inasmuch as we,

the goddess

the guilty parties as follows,


that,

and

passed judgment upon

namely

having given up their inheritance,

from the
male line, it shall be well
(propitious). But if any one permits

they shall forever be excluded


temple, in the

anything
it

else,

contrary

10.

shall be impious.

dTrExofiCvos

pov

see

to these things,

dirv[8]e8o|iCv[os],
22.

Kara rb &pp4vTpov.

Karoppevre94.1.

22.

a formulaic expression,
Horn, ^/xara Trdvra, retained here in the
imprecation, although i/ifpa is the ordiafiara irovro

nary prose word for day in Arcadian


as elsewhere

(cf.

no. 17).

Similarly

state ?) the houses which he pos-

coun-

,of prior .dale, in that case he shall be

adv. 58a.
Kaxpive: Kaaor. subj. 95, 149.
15 ff. If

condemned hy divine judgment

to

forfeit his property, this together with

the slaves shall belong to the goddess,

and

one shall divide (between the goddess

and the

etcre rd<; (j)apOevo, ivfiev-

Tegean
The following imprecation shall pursue the sinner. Or, instead of ^[^]eTot from iwoimi, read
?[cr]cToi shall be ?
30 ff. If Phemander
is a murderer of either the men or the
maiden who perished at that time in the
temple, and the deed of that time was not

av:

Taicphr)

he

as

tKaov evai.

the judges, have

The following are adjudged guilty

towards Alea.

fie,

/te Trpocrcr0ayeve<s

the reading and interpre-

difficulties in

Se

[tov eayo-

aiiro'; e'icre

avSpov eiae ra? 0a/3^eV[o]

toi'

el

eia

sesses (on the heights, referring to

try houses in the mountains?).

l[i

o]v: uncertain, but more likely than

v6/u)s lep&s Iv fi/xaro

inscription.

irdrra in a

24.

punished as an impious person. Apparently

Phemander had

set

up an

alibi

GEEEK DIALECTS

176
35 To're e(?), ovto<!

0[nt^ecr6at,].

ivfiov(j)ov

[No. 16

Se trpoaaOa'^eve'; to

el
\\

fepy[ov TOVTo],

a?

iXaov ivai.

fie (jiove';,

17. Tegea. Early IV cent. b.c. HofEinannI.29. Miohel695. Solmsenl.


Ziehen,LegesSaci'ae62. Alphabet transitional; E = , 0=o, B = A; Ion.

Toy

oh

hiepev irevre Kal eiicocn

vefiev

S'av

KaTaWdaae,

lv(^op^iafJi,ov evai

el B'

av XevTov

IvSop^ie, he/corov

Karaplilpov evat.

fie

Tov hiepoOvrav

to the effect that the

deed of violence

took place before he entered the temple.

34.

Tirs

l(s)

the reading

TOTEE, which some transcribe

is

t6t' ^e.

But ^e = Hom. ^ev is impossible. The


form to be expected is ^s, though unfortunately we can get this only by assuming that 0- has been omitted by mistake.
17. Eegulations of

Athena Alea. The


graphs,

11.

the temple of

first

para-

five

1-20, deal with the rights

of pasturage in Alea, the district in

which the temple was situated and


which was included in the temple
property. The temple officials men-

el

T\bv hiepd/ivdfiova lv^op/3iev


Sap'x^fia'i 6(j}\ev Iv Scifiov

vefiev Iv

'

AXeai on av

Kal

a|o-Ke^e?

may
11.

translate tie up, seize, but in


14-15 the seizure of small animals,

contrasted with a tax of a


large

drachma for

animals, seems extreme, espe-

cially in connection

with 11. 18-19. The

interpretation impose a pasture tax

is

on the whole more satisfactory, though

by

this too the expression in

11.

14-15

by apparent lack of contrast. One must assume that the pasture tax was a fixed and merely nominal
sum, and that the tax of one drachma
for the larger animals was in excess of
is

strange,

this. Hesychiushas^/i06p/3ioi'- reXJivriiui,

hie-

pasture tax. Cf. Solmsen,K.Z. XXXIV,

administrators), the priest,


official

kuI alya

charged with

administrator of the affairs of the temple (also, in the plural, the board of

a minor

^ev'^o\^

which is parallel to ivoUiov house-rent,


iWipAvMv harbor-dues, etc. From this
would be derived h<f>oppiev impose a
pasture tax, and from this again, as if
from -(fu, IvipopPiap^Ss the imposition of a

tioned are the hieromnemon, the chief

rothytes,

koX

and the

the technical details of the sacrifice,

437

though in some places this title came


to be one of high rank. The Fifty and
the Three Hundred were, doubtless,

elS'avKaTaWdo-a-e: if he acts otherwise {KaraWdcrato intrans.), that is goes

civic bodies.

The
are

nected with

beyond the number allowed.


3. XmTov probably an adv. \cStov, or a part.
:

critical

Ivipoppiev,

ff.

2.

and

difficult

ivij>opPurij,l>ii,

tjiippa feed,

der, (pop^ela halter.

words

plainly conipopP'/i

fod-

Starting from the

derived meaning seen in

tpop^ela,

one

Xeirop, mea,mugwittingly, intentionally,

but there

is

no certain etymon.

TOV hicpoOirav kt\.

the hierothytes

fE.

may

pasture in Alea animals without blemish


(and so suitable for the sacrifice), but

ARCADIAN INSCRIPTIONS

No. 17]
e

TO, S"

dvre;-

avaa-Kedea lv<j)opiev

av

el 8'

fji.eS'

Iv Tol irepixopoi-

av

6'

el

afie'pa<; vijxev

Tol Be f eVot Karayo/xei^oi e^evai afiepav

raw

av Trap

vefie,

TO Se /xelov Ivtpop^iev.

to

6<f>Xev

to

ttXo? afiepav koI vvkt6<:,

Sapxfi^v

vwra

eU av

ve/iev

fie

a-vov

fie^ov,

TTvp STToCae, SvoSeKo

Sapxfia<;

Tot? hiepo\fivdfiovai.

Tat

Travay6p<7i to?

TrdvTU

6<f)Xe'v.

Tov Uavaydperiov

That is,

ofhierothytes.

58a.

fieva

9.

is final.

hdv:

S<rov

his oflScial state-

as to the condition of the ani-

li-f).

7.

xdp ov

irck/j

a (a) .

hicpoSiiT^s: UpoBuriav. 78, 157.


41'.

58 d.

20.

os

|i:

used like

Unless the Fifty or the

Three Hundred approve. Ace. abs. construction.

173.

21.

Sifia:

Iirobri: aor. subj. to fut.

Hom.

S" efiia-[v Tot]|?

vefie,

e\i]

fie 20
||

Et'/e

eVt Sofia

Ta<;

ola-iiiievai,

Hdt.

sence of &v see 174.

dKofo-oi.

23

apTvev

ff.

temple.
ofo-u,

cf.

For abMeaning

fiev6<;

Tat? tVTroXai?

to, Iv

[et

Se

aTrvS6afi\iov

fie, SapyA\fi,^'\v 30

[3135 only a few words

left.l

uncertain, but probably If one drives

wagon to the sacrifice off the high


road leading through Alea, one shall
in a

pay afine of three obolsfor each (wagon),


etc.

Suo-Oiv

aor. infin. pass,

die force, to q^ersaeri^ce.


Karaicei/i^j'Tjs.

are to

make

withmid-

KaKafi^vav:

95.

26

all

arrangements for the

ff.

The

officials

market, which was held at ancient


festivals as at our modern fairs. Cf
Ditt.Syll.653.99ff.

28.

diripS6o-|i,[iov]:

probably to be restored thus, and taken


as an adjective agreeing with Kbvpov,

but the meaning


able?).

is

25

hiepofivdfiova-i.

Tov Koirpov tov

Tat he^Sofiai to Aea-xavaaio

impose a pasture tax. He shall not go


beyond what he declares in his function

mals

av

rov Se fieiovov

av irapafia^evS Ovadev

Atejo[o;iti'a/i]|oi'a?

t]|o? Safiiopy6[<;.

for those not unblemished (and so suitable only for personal use) one shall

ment

el S'

to fiev efiiav Tai 6eoi, to

ocfiXev,

Etr

fexda-Tav, to fiev hefiiav Tal deal, to

.]

6\\<f>Xev, 15

ra? Kaxeifievav kclt 'AXeav, Tph 6Se\b<; 6^Xe[v av^h-l

Ke\.e[v6'\\o

hiKovra

Sapxfiav peadiTTav,

TrapheTa^afievo<; to? TrevTCKOVTa e to? TpiaKa\cr(o<;.

||

'\v lo

vefiev Iv 'AXe'at

Si^Xavvofieva TV^e

pmacrTov to

o?

ewi^vyiov

Trpo^arov Sapxfiav

fiev fie^ov

7r/3o]ySaTOi'

Ta?

on hav 06\eroi

el p,e iirl ffoivav

ical

To, hiepa Trpo^aTa

Trpo^dr^v .oBeXov fexaa-Tov, Tav

S' efU(TV

Xeiye hiepo-

Iv roi Trepixopoi, lv^o]p^iev.

'AXe'at fie ve/iev fiere ^evov /iire farrrbv

el S"

av

ia-Trepaa-a\i Trap

ia-irepda-e, Sv68eK\o Sapx/J-aii 6<f>\ev Iv Sa/Jiov.

rpnravay6pa-io<; T|as va-repa^ rpli


fie

177

uncertain (sale-

GREEK DIALECTS

178

HofEmamiI.30. Michel585. Solm-

18. Tegea. Ill cent. B.C. .SGDI.1222.

sen

[No. 18

2.

^i

7re

Xo

elic

.
\

dv

roh epymvaK

yivr/roi

airveaOo) Se o doiKTj-

epyoL, oa-a irepl to epyov

Tot? Iv Tol avTol


I

5 fievo<;

Tov ahucevra Iv

TOi, vcrrepov he

Et 8e

on

Koi

p-r)

Tat av to dBL\\KT)p.a yevrj-

ajMepai'; rpicrl cnrii

ay Kpivwvai ol

7r6\ep,o<; StalKwXvcrei

raiv epycov

rmv iaSodevTcov

aTparayol iroaohop,

^vai 6 KOiKiicov

Ta?

TTo'X-to?.

rj

roiv
|

av hearoi

elK

TroevTco,

7ro\e/i09

<T</>ets

||

epya, Xa^vpoircaXiov eovTO<; Karii

to,

i\cf>6opKQ)';

he Ti(?) epyav-qcra';

el

r)

rt Set ylveadai

r)pya<Tpev(ov ti ^Oepai, ol rpiaKaaioi Siayvovrco


10 ol he

Kvpiov earco.

ia-Sorr}pe<;,

p,r}

epyoi<;, 6

''""''

lyicexvPV'""'

I
I

he iroXepo'; hiaKcoXvoi, aTruSo'a?


15

tm

TvyxaVT), d^ecocrOo}

Et

epyco,

11

\t~\o

dpyvpiov,

Tmv

Tt? eTrilcrvvia'TaTOi rat? ecrhoa-ecTi

h' d[v'j

KCLT el he Tiva TpoTrov ^Orjpcov, ^ap,i6vTa)

heaTol

cr(pei<;

20 yovTCO

^afiiai,

Kal

to av

av KeXevoovaL

etK

XeXa/3T]K0t)<;

ol iahoTrjpe^.

epycov

av

ol e(ThoTrjpe<!, otrai

dyKapva[<T6v^T(o Iv eTriKpto'iv Kal iva-

to yiv6p,evov toI irXriOei tos

Iv hiKaa-Tijpiov

Xvfj,aivr]yoi

rj

^ap.iav.

II

M^

i^ea-Tco

hevl

Tuv

he

epycov

p,T]he

el

he

KOivdva<; yevecrOai
firj,

ocjjXeTco

Regulations governing building-

18.

ft.

between
if any
on the same work, as
work.
xai from the
trovble arises

the contractors

re-

gards the

4. diru

time when, relative use of the article, as in 1. 14 etc. See 126.


6fE. If

any of the works corbtracted for, orshoulddestroy any of those


completed. Note the change of mood.
For 0S^pai see 80. 9. ir6(ro8a|ji irocvru
war

shall interrupt

introduce the matter, Att. irp6aoSov


eiaBai.

11.

\ai|>upoirci>X(ov

Att.

iroi-

form

Instead of sale of plunder the


word must mean here simply plunderof gen.

ing,

der.'

'

the city being subjected to plun-

12

made a

Bvo

rj

iirl

p.rj-

whatever money he

may

have received

and withdraw from the work, if those giv-

contracts.
1

7r\eoi'
|

eKacrT0<; irevTriKOvra Sapj(^fid(;,

ff.

But

if

any one who has

contract has not begun on the

works and war interrupts, he shall return

ing out the conlraxts so order.

15

ff.

If

any one makes opposition

to the allot-

merits of the works or does

an injury in

kAt A hi riva: el Si
tk, detached from verbal phrases, has
come to be used independently in the
sense of a simple indefinite, as is sometimes ef tis in Attic (e.g. Thuc. 7.21.5).

any way,

etc.

Ci. kclt

84 ti

el

\.

S2.

18.

o<rai

kt\.:

with whatever penalty seems best to them.

20.
to

to the court

suit the

irX^Sei

which

amount of

this,

not

is

constituted

the penalty.

irXiJfli,

has recently

been shovrn to be the correct reading,


21 ff. 'No more than two partners
for any one piece of work, and no
contractor to have more than two

AECADIAN INSCEIPTIONS

No. 18]

eireXaaaaOmv 8e
|

ot aXiaerraL

epya exv t&v lepav


OTivi

Afj,

fjLT]

l/j^aivev Se

Kara aira

tS? ^afiCav.

fjfiiaaoi,

tj

Se kol ei

kut

01 aXiacTTall]

^oXofievov

rofj,

k av

rSiv ^a/i[o]o-i'ci'

[rji?

av

.]tijTOt Tail'

rot

irXeov ^ Svo 25

firjva

11

irevTrjKOVTa 30

ra epya ra irXeova.
Et [8'] av
- - - Kar el Se ri,
ra epya erv

a<^rj\TOt\

!7repl

n[<;

firj

- .

(I

Traperd^covcn oixoOvfiahov iravre;, ^afu-

Sapx/J-al'i, p.(7T

iirl

8e riva rpoirov,

el

Ka6' maa-rov tosv -rrXeovcov epymv Karii

<b[o-]0q)

179

Be

el

ol

nrj, firj

earw IvSikov

p,r)heiro6L

aX\'

7}

Iv Tepfiai

av

el B"

TO av SiKci^TjTOi

IvSiKti^rjTot,
||

e<7TO)

Kal

oirep

tw

aTrvretcraTO) to %/3eo?

Be Kal twvI to)

epyca ^y Iv eaTeicriv.

Ei

B'

av

BnrXdcnov

35

6 avTo<; i'yyvo<;

eiri.^ap.ifo

ti? epyavijaa';

epyov

Ti iroo'KaTV^Xa-yjrrj tl

aXXv

Safioaiov etre iStof

7ra/3

CTaTO)

tS)V vTrapxpvTcov

rav

||

epyav

etre iepbv etre

a-vyypa(f>ov ra? iaBoKav, airvKaOi- 40

TO KaTV^Xa<f>dev toi? tSiot? avaXmfiacriv

fi-q

fjcrcTov

vTrdpxe Iv toI xpovoi

epycoviav

to,':

eTn^dfita airvTeierm, KaTajrep


fiepoii

TeraiCTOi.

||

Et

el B'

evrt TOi?

tuiv

S' ai/ ti?

eirrfpeid^ev BeaTOi Iv to,

v(ov

epya

rj

a/j.

fj,f)

KaTva-Tciai], to,

aXXot? epyoK toi^ virepa-

ipyavav

tcov ipya^op-e- 45

rj

tok

cnreidrjvai

eiriixeXofievoK

pieces of

work -without

consent of the heliasts.


ktX.

'

the unanimous

24. t)L4>aCvcv

any one who wishes may

be in-

former, receiving half the fine as a reKara ri aird.


25. Kara oird
ward.

So Kariwep

(11.

Att. KaBdirep.

43, 50) for

28.

kcitA. rdirep,

a|uu[(r]6<ii

the

from the end is uncertain,


33 ff.
but probably u not o. See 157.
f ourth letter

Owing to the preceding lacuna, the

oc-

casion and intent of this prescription


is

not clear.

Otherwise he (the con-

tractor) shall not be liable to suit

where

else

than in Tegea. But

subjected to suit, he shail

if

tvSiKos, like Cret. ej-Sims, is

used imper-

sonally with the dative of the person

who

is liable to suit.

For

IvSiKdi^Tiroi,

cf.Aemaji.TohivSmaj^oiiivoisthelUigants

SGDI.1432a, andDelph. ^vSi/cafi/ieKoii/


suitSGT)I.n95. 37 &. 'If
a contractor injures any of the existing works contrary to the terms of the
contract, he must at his own expense
put it in as good condition as it was at
the time of the contract. Otherwise he
subjected to

must pay the same

penalties that are

work

over-

If a contractor or

work-

any-

fixed for other pieces of

he

due.'

45

man

seems to be abusing the works, or

pay double

is

the

ff.

'

amount for which the suit is brought.


And the same person who was (the

disobedient to those in charge, or disregardful of the established fines, the

surety) for the Work, shall be surety for

workman may be

payment, h Eo-TCKriirefers back to hri^aiila, not to ipyw.

this fine,

for

its

expelled from the


work, and the contractor brought to
trial and fined in the same way as is

GEEEK DIALECTS

180

[No. 18

rmv eTri^afiicov rav rerwyfievtov, Kvpioi eovrco ot


rofi fiev ipydrav eaSe\Xovre<! e? toI epyoi, rbv Se epywto<; eTricrvvLcrTafievoi rat?
vav ^afMovre'i Iv eTriKpicri'^/ Kardvep
^

Karv(j)povr]vai

50 icrSorripe<!

iaSoKah

||

ryeypaTrlrjoi.

Saii6a-i[ov],

"On

av

S'

epyov etVe iepov ecre

icrSodf}

vTrdp^ev ray Koivav avyypacjjov

Tai'[i']t

icvpi[av]

tto?
\

rat eVe? rot 6/370^ yeypafifievlai av^yypd^loi].


prescribed for those

who make

sition to the allotments.


Ts Iv lirCKpio-iY

'

The

oppo-

53

condensed expression

and acsame thing.

giving out of the contracts

ceptance of proposals

50. Iafi,i6v-

ff.

is

the

'This general contract shall be

for iaiu&vres Kal ayKapiffffovres ktK. Cf.

in force in addition to the special con-

11.17-19.

tract for the particular piece of work.

abs. 173.

51. Tos eirio-Ton^vos:

lo-SoKais: iaSbtrtai. in

acc.
16.

1.

Cyprian
The Cyprian Syllabary

Nearly all the Cyprian inscriptions are written in a special syllabary.


This consists of signs for each of the five vowels
these being used where
no consonant immediately precedes, that is initially and for the second
and signs for each combination of consonant and
element of diphthongs

rne, etc. But there is no distinction between long


and short vowels, nor, in the case of mutes, between surd, sonant, and
aspirate. Hence the sign te (the transcription with t is a matter of conven-

following vowel, as ma,

tion)

may

stand for

not written,

e.g.

te, rrj, Se, 87;,

ati=

6e.,

or

6ri.

Nasals before consonants are

a.(y)rL^

For a final consonant the sign containing the vowel e is used, e.g. kase
For groups of consonants the first is indicated by the sign containing the vowel of the syllable to which this consonant belongs. That is, its
vowel is determined by the following in the case of initial groups and consonant -I- liquid by the preceding in the case of liquid -t- consonant, and
also o- -I- consonant (cf. 89.1).
1\ms potoline = tttoXlv, patiri= iraTpl,,

Ko.^.

euvere

la sa tu

tvpptT&craTv, a ra

leu

ro

= apyvpo,

e se ta se

= t<rTa<T. Exam-

ples of other groups are rare.^


1 In the Greek transcription the mutes are distinguished and the nasal before
consonants is supplied in parentheses. But e and o, not 7;, a, are used, in accordance with the practice adopted for other inscriptions where the signs 77 and a are
not in use. For some uncertainties in regard to the proper transcription, see 199.
2 We find me ma name no i = luiivaiiAvot, ka si ke ne toise = Ka'a^iyverois but i ki
mamenose = Ixixaixivoi, terekinija = Tipxvija, tipetera- = SupBepa-, -vanakoto

se

= -fdvaKTos.

CYPRIAN IXSCEIPTIOXS

No- 19]

181

Words are separated by a special sign, but this is commonly, though not
uniformly, omitted after the article, and sometimes in other groups of
words. In such groups a final consonant is often treated as medial, hence

tapotoline

Ta(v)

irToki.v, et<^.

19. Idalium. Probably


cent. b.c. SGDI.60. Hoffmannl.135. Sobnsen 3. The first five lines only are given in the more exact syllabic transcription. In this
denotes the word separator, not the line division,
I

which

indicated by numerals.

is

ka te vo ro ko ne ma to i kaseke
ku po ro ne ve te 1 to o na sa ko 2 ra u pa si le
use sa ta si ku po ro se ka se a po to li se etalievese anokone
onasilone tononasikupo 3 ronetonijaterane kase tose
kasikenetose ijasatai tose a to ro pose tose itai ma
kai iki 4 ma me nose aneu mi si tone kasapai euvereta
sa tu pa si le u se ka se
a po to li se o na si 5 lo i ka se to i
ka si ke ne to i se a ti to mi si to ne ka a ti ta u ke ro ne to
se
ve na i e xe to i etc.
1 ote

ti

e ve se

tapo toll nee tali one

to

pi lo

'Ore ra(y) tttoXiv 'ESaXiov Karcfopyov MaSot


i(v) Tot

^iKoKVTrpov perei to 'Ovaa-ay(^av,

Kos a

trroKi'i

Ka<;

Kerte/re?

/3aa-i\ev<; l^raaiKvrrpo'; 2

'ESaXte^e? avoyov 'OvdiriXov tov ^OvaaiKVir^ov

Tov Ijarepav /ca? to? Kaaiyvero^ XjaaOai to? a(v)6po7ro<i to?

kck

Ka^ a TTToXi^

rdc

^aaCKevi

'Ovatri\\\di /ta? Tol<; Kaa-iyveroK a(v)Ti to

fuaOov Ka

a(v)Tl TO, lyyepov Sofdvai i^ toi


nroKjLfi

l(v)

iraL eipperduraTV

fid^ai lK\ixanevo<i dvev fuadov.

poiKoi toi ySacrtXe/ro? a? ef

apyvpo Td(\avTOv) a Td(kavTOv)

tm

w o(j')tI to

Bvpdvoc

apyvpov ToSe, to Ta\d(v)Tdv,

tok KacriyvcTOK
'

ottv

tm

/Sao-t\eu?

a? a tttoXk 'Ovaa-iXoi

tm

to, l(v)

^ai

A.'Ka(ji)irpijdTaL To{y) y^opov

'0(7)Ka(i')T0?
19.

aXpo

tov

^aaiXefo<;
l{v)

Agreement of the king and city

and his brothers for the care of the


wounded during the siege of the city
by the Persians and the inhabitants of
the Phoenician city of Citium.

This siege is to be placed somewhere

to Ipovi toi

|{

7rd(v)Ta e^ev 10

between the withdrawal of the Athenian expedition of 449 b.c. and the
union of Idalium and Citiumimder the
Phoenician king Melekyathon, about
391 b.c.
9.

toi eXet to(i') jf^pavojievov

Ka<; to, Tep'xyija to, iiri6(v)Ta

of Idalium with the physician Onasilus

/ca?

fiXfo

cf

But i\fov here

Hesycli. iXouo
is

ic^iroi.

not identical with

GEEEK DIALECTS

182

iravoviov if ah ^av cneKev.

[No. 19

'OvdcriXov e

e ice ai<!

t6<;

/caa-i'yveTOi
|

12 I T09 TratSas To(y) TraiSov rov 'OvaaiKVirpov i^ roi XP'' '^^'^^

opv^e, Ihe irai o i^ 6f)v^e ireCaei 'OvaaiXoi


T0t9

^6
\

KaaiyveTOi\^ e

kcl<; toI<;

top apyvpov T6(v)Se, apyvpo rdiXavrov) a Td(XavTOv).

-jraicrl

'OvaaiXoi olpoi dvev To(y) Kaacyverov tov aiXov efpSraa-arv


/Sao-iXeiJI? Ka<i a ittoXi'! Sopevai a{v)Tl to, v')(epov to fuaOov apyvpo

14 Ka<i

16

7re(Xeefa9) S' 7re(Xe;e/ra9)

/S"

h{p.vala) 'E{SdXia)-

Soicoi,

vv

^aa-iXev<; Ka<s
18

fat

a tttoXj?

^aaiXepo'i

TCLi

'Oyao-t|||Xot

a(v)Tl to apyvpo ToSe onrv tui

to, i(v) MaA.ai'i/a|t

rat ireSijaL to(v) XP^^ to(v)

Xpav^o/xevov 'Afievija dXfo ? tA Tep^^vija

pijav ra? 'AOdva'i, a? to(v) kcLttov rov l(v)

7ra(p)Ta,

to, e'iri6(v)Ta

ApvfMov

20 To(i') troexpiJ^vov tto? To{y) p6po(v) to(v)

/fo?

rav

7ro||?

lepe-

apovpa\i, t6(v)

1iifi.iBo<;

AipeWefii'! 6 'Apfiavei"; e^e dXfo(v), tov iroexop^evov ttos Ilaa-ayo22 pa\v

TOV 'Ovacrayopav /ca? tA Tep^vija

iravovio'i u|/rat9
24:

26

'0\va<7iXov i^

Sas

TO';

tliSe

o ef opv^e ireia-ei

SdXTOv Td(y)Se,

d tttoXk KaTedijav

'OvaaiXoi

Trd(y)Ta e^ev

'OvdcriXov e

to<s Tral-

ef toi tcdiroi TOiSe ef opv^e,

e toI<:

waial tov dpyvpov T6(v)Se,


Si^fivaia) '^(SdXia).

/8'

rdSe ivaXaXia/xeva,

Td(v) Oiov tAv

l{y)

'AOdvav

ra? ppera'i TaaSe

TdaSe Xvae,

TO'} icdiro';

^di TaiSe

to, peirija

aiiv opKoif fie Xvcrai


30 ppeTa<s

toli

to, e'in6(y)Ta

e ice ai'i

8' 7re(Xeicefa';)

apyvpolv T-eiXeKefai)
Td(v)

28

^av areXija l6(y)Ta.

dvoa-ija poi yevoiTV.

Td<;

/Sao-tXeu?

tclv irep'

vpai<; ^av.

ToaSe oi 'Ovaancuirpov TratSe?

ye

'^\SdXiov

otti ai<;
|

11

iSe

a?

Ke to?

fa? Tdcrhe kuI

/ca? to(i') iraiSov ol Trajt-

Se? e^oai aipei, o{l) i{v) to Ipovi toi 'E8a\teft loai.


kcLtos (of.

11.

20, 21)

and

plantation or orchard.

with

all

t6(i')

Td. ripx'i-ja

Tb(v) Kd-Tov

(11.

itldid,ptov(?).

adj.

being disregarded, as

18, 20).
i/rats

1.

22 iraxowos

Th(v) x^pov

*fols Sav

forever, 1Z3.6.

possibly connected with

live,

iravoviov

x^P"", tlie interven-

not ooSrdinate. So in
ace. pi. agreeing with

is

probably

is

10.

salable products (wpos),

agreeing with
ing

fi}tu

is

and
:

els

fai/

and fiiu,

on the basis of a third by-form

but this is very uncertain.


Whoever violates these agreements,
may impiety rest upon him, that is he
shall be held guilty of an impious act.
For the force of tin, the formation of
which is wholly obscure, see 131. But
fa-,

29.

it

may

also be taken as

a conjunction

(<^i?).

ao. Monument to Stheneias, son of


Nicias and grandson of GaucUs. See

168 d and 38.

LESBIAN INSCEIPTIONS

No. 21]

183

Lesbian

V cent.

20. Cebrene.

Solmsen

B.C.

SGDI.307. HoffmaimIH32. Roberts p.324.

4.

S[Ta'\\]a

Vt

lOeveiai

21. Mytilene. First half of

Hoffmann 11.32. Michel


~

8.

tS Nttat'oi ro FavKio.

e/t/it

IV cent.

Solmsen

IG.XII.ii.l. SGDI.213. Hicks 94.

5.

- - e

^oTTi

Se

Ke

al]

n-o'Xt?

ek rav

[aTciX-

[a]/i<l>dr[pai

Xav

rj

eKK\oXdir\T(oi,ai, kv[p]lov eara>.

(Tiov virohiKov

ypdcjiwiai

t\ov he KepvaiJka to] )(pv-

elfi/ievai aii(l>o\Tep]aiai rat?

iroXiea-a-i, BiK[d(TTai^

Se ei*]/ievai t&i p-ev e> MvTiX'^vai [Kepvav\ri] rah dpxaK jraiaai';


rah i/j, MlvnX\')j]vai irXea^ rav ai/jLiaeav, ip. <^a>Kai Se [TJllat?
apxaK Trato-'ai? rah ep, ^cokm 7rX[e']|a9 r&v alpia-(o[v]- rav Se
I

SiKav ep,p^vai,
|

eVet' xe (oviavTO<i i^eXOrji, iv

ef

p'qvv^{(7)ai.

10

al Se

Ke Karaylp^eOrji to y^pvaiov Kep\vav vSapecrTe[p]o[v] OeXoov, ffavdTO)i

^api\\a)tr6(o

al Se e

airv(f)[v'\'yrii

TipaTco t[o] SiKaa-TTJpiov otti

xPV

81. Monetary agreement between


Mytilene and Phocaea. Coins of electrum, a compound of gold and silver,
were issued by Mytilene and Phocaea,

down

to about 350 b.c,

and

it is

to

'

them

rj

Kade^p^evai, a

The Mytilenians are

to issue the coins

first (the cities

coinage

is re-

sponsible to both cities. If at Mytilene,


the magistrates of Mytilene are to constitute the majority of the judges. Simi-

larlyat Phocaea.

The trial falls within

sixmonthsof the expiration of the year.


If

one

is

alternating each year),

The agreement goes

into effect under

the prytauis succeeding Colonus at Mytilene

and Aristarchus at Phocaea.

4-5. t[6v S K^pvavra]:

Kipvayn, if

and in 11. 7-8,


has the same meaning which is more
forcibly expressed by Kipvav iBapiartpov
in 11. 13-14. Another restoration is
T[hii itpedpKovra] here and [k6wtoi>ti] in
correctly supplied here

is xp^aiav.

Any one debasing the

OeXav ap^p\p^T'qv,

a\vT(o)v irddrjV

these that the inscription refers, though

the term used of

/i[^]

convicted of intentional adul-

11.

7-8.

The arrangements for trial im-

mediately following show that the


meaning required here is debase, not

teration, he is to be punished with death.

make the alloy,

But

Moreover the electrum coinage


of this time and place was based upon
a natural, not an artificial, alloy.

he is acquitted of intentional
wrong-doing, the court shall decide the
penalty or fine. The city is not liable.
if

taken.

i.e.

simply coin, as often

15

GREEK DIALECTS

184

eXaxov MvTi\i]\vaoi

Se rroXi's avai\no<; kuI a^dfjLio'i [eo-Jrw.


20

ade

apxei Tr/soVaw? 6

KOTTTT^v.

jreSk

'

[No. 21
irpo-

ireSa KoXtovov, i[fi ^]d>Ka(. Se 6


||

Ap la^rWap^ov.

22. Mytilene. Soonafter324B.c. IG.XII.ii.6. SGDI.214. Ditt.Orient.2.

Solm-

Michel 356.

Inscr.Jurid.II,pp.344ff.

Plofemann 11.83.

Hicks 164.
sen6.

[/cal ol /3]ao-t'[\7;e9

0ov\n

(U9

re^vav

Te;)^i'a]/u,eV[(B]

rm

Tcav KaTe\r]\v06v'\T(ov

Se Ke Tt9

TrpoaTi]dr)a-[6ov rait KareXTjXv-

e\v rdi] iroKi irpoade [eovroi.


/Mr)

ai,

efifievq iv rat? Sta\i'<Tt[ecr](rt

TavT[ai,ai,

je^eado) Trap ras Tro'Xto? KTi]iMaTo<; fnjSe-

fit]
\

6 vo'i iir][Se crTl|et;)^eT(o

TToXi irpolaOe

eVt

eovrei,
|

7rapx<i>pi]a'av['Ae<; avrcot,

crrpoTayoi

eh

fifj'\Sev too p.

dWa
e

irapeymprja'av avrcot ot ev rdi

ajreixovrov eVl ravra rd KT'^p.ara ol

t&ji']

iv rdi iroXi irpoaOe eovrcov, Kau ol

rov iv rdi ttoXi trpoade

[avdt<; diro<^epov\rov eiri

eovra rd KTi^p^ara

[m?

p,r]

tm

(rvvdXXaj]fjieva

KaTe\7j\v6ovTO<i

10

Kal ol ^aaiX-qe; TrpoarlMBrfa'dov rSa iv rjat ttoXi irpoade eovn

rexvav Texvap,ev(o

CO';

tq) Ka\[Te\'r]'S.v6ovTOi!

jpdcjiTjTai Trepl T^o'^vrmv,

SiKaaKO-jTOi firjSe
a-Tpordjoi'; Kal

p,r]

d\\X]a dpxO'

roh

/U.7?S'

at we rt? SiKav

ela-d\[jovrov ol Trepc'\Spop,oi

Kal ol

[iTripeXecrddi Se]

P'rjBeia.

rot?

/3[ao-iX]7;a? Kal

toU

ire\[pi8p6p,oi<!

Kal rjoi?

Measures taken for the settlebetween the


exiles who returned under Alexander's
edict of 324 B.C. and the reinaining citi-

any of the property which those who


remained in the city have surrendered

zens of Mytilene.

and the generals

88.

ment

of disputes arising

Most of the

restorations adopted are

those preferred

But

in

many

by Dittenberger

I.e.

cases others are equally

dered

it

who

surren-

shall enter into possession of

erty to the one

it,

shall return the prop-

who remained

in resi-

dence, on the ground that the returned


exile has not

conformed to the agree-

And the /3a<r(\;cs shall favor the


who remained In residence on the

ment.

possible.
1 ff.

to lilm, but rather those

'

The

|8a(r(XTjes

shall favor the

returned exile on the ground that the

one
groundthat the returned exile has been

one who remained in residence has


been guilty of fraud. But if any one
of the returned exiles does not abide
by these terms of settlement, he shall

guilty of fraud.

not receive any property from the

officials

city,

nor shall he enter into possession of

suit, shall

inspectors

Nor,

if

any one brings

the clerks of the court and


of

justice,

magistrate, introduce

or any

it.'

are to intervene

13

fi.

if all

other

'The
things

prescribed in the decree are not carried

LESBIAN INSCEIPTIONS

No. 22]

SiKua-KOTTOK Kul

Tflt? [(xXXaJt?

apxaK

ai Ke

185

[nr) jivrjrai a.Trav]Ta 15

||

iv T&i \(r[a<f)i(Tfian yeypa7rT]ai, KardypevTov

(B?

[8e top aderevrd


|

Ti

Tav

iv TMi

\jra<f)ia-fj.aTi

yeypa]fjij/j,vcov, co?

ToZ? KaTeXijXvdovTecra-i ir]p6';

ell)

roh

Ke

Sid^opov

fifjB\[ev

iv rai iroXt

[wpoa-de eov|

aXXa

Ta?,

Sidyoiev ol 6taXe]Xu/ievot jrdvre'i

tt/jo?

a\|[A,aXot? avv-

woTrTQ)? Kal ave-7ri^ovXev]T(i)<i Kal ifipAvoiev iv rat d\\[TrvKpi<TL

TW

^aaiXr)0'i Kal iv rajt SiaXvai rdi iv tovtcoi to)i

SiaXXaKTUfi

eXeo-^]at rbv

S'

dvSpa'i eiKoai, SeKa

SdfJi,ov

TO)V KareXBoVTcov, Scko] 8e iK tS)v iv

tm

rat, 20

\{ra\[^ia-fj,aTi.
I

tto'Xi irpoerde

[p,v

iK

iovrmv.

[ouTOi Se -irpSiTov fiev (f>vXd<Ta'\ovTov Kal iwifieXecrdov gj? firjSev


ea\[a-Tai Sid<f>opov rot? KaT]eXd6vTa-cn Kal rot? iv rat iroXi irpo-

Trpd^oitri Se] Kal irepl tS)v d/jL(f>ia0aT7]fjieva)v Krrjfid- 25

o-||[0e iovrea-a-i.

T(ov

re KaTeX6ovTe<; K']al

[qj? 04

tt/oo?

toi? eV rat iroXi 0VTa<s Kal

naXuna

[aXXa'Xot?

TTjOO?

pi^ev hiaXvOrja-ovrai, ai Se

fit],

ecra-ovrai

6)S

Kal iv rajt? BiaXvcriecrcn, rat? o /Sao-t'Xeu?

St:|[ato'TaTot,

Kpivve,

[real

eTre-

ey rat o-uiiaXXaYjat ip,p^veoicn iravre; Kal oiKija-oia-i

rap, 7ro]|[Xn' /eat

raY

j(^a>pav

ojpovoevre^ vp6<; aXXaXot?

[vreSa to 7ra/3a8e'8e;!^]0at

y(pr]p,dT(OV

rah SiaXvaK

at

Trept 30

(b9 TrXeto-ra /cat

TrejOt

opKW

cnrop,6aaa)iai ot]

[to'i/ /ce

TrdXirai,

-jrepl

tovtcov irdv-

Tcov ocra-a Ke o/io|[Xo7e(Bto-t tt/jo? aXXaXoJt?, ot aypedevre^ dvSpe<:

^epovTOV eVi

Sdp,ov, 6 Se Sa/tio? a/co]ua-at? at e ayrjrai crvp-

t|[oi'

^eprjv ySoXXeuero).

[at Se'

A;e

o hdpo<s dyrjTai to] opoXoyrjpeva Trpb<; 35

||

dXXdXoi'i

irvp,(j)6pov\[Ta, ^a(f>ia-aa-6ai

^p,i0{va irpoTavLO';
out,

[ocrcra

and condemn any one who

regards them, so that there

dis-

may

be

no disagreement between the two parties and they may live amicably and
abide by the decision of the king and
the settlement reached in this decree.'
21 ff. 'Twenty men are to be chosen
as mediatore, ten from each party.
They are to see to it tliat no disagree-

ment

arises,

and

Kal rots Ka^TeXOovrecrcn

Ke rot? Xoltrouri

in the case of dis-

puted property they are to bring it


about that the parties shall be recon-

^jracfj^iaOTj.

ciled, or, if not, that

iirl

ai Se we rt

they shall be as

and abide by the terms


of settlement which the king decided
upon and the agreement, and dwell
just as possible,

in harmony.'

80-31

ff.

'Regarding

questions of money, after the terms of


settlement have been accepted as far
as possible,

and regarding the oath and

other matters, the

men selected
who shall

report to the people,

shall

take

such measures as seem advantageous,


If the people approve the matters agreed

GKEEK DIALECTS

186
ivSevT]

TW

[irepl tovt(o

yjracjiia/jiaTov,

[No. 22

Kpicn<;

eara

i-7r]l

rai ^oX-

Xai.

KvpoidevTO^ Se

40 Sdfiov iv

Oioiai

TM elKoicrrai tw

i-n-l

tm

ro) >^a(/)io-|[/LiaTO? inro

Sdfico, avfj.TravTa]

tov

[TreSa rav Ovaiav ev^acrdai] toI^

nfjvvo<;
||

aa)T7]piai Koi ev^ai^fiovCai Toijx iroXiTav iravTcov] ye've-

adai rav SiaXvaiv rol^


eovrea-cn- TOt[? B]e

koI

KaTe7\\[66vTe(Ta-i

toI<;

irpoaOe] ev tui ttoXc

raU

T|[ok SafioaioK aTravrw; kuI]

i!prja<;

oeiyrjv T[ot]? vavoi'i Kal

\tov

Scifjiov tt/jo?

IpeiaK

ra

evxa-v a-vveX]6r)v.

8e

45

ipa TO, 6 Sa/i09 [e]v^aro, ore


^aa-CXrja, airvSofievai

Toh

e|:||[e7re/Lti/re

tt/jo?]

tov

kut eviav]rov

/3aai\[Xr)0<! jevedXioicri

Trapenfievai Se rat dvaiai Kal [T|ok

XoK Tok

roh ayyeXoK;

eUocn iivSpa^ Kal roh a]'yjetoU airv twv irpocrBe] ev

TOV ^aaiXr/a ire[p.(p\6evTa^

TTjOO?

Toh a[Trv tmv KaTeXdovTwv. to


tJoCto avaypd-ijravTa'i Toh T^a/xtaK
Tai ttoXl iovTcov Kal

Between 319 and 317

23. Nesos.

Se ^fra(f)laf^a

b.c.

IG.Xn.ii.645.

SGDI.304.

Ditt.Orient.4. Hicksi 138. HofimannII.129. Michel363. SolmsenT. Only


is given here, the more fragmentary B being omitted.
the text of side

Ka]l
rac

iroXi,

Kal

'

AXe^avSpo[<;

oTa

xl'^'P"''^

8e] 'AXe^avSpo<; SidX[Xa\^e rop,

Trap avdpa)\ir(ov ^iov, <I>tXt7r7ro? Se [o


6

'

AXe^dvSpco

T[a|/x

<E>tXt7r7ra)

KaX] ' AXe^avSpo<;

||

^acnXeilav irapeXa^ov, Sepcmr-Trov

[rot?

ecav
|

Toh dXXoiai Ma/ce-

^a(T\iXriearai (piXo'; Kal rot? crTpoT^dfyoiai] Kal


10 SovecTcri, p,\e\'ydX~\Q}V

yap eTTiTd^avTOV

aydOayv atrto? yeyove rat

j^^Tj/iOTa et?

Tro'Xt.

'A[/^|Tt7r]aT/3a)

rop, 7r6Xep,ov elcT(f>epr]v Travrtov TOiv

dXXcov eicT^epovTCOv &epannro^ vapyevop.evo'i

tt/so?

rot? ^aaCX'qa<s

Kal 'AvTiTraTpov
15

t]ov irepl ra?

e'[ov]|^to-o-e Tap. ttoXiv,

et?

^virpov

may decree

cTTpaTeia'; Kal

eTrpa^e Be Kal
i\[j'\

tt/so? KXe[t-||

p,eydXa^ Sairdva'; eh

leges for the exiles returning in the

be made annijally on the anniversary


of the king's birthday in the presence of

prytaiiy of Smlthlnas as for the others.

the twenty

38-39

Decree in honor of Thersippus


for using his influence with the Macedonians in behalf of the city. For the
historical references see Hicks and Dittenberger. I.e. There are some koiv/i

upon, they

ff.

'

the same prlvi-

When the decree has been

confirmed, the people are to pray that

the settlement

may

be for the general

The priests and priestesses are


to throw open the temples. The sacrlfices which were promised when the
welfare.

messengers were sent to the king are to

men and

the messengers.

83.

forms, as tieri for


side iyKapvavirw.

ireSi,

iviypa^ai. be-

LESBIAIT INSCEIPTIONS

No. 23]

lUKpov avvdyaye.
|

[iyeveT]o Se kuI irepl rav criToSeiav

eSa)Ke Se Kal rat ttoKi

elcraycoyalv

ek

[;;^p^/naTja
||

[o-o|va? atTJjjcre

av-i][p
|

t&v a-aSpdirav

po?] Kal Trap

187

ray

tokok

(Ta>Tr]piav Kal

Karea-raKOVTCov, evador)

[Se

070-

KajrecrKevaaae,

criT(o

iXdcr- 20

p(;/3j;]/iaTeo-(7t /cai

ek

TOi? TToXiTaicTt,

Kal TloXvTrep'x^ovTO<; ek rav 'Aa-i[av

[(7i\Tavia]v.

^i\ov avrov

SuoiKijae

CTTaXeJi'TO?
iTKevaa-cre 8e

Kai 'Appd^ai\[ov

To|[7/iei;o]t?

^tto

irpda-aei fier

Kal']

t&v ^aaiXijcov

evvoia';

tm
toU

'7ro|[Xt

dWoa
tm

^i\oi<;

v7rd'\p'x^r)v,

Traps- 25

rot? iiri nvoav re-

raWa

Ka]l

7r[o]\t

[tov S^d/jiov iravra- BeSocrOai avraa

tt/so?
|

areXeilav

||

Trdvrtojv rop, Trdvra ^(^povov Kal avTco Kal [e'/ckoVjoto-t, 30

aTaaai Se avroa Kal eiKova


7r/30Tai'ij[t|to,
fftTrTTft)

K^al ora

p^a\[:^|aI'],

a ttoXk

/ce

tw

Kal Twv eKyovcov di

SeSoadai Be Kal airrjcnv

Ipo-irorjTai, pepi<; B[i\B(o](TOa)

y[d\paLJTdT03, KdXrfaOai Be Kal

avTOV 6 )(opoaTdTa^ di

irpoeBpCav

t5> dycovi

Kal oyKapvaaeTca dvBpay\a\6 C]a'i eveKa Kal evvolat

[a-reJc^ai/WTa) Be

ip,

@ep-

ek

35

6 iv[e\oov ijv

irpix;

TOV Bd^pov\, Xva yipdicrKCOiai irdvre^

on

Ta<i

[Najo-ito- 40

6 Bdpo<; 6
||

rav Tok dyddoK dvBpa<!

\_K~\al eue[/3|7e']Tat9

avra

dpepai^ rpk Kal evayyeXia Kal atorrfpia

icrTe(f)a\lva]^6prja-V

Tt'[//.at]

Kal acoBevro'i
|

e\d]vae Kal 'irav\dyvp'\tv crvvd\yaye BapoTe\X\r)V Kal vvv Tipai

Ke

TapiaK rok per 'Hpa^KXeiro) to

Be rot?

BiKda)<;. d\\vdypa-\jrai
<j)ia-pa

ek o'TdWav \iOlvav

t<u eK

e[/3]|o-tTr7r(B crwa[p]e'(7K7j pe'x^pi

o-i[7r]7r0
(jiia-pM,

Kal

dWa

Kot Ke

eiiepyeWr)

Tap

7r[p]\oa-ypd(j)7jV,

|i^pi

IIopvoTrtos

site of

the

temple of Apollo Parnopius, the epithet being derived

Boeot. Tdprnf

pus

may

(5).

from

48

rrdpm\j/,
ff.

'

Lesb.

Thersip-

also have the decree set

elsev7hei in

efe'[o-]|TB

Be ep-

to

fjptoz/ a-Td(7a[i]

yjrd- 50

||

eppevai

avTco,

Tuy Kev

iroXiv.

47. Ik 0^p(jias XtOu: o/marfite/rom


Therma, a place in Lesbos near Mytilene.

Hopvoirca';

oirira Ke 6e\r) t<o[v


de'Xi]

Ti

^jra- 45

eppa<i Xi6(o Kai ardtrai oinra

up

any sanctuary that he

chooses and add to

it

a statement of

any of his other benefactions.'


84. Decree in honor of L. Vaccius

Labeo.

This

is

a characteristic exam-

pie of the artificial revival of the dia-

lectinRoman imperial times

(cf.

280).

^Yith the genuine dialect forms are


interspersed

koiit)

forms as

Trapij7-7)o-aTo,

irpiravis, iva-, nerd, lepras, Kadi,

iip'

otaiv,

hyper-Aeolic forms as i^iipav,


TrXdfeos (vyords with original 1;, not a);
etc.

and examples of

late spelling as Tci^ais,

Karetpuiv vfith

(36),

et

Kopaylav,

(21), iiruTKeda-avra

ivdpKoiaav with k

GREEK DIALECTS

188

SGDI.311. Hoffmann II. 173.

24. Cyme. Between 2 B.C. and 19 a.d.

Zfiapayijco]
5 (7avT0<;

7}

rah

[Safi]ocriai[<;\

v'7rapK0t]a-ai<; avrco /cT7j|[(7ta? ep ros

tovtokti tS>

Sa[//.a)]

ovia Traaavoia-

Teip.ai'i

[fj,eyaKo']TrpeTrea-(T(i)TaL<;

ical

[No. 24

Soyfiari^ovTo? Kai

||

vav\(o ev roi <yvfi[v)acTCa) /careipcov Trpoayprj/ifievo), iv

rah

co

Tet-|

avTco KanSpvaei, KrCcTTav re kuI evepyerav TrpocrovvlfidcrSea-Oai,

fiai<;

ra fie\'yicrTa rov Sa/j,ov eieprav


i^ dvdpdiyirmv avrai fjLerare

eiKOvdi; re y^pvcriai'; 6vTedr)v, icada T0t9

vofMfiov iari, fidlrd

10 'yeTrjcrdvTecTcn

(TTacTLV

Kol TCLV

yevijOrjv,

15

Kal 6eenv

vTrepd'Ufi,co<i

tw

crd)fiaTO<;

rav Kpiaiv ra^

rvy^av rot? icftiKroiaiv avdpdnra), rav

iv

rm

yvfivacriai

TToXto';

Aa^^ewv,

7rpo(Tfie\rpel's

rav iavrco

p,ev vTrep/Sdpea

Kal 0eoiai

irpovirapyiievoicn avrco Kal

toI's

crroi'xel';

iv\rd(j}av

aTroSe^a/iez/o?

||

Kal Tot? I(7<7o6eoiac apfj,6^oi\aav


re ra) Kricrra

Trpoaovvfiaaiaf reCfxav irapr^rrjaaro, apKerjv

rhv Kpiaiv

^cov

rSi

20 T049 ayddoicri ra)v

vevae

reip.at'i

Tr\ddeot Kal rccv evvoav

dvSpmv

e'irLre6e\a)prjK7)V,

ol\cnv TrpeircoSeararov iari

icj)'

rei/jiiav rrepl ra<;

vofii-^

rah

Be

TrpeTroillraK aa/jievi^oiaa p^a/oa avverre-

rwv

ivvoficov eovrtuv

rav rravreXea rSiv eh ap,oi^av avrjKovrcov

y^^povcov

Kal

rat re rS> vavco Kareipao'io's ra?

eiraivcov re

Ka\oKayadia<; avrco jxaprvpiav cnrvBeBocrdai


|

25 Si

d Kal

rvy(a

dydda

^ecova Trattra? eovra

^lov

crefjkvorara

(66a).

ipKiifv (infin.), avvreKii}

etc.

(155.3)

miiji

(1.

5),

36-37)

beside

'

and Lesbian

accent).

But

it is

artificial.

such cases the koixi) form was adopted


as a whole or only in part (cf. 280),

is

a contamina-

veii.

4ireypd<priv

and moreover by
anything, was left

this time

little,

if

carried over from the

spiritus asper even in

sound of the
the koiv/i. So the

(perhaps only by the en-

transcription chosen

is

With regard

scribed with
etc.);

f er iep4us

with

are probably

to psilosis,

we

4(plKTouriii.

The forms of the relative, being borrowed from the Kotvij (126), are tranot(Tiv

Aa-

impossible to determine whether in

find Karelpuv, KariSpiaa, but

i<t>'

iiraiVTjv

aor. infin. pass., like

with

graver).

an

is

indicative

rai Sdfico

d^iov Kal 8ia rav Xoirrav ixev rrepl rov

a-Tetpdvav,

correct,

if

ra /3o'Wa Kal

K6.\riv,

tion of vavov with Att.

6vT40riv,

Tet|/u.a?

11

Kal hid rav ^iXoSo^iav Se Kal rhv fieyaXoSdrravov

the normal ;i-forms

(1.

SeSo)(^6ai

'

throughout

and one might

(cf.

also

also pre-

and iavrdv (instead of ^ovtok

of the

of small con-

sequence.
15

ff.

He

deprecated

the

excessive

and demigods, of dedicating a temple and naming him founder, thinking it to be enough
to have observed the judgment and good
honor, suitdble only to gods

will of thepeople, but the

honors suitable

LESBIAN INSCRIPTIONS

No. 24]

T^v TToXiv

et?^

Sideea-iv,

Kal

Kal exnv iv rd KaXkiaTa

airvSoxa, Kal KoXyv ek irpoehpiav, Kal

reaa-i^

189
8iaXdfj.yjrei,

re

a-T<j)dvcov iv 7rdv-\\

toi? aydivea-a-iv, oi? Kev

a ttoXj? avvreXer), ev rd rdv Karevrdv airovBav kcit rdSe 6 Bd/xo's aT\<j)dvoi AevKiov
OvuKKiov AevKia vlov Al/j,i\c'a Aa^eava, 4>i\\oKVfiaiov evepyerav,
\

Xav

afiepa

30

iirl

(TTe^dva xpv<rim apera? eveKa Kal (t)i\ayaeia<; ra?


eh eavrov ovred-qv he avTw Kal i\\Kpva';, ypdirrav re iv SirXco
irfxpva-w Kal
XaXKiav, KUT rd ai\Ta Se Kal fiapfiapiav Kal xpva-iav iv t yvp-vao-i'o),
it})' av
iir^ypd^Tjv o Sdfio^ irei/iacTev AevKiov Owkkiov
\

35

AevKim

vlov AlfuXia Aa/Se'wm, ^iXoKVfiaiov evepyerav, yvp.va(n\apxvo-avTa KdX(o<s Kal fieyaXoSo^o)^, ovOevra Se Kal to fiaXdI'j^oi' TOt? ve'oia-i Kal 7rpo<; rdv et? avro KopayC\av
rah virapKoCa-ai'i
I

||

avToa KTrjaia'i

iv Zixapayrjco, Kal i\nrL(7Keda-avTa

Kai eKuaTa iiriTeXea-avTa


\

eveKa Kal evvoai


vexOeJ^\Ta

avrov

Tdi ek eavTov.

xnro

aTe<f)avd>drjV Sid tcS

twv

ra?

Kal

Xdp,Trpa)<;

to

yvp.vdai.ov,

p.eyaXo-ylrvxto'i,

dpeTa<:

Kal eVet Ke Se TeXevToa-rj, KaTe-

i(j)d^(ov

Kal raiv veoov ek Tav dyopav

xaT TdSe

TTo'Xto? KdpVKO<;

45

6 Sa|/io? a-Te<f>d-

AevKLOv OvdKKiov AevKia vlov AlfuXia Aa\^e(ova,

voi

40

(j)iXoKvp.aiov

evepyerav, aTe<f>dva) xP^o'^co dpe\Ta<; eveKa Kal euv6a<; Td<i

ek

Tov

iipdjSmv 50

eicrevexdrjv Se

|[

avTOV ek to

vemv, Kal ivTdtfyijv iv

Kai, T(bv

yv/j.vd<Tiov vtto re

k dv evdeTov

tJ

tmv

eav-

ep.p,evai ^aCvrjTai

toIttjo.

to Se

ovaeptevai

dvdypa-^ai ek CTTdXav Xi6<o

ylrd<f>ia-p.a To'Se

ek to yv/xvaaiov

irdp

pfjvov ^paTpico SeKUTa

p-aK.

Ka to- a/309,

AvTOKpdTopo<i

||

Oea

Tak

dtriovTO'; iirl lepeeo^


via>,

Xeu|Ka) Kal

SeSo\yp.aTi(Tp,evaK avTto teC-

d&a

ra? 'Vcopa^ Kal

55

2e/3ao-T(o, dpxiepeo<; p.eyC-

iTToa

Kal

ra? irdTptSo'i IloXpcovo<;

7ra|T/309

irpVTdvLO'i Se AevKico OiiaKKieo

XoKvp.ai(o evepyera, aTe<j)ava<f)6pco Se


to

good

tion.

in tlie

men

he accepted with gratifica-

47. AtfiiXIa

nom.

sg.,

name

t&j ZtJi'wi'o?

AaoStVeo?,

AevKim via AipiXila Aa^ecovo^,

of the tribe

as in Latin inscrip-

11

I.TpdTcavo'i tS)

tions.

of

56

f.

Kome and

^i-

'UpaKXeiSa.

'whenPolemonwaspriest
Augustus.'

eo

GEEEK DIALECTS

190

[No. 25

Thessalian

25. Larissa. V cent. B.C.


Roberts 240.

SGDI. 343-344.

IG. IX. ii. 662-663.

Hoff-

mami II. 42.

lioXv^evaia

a.

26. Site of

h-

ififit.

unknown identity,

YeKeSafio:;.

southeast of Larissa.

V cent. B.C.

IG.IX.

ii.l027.

"KifKovi Aeo-j^a[t]o[t].

a.
h.

'KptaTCov oveOiKs koI

G.

IIjOoVo?

V cent. B.C.

27. Phalanna.
5

(TvvSav'xi'a(l}6poi.

ipyd^aro.

At Ke Tov pacrarov

No'/i09.

Hoffmann 6.

IG.IX.ii.l226.
Ki?
|

paXC^aKerali]

Koiva x[p]\^'

10

fiara e[x]\ov kuI /i[e]

Si;j/aT[a]||t a7r7re[t(r|at]

to

28. Larissa. About 214 b.c. IG.IX.ii.517. SGDI.345. Ditt.Syll.238239 (only the letters of PHlip). Hoffmann 11.16. Michel 41. SolmsenQ.

\Tay~\ev6vTovv 'AvayKiTTTroi lierdaXeioi,, KpuTTovooi


'

2 'E7rt7e'i'eo9 'lacroveioi, ELiSt:o[t

'

ASajfj-avreioi,

'EiVvofieCoi,

'AXe^ia KXeapp^etot,

'AXeva AafMoadeveioi

'^vfjLvacyiap'x^evro^

iiricrToXhv c^ir^ucTTeXXavTo^ ttot


VTTO'ye'Ypafifi.evav
4

"Bao-tXeii?
^(aipeiv.

^ iXiinro';

FEK^Sap.os

26. Aristion

up

to

sc.

and

Aapi,aai\cov rot?

II

ive<f>dvi^6v fioi

See

a-rdWa.

see 46, 52

Tayoi<;

koi

ttji

TroXet

his fellow Sacpvri^S-

Phalanna

(IG.IX.ii.

1234) reads "AttXouw Kep5[o](ou ^ova-liraUo\eiJ,apxlSaios 6 Biras

iviBeixe ie-

poii.va.ij.!>vel\(ra^

Ato-xa[l]o[i]

Kal ApxiSavxm<f>opela-as.
:

or Ae<rxa[/J6

(cf.

on

koi

Aco-xixip'os,

r/

vfierepa ir6Xi<s 8ih

an epithet of Apollo, oc-

curs in Plutarch, and Aeo-xttpipios

6.

Apollo of the A^a-xv-

late inscription of

T/)o!

raybi Koi rav iroXiv rav

IIeTj0ato9 KaX 'Avdyicm-iro'; Kal 'A/oto-ToVow? tos otto tij?

as. IloXu^evaCa

poi set

^bXiiriroi rol jSaaiXeloi;

irpeiT^eia'i iyevovro,

168 c.

toi^

38)?

name

of a

month

is

in Thessalian

the

and

Cretan.
as.

Decrees of Larissa made in ao-

cordance with recommendations of the

Macedonian king Philip V, whose letters, dated 219 and 214 B.C. and written in the Kotci}, are included. The

THESSALIAN INSCEIPTIONS

No. 28]

191

Toil? TToXe'/iou? TT/ooo-Setrat TrXeoWi' oIktjt&v eo)? av ovv


koI ere'-l
povt iinvo'qa-cofiev a^iov<; tov Trap' vfilv iroXiTevfjLaTo^, eVt tov irapoVro? Kpivto ^r)cf)L<Ta<76ai \jixa<i ottqj? rot? KaTOL\Kov<7iv irap vfilv

@(Tcj-aXa)V

rj

rSiV

aXKav

avvTeXecrd evTo<; koI


TreTreia-fiai

erepd re 7ro[X]Xa tmv

TToXei Koi

Trji

TTjV

tovtov yap

'EXXtji/cdi' hoOrji TroXtreta.

avvp^eivdv^av

Sia

'irdvrcDV

'^^pijaifiav

(^iXdvOpaira

to,

eaeaOat koI

/laXKov e^epyaa^drjaeadai.

%C()/3ai'

ifiol

koI

eTOV<;

/S'

"Tirep^epeTaiov ku."
>^a^i^ap,eva^

Ta<; ttoXlo's \jrd^ia-/J,a


||

vafifiot

to viroyeypafifievov

"Ha-

10

e/cra eir t/eaSt o"ui';XetTO? <yevoiJ,eva<;, ayopavo/xevrovv

TO,

TOvv Tayovv

'irdv\TOVv

^ikiTnroi toI ySao-tXeto? ypd/jb/xara

Trefiyjrav-

T09 TTOT To^ Tayb<; Kal rav woXiv Bi(e) kL IleTpaio<; Koi 'AvdyKiir7ro9

Kal 'A/Jto-ToVoo?, ou? ar ra?

TTjoeto-ySei'a?

iyevovdo, ive(paviaaov

12

avTOv, TTOK Ki Kal a afifieovv


TrXeto'i'oi'i'

voeiffovfiev

ToOf KaroiKeicrovTOvv

af ib? to4 Tra/a a/i/Lie

TO, TTo'Xt

dXXa

TrolTeSeieTO

fieairohC ks ovv Kal eTepo? eTTt|

Toi<}

KaroiKevTecrai irap

dXXovv 'EWdvovv Sodel a

yap avvTeXecrdevroi Kal (7Vvp,evvdvT0vv TrdvWovv


ireireicrTeiv

TroXe'/cto?

TroXiTev p.aTO';, er toI irapeovro'; 14

Kpevvefiev yjracfyi^aaOeiv a/Xfie 0(5)9 e

IieT6[a'\VXovv Kal rovv

Ste to?

Tro'Xt?

'jroXireia

hie

a/M/jLe

rolveo<;

to (jiiXdvOpovira

16

re ttoXXo, tovv y^peicri/iovv ecraeaOeiv Kal euToO Kal

Kal rav ^ovpav fiaXXov i^epyacrOeicrecrBeLV

ra

iyjrdipia-Tei

TToXiTet'a

TOK

wpaaaefiev irep rovvveovv kclt

^a\cnXeiK eypayfre, Kal

to, 6

KaToiKevreo'a'i Trap dfine YleTdaXovv Kal tovv

18

aXXovv EXXa-

vovv SeBoaOeiv rav 7roXt|Tetai' koI avTol<; Kal iayovoK Kal rh Xoiira
Tip-ia {nrap'xeixev
voLif

avToh irdvra

oaa-airep A.acraioi';, <^uXa? eXo/ie-||

eKdtTTov TTota? Ke jSeXXejTet

to p,a

\jrdif)icr/ia

Tove Kvppov 20

enfiev KCLTT TravTOt 'x^povoi Kal toi Tafiiwi i(78(^p,ev ovypdy^eiv avTO
Thessalians at this time were nominally

o-aois: Aapta-alon.

independent,

t^v Kipiaav.

Macedonia.

actually subject to

btit

Cf. Polyb. 4.76.2.

10. oTivKXeiTos

avvKKils (167.9)

used, like Att. o-i^kXijtos

iKK\ii<rLa,

is

of a

in two
ToS iavTov. So also
Aootherinscriptionsof Larissa.
specially summoned assembly.
:

16. ti-

evToT, eilr^s

19.

But

Cf. Hesych. Ad<ra>'-

in other inscriptions

only Adpuraor (later) Ad/jiiro-a.


choosing eachthe tribe

Xo.^kt'K.:

he wishes to belong,
tiiiicv

tto/os

irolas.

<|)u-

gen. sg. with

understood, ^uXas gen.

traction to

19f.

to ivhich

sg.

by at-

Cf. Att. eXicrBai dk

airois (pvKi/v Kal drjfwv Kal ipparplav,

ijs

GREEK DIALECTS

192

[No. 28

eV aTdXKa<; \i6ia<; Sua? koI to, ovvfiara tovv TroXiToypa^eidevrovv


22

aXXav

rdfi lid

to iepov toI " A'7r\ovvo<! rot KepSoioL,

fiev lav iv

Kal KarOefiev] rdfi

iv rdv aKpoiroXiv, Kal rav ovdXav,

/ct?

'fi\vveiTei

iv rave, S6/xev" Kal varepov ^iXiinroi rol ^aacXeio^ iiTLCTToXav


24

aXXav
'

dTrv(TTeXXavTO<; ttot

Tb<; ra'yo';

Kal rdv ttoXiv, rayevovrovv

ApicTTovooi ^vvop,eioi, EuStKot 'ASufiavreLoi, 'AXe^iTnroi 'IttttoXo'E7rt7eVeo? 'laeroveioi, '^vp.eivioi DAvaataioi, yvfivaa-tapxe'v-

X^^oi,
II

T0<;

TifiavviSa TifiovviSaioi, rdv vTroye'YpafifJLevav

26

TTVvOdvofiai toii? TroXLToypa(f)rj0evTav

peiv.

Kal to

i-TTiaToXfjV
28

rayoh Kal

" Bao-fXeu? $t\t7r7ro? AapKraicov rot?

'^^cfyierijia

aTTjXa^ iKKeKoXa<f>0aC

ifjirji Kpi(7ea)<;.

'

on yap

dv^TeiTretv, e^ea-Ti Se

KdXXiaTOV ianv

ttjv re iroXiv

Kal

OTav

Kal t^?

irXeCaToav p,eTe-

o5?

tow

Tali

iXevdeptocraxj-iv, Trpocrhexpiievoi

iraTpiha eTrijv^iJKaaiv,

dXXd Kal

firj

vfi&v oideva dv
op.oiai'i

eh to

o't

ttoXito-

Kal toik

iroXiTevp,a Kal

TOiV dp^eCcov //.e|[TaSt]So'i'Te? Kal Sid tov tolovtov Tpoirov oi


34 Tr}v ISiav

tA?

et?

ia^yeiv Kal ttjv j^wpai/

vofii^co p-ev ovS'

XoiiroiK

tov<;

traTpiSi

tyji

xpcfievov; Oewpelv, Sv Kal oi 'P<B/iat|oi elaiv,

32 ypacj)iat<;

oiKeTa<s,

||

^^paeveadai,

atV;)^/)&)?

xai-

ttjv Trap' e/iov

to v/xeTepov Kal dvaypacf)evTa<;

irdvTcov

xpvToav TOV TroXiTevft,aTo<;

Sairep vvv

rfji jroXei

eXhrep ovv iyeyovei tovto, 7J(TT0X'n''^eia'av ot

(rvv^ovXV(TavTe<; vfuv Kal tov a-Vfi<^epovTO';

30

Kara

pAvov

d-jroiKia'; (a-)'x,eS6v

[.ei?
j

e^]Sop,'^KOVTa TOTTOv; eKireirop.^acnv.

KaX&

d(f>iXoTip,a)<;

vfjLd<i

7rX[^]j' eVi Se

irpoaeXdelv

[tt/oo?
||

fiev KeKpi/jLevovi viro


36 Teiav, el Se

[Tive<;
\

r)

TfjV TToXiv

rj

Si

t&v

to\ trpdyp,a Kal toxk

ttoXitcov aTroKaTacrTTJa-ai etV? ttjv ttoXi-

ajvi^KeaTov ti ireirpdxaaiv

oXXtjv

Kal vvv irapa-

nvd

aiTiav

p,7)

etc-? Trjv

d^ioi

^aaiXeCav
[p.eTeyAeiV

ela-iv
j

TJj9 <7T7j\779
38

dv iyw

TavTt]'!, TTepl

TOVTfov Tr]V {nrepOe(Tiv Troirja-aa-Oai,

eVto-T/aei/ra? aTrb tt}?

[o-T/saJreta? SiaKovao)

eito?

toi<; p,evT0v

KaTijyopeiV tovtcov p,eXXov(Tiv irpoeitraTe OTrto?


^[i\Xo']Tipiav TOVTO TTOiovvTe's.

6.V

poi\uTM

3 pi. plpf
fail.

efrai.

eTOv;

28. T|(rTox''iKCL<rav

of do-Tox^u, miss the mark,

Both word and ending are post-

claBsical. 38.

|i.Ivtov: /i^ptoi.

This

Is

p-r)

<f>ava>a-iv

Sid

TopiriaCov iy."

now attested from some half dozen koiv^


sources.

It is

probably due to the anal-

ogyofadverbslike7rpfiToi',Xoi7rij',ete.
40. irepUpovv:

apparently equivalent,

THESSALIAK INSCRIPTIONS

No. 29]

ra?

\p-a(f)i^aneva<;

iroXio'; yfrdtpicr fji,a

to

193

Li7ro7||[7]/3ajU./;6e'i'oi'

"

@e-

40

fiuTTioL TO, vaTepojxeivvia ayopavofj.evTO': 'AXe^iTnroi irep lepovv,

AXe^-iTTirot Xe^a[i']|T09 iyjra^iaTei to, TroXtreta, ocrcrovv p,ev i(f)dv-

ypevdeiv Kivei tovv

'ireiro\i,TO'^pa(^eifjivovv,

TWi iv XevKOV/jia eadep-ev auTo?

TOVV

ei'

to? Tayb<; e77/3a[i|rai']-|

rov Xifieva, rov^v fija Xoittovv 42

jreTToXi.Toypa^ei.fj.evovv kclt tclv i'7naT[o']\\av toI ^acrt\eio<; to,

ovv/MUTa Kal ras eTrtcrroXa? toi /SocrtXeZo? Kal


Te

vmrpo

[tJos yevofievov Kal to Tdp.ov oyypdyjravTa'i ev crraXXa? 44


|

Xidiat Bva<; KaTde^iev Tav


Ke/)Soiot,|| TCLV he

SXXav

fj,ev

Xav ev tov vaov rot

Tav Koivdv TToOohovv

ypovoi

toI

to, 'ip'a<f)ia'fiaTa

tS?

aT

<to9> Tafiia<; Sofiev

46

TO fid xjrd^iafJLa Tove Kvppov

" ot ireTroXiTolypacfieLiJLevoi

KaT

j8a(7tXeto9 Kal

" KirXovvo';

ev tclv aKpoiroXiv ev tov vaov Ta<; 'A6dva<;,

Kal Tav ovdXav tov ev Tdve yivvfievav to?

travTO';

to

to, <{ra(f>caiJi,aTa

udT

Kair

kfifiev

Te Td<s eTrtuToXas TOt

tto'Xjo?
|

48

"A/j^itttto? JLaXXiipovvTeto^.

1,a/i69paKe<;

Ivpavvovvioi

'A.yeta-ivoo<s

AvKiveto^, ^dXa\Kpo<; 1,ifiiaio^, [ktX.

49-78].

AeTTtWto?,

'EvOotvo'i AeTTivaLo<i, ^iX6Safio<s

TvpTovvcoi

Boi'- 79

[ktX. 7992].

(TKO'i AafiiJidTpeio<;,

29. Larissa. II cent. B.C. IG.IX.ii.553. Hoffmann 11. 18.


"S-Tpiifiovv

MoXoTOi

XoVot Tol ^oiviKO'i


o-TttTet/ja?

pioi

[o] <^dp.evo<; dweiXevO{e)povcrdeLV diro


yLVOfJ,evo<;

t6<;

SeKdirefMire.

Ta

iroXi

KaT tov

Mo-

20

vofiov dpyv-

'AXi6Sovpo<; XloXufe'vetos o

(f)dfj,evo<;

d\n-eiXevdepov(yOeiv diro
TToXi

UoXv^evoi 'Apfio^eveioi

Ta

to'; ytvop.e'vo';
\

vofMov dpyvploi (TTaTeipa<; Se/ca7re/x7re.

KUT TOV

Similarly

iwTpb

rds yevo/i^-

in the language of adulation, to irip

136.1.

whomPaaLXtKwv.
ever of those that have been enrolled any
persons accuse. i<l,6.vyi>^vB.iv in mean-

mi rip drSiv

soription of Larissa (IG.IX.ii.512.30).


89. The whole inscription of 44 lines

ing not ^^aipoCrrai, but KaTTryopavvTai

contains a

(of. 1. 38) . 43.

the same phraseology.


20. (|)i|i.vos a.va\(v6tpov<r9av: perf.

oo-o-ouv kt\.

41.

and the
so.

Ttt \|/a<|)o-(iaTa kt\.

decrees, both the one just previ-

ously passed
Tas,

Kal

and the present

iiiipas.

Cf.

one.

iirwpb

Boeot. Tporrivl,

infin.

^/zaifilvimTos

list

of manumissions, all

dirT/Xcueepuffeoi,

declared free.

in another in-

with (pdpems,

24

GEEEK DIALECTS

194

IG.IX.ii.536.

30. Larissa. Late II or early I cent. B.C.


A-]vTO/8o[u]Xeto[?].

[Nt;o];Xea[s
5 vovveioi 01

Tov ravpov

[No. 30

Xeiropevovro^ "K<yei\aia Se|

Nt/co/cXe'a? AvTO^ov\ei.o<;,

'7re<f)eipd\]fcovTe<;

'Apiariovv YlapfieviaKeiO';, Upa^ia's Elpaic\eiSaio<;, Aap.ea<! pa|

[ktK. 1019].

o-tTTTreio?,
II

31. Crannon. II cent. B.C. IG.IX.ii.461. SGDI.361B. Hoffmann 11.54.


Michel 302.

tow ne[T^aXow

[ST/oaTa]7eWo?

Ta'yevo]vrovv "Likdvoi

T/307roX[tTa,

Ma-

Aioz^to?] JlavaaviaCoi
|

'

Aa-ro[/Ma'x^eioi,

^tXjowo?

'

AvTiyeveLOi, Tev[vdoL

Attr%i'X[eiot,

Tevvdoi,

'A(T||crToi']oeioi,

- - 'K-'\aXKc(T9eveioi,

Ei[So^et'ot],

09

- 7

rap,ie\y6vTovv
'

AvTtyeveLOi Xe^ai'To[?

MaT/)07r[dXiTa9

10 cTav(aio['i]

'A]vTiyoveioi, ^eiSovvo^

||

Stere'JXet

TTo'XtJo? ev re rot? 'irp6repo\y 'x^povoi'i

Kai K\oiva
15

tto'Xj

to,

ej^et

ra

e]x/

o-py^a

K\aX Ka0' ISSiap alv tov ^petap

ra eavrot

[ey^o^vri,

eSo]^

TOV kolvov Ta?

Tav

Ai]ow Hav-

evepyerh to kolvov [ras


Kai

i7rei\Sel

TToXio'i

AiovTa eV ra jrpoavype[a-i

[eVatllvecrat]

ai ttIot tov ttoXiv koI iro^ff sKaaTOV

tovv] TroXiTaovv

KoX heh6ar\6ai

ical

ai\Tov] Ka(l) Toi'; ia-jovoii; aT[e\ei,av irdvTOVv


|

acrvXiav Kot la-OTi/xiav Kal [wdyTa

20 KaX\

pLev Ttpiia [Sacra


Ta/ji[i'\av

||

XotJTra avTOv iiirapxe-

wat] rots XoiTrot? 'rrpo^evoi'i, koI [(ppovTicrai

,^eiSovva EuSo'fet[oj' ous

[rove to

25 /^a?

to,

/ce

yjrdcjjiapja ovypacpel ev

uKpovp ev T0Z9 iapoVToh, \to

/w.A

ar ra?]

tovz'

Kiova Xidiv[av
oJi'aXou/.ia

Tbv'\

Tayovv yvov||

wat T]e[0et]

to yevopevov [ev

eyypa<f)e'\pev ev rot? Xo70t? Ta[? TroXto?].

Tdve
I

32. Phalanna. Ill cent. IG.IX.ii.l233. SGDI.1330. HofEmannII.il.


Michel 1126.

[^A^Odva TloXidSc ol TToXiapj^^oi ove\6eiKav

a.p')(iTTo\iap')(ivTO<;
\

'AcrKXaTTioBovpoi Alaj^^iviaiof
TnoSovpo^ 'SevoXdoi,
.

30.

fight,
it is

IIoXu71'outo?

'

Aff/cXa-

Ei/Sioro? 'ETrtYoVot, ETriVtKoi? Xlauo-az/iato?.

Refers to the Thessalian bullthe Toupo/cofld^ia, or Tau/)o9i;p(o as

called in another inscription of

Larissa, Ditt.Syll.671.

2t/x.fitato9,

si.

Decree in honor of Leon of Ma-

tropolis.

24. SlkpovvktX.. in the con-

secrated places of the heights


in

aKpow

(?).

But

one suspects some error of

the engraver.

THESSALIAN INSCEIPTIONS

No. 33]

195

TTiessaliotis

33. Thetonium, not far from Cierium.


Solmsen 10.
-e?

V cent.

b.c.

IG.XII.ii.257.

hvkopeovTO<; <i>iXoviKd Auto?.


|

@eTovioi eSoKav lidraipoi Tot K.\opiv9ioi KaiiToi kol ^evei Kal


p\oLKiarai<i Kal y^pe ixaaiv aavXC^v KwreXeiav Kevfepyerav il-jroie-

Kv Tayd Kiv

(rav

ai

aTay\iai,.

tk

a-TaKovra i\^^avaKd(S)Sev. ra xp^t^ia Kal to apyvpia re? BeX^aio


||

uTToT^o fieva ecrocre 'Opea-rao

^epeKpdr-

33. Decree of the Tlietonians in


honor of Sotaems the Corinthian, who

had recovered the gold and silver objects that had been lost from the temple of Apollo. Por the special dialectic
see 214.

peculiarities,
5.

94.7.

KevFcpverav

6.

or Kcifepy^av

is

See

is incomplete' both at the


beginning and the end, although the
bronze tablet on which it is inscribed

A horizontal line was cut in

is intact.

the bronze to indicate that

1.

belong with the following.

Either this

inwar

is

in

equivalent of the usual koX iroKd/Mv xal

It is obvious that the text as

1, 10.

stands

it

plainly the

Kivra'ya Kevdra'yCai:

and peace. The phrase

1 did

not

one of a connected series of tablets,


which case 1. 1 forms the conclusion

of a decree given

on a preceding tablet,

ex-

while the present decree was concluded

the fact that in early times,

only in time of war. Jason of Pherae,

on the following tablet; or, as seems


on the whole more likely, 1. 1 is the
conclusion of the present decree, and
was added at the top \Ylien it was
found that no space was left at the

in boasting of the military strength of

bottom. In this case

dp-qiri)!

(or iv

plained

by

TToXi/ujii

ktX.),

and

is

as also later in the time of Jason of

Pherae, the raySs

vf as

the military head

of the united Thessalians, appointed

the Thessalians on a

war

footing, ex-

we read

icpe/cpdres (cf. 108.2) or,

"Op^o-Tao

with correc-

rayevTjTai Ger-

tion, $epe(cpdTe(o)! huKopiovros ^CKovIko

Ta\Ut, Srav rayds ivSdSe KaratTT^, Srav

hvios, when Orestes, son of Pherecrates


son of Philonicus, was u\ap6s. The use
of the gen instead of the patronymic adjective would be only another instance

press this last

by Srav

TayeiTfrairi, xard, QerToXlav (Xen.Hell.

So To7d(one would expect


and arayla (cf amaida time wJien^
no K6<rfu}s was in office) were times of
war and peace respectively. But the
6.1.8,9,12).

Tayla)

(see

214) of divergence from the usual


The addition of the grand-

Thessalian.

name

use of the phrase does not necessarily

father's

show that the institution under which


it originated was in vogue at the time of
and, in any case, the
this inscription

precedented

To74sof

1.

8 is the municipal official, like

the Tayol of no. 28.

irap^aivoi, to\v rayov tov eVe-

the use of
(cf e.g.
.

Stratus

is

unusual, but not un-

(cf. e.g.

vl6s

no. 20), likewise

instead of the gen. alone

SGDI. 1 183, Arc.


;

irais

and Cyprian).

Ditt. Syll.478,

often so used in Lesbian


i\ap6s occurs in Arist.

10

GEEEK DIALECTS

196

[No. 34

34. Pharsalus. Ill cent. B.C. IG.IX.ii.234. SGDI.326. HofimaiinII.65.

'A[7a^a

rvxci-]

rav iroXiTeiav KaTTairep

eSov/ce

irdvaa irpoOviiM

a-u/i7ro|\[6/ieto-ai'Te]o-o-t

ical

avu'TroXiTevofievoi^

<^apcra\iovv rot? Kal ou? e^ apxa^

ttoXl';

Toh

^ap<TaKi,OL<;

e[f

ap%as

Xyrevofievoi'!, iSovKaep, p,a ep, Maicovviai'; ra? ixop-eva'i

p^opav '7r\e]dpa

(7)a[5

epxov

tto-

tov Aov-

e^eiKOvra eicdaTOV ei^aTU e^etv

Trarpoveav Top, irdvTa xpovov.

'EvpeiXiSa Ni/cao-t-

T[a7et;o'z'Tpii]i'
||

aiov, AvKov ApoviraKeiov, 'OioXvkov Mvaannreiov, Avkov <E>e/3eKpareiov, 'Avrioxov Awareiov. (Four columns of names follow.)
|

Boeotian
35. Temple of Apollo Ptous, near Acraephia. VI cent. B.C. Br^al,
M.S.L.VII,448. Holleaux, ibid. VIII, 180. Buck, Class. Phil. IV, 76fi.,437.

K.aXfov dyaXp^a pdvuKTi f\eKa^6Xoi ATr6(X)Xovi


'

avrap

?Aa/*]ocrtSas -KoCpecre p' 'E%eo-T/30T09.

an official siminowhere else


than in this inscription as an eponymous
Pol. 6. 8. 6 as the title of

lar to the iypovifios, but

Pharsalus grants citizenship to

who have

those

assisted

it,

and

gives

land to each youth.


'

to those

who

have already from the beginning been


politically

use of

(non-technical

associated

(rvfivoKcrevoiiimis,

not

tJiose

have already enjoyed citizenship),


to those

who have

citizens of Pharsalus

Cf.

Kol

oi's

who
and

zealously assisted in

war, just as to those


ning.'

who have been


from the begin-

even as

it is,

already.

SGDI.2160 dovXeiav KaSiis Kal ws


SGDI. 1832. 11

serving just as at present,


jUeTct

tile,

Ticv Kal tSs trvvTipTjfi^vojv

with those

MaKOwCais in
the district known as the Poppy (^ijkwi/)

already chosen.

Pields.'

3.

k\i.

'

epigram of four hexameter

broken at the bottom.


1.

avaXfia

in its earlier

not statue, but used

and more general sense

of ornament, pleasing gift, about


ivie-oim.

Tots Kal ovs kt\.

1 H.

An

verses inscribed pova-rpoipTiSSv on asmall

Vs.

officer.

34.

35.

eirep,^crav

Cf CIG. I,p. 7, SGDI. 5507.


.

F[EKaPi\oi]: or
Siixoe,

Vs.

/r[Ae)co;34Xoi], cf.

fhena-

no. 38 (626).
2. It Is

letter is not

<r

possible that the second

but

p,

in

should read some such


plSas

which case we

name

as Neo-rjo-

(Wilamowitz). In either case va-

rious restorations of the first syllable

are of course equally possible.

The

form is in agreement with 'Ex^crporoi,


and is either an epic patronymic or a
designation of the gens or phratry to

which

'Ex^iTTpoTos (a Boeotian; note

-arpoTot, 5) belonged.

BOEOTIAIf INSCRIPTIONS

No. 41]
-

L"

"

rh

TO,

fdvaxt, ^e<t>vXax<ro,

197

]ov Uroiifi.

St'Sot S' ap{e)Tciv [re

36. Vase probably from Tanagra,

VI

cent. b.c.

Kal SX^ov.]

'E</>.'Apx.l900,107.

'

Aefi.o0e{p)pe^ hiapov A-tto (X)Xdvo<; KapvKefio.

37. Vase from Thebes.

Hiapbv TO Ilvdio

VI

IG.VII.593, 606.

cent. b.c.

38. 'EttI I'heKaSdp.oe

SGDI.876,885.

39. 'EttI 'OKijSae.

i/j,i.

40. Vase of uncertain


SGDI.1133.

'E(^.'Ap;^.1000,107.

avSeKe.

Ftcr/ro'StKO?

38-39. Tanagra. VI

Moyea

cent. b.c.

Probably

origin.

cent. b.c.

IG. VII. 3467

SlSoti ral yvvaiKi Sopov Fii^dpi revrpeTi^avTO kotvXov,

0? X, o-oav Trie.

Middle IV cent.
Hicks 135. Michel 617.

41. Thebes.
Syll.120.

[Toti

;)^/3et']/AaTa

'avve^\aXov6o ev tov

fuov] BottoTOi 7re[pl Tcb iapSi tS)

TO iap6[v Ta> 'AttoWcbi/o? toj


Vs.

names of the donors.


The form of which the final oc is preserved may be an adjective in agreement with, or a noun in apposition
eTre/ujurar,

the

with, 47a\/ia undei-stood.

Vs.

4.

(t>c<|>v\ax<ro

Horn.

ire^tfAofo,

a rare imperative form


which occurs in Pindar, and in another
cf.

65.

8Soi

ep,

SGDI.705.

-n-oXefiov

BeX^ot?

Ditt.

tov] e7ro[\e'-

ttJot tq)? atre^iovTa^

njou^t'o).

Here stood the subject of

3.

IG.VII.241S.

b.c.

||

elsewhere, and,

if

the

read, the dedicator was

is

correctly

an Athenian or

Euboean.

Examples of the early spelland oc, 26, 30. For /rAera- see
526. For ^i with dat. see 136.6.
40. MoY^a: masc. in -a. 105.1a.
38-39.

ing

oe

See 94.7):

TijiTpiTi4>a,vTo (or reO- ?

Boeotian and a Corinthian inscription,


and is formed, like iyei, 7r(, by the

daughter of EuTprrri^dn-os. The


first part of the name is identical with
that of the Boeotian town which ap-

addition of a particle (cf oiroal etc.).

pears in

Homer as Eurpijo-is.

For the whole verse ending, compare


h. Hom. 16 and 20, and Callim. 1. 96.

riSeies in

a later Boeotian

36. Cf. Paus.9.20.3 Io-tiv

iv

Ta-

vdypf, Kai tpos KtipiKtov, tv8a "EpiuTjv re-

xS^TOi

\iyov(ri.

But here the

epithet

Kapixeiot is applied to Apollo.


$i{p)pet is the

same

as

Aaiju>64p(rris

Ae/to-

found

rat

Ei)-,

See 6 1

3.

6s

41. List of

sacred

was

ws.

58

Cf. Eirpeiinscription,

a.

contributions for the

war (365-346

B.C.).

Byzantium

at this time allied with the Boeo-

tians

(cf.

Dem.9.34). Note the reten-

tion of the older spelling

beside

ei,

GREEK DIALECTS

198
5

'Apia-TO
|

^6pp,w, "Apico'; Te/>eo?.

AafiyjraKava) crT[aTetjOa?]

KepKivot;

Elporiixco,

'Ay

to xP^^'^o^

[e'ivi^av]
\

AtjXo-tttlx'^,

'A6av6Ba)po<i Aiavva-ico T!eve[8io<;],

15 pai(ovo<;.

Bvi^dvrioi xpov(TLCO
|

oySoeicovTa TreTTapw;, dpjvpico 'AT[Tt-

||

SeKae^- crvveSpoi Bv^avTicov

Kcb Bpa]\xP'a';

irpia'yee^ Xdpo^{r

"I

'AmTo/3tle9 rpidicovTa p-vai

"I
-

7r/3t[o-7ees]
10

"AXv^tjol

'Apiaricovo^ dpxovTO<s
AaSoji/o?,

[No. 41

Ata)vvcrto<;

Et-

jrpo^evo'i Boicot&v,

||

Xec[\]ia<; B[paxfi'd';].

NtKoXao) dpxovTo<;
ixvd<;

eX\yL^av]

'A\i'?'[jyot

dWm
|

TaKario)<; <rraTeipa[<;

'Bv^avriot [a-vve^d\X\ov0o d\\co<; irev-

;)(;pu|(7]

liws

Aa/tii^a/cai/a)? eV

rbv rroXep.ov tov

iap5) rco ep, BeX(j)ol<s iiroXep^tov Boia)T[oi]

v\Trep Toj]

rpidKOvra
['AjXefctz'-

||

dpxovTO^

['A]'yeLa-iVLiceo

-]
I

Spov, Ac(ov noXu\[abii].


20

- -

'AXv^aiwv @eo

Trpia-yelev

crvveSpot
|

25

[IIJa/a/iej'icrKO? Tlvpdp.ov.

eivi^av Swcrt? }i.apa\i\ix<o,


||

42. Temple of Apollo Ptous, near Acraephia. Beitween 312 and 304 b.c.
IG.V1I.2723. SGDI.570. Michel 1105. Solmsen 13.
BottBTOt 'ATTo'XXoJI't TlTWi'Ol dveOiUV dpXOVTO'S BoKBTOt? <l>tXo'A[i'T]t7[ej'e]ii(B

Kcop.(o

a<f)eSpiaTev6vTcov 'E/X7re8o-

@eto-7rie[to9],
|

[]XeZo9

'

AOavoKpLTiai

Tavaypijco,

'iTTTTOTttoi'o?

'Epxop'epio),

Uov6tovo<i

A[ii]TO/LtetSe[it]a)

a(TTvpiSovTLa) K.opcoveto'!, 'Ei7npa\X-

MaxtuvLo)

rlto?

ei^'^to,

Nt/ctwz'o?

r[/3]iiX[i](Bi'o?

'AjOtcTTOKXeio? 'Ayaairjco 'AvOaSovcco, 'S.dmvo';

7rpio-7ee!

beside

irpuryeles,

'AXufaiwj' beside 'AXi/f^oi,

gen. sg. in -ov beside


22. TOV virep ktX.

unknown

Attic

ai in

and Attic

iAe dedication.

Att. ISpiu.

From

iSpidw used like

Cf. Att. i^lSpvfia used of a

slirinemade after the model of another,

-a.

relative use of the

modeled after the

as that of Asclepius

Boeotian

one at Epidaurus (cf Roberts II.66.13).


Observe that in the catse of the repre-

Dedication of a tripod to Apollo

sentative of Plataea the gen. sg. of the

article,

inscriptions.
4,8.

'Ovvp,daT(o ^iKoXaico eia7nelo<i.

etos, fj,avTevofJi,eva>
as

nXaraeto?,

to[T]t/Ai(B @et<77rt-

in the later

See 126.

Ptous by the Boeotian league. This is


one of a series of four belonging to the

same period (IG.VII.2723-27246).


d,4><Spi.aTev6vT(DV
those who serve as
:

*i.fedptS,Tai.

or

official

representatives at

father's

name

is

used, not the patron,

The
same holds true in the otlier three dedications, and it is probable that this is
adj. as in the case of the others.

npt accidental, but that the PlataeanSj

BOEOTIAN INSCEIPTIONS

No. 43]

43. Orchomenos.
488.

Between 222 and 200

Inscr. Jurid. I, pp.276

199

IG. VII. 3172.

is.c.

SGDI.

509 f. SolmsenlS. The sections of the text


are given in the order in -nhich they were inscribed (cf. 11. 30 ff.), but the
numbering of the original publication is added in parentheses.

Tot iroXefiapxoi toI

ff.,

UoXv/cpdrio^

eTri

apy^ovTO<;

^i\(ovo<i,

^iXofieiXo'i .^

Ko^tcrdStOjOos AicovvaLO), 'Adav68a)\po<; "Ittttcovo^ aveI

ypaylrav Kadw<;

peras /car to

11

i-TroeiaavOo

\jra\<j)ia-fj.a

rav cnroBocnv tmv

Sa\veia)V tS>v l^iKa- ^

tco Sd/jLa>.

(Met)i'(o)? 'AXaX.ico/j,evLai\piKaaTrj kt) eKTrj, iTreyjrd^iSSe

<l>iXo'-,^,

/ietXo? ^iXcovoi, K.a<pia68a>po^ \\Auovovaia) eXe^e- irpo^e^coXevfie- l"

vov

eifiev

avrv

"ttotI 8ap,ov,

iinSel e7rei|ra|<^tTTaT0 6 Bafio'i a-rrohonev

^iKapeTr){i)
|

tiai/o?

tov rafiiav tov irpodpyovTa

Trerpa/jieivov airo [rjai* vTrep^p.epidoov

rav

laxrdcov

so long associated politically with the

(1.

Athenians, adopted the Attic usage at

her to accept, implies

an early date.

on her

43.
reta,

The Nicareta

inscription. Nica-

daughter of Theon, of Thespiae,

had lent various sums of money to the


city of Orchomenus, for which she held
against

it

certain notes, generally re-

ferred to as oiirepa/uplai (once,

1.

55

f.,

These are recorded in


Nicareta appeared at Or-

as rds iiarpd^is).

rV.

When

chomenus to collect these (11.44H.), the


city was unable to meet them, and an
agreement was entered into according
to which the city was to pay her the
sum of 18,833 drachmas within a certain time and the polemarchs were to

135, cf.

1.

16),

rav rpCrav

kut ra?

TTo'Xio?,' 1^

which they persuaded

some concession

Finally the city passed a

part.

vote (III) to pay the amount and take


up the notes and the contract. When
this had been accomplished it passed a

further vote

(II)

ordering

all

the docu-

ments to be inscribed in a specified


order. This was done as stated in I,
which serves as a heading to the whole
inscription.

10

ff .

irpoPcP(DXEu|i,Evov kt\.

that he

had a probouleuma to present to the people, Whereasthe people had voted that the
treasurer in charge for the third period

of four months should pay tj Nicareta,


in settlement of the notes which she hld

sum which

the city

give her a personal contract for the

against the city, the

payment. The text of the agreement

persuaded her

(o/mkoyi) is given in VII, and of the con-

mas, and that the polemarchs should

tract ((roiJ77po0o!), written in the

take up the contract they gave for


money against themselves, they and

in VI.

The sum

more than the

of 18,833

koiv-^,

drachmas

is

total of the notes re-

corded in IV (17,585 dr., 2 obols), but


probably less than they amounted to
with the normal penalties for delayed
payment, For the phrase 5 M0w7a,y

treasurer
selected,

{to accept),

1S,833 drachthe
the

and the ten whom Nicareta


and cancel the notes against

the city (maturing) in the archonship

of Xenocritus, and since the polemarchs


these matters and the

had orranged

GEEEK DIALECTS

200
avrav a

o ^-n-lOaxre

apyovpim Spaxf^a<;

n-oXti,

Xta? oKraKaTia'i Tpid\KOVTa rph,


2^ re a-wypacfiov,

avTOilv]

KTj

dv eSaicav omrep

6 Tafiia<;

/crj

[No. 43
/^ovpia<i oicTaKicrxi\

rdv

avekea\dr)

kt) toj? 7ro\ep,dpxo><;

Kar a[v]TV

\o']vTa)v t5)V xpetfJ'dTcov


||

NiKape'ra 'SeK[a],

cov irodeiXeTO

ra?

kt}
\

v7repafJkepia<; Siaypdyfraa-Orj
25 KpiTco

rai [Kar]

iv eia-infj^, kt]

dpxovTO<;

ts

Ta<;

iroXio'i

Sevo-

eirl

ovra pepvKovofieiovTmv

ra>v
||

kut to

jroXeixapxiov Kt) tco rafiiao. a7roS6v\To<; to, ;;^jOei/ttaTa

yov TO Trap

Sd/iv

ovirep To,^ aTToSoVto? (Ill), Ka{T) TaiiTO, Se ktj

KUT

Td<i TTo'Xto?

ra? Ni|KajoeTa? (IV)

^5 fiaTelo<; too S[i]\a'ypdyjravTO<; avTo,';

Fi^tdSav (VI)

Oeia-av irdp

TM

kt)

(V)

kt)

to dvTiypaj>ov

eypa'\]rav aiiTrj

crvyypa^ov Tav

to

||

re-

to dvTi'ypa<f)OV)

{kt)
|

(VII)

ktj

Tav Siaypa<f)dv

Sid T/)e7reSSa? (VIII),

kt)

ttJojooj' S' el/iev

cnroXoyiTTaa-Trj ttotI KaTo'7r[T]a[?,

dXmfia

ktj
|

ras vTrepdfiepia'i

to 6[v]iovfia tS) ypap.-

tclv

tcrj

ofioXoytJO TO) TedevTO<; -Trap @i6\(f>ea-TOV

tSiv xP^i'H'dTaiv (Sv

'''^

ryeveiTj],

iv cTTdXav \idlvav to re yjrd^iafia ovto (II)

ayypdVr\lrrj

Ta{<;)

SeSox^V

eirl Ka to y^d^iap.a Kovpiov

TToXe/xdpxax;,

TO)?

eicnnela TeOev,

i6(l>ecTT0V @iqSd>pa)

o/ioXo-

to

aTTO
||

tS)V TToXlTlKCOV.
Ill

Aa/iaTpio) viovfi^ivii]
w\vova-ta),

fiev

avTV

'

ireTpaTr), iTre'\jrd<f}iSSe K.[a]<j>i<r6Sa)poi At-

AdavoScopoi; "Ittttwi'o? eXe^e

ttotI

*5 @ejo-7rta?

Sdp,ov,

[/c]^

inriBel,
|

'n-po^^[lS](oXevfievov el-

irapyevo (leva's 'HiKapera's @ia)vo^

TrpaTTwcra'i to Sdveiov

Tav iroXiv kclt ra? ov-

||

'7re[/3]|a/u.e/3ta[9]

ra?

Idtaa'i avTrj,

aovyxo>pe.(o'avTO<;

Tafj,(a<;

tS)

[dva]yKda'[d'\v tv 7roXefiap\xv kt)

Bdfia

Sofiev

[/cjar

av-

au[Ti']

lT]a)v a-ovvypa<j}OV ttot Trj ovirapx'i'O"'] ovirelp^fifiepiTj, e\y T'\dv


treasurer had paid the
to the

pJiestus, be

40-41.

it

voted by the people,

viou|i.EivCi]

lo-Ttt^^cov.-

46

money according

agreement deposited with Theoirerpdrii

etc.

TerdpTj;

On nou- from WO", see 43.5a.

The polemarchs and thetreas-

ff.

urer were obliged, with the assent of the


people, to give

a contract against them-

selves in addition to the existing oirepap.epla,

until the levy for this purpose

should be

made and

the

amount agreed

upon provided. This

is

factory interpretation

aa

the only satisthe

of

most

troublesome passage in the inscription,

though one

difficulty remains, the use

of the singular

oiirepa/ieptri

until, originating in iv

136.1 and note on


this purpose.

ivevixBelei,

certain

Cf

not

where we

i[vT]Av;
Tav
Cf.
kvovTo: for

shouldexpeettheplural.

49.

6.iiipav.

28.43.

ir6pov iv ovto

ivevix^ei, is

11.

59, 60.

declared

by Baunaok, Philol.XLVin,

BOEOTIAN INSCRIPTIONS

No. 43]

ivevLxOeUi a av^opa iv ovro,


Xpeifiara,

:[^]

201
avvxtopeidevTa

KO/jiiTT[eiTri] to,

||

SeSd^dr) tv Sd/iv rov TafiCav rov [Tr]podpxovTa

^0

[rav]
|

rpiTaly] ireTpap^ivov

TreSa

a-n-oSo/jLev

TroXefidp'x^cov Ntaa/aeTT;

timi/
|

apy[v]pia) 8paxiJ-a<; fivpia<;

[6K]TaKLaxei\La'; o/<:TaaTta[?] rpid\

K[o]vTa

e[/it]|7rpa^t?

dpxovro^ eV tv AafMarpiv

noXull/CjOaTto?

rpl'i

dp'xpvro'i iv ^eia-iriri'i irdaa^ SiaXidvacrlBr]]


Tiii'

aovvfpa^dv, dv

ep^t /car T[cii']


|

aveXetrdr], iropov [S'

fidroov 7rai'T[(Bi'].

et]||/iei'

tw iyyvm

Iljoa^tteXto?

to?

&i(o\vo<!

rd

k^

tto^oScb-,

Tro'Xto?

NtKa/oeVa

ewvo? ra?

&icovo<; Swvo'/uoj
Ikt] t<S

'

tA

reBfiim piaTcop 'ApiaTO-

Ni-,

aovvdWayixa.

Tro'Xto? '^pj^o/ievicov ktj

Aiovkio-kw,

7r[o']|\tos ,^,

7r|7ra/xaTa ixovpnq

tw

iyyovco itoi/o?

irirdfjLara Sttr^etXti; 7rez/TaKaTt[j;]

6 avTO'i

fia-Tcop

to)? 7ro\e/xa/);;^ci)?,

t&v ra?

Aiovkictko), iovlco, to

||

1,ovpv6fJi,a)

oySoeiKovra ireme htov^o] 6/3o\(o}

Kapera

Ta?^|

iroXefidp'^cov Krj tco ra/jLiao,

eV outo a-Ko

BevoKpiTfu, ^AXakKO/ievio).
'"Epy^ofievicov kt]

viKO<;

/xeLvl ktj

lmaa<! 'NiKa[peT7) kut] Ta<; TroXto? Bev[o]\KpiTco

Ta<s

/c^

tm

[t^o a-ovvdWajfia.

'OfioXoo'io),

reOfiico

NtKajoera
1/09

ra?

^'a)^'o?

'^ovvvonco

fiarcop o avTO'i

||

TO)

kt)

tm TeOulm

Nt/ca/jera wai/o? ra? Tro'Xto?

iyyovo) ioovo'i 1,ovvv6p,(o

XiTj- KTj TO) Ted/iiO) fia-Ttop 6

rco iyyova) tiu- J^,

"KeTpaKLCxelXiT]

y^povo'; 6 avTO^.

pEJ/sj^o/xez/iift)!'

'EJjOj^o/iei'tiBJ'

irlTrdfiaTa

TO,

Tro'\i[o?

avTo'y

inrd^fiaTa

to,

Afowtcr:[&),

||

j^ei-

@e]i\ovdio), ro^^^^

(TovvdWayfia.
Aiajpd-\jrr]

year ra?

ra?

and agrees with uncontracted


forms found elsewhere, as KoupaBeiu

61

50.

K0(iCTT[6iTt|],

also after Baunacli


ff.

The

Xenocritus,

first date,

month

not

KO/nfr-

I.e.

archonship of

of Alalcomenius,

applies to all the following notes


11.

23, 56, 136, 151)

and

time at which they

fell

is

Ka<f)icroBd)pQ3L

E[v]\vofiiSov,

413,

ra?

^^

tov dvSpo<; Ae^iTT-jTOV

(151.2).

etcrTrtTj?

'ESaVetcrei'

t[7j],

ra? Nt/cdjoeTa? ev

t&v Tedp.ocjiov'KdKCOv ypafifiarew 2a


NtKapeVa eeoi/os @eo-7rtK^, TrapovTO'; avTrji kv^Iov

[7r]o'\tos

ovTrep[a\fJ.]ep{a'i

date given at the end of each

due, while the-

is

the time

of the loan (rAo-ouvdWavMa). Cf.Thal-

heim.Berl.Phil.Wooh. 1893,267. The


expression throughout is condensed.
SevoKpha (ipxovTos), (/xeii-Js) 'AXaXm/tevia, Nirap^o e^ucos (kotoi) tS.s irSKios.
78

(cf.

probably the

ff.

The

text of the contract

is

in

though dialect forms are retained in some of the proper names,


the

mii-i),

Ai[o]\vvaLov,<^^^

'AOavoSapcoi "Ittttww?, Ilo[Xv]\KpiTcoi oek eKreicTLV rov Baveiov Mvda-cov Meicyao,

^iXofiriXcoi ^(Xeovov,

poTTO? Kal
fg^

TeXeo-ia?
^^3

[No. 43

GREEK DIALECTS

202

iyyvoK
MeKyao, AatriTnTmi
||

3evoTt\fiov, Evdpei, Evj^wpou, Ile-

Ka^icroSmpov, Keofii\vai Te\e-

pi\Xd(oi 'Ava^icovo-;, Aiovva-c\\Bd)pQ}i


o-iTTTTOK,

'OvacTifj-mi

Aa^ar/Jt^ow,

Ka()>ia-oS{opa)i,

@eoyetT0V0<;,

95
(18)

NtKO/cXeZ 'A^alz/oSMOow 'Opxop-evioK; apy\J^iov S/ja%/ia9


6KTa\Kia-xei\M'i oKTaKOtrim Tpi\dKOVTa rpeh utokov

TO UaiM^oKOTia t^

100 et?

SoTcoa-av Se to Sdveiov

e|7r'

aTTO||

oi er/yv\oi, 'Nucaperai ev

rj

Ovaia<; ev

irpaxdv^'ovTai icaTa rov

\\

"Ovaaifiov dpxovTO<; Bot(BTOt[s].

oi Savetadfievoi

Toi<; nav/SoflcoTt'ofs tt/so ttj?

j^, dTroSa)a-[i,]

//,v/3ia?

Becr\7nS)V

e'%

Tpiaiv.

fifie\pai'i

v6\ixov

he

[r)]

iav Se

^pa^K

e<TT(o

Kal Ik rSiv eyyvmv, Kal i^

fir)

ea

evb[<;]

avr&v r&v lavetaapAvmv


re
"0 Kal eK nfKeiovmv Kal eK TrdvWrwv Kal sk rSiV virapxovrav avrol<;,
irparrova-qL 6v av rp(hrov ^ovXr/rai. f) Se avyypai^r] Kvpla ecrro),
115 Kav dX\o<; e7ri|^e/>7?t virep NiKapera<i.
Ma/3||TU/3e? Apiaroyelrmv
\

'

'FicjitdSa'} Tt/iio/cXeio?, <^ap\(Td-

'ApiMo\^epov, 'ldiovSiKO<; 'Adaviao,


1^0

eoSdifpov, Ei-

xtos EvBUov, Ka\\ea<; Av\(Ti(f>dvrov, eocjiearoi


^eviSa<;

^tXtovSou

ecririeK.

(TOvyypa(^o<;

Yi4>idBav

Trap

Tt/UrO/cXeto?.
I

y^J
1^5

'Ovaa-L/jico

BobtoZ[?,]

dpxovro<;

NtKa/jeVr/ @ia)vo<; @eto-7K?j,

vofiiSao

Tftj

dvSpb';

""PS'*" ovirep ra?


]m)
crCai,

\\

@e[i]\a'Tnelo<;,
7ro'X[t]||o?

kt)

rrj

'

'Ep\xoiJ'vi(ov

rdv

'NiKapenj

ecrxarov

iwi'o?,

5 iiriOoKTav oinrep rdv

||

dpxovrm

ev rv 'AXaX[Ko]|/iei'toi p.eivi

ypdyJracxBr] rat dpyovpico to)?

(tw?) iroXep^apxt^'i
|

KTj

''Eipxofievlcov

eicnnfj';, dp^yov-

0KraKarCa<; rp\id'^ovra

0Kr\a^Ki<TxeiXia^

'Oz'ao-[t]|//.ft)

iyyovco^, to?

Ka

BeaOr) fieaeyy\y'^ov rrdp

Yi^idSav

Tt/Lio/cXeto?

NtKa/aeVa to dpyovpiov

The names of the first two sureties are


given by mistake ia th? nominative,

Nt/eajoeVa, ?;

So:tj[Aa88[et]

II

/ca ;o/titTTe[t]|Tr;
J^g^

cnroSofiev rcLv

"IttttibIi'o?

dpxovro^ ev

BievoKpi\TCi)

i-jrl

BpaxP'd'i fiovpla<i

(70vyypa^ov Se
J*5

'Kpxop'ev[t]\aiv

ttoXi

-KoXefiapxoi Ka<^to-o'Sa)|/309 Aitovou-

ovTrelpa/jbepidcov

rpl'i,

Trapi6vT0<; 'NiKaperrj Ae|i7r|7r( Eu-

^iXofieLXa ^tXcovo?, AdavoSwpo'i

l|5 TTo'Xti'

1*0 pico

Havd/xa, ofioXoy^

fieivcx;
|

Tra;!)
||

OetcrTrteta.

Ta?

but with the third the error


.

fled.

U3-114-

eirl Be

tto'Xio?, etrXta-

lirii|>^pTji

is

recti-

jirei^nts ^<

BOEOTIAN INSCEIPTIONS

No. 43]

NtKapeVa ra?

vdrco

a? ext kut ra?

ov7rep\afxepLa<;,

aevoKpiTto dp^ovTO^ iv

etcTTrti)? irdtra'i, kt]

rav

Ft^taSa? TOt?

SoTco

q he Ka

Tro'Xt? ISiiKaperrj

fiovpia<;

Kovra rpK, diroSoTa)

ktj

rdv

TToXio'!, d-jrav
I

vov
<rdj]

to? eVt

iyyovoi<;.

to apihovptov iv tv yeypafi-

l;'-''

oKTatcaTim rpid-

o;T[a]|:tcr;)^\ta?

ra? ovirepafiepia'; ra?

crov'y'Ypa(f>ov kt]

KOT Ta?

tto'Xio?,

a-ovy'ypa<j)ov utto-]

TroXefJ.dpxv': ktj toI Tafivr] kt] To[t?]

fiel a-iroBcoei

fiem xpovv, ra?

203

to apyovpiov to iv tv 6fio\6[y'\v

yeypa/j\iJ,e-

(ji hi Ka) iv tv xRovv tv yey pa fifievv fiel edeXei K[oft]t8S[e]-||


Nt/eape[T]a to dpyovpiov, airohoTOi Fi^idSa^ tclv <TOvyypa(l>ov

'^'^^

TOt? TToXep.apxoi'; K-q toI Tafilr} ktj

aaTto NiKapera
Tafiit) KT)

TOK

Trj

ir^yovoL<;

evOco.

II

^evw, 'IdovSiKO<; 'AOaviao,

KaXXea?

hiK(o,

iyyovoi^, ktj TroTairoTn-

apyovpico Spaxiid<; jrevTaKia-fi.ovpia':,

aKOvpv vv

oinrepa/Mepir]

Trj

toI<;

ttoXi '^pxo\fievLcov Krj toZ? iroXefJ.dpxoi'i kt] toI

OapcrciXto?

Fi,<f)idSa<; Tt/Lio[KXet|o]?,

Aiova-i<pdvTO),

^iTiMivSao @eto-7rtete<t>?.

to

Krj

pi(TTope<; 'Apig-Toyi\ra>v 'Ap/j,o-

loScopoo,

@to'(^eto-|T09

J^

'Eii-

Eu^ei'tSa?

irdp &i6cj)eta-Tov @ioBd)pa)

6/j,(}(Koyov

eitrTrieia.

Aiaypa^d
o-7ri|i79

l>i
||

iKapenj Sid TpaTreSSa's Ta? Ilta-TOKXeto? iv @et- r

'ETTtTe'Xto? dpxovTO<; iv eia-'7nrj<;,

SeVTepo) dfiepr] ivaKrjSeKdTij, iirl

fj,eiv6<i

IltcrTO/cXeto?

to.';

'AXaXKOfidvim
TpaTreSBwi Nf-

Kaperrj irapeypd^et, irdp UoXiovKpiTa) dpohro<i '^pxofievico Tafiiao


oinrep to? Tro'Xto? to a-ovvxa)pei\\6ev tclv ovirepafJLepidcov

SevoKpiTco dpxovTO's,

irapi6vT0<; jroXefj.dpxco

'AffavoBmpco

Tav

iiri

"Ittttq)-

vo<;

'Epxofievi[a>^,

apyovpico Spaxf^^

fiovpirj OKTaKicrxeiXii]

OKTa-

KdTlT) Tpid\KOVTa Tpi<;.


154

ff.

If tlie city fails to

reta in the time specified,

169-170. Sia^pacttd Nikop^ttj ktX.


of payment to Nicareta

pay Nica-

it will

have

-.

memorandum

to

(adnom. dat. 172) through the bank of

tract

Pistocles.

pay the amount stated in the conand the sum of the notes besides,
that is substantially double the amount
loaned.

cept the
tract,

But if Nicareta refuses to acamount named in the con-

as she might do in order to

duiypaipd

Si.a.yp6.<t>aaeri

172

11.

ff.,

1.

at the

was paid over

to

cancellation

Xicareta by Polycritus

the treasurer in behalf of the city the

secure the exorbitant penalty for de-

sum agreed upon of the notes (^a,Tt.

she forfeits both contract and notes


and pays a heavy penalty.

cf

lay,

(of.

and so payment. So
bank of Pistocles there

22)

&irb

ray {nrepa/ieptduv

11.

gen.;

14-15).

,gg,

GREEK DIALECTS

204

p.

SGDI.425. Inscr.Jurid.II,

44. Lebadea. Ill cent. B.C. IG.VII.3083.


Michell392.

238.

@t09

TOV')(a (v^a^d.

A(bi\o9

5 SeiTj AopKcavo'i,
10

[No. 44

'\pavrjco

fiSiov BepdirovTa

avrWeiri top
|

'Av^pLKOv TV Al TV BacrtXea
Tciv /iiaTepa

fieivavTa Trap

Boudti)?, iv Se Ae/3a-||

'SacTTiao dpy^ovTOi

Krj
|

'

tv Tpe<j)coviv lapov et^ev, irap-

KOavohtiifav

pena

Seica,

Ka6w<; 6
|

TTUTelp iroTeTa^e15

he

r)

'AvSpiK6<; <f>6pov tov iv

'AffavoScapa,

Ka
ttj

en

Scoei

'Adavo8(opa, [jjiai [airjj]

deiKr) rYeypa/iiAevov

'AvSpcoviKO'i tov -jrepnTov

7rap/M\evl

Se ti

rj

11

ica irddei

y^povov Trap Aioi|

20

\ov

[e^TTiTa talLjo?

25 XeiTeopylp.ev

iv Trjl

11

45. Lebadea.

Trod[L'\Kcov

p-e^c]

Se KUTaSovXiTTacrdT]

etrcret/ueli'

^awv

eo-TO)

IG.VIL3080. SGDI.430.

II cent. b.c.

avTidetn to fiSiov Trr)JSdpiov 'Addvcova tv At

tw

dfji,epa<;, fiel

[fjLJeidevl KaTct,
5 el

dWo

TI,

(lel

{(ov) ovtcov.

Tel Bao"t\ej kt/ ret 'Tpe<f>Qiviei iapov el/Mev tov Trdv^ra

TaaSe

fieiffev

'AvBpiKOV fieidevi' 'Ai^piKov Se

tmv diwv

ffoairj'i

fiei\0evl

TrpodiKOVTa

fieiOeva TpoTrov.

aSiKi

rj

av

[]a0' ovTiva

^polvoj' utto

avTet ^daivi fieiTe

p.eiTe

dWei

Se a rt? dvTnroieiTr] ' AOdv(ovo<i


TpoTrov, ovirepSiKiovdco ktj Trpoi-

||

aTdvdco TV T
KT) t5)V

lapete'i kt] Te\l

dXXtov

46. Chaeronea.

kt]

II cent. b.c.

K.aWiKOJvo'i dp^(b

p,eivo<;

tv ^l avTiTiovv^dvovTei

lap^dpj^r)

f icrTope[?]

6 ^etK6fjbevo<;.

\os ^a)KpdTio<s, NtKa/3709

Xei?

IG.VIL3303.

SGDI.385.

Aa/xaTpio) TrevTeK-qSeadTT)

Tlpo^ivo) dvTideiTi iapav tclv piSiav 6epdTrrj^va'\v


44-48. Manumission decrees,
of
which there are over one hundred examples from Chaeronea alone, all of
about the same period. Even from the
same year some are in dialect, some in
the Koii/iJ, and some in a mixture of

In those given here Koivi influence shows itself in dvafl.i).' no. 46, in
both.

the i of
Siiei

fi6ui'9(,

no. 44,

iavBi nos. 46, 47 (cf.

5oj[tn4oiAres

'S,dcovo<i, Eii/3a)-

K.pdTcov Eui'OCT-TtS[ao].

no. 48), xarh, rbv

vhnov no. 47 (of.

'

kIi.t

Michel 1394.
I

IIowjOtTrTro?

At^poSiTiav tv
rhv vbiwv no. 46),

vapapuelvaaav nos. 46,

47

(cf.

irap/ul-

vavra no. 44), in wpoeiKovra no. 45


voeiKav no. 44), in Troioii/ici/ei no. 47
voXiiixvoi

no. 46

= TrouA/iei-os),

iieiiicv

(cf.
(cf.

no.

48 {iaaunev no. 44).

Note

ei

for usual v

from

oi

45, 47 (see 30).

eoir/ijs

24.

Sa/xtcioiTes,

For
For crT^ae and

48, see 88.2.

in nos.

no. 44, see


in no.

PHOCIAN INSCRIPTIONS

No. 49]

^apd-KL, n-apafj.eivaaav acravrv

Ka

rhv avdOeaiv

^moavBi,

v6ixov^ Ki)KaT^^a\e rv

r^

Ki,

7roio>e||[i;o9]

ra/xir,

205

yov\[vr)]Kl avrS, ar^aO^v 5?

hh tw
rmv

[i]-n-l
|

(Tovvehplco kcLt tov 5

lapSiv rh yiviovtievov

ftKart rrap"axpe[i]//.a.

^pax/^"''^

47. Chaeronea.

'Apxeiva apxSi

II cent. b.c.
p.eivo'i

IG.VII.3352.

SGDI.395.

ovi(o irevTeic-qheKdrT] AiovKXeii


\

TtXa avTidevTi tuv fiBiav

epe\irTdv,

rj

kt) Kco-\

oviovfia Zeovovpiva, lap[av]


\\

ret ^epdirei, Trapafieivaaav

avdOeaiv

avT^U a? ku ^mvdi avevKXecrax;, r^v


a[o]\vveBpiQ) Kara rov v6/iov.

Sia toj

Troiovfievei,

5
\

48. Orchomenus. II cent. b.c. IG.Vn.3200. SGDI.497. Inscr.Jurid.


Michell393.

II.p.237.
''

'ATToWcoviSao

lapeidSSovro^ Avrt\yevio^ l.a>Kpdno<s,

dp)^ov\TO<;,

'

lapapxtdvfrmv 'Ayei<nvtK(o lovKpdTio^,

l.coai^ia} UovOiX\io<;,

||

avridein %Cmv
el/iv

TW

lapdirio"; ktj Td[<;]

"Icno^, kt)

irrearr] fieiSe Ka\TaSov\iTTatrT7)


ecTTco o iapev<! ktj

tv

Se

t)

lapdpj^rj kt)

tov fiSiov fVKerav 'AKpiaiov

Ao/iaT/3i;n;[[<B]

fiel i^ei/jLev ixei\\6evl

Kd

iapov

e(f)d- lo

t49 i(f>d\TrTiTT], Kovpio';

tv crovveSpv a-ovXwvTei

ktj

Sa-

flld)OVT'i.

Phocian
Delphian

49. Delphi.

Early

V cent.

B.C.

SGDI.1683 (with n,p.722). Roberts

229.

Toi 7rVTeKaiSeK[a]
|

Kat,

.
1

To/se? [icai]

As

a, iirl

tov Aaj3va8dv, toi

Tpi')(d

hifu/jLvalop

in similar deci-ees

dp)(^[ov'\\\TO<;,

[/cajlt

[vrep]

[pjaav/ia^ov

cnreSei^av [/ivaJI? SexaTe- 5

Spay(nd<; 7rei'[Te]|A:ej'Ta kuI f e|.

from other
manumis-

ate effect, but

is

subject to various con-

sale {air^SoTo at Delphi, e.g. no. 53) to

remaining in service
during the lifetime of the master (nos.
46, 47) or for a term of years (no. 44),

the divinity of the local shrine, thus

payment of an annuity, etc. Cf

securing religious sanction and pro-

Statement of the disbursement


of funds by the officials of the phratry of

parts of Greece, the act of


sion takes the

form of a dedication or

tection of tlie rights of the slave

who

has purchased his freedom. Often tlie


manumission does not go into immedi-

ditions, such as

no. 53.

49.

the Labyadae, whose proceedings form

the subject of no. 51.

'

GREEK DIALECTS

206
50. Delphi.

Tov polvov

lie

B.C.H.XXIII.611. Ziehen, Leges Sacrae 73.

cent. B.C.

^dpev

e? ro [E]uS/)|o'yu!ou

al Se

hiXa^d-

/ca <f)dpei,

fieTaBva-aTO Kairoreia-aTO

Tov debv hoi ku Kepaiirai Kal

(XTo

[No. 50

tovtov Se toi KaTa\'yopeaavTi to

'

5 ireiMrre Spaxfj^ct'!

he/xia-crov.

Ditt.Syll.438 (with II,pp.


Michel995. Solmsen36. Ziehen,Leges
Sacrae 74 (o and d). Ionic alphabet, but with F, and B = A (in contrast to
H = rj); lengthened o usually OY, but sometimes 0.

About 400

51. Delphi.

Se Ao'/JKO?]

[o

SGDL2561.

B.C.

Inscr.Jurid.II,pp.l80ff.

819f.).

eo-Tco

"Taye[v]aea)

St[:at'(?

:]|aTa roi/v vofioiK

Tw;

Koi

[7r]o'[Xt]|o?

Sapardv

5 rdllv

tov<; t5)v

Kal rk

TOW Aa^vdSat^ [Kjovre


10

ovre

/na;i^ai'[a||t]

Aa^vaS\av\ nep

TOiV rSiX

av/j,Trpa^ea) KcnroBei^eo) [S|t];at(B?

KXe'^eco

ovre [/S]\a[-i|r]B

Aa^vaSav

eHrj,

al

S'
|

tov

At||o9

Kar ra

e(f)iopKeoini,

tov iraTpmiov

ovre

Te-)(vac

yeypafi^ieva.

evopKeolvTi

h6pK\o'i-

fiefx fiot

dyada

\hd\jravTa Ka\Kd uvtI toiv dyaOSiv."


|

The inscription

and offerings for the


occasion were made by the parents.

on a wall connected with the stadium, and Eudromus, though otherwise unknown, was
probably a sort of guardian hero of

into the phratries

Hence the interdiction of


wine. Note 0iipey (12), ^s t6 where we
expect ^p t6 (13S.4), and Kepalw {KepaleToi) = Kepdvmiu, as in Homer.
|i.ETa6v-

bread and says the word was used by

50.

is

athletes.

o-dro

cites

S6.po.Tov

meaning urdeavened

The

the Thessalians.

Sapdrai at the

Delphian festival were of two kinds


(of.

1.

25), the yificXa or cakes offered

newly married wives

in behalf of the

Regulations of the phratry of

that were introduced into the phratry

The Labyadae have

the Labyadae.

ready appeared in no.

A 3.

Toiv vdpious

TOV vd/iovs
ilated.

4.

by

their husbands,

and the

TraiSflia of-

fered for the children that were intro-

Toii vifiovs.

B16, but usually

97.1.

al-

49.

So

unassim-

dircWaCuv: victims

a. 11. 44-46 where


used with dTreWaia, in contrast to ipipev with Sapdrat. 'Air^Wai
is the name of the Delphian festival
corresponding to the Attic 'AirciToipLa,

duced into the phratry by their parents.

6.

a-vfiirpa^ia KdiroSeil^u

led and disburse.

for the 'kwiWai.

iTroipalvu,

iyev

Cf iw^Set^av no.

at

Ath.3. 110d,114b

Saparolv: cakes.

5.

begin the sacrifice again.

51.

'

Kal tos rajovly

y^^pr] fji[d'j\T(ov

iirja^ela tov hopKov tov<; [iv v]ea)\T]\a


15 hviria'yoiiaL irol

inreXkamv Kal

raiv

y^^ptj/Mara

is

which children were introduced

I will

eol-

dTroSekwAu, like Att.

render account for, disburse,

49.

10.

t\ Aa^iia-

Sdv: TUKAajS-, elsewhere unassimilated,

as

1.

3.

96.3.

11.

will

impose the

oath upon the rayol for the next year.


Cf. B.27.

PHOCIAN INSCRIPTIONS

No. 51]

"ESo^e Aa^vdBat<!
Tat aXi'ai

BovKa-T\\iov

i/ra^lot?

trv/j,

207

SeKarai eVi K[d]\fi7rov iv

/^tji/o?

heKUTOv 6ySoi]KOVTa Svolv

toii?

M^

BeKlea-dai fi^re SapuTai^ yd/i^\Ka fi'^re -rraiSfjia

ras varpia^

at

fir)

Ti

Ka TT^p

TO,

aTreX\\aia, 25

fiT^r'

Kal 7r\r)evoa-a\; d? ku

i'rr\aiveov<ra';

vo]fiov KeXevatovTi, rrnv KeX^\vcrdvTa}v 6

Be aireXXaia ayev 'A7reX|\ai? Kal p.^

SXXai

20

Ta70ii9

ai Se

rji.

klvSvvo^ earw.

30

ap,epai /ijjVe ayev


\

Toh dyovTai

p.\^Te

dXXai afiepai

rj

6 Se

xPn^^v

roi^ rayoi)? SeKeadajt

KaTayo\peiT(o iv rdi dXi'ai


Tol rayol toI S^d\p.evoi.
Sapd\Ta<;

f-V 4'^P'ni-,

prj

tcLi p-^rb.

ku

[S]e^covTaL 35

Ka

p.r)
|

dyrji

dp.p6viov K\aT6eT(o a-TaTfjpa

dyerco TaireXXala Kal

dwoTeia-dTco fiK^an Bpa^P'd^

Kai T^i' Bapdrav

?;

dvrl /reVeo? Kal ra?

e-Trl

tj

feKa\\Te'pa)i,

rdv Sapdrav

tm Se hva-real Be

rj

45

Bap\dTav

50

Ka

dyerca dir^XXala

rj

(jtepeTo)

tclv

(j)epeTO)

hviToypa<f>(^pevo<;

hvcrrepak ferei

tS>i

||

TcnreXXala

BeKea6\a)v dppovia, dXX'

dy-qi, p.r]KeTi

40

BovKdria, ai k dp^iXXe\ya)VTi.

dyev Se TcnreXXala

/iocttk Be

(fiepev.

pcoi /re'lret

al Se

'ATreXXaiy, a7roTe|to-aTa) Fmaaro'; SeKa Spa\xfid':


Karajoplelv tS>v Be^ap.ev(ov eVt r&lv hvarepwv raya)v

rj

roKiop ^epera

55

.60

dTroTeicr\\[dTa>

B
[14 fragmentarj'.
TOLV eTri^KpivovTOiv

peovre;

p-ij

/ieto[? Af||i]o?

ai'S[e|-]|a/iei'ot irol

rpiov Kal TOV


AeX<f>o!>v

T]||ot

Aal3vdBa[t EuKXeibt]]?

Kal ['A7re\\a]|i?

ro

Kal heKarov

'A7ro'X\a)[i']|o9

23 ff. nierayolareto receive neither,


tji

the

case of the cakes

direXXata, unless the

gens

to

prerequisite to the introduction into

h,

which was the larger body

as also

A 38,

monst.) B53, Ao5e

^d(fiov (l>ep6vTa)v 10

kuI tov TloTeiBdvo'; tov <^pa1

oiaelv

\jrd(j)0V

Kar tov vopovi

tS)v 15

^elpovTl iroXX' dyaffd

beside As B55, Mo-ns A46, B30, C19.

the offering at other than the stated

The

rirpa in most Doric dialects) was a

out

which one

(iroTpui, as in Elis

including several gentes.

Ta[i' Se]

30. 6: with-

C19, but Ao (cleC19. Cf. as 'A28

7r]a-

38 ff. Any one wlio wislies


See 5 8 a.
to accuse the rayol of having received

belongs approves in full session.

approval of the gens

Tav

rdv Ba[pa-

of the
nor the

(lit.

cakes), the ya.n\a or the Traidijui,

the phi-atry,

A||t09 iraTptoiov BiKacco<;

KriTrev)(ecr6\ai SiKaico'i

Trepl

Trepl rSiv dTreX\Xa(wv,

'

times shall bring the charge when their


sucoessoi'S ai-e in office.'

45. oIvtI

p^

during the year, in the same year.


50. Or let him sign a
See 136.8.2).
note (for the twenty drachmas) andpay
tcos

interest.

ll-l'i.

promising.

d.vSe^d|iicvoi

undertaking,

They swear by the gods

of

GREEK DIALECTS

208
20 TOii[?

^Jeoir? SiSofjLev,

[No. 51

rovra Se

a[S]|i;Q)?, to, Kaicd.

al he

rayol

r\oi

II

Kal tSu Seo/xevat crvv^ayovTcov

25 eTriTeXeovToilv

Ka

Se
30

TTOiSiVTi

fjLT]

/io'crT|[t]9

Bpa')(fJLd<;.

35 /iOTo|9 TwyevrjL,

rai Tol [rllayoi


40 irevTrjKOvra

Se Ka

rj

ydfieXa

ecTToo

rj

at

SeKa

al Se k avaai Se ica Se^tov-

irap ra ypdfJLfiara, cnroT^etcrdTa)

TratS'ijtja

t&v

Sdl^a/Mevcov

Aa^vaSav Kal eVl

\\

rayov; top

i'lrl /reKaTe'||[jo]Q)t

Spa^fia'; aTroTeLo-drco.

peKacTTo<s

ey

to|[u]?

//.r)

Ta\[y^eveTco

fir) ofiotrtji, fir)

irevTriKOVTa
rj

yeypa/ifieva

to,

a7roTeK7(ZT|[Q)] peicaaTO'i

Sp\a')(^iici';

reiarju, dnp.o'i
45

kc^t]

hopKov iWrarydyrnvn,

Aa/Suaoojl?

tov<;

al Se Ka

Kal

tovt^coi

firj

airoA

iirl Tal<i

dXXaK

^afiiaK, hevre k airoTi^iarfi. Kal ho Ka Se^a>VTa\t rj Sapd^


aireWaia
irhp tA ypdfifiara, fir) ec7T\(o Aaj3vd8a<; firjSe
7)
KOivalveLTco rmv koivcop '^prjpM.TQyv firjSe tmv Oefidrav.
ai Se rk
Ka tS)v rayStv K\aTa<yoprji, iroirja-aC n "jrld-p tA ypdfifjLara, ho Se
I

rav

50

rayol ev rat

55 ai'|Tt[0]at, rol

||

Aio'?,

tJow

Kal St]a^o[i'|Tf fiev

deov<;

[8||iSo'yuei',

at

S'

xlal UoreiSavo';

TJdv SiKav

TeA,eo'i/TH[a)i'.

tow

e]^iopKeoi, :a|[a

h6(T'\Ti'i

Ka

Se

al Se

([)p']ar[pUov

iroW

SiKaia)<; e7r]ev)(^ea-[6\a>

dTr]oTeia-drQ} 7rei'T|[e SpaxP'd<i],

^r/i hai\[pe6eL';,

10 I'ot

Tov 'Atto'Wwi'os

Trot

[6fj,\vvTa)

Kal

dWov

irdp vofiov

Ka

ayadd,

fi]rj

Si/co-

S' oi'^eXo'|[/i6-

[ri] iroieovra
|

rdi SiKai
15 oi'|ti

he\^r)i,

rdv SiKav

Teia-dTm.
20

e-rrLTeXeoi^^asv

/io'crTi|[?]

d7roTei\(Tr]i.

7rev\^e

to hrjfua-a-ov e^eTco.

Se

Ka

Ho'S' o

al Se

^a/ilav

Tedfib'i

to|i Se

to SiirKov f e/cjao-TO? diro-

fi-q,

6(f>ei\rjt,

Trep

Toy\\v

Kal TpidKOVTa Spaxix[djv evOe/iev

the city, phratry, and gens.


50. fteiidTwv probably established rites, institutions, though this meaning of ei/m is
not quotable. Cf Ted/ids = Scir/ttAs, law,
:

ordinance,

19.

rayol t&i Karayope-

aT|[i]/io?

etrTo),

evTO^rjimv.
iirjTe

fir/

7r/)ta/tei'o|[i']

pay five drachmas, and

hevTe
irXeov
firire

(the rayol) shall

bring the case to issue by appointing


another in his place. Whoever convicts

one guilty of an unlawful action shall


receive half the fine (cf. no. 18.24^25,50).

Clff. Oath of the person appointed


The missing conclusion
of B must have been the provision for
such an appointment.
6 ff. If the one

19ff. Law concerning funeral rites,


Like the law of lulis in Ceos (no. 8),

chosen fails to serve as judge, he shall

thiHy-five drachmas, either by purchase

to act as judge.

this

is

20

directed against extravagance,

ff.

One shall not expend more than

PHOCIAN INSCRIPTIONS

No. 51]

FoiKW

T^v Se

^amrhv

x^^aivav

n-axellla'jv

209

elfj^ev.
|(

al 8e ti tovt(ov

7rap/3aXXo|iTO, airoTeia-drco Trevr'^Ko\vTa Bpaxfid';, ai


a-rjt

eVt

Tw Kal

(rdfian

ra)i

aiydi,

oTOTV^ovTmv

KcovTi, Trjvet

B'
|

Be

rat?

K7)V

ra?

dXX'

iv roi?

dirifiev fo\iKaBe

fj,r]B'

Kamdevrcov

iv rat? SeaT[a]|t?

aaixdreaai

/jltjB'

so

p,rj^S\aixel, 35

to aafia hC-

e|7rt

diydva

iroTdedfji.

Opjjvelv

/jltj

p,r]\B'

t&v

ototv-

40

Kal TrarpaBeX-

hofi,e\irTia)v

[K]\al ya/i^paiv.

II

fj,ri

veKpov KeKaXv/^/jLevov

irpiy k

eKaarov ex0a>

Kal irevOepmv K'^yyovcov

<fie&v

paia{i)

/jlt)

foiKia's,

^ev,

B\e

evajo^ earm, hevre Ka ha

TedvaKOTW

TTJIpo'o-Ta

<TTp\o^al<;

e|[;j^]0o?

tov

25

i^o/x,\6-

arpa/Ma Be h^v hvTro^aXe-

'rr\\eov ivde/xev.

jroiKe<j^d\aiov hev TroTdera)-

<})\eperQ}
/iTjS'

firj

Ka

fir]Be

iv rot? eVtauTOt[?

rdi hva^r^e- 45
ol/ua^ev

/ji,]jjt'
|

0T0Tv[5iE||i']

firiT

voav

al Be ti tovtcdv irap^dXXoiTO rmv yeypadfte- so

D
.

axct

S ...

...

doivai Be TatS|[e

vo'/tt/tjot

'A7re\-

XaL Kal B|[ou:a]Tta, Hijpata,


[/iT/i/Jo?

rav he^Befiav Kal


J

or {in articles taken)

from

AatSa<^|[o'/3ta], TLoLTpoirta, Buo-tou

[tJAv hevdrav, KrjVKXeL^a ]|a/JTa/Lima

the home.

The shroud shall be thick and of


a ligM gray color. For (paairds = *<paiat6s, see 31, and, as used of mourning
23-24.

apparel,

of.

^aid J/idno Polyb. 30.4.5,

25ff.
and ^aick ^o-fliis Ditt.Syll.879.5.
If one trangresses (jrap/SdXXw = irapa-

any of these things, he shall pay


drachmas, unless he denies under
oath at the tomb that he has spent more.
29 ff. (TTpupia Se ktX. cf. no. 8.3^.

on,

variously read and interpreted.

is

39

'

ff.

There shall be no mourning

for the former dead, but every one shall

go home, except the near


45. RTJ-yYivoiv

ing

is

or

relatives.'

(7;ir76i'ti)i'

See 100.

uncertain.

The read-

46fi.

There shall be no wailing or lamentation

Palvw)

on the following day, nor on the tenth

fifty

day, nor onthe anniversary.

31 TOV
33
ff.

11.

ff.

8 veKpov (ctX.: cf.no. 8.10KTiv

Tois

<rTpo<|>ttts

ktX.

down anywhere at the turns in the road (but carry


it straight on to the tomb without interthey shall not set the corpse

ruption), nor shall they

make lamenta-

tions outside the house until they arrive


at the tomb, hut there there shall be

ceremony for the dead (?ci.ii>ayli-w)until

the lid (?) is closed (cf.irpo(rrieriiiuTA.s

ft)pos,etc.).

But the last part, from Tijrei

See Glossary, and

JviavTots:

of. ri, iviaiirw. in

same sense at Ceos.


D 1 ff. Enumeration

the

of the regular

These are given in the order of


their occurrence, as appears from the
correspondence between many of them

feasts.

and the names of the months {'Awc\For the

Xoibs, BoukcEtios, 'Hpoibs, etc.).

identification of these festivals, see Ditt.

5-7. 'Those which occur


notes.
on the seventh and the ninth of the

I.e.,

month

Biio-ios.'

TapiCria:

/coi

7-8.

EukXcio

KT|uKXia

(coi

Kop-

'ApraidTta.

GREEK DIALECTS

210
10 ical Ad<j>pi[a K]\al

Xdpria KoL
15

Hr?/3a:Xe([a],

K\a wevrafiapiTevwv TvxnY


20 ypafifievcov,

Aa^vdSM,
tS?

25 XeyrjL
S'

km

Ka feVot

irapriL \k]\m

XeKxol

rd

TrdvTcov

12

ff.

koI fiSimv Kal

recently delivered of child, if

there are strangers with

and

him

Sa/Ji.ocria)\\v

/j.rjvb'i

Trarpcoimi Kal T(BV|o'\XtBW

(in the sacrifices for the purification of)

victims,

||

x^t^"'''P"'^ ""'''

'^VP'''-

TrpoOvovTa Kal

TOfj,

rdi Be

rd yeypafi/xeva Aa^vdSa\i<;

Feasts are also held if one sacriif one assists

woman

Kal

6Se|XoV,

a\[l

crvy-

AvKeicoi Bapixara koI Td\v d'^aiav

a victim for himself,

fices

ku dfi^iX-

Aa^vaS\dv rcoiTeXXaCov

Al

rait

<ye-

iraVTe^

<^avaTel 'yer^paiTTM iv

ra? Su(SeatSo||9

tS)i

Kpo\fji,avrev6iievov Trape^ev
45 ffva-iai

Be

a[l]

a\iTeir}, diroTeicrdToo

K-qK

Kal rd

BdpfJi,a,Ta

40 fioayov."

aWoi

"[rJaSe <^d[v\\oTO<; iweBonKe TardvyaTlpl Bov-

evhw

heiJi,tpp[-^]\vLa

p\r]\v\Mdv

ka

km

rov vS^^l,L|x\ov hopKOV XeXva-do).

roidSe ktjv

oBeXdv.

km

ffvovre';

tovtwv irap^aX^ono rSiv

Se toI 'n-evTeKaiSexa.

e^ofioam

0a)\i.dcTio';,

d-7roTei\a-dT(o

35 ^vr/M,

hiap^ia

irapitovTW,

Otoeovrcov tol re Safiiop\\yol Kol toX

'rrpaara-ovTcov

[t]\m irerpM

/rot

koX AtoaKovpfjia, Mepi\a-

avTO<; eirji hLapri[iJov

al Se

djXiav TTOiovTav dpxco\\y

30 xe'of,

Tpax^M

@eo^evia kuI

[No. 51

sacrificing

if one is serving a^ irevra-

name

Tft)||t

Aiovva-mi, BovKaTioi<;
|

rdv UKpodiva

Ka\l avfiTrnricrKev

theeponymous hero gave to hisdaughter


Buzyga. This mythical heroine is mentioned elsewhere (Schol.Ap.Rhod.l.
185) as a daughter of Lyons, whose

name
1.

is

to

be recognized in AuKe(wi
38. tAv d-yot?).

37 (shrine of Lycus

of

av |i6<rxov: apparently the admirable

oflScial appointed to serve five


days (d/iiipa, see 12), but nothing more
22. toI
is knovfn about this oifioe.

or wonderful calf (a sort of wonder-

TrevTa^piras

fjiapiras.

the

is

some

irvTeKa8{Ka

no. 49.

of.

26-27.

If,

when they hold an assembly, any official


is absent.
&pxav nom. sg. part, one
holding

office.

29

ff

These things are

calf

?),

scure.

but the allusion

38

S.

irdvTCDv

is

of course ob-

kt\.

'

in the

case of aiU undertakings, both private

and public, for which one


fice

ofiers sacri-

or consults the oracle in advance,

the one doing so shall furnish to the

written at Phanoteus on the inner side

Labyadae the victims mentioned

The ancient city of Phanoteus (Panopeus) was perhaps the original

in the rock inscription just quoted).'

seat of the phratry of the Labyadae.

iMVTfvbpxvov, sacrificing etc. in advance

of the rock.

30. ^ttvaTct: cf.$(iTOT0!

11.

30-31. Both

^avareis and^axoreiis occur in other inscriptions.

Tos

See 46.

|i6(rxov

31

ff.

raSe *dvo-

quotation from the

ancient rock inscription, stating

what

TdvTdip depends upon wpoBiovra and

(i.e.

of.

ffiva,

47.

vrpo-

rdv dKp66iva (or ra haxpd-

the reading being uncertain):

so.

Tayods vapix^v, the rayol shall furnish


the first-fruits.
invite the

48

Labyadae

f.

to

cr|mr(<rK6v kt\.:

drink together.

PHOCIAN INSCRIPTIONS

No. 63]

Aa/SuaSas

hafMel Tolii?

rd?

aWwi

B'

||

doivw;

211
kA[t]

hwpav

riii'

50

a7r|a7eo-0(it.

52. Delphi. Between 240 and 200 b.c. SGDI.2653. Michel 274.
^A.'^aOat TV'yaL.

Ae\,(f>ol

eSwKav NiKavS/atot

Ava^ayopov KoXo-

'
|

<f)a)vio)i,

eireav irorjTai, av\rS)i Kal iyyovoi'i irpo^eviav, irpofiavreiav,

aavXiav, irpohiKiav, areXeiav irdvTcov, TrpodlSpiav ev TrdvTe(a-)cn rot?

oh d

ayc!)voi<;

voK Kal

Tro'Xt?

raXXa

Ti\6T)n Kal

evepyeraK rd^

tto'Xio? tcov

ocra Kal toi<;

AeX^Stv

dWoK

dp'yovro'i

irpo^e-

NtoSa-

^ovXevovToav

jxov,

53. Delphi.
"A/3;;^oi'TO?

'A/owttoji'o?, Nt/coSa/iOV, Il\C\crT(ovo<;^ SeVwi'o?,

186 b.c.

[NJtKO/SouXou

e^,
</)'

Kadoyi;

ah

ovo/xaTa

el

Be Ti Ka

fir)

fievav vTTO l<ieoirdTpa^ Ka6d><;

Aafievrj<;

Kadw

||

rdv

covdv,

iravra 5

||

AeXtf>6<;.

ira-

Ka

^oojji

d')^pi

1,oi>ai')(a

tmv

"TroTiTaacro-

oixrai,

e^eaTW

Ka avTU
53.

BeCXrfTai Kal dXX(oi virep 10

A typical Delphian manumission

decree, of which there are

more than

See note to nos. 44-48. They


show all varieties of mixture of Delphian, Northwest Greek Kony/i, and At1*300.

the season.

Proxeny decree

in

honor of the

poet Nlcander of Colophon, whose


writings included a prose work on
Aetolia. At this time the Aetolians
were dominant in Delphi, and this
the language of the inSee 279. Note in 1. 5 the

itself in

scriptions.

rj

yeypaiTTai BvvaTal

shows

'Opeara

irapd NeoTrdrpav

Zwirvpa

49 ff. tAs 8' axXas ktX. the other feasts


one shall carry out in accordance with
53.

to TroTiTaaa-diJ.evov irdv to BvvaTOV dveyKX-q-

iroieatvTL

NeoTrar/oat KoXd^eiv

dpyvpiov fivdv

6ea)i

rait

Kal dvei^diTTOvi dirb wavToav rofi

^e^auoTTjp Kard tov vo/xov

'NeoTrdrpa iroeovaai
TO)?

rolaBe direBoro
Tlv6ia)i, a-cofiara

Z(7rv|j0a, licocri'x^a, rt/ias

eTricrrevaav ZcoTrvpa, '^coai'xa

paiJ.e[i\vdv\ra)v Be Tiwirvpa, l.axrl'xa

iirl

AeX^t? roa KttoWwvl tul

(Sire i\ev6epa<; etfiev

^iov.

^ovKariov,

firjvo^
'

NeoTTOT/aa 'Opdalov

yvvaiKeia Bvo

SGDI.2034.

combination of Delph.
Aetol. ayiims.

7rdvTe((r)<rt

with

tic

elements, e.g. in this inscription,

pi.

imv. idvru,

always at

Nearly

i6inui>, ^aruv.

this time, the older

are replaced by

ri, lepis,

and

a.1,

toI

lap6s

by

oi,

though roJis frequently retained in the


formal toI Upds beginning the list of
witnesses.

GEEEK DIALECTS

212
NeoTrdrpav

Ka

Se ti

el

^afiia'i.

avv\7roSiicot<;

ical

ovroi<;

a^afJi,ioi<;

[No. 53

Trddrjc ^eo-rraTpa,

Koi

hCica^

irdaa'i

earcov Zcoirvpa

eXevdepat
\

Koi 'LwcrixO' Kvpieovaai avToaavrav Kal iroiovcrai 6 Ka 6e\a>v\n,

rm

KaOiof liriaT&KTav
TTvpa'i

rj

OecoL rctv covdv.

1wa-ixa<; eireC

Ka

el

Be ti?

Ka

dTrrrjTai Zto-

Te\evTd<7r]i 'Neoirdrpa, 0e^atov irape-

tmi

15 yjreTco 6 /Se^aicoTrjp

Kal

20

6p,oC(o<;

he

TrapaTvyy^dvovre'i Kvpiot e6v\r(ov av\eovTe<; ca? iXevOepa? ov-

01

Kal dvvTToSiKoi

a-av d^dfitoi ovTet

Ti

Oeui rdv oavdv Kurd tov vofiov.


||

Ka

d^ermdecovTi irepl

irdaa's SiKa<; Kal ^ajMia'i.

'Neoirdrpav

7reTro\vr]peviJ.evai

rpa<;

iirapxovToav n, Kvpioi eovTco ol

Ka0'

on Ka avroK
p,dpTvpe<s

huKat.

lepei<;

Se

KoXd^^ovTev avrds

d^dpnoi ovTei Kal dwiroSiKoi

SoKrji

rol

eVt'i'o/x.ot

el

t&v NeoTra-

rj

iraawi
||

Bevav, "A^a^/3o?, twv dpxdvTcov Ev-

ISicoTat 'le/oo/cXr)?, 'K.apC^evo';, Ba7;)^to9.

\et8a?,
I

Exclusive of Delphi

64. Stiris. About 180


Michel 24. Solmsen 37.

B.C.

SGDI.1539.

IG.IX.i.32.

Ditt.SyU.42e.

A
[@]60? TV'^av d'^d:^&\dv.

a-TpaTa'yeovTO';

^WKemv

[t]&)I'

Zev-

5 ^iov,

e^Sofiov, 6/U.o\o[7||i]a

[/aJt^i/o?

rd

Tro'Xet 'Ereipicav

koI

M.eSea)viQ)v

av^i^e^TroXiTevcrav "^relpioi Ka\l

10 e'l^oi'Te? lepd, '7ro1[\t]i',

MJeSewi'tot

'ympav, Xifiepa^, iravTa [i'jXevOepa, iirl TolcrBe.


11

[rjoir? M.eBecoviov;

eJfiev

[SjTtjOtov? taov<; Kal o/Moiov^,

7rdvTa<;

15

[tS]
|

TTo'Xet

Kal avveKX-qaid^eiv Kal av^vap')(paTarela6aL /xerd rdi

[Tro'JXtos
||

rdi ^Tipicov, Kal

BiKd\[^'\et,v Tiis B(Ka<i

iirl 7ro'\i|[o]s Trao-a? Toiis

lardvOa) Be Ka\l

[T]ats dXiKiai<;.

eviKOfievov<!

tA?

l^eporafilav ex

17. &XfTa9iavTiKT\.: are convicted

Jiaoing done

any wrong

to

of

Neopatra or

her possessions.

Cf. 4^e\eyx8elri{i)irav

in another of the

manumission decrees.

The derivation of dferiu from *iv^eT6uj


(cf. 77.2) and connection with drafTjr^u
is most attractive, tliougli fijT^u lias
original o, of which the weak grade
would be a not c. Others compare
Hesych.

fiferoK-

origin of

which

S,wl(ttop,
is

obscure.

SiceXoi, the

54. AgreementestablishingairujiHroXircia or joint-citizenship

Stirians

10. I\cv6epa: free,

towns).

between the

and Medeonians.

11

fl.

open to

rois kt\.

both
Mede-

all (of

all the

oniansshallbeStirianswithequalrights,

andshalljoinwith the city of the Stirians


inthe assembly and in appointing magistrates, and those who have arrived at
proper age shall try all cases which come
beforethe state. 18. toTdvOca: Boeotian

PHOCIAN INSCEIPTIONS

No. 54]

rcbv Me8etB]|[v]i6)i; eva tov Ovaiovra t^5


Me8e<i'|[i]ot?,

oaai ivrl iv tS) ttoXitiko)

213
ra? Trarptov;

ffva-iw:
|

/ijer^

v6fi[a),

20

rav ap^ov-

T&v

Tcov

a-Ta\[6]evTCi>v iv

Srijot

Xav^avereo

[8]e o UpoTa/iia<; 25
||

apea-fuov, o t[oI

d]pj^ovT<; iXdfi^avov, ^p,i\[fj,'\valov koI tS>v xocov

TO

e7r[i\fi'\a\ov

tw

leporafiiai.

TO?

[tJwz/ dp'xovTwv

crvvSi\[K'\a^t Se 6 iepoTafiia<i fierd

a?

hiKa<i,

[wjXapaxrt rd SiKacrr'qpia, d Ka
TeBV.

apypvre'i SiKci^ovTi, Kal

\j\ol
|

Berj
|

KXapmeiv, fierd t5>v

11

30

"[pjlxo'i/-

earoa Se e7rai'a7||[]es Xeirovpyelv roij^ MeSelwi'tot/s iv 35

iir)

Srtpt T^?

yeyevrjvrai iv

dp'x^di;, ocrot

MeSe&VL

dp\')(^ovre;,

^evoSi-

KM,

"TrpaKTfjpe;,

Bafiiovpyoi,

offat te/3j;Tev|/caTt, et /i^ rt?

I'epet?,

lepdp^ai, Kal

vTrofievoi

e/ccbi'

d\eiTO\i^yrjT(ov tS)v MeSecflviiBi' k|oI e*

ovTfov Se Kal

ra iv

Kat rdv

Xeuet.

||

rail' "S.Tipitov

tAv MeSewi'tai'

yvvaiKoyv 40

ia-ravdcov Be ix tS>v

Sa/itoiijo||[7]e- 45

tJepA Ka6a)<: 6 TroXtri/to?

MeSe|[ft)i/t

j^[w|pai']

rai'

6-

j'o'I^o?

[Trjacrai' 1,ripiav

et/iei'
|

Kal rdv

MSe|[Q)]i'tot

rdv iv

M.eSewviav Koivdv

"SiTiJkiiav

Tav dvcndv rdv iv

M.e\Bea)vi iracrdv.

MeSewi'ious

twv

d-iro

fir)

Koivcoveovro) Be ol 50

'7r[a|cra]i'.

2Ti|[pi] iraa-dv koI rol (toI) Sri/stot

i^etTTCo S|e diroiroXneva-acrTaL TOLr[s]

'2Tipi\[Q}']v firjSe

rois Sript'ou?

diTro

55
|

[tJmi'
|

'M.eBel(ovi]a)v.

oirorepoi

[S]e

Ka

/jltj

i/i/ieivcovTi iv toZ||[?] yeypa/i- 60

fievoK, d7roTei\a-dvTa>v toi<;

i/ifieivd[v']\TOi<;

dpyvpiov TaXavlTa BeKa.

B
irloLeovTwv

Be rav

[7]j0ai|rai'Ta)i'

o/i[o]|X,07i'ai'

ev

Kal dv[a6e]\vTcov iv to lepov tu^ 'A[0a'i']||a?, OecrTav Be 5

ardXav

rdv 6p.o\Koyi'^av Kal irapd

Bpdaava

7r[apd]

IBicoTav ia[(l>pa]\yia-fievav.

a ofioXoyia

/j,dp[Tv]\pe^ pda-cov AafiaTpiov 'E||\a- 10

AiXaiea.

Tew9,

EuTraXiSo?

ereot? TeTTapoi?
\

AtXatew,

Se rot iTipioi

SoVtcji'

5o/3joe]w.

vav

0/3a|o-(i'o?

dpyvpiov

p.vd'S

Ta

Tt/io|K/3aT7;? 'EiriviKov Tt-

(j>aTpia tcov MeSeo)vi\\cov iv 15

irevTe Ka[l

tJo'ttoi'

Tdv KaXeifie-

Tpeiav.

So larivBuiv I. 42 and 9^
inscription. Cf.
Xoij-Si in another Stiiian
also (cXapuo-rl. 32 with Boeot. . for ci.
for laTdm-a.

34 ff. (i'l ^"' ''^'^^ 't^liose


ggg 281.
who have been officials in Medeon shall
be exempt from compulsory oflSce hold-

ing in Stiris.' 40-41. lepriTrfKOTv: see


188.4.
<r9

55. diroiroXiTrfo-ao-Tai

as in Wo-tuk

13

ff.

B 5.

its

ff7-

The phratiy of the Medeofrom the state, reown organization, and was

nians, in distinction

tained

85.1.

GREEK DIALECTS

214

[No. 55

Locrian
55. Oeanthea (Galaxidi).

V cent. b.c.

First half

Solmsen34.

346 ff.

Aoppov rov HvrroKva-

'Ev 'NaviruKTOV Ka(T) TovBe hairtfOtKia.


fiChiov, eVIei'

Ka NauTra/cTto?

to receive a subsidy of

from the
65.

<^everai,

money and land

^(i")

NaviraKTiov iovra,
NavTdKTo (once ^7

/io'7ro(?)

NouTriiKTo), in

contrast to which ip NaiiraicTov, iv TSav-

Stlrians.

Law governing

the relations be-

tween the Eastern Locrian colonists at


Naupactus and the mother country.
This does not refer to the founding of
Naupactus, which was much earlier.
Colonists are called &toikol from the
point of view of the mother country,
but ^ToiKoi as here (iirlfoifoi) from the
point of view of their new home. The
Eastern Locrians are referred to ethnically as Hypocnemidians (of which
Epicnemidians is an equivalent), politically as Opuntians, since

Opus was

T&KToi with original iv are always writ^

ten out. Cf. also (in no. 56)


&vi.ro(<:) (TuXIj', d.SlKo(s)

universally adopted,

where

it is

uniformly employed before


it is no longer used.
In no. 55 lengthened 6 is expressed by
in the genitive
El, lengthened c by
or

one copy was set

In no. 56

po.

singular,

85

at Opus, with another at

not a violent

has so

standing in the same relation as BoeoIt is probable that

is

No other Greek inscription


many examples of p as no. 56,

correction.

But

tian and Theban.

ti(s) avKoi,

avKm, in view of

which the reading Aii7ro(s) ^ivov (no.


55.2), which is generally though not

the seat of government, the two terms

up

SGDI.

IG.IX.i.334.

Michel 285. Roberts 231 and pp.

1478. Hicks 25. Inscr.Jurid.I,pp.l80fe.

OV

in the accusative plural.

E and 0. See
No. 55, beginning in 1. 11, is
divided into paragraphs by the letters
in no. 56 always

d.

A-e.

Naupac-

No. 55 exhibits

many

instances of

and that the present tablet is still


another copy, which with the addition

repetition (see

of the last sentence, stating that simi-

ness

between colonists from Chaleion and the mother


city, was set up at Chaleion, from
which place it may easily have found

and in general the style of both inscriptions is crude and obscure.


1. The colony to Naupactus on the

tus,

lar relations are to subsist

its

way

to Galaxidi.

letter is

used for

"double consonants, not only in the interior of a word,

as

0a\(i{<r)<Tas,

often in sentence combination, as

but
Ki,{T)

So i{d) Sa/io, i(\) Xi/i^j-os, etc.,


with assimilation of in (100); similarly

TovSe.

(e. g.

3, note),

what

is

and some

the subject of iwoedvei.

94.5.

of

essential to clear1.

30),

hairipoiKCa te
Kd(T)Tov86: see 136.5.

following terms.
foiKla.

In both this and the following inscription a single

omission of

1.

iiri-

Ao9p6v tAv HviroKva|i,(Siov kt'K.: A


Sypocnemidian Locrian, when he becomes a Naupactian, being a Naupactian, may as a l^ros share in the social
and religious privileges (i. e. in the
mother country) when he happens to
be present, if he wishes.

If he wishes,

LOCEIAISr INSCEIPTIONS

No. 55]

215

^evov oa-ia \avxav\eiv Koi Oveiv i^etfiev eTrnvxpvTa,


al

rai,

avTOV

Ka SeiXerai,

ical

dveiv

ical \\av')(dveiv

to yevo'i Karaipei.

'RviroKvaiMLhlov

reXo?

eTripoipov^ Aopp5v. rov 6

to||u?

Aoppoh

<j)dpeiv ev

Ka heiXe-

a'C

Ke{h) hdfi,o Ke{a) poLvdvov

KviroKvafuSioK, (ppuv
K av TK Aoppo? yeveTai rov HvTroKvafiiBiov. al SeiXer dv^jo/j,e

TOt|?

pelv,
liev

KaraXeiTrovTa ev

dvev iveTepiov

Ka

at

he^aTay

laTlai iralha

toll

hvir

e 'Se\(j>eov eBei-

dvdvKa^ aireXdovTai

i(y)

'NavirdxTO

Aop\pol Tol HvTroKvafiLBioi, i^eiixev av-)(opelv, hoiro peKacrTo^ ev,

dvev

reXo?

i^^veTipiov.

Aoppov rov
"^voppov rot? eTrifoipoK ev 'NavTraKTov p,e Vo--

Fea-TrapL\dv.

cjjdpeiv p,eBev hoTi p-e p,eTd

p-e

10

'O^irovTiov TeKvai Kal p,a')(avdi p.eSep,iai f epoVra?. tov


at Ka hel\\dvTai, iirdyetv /iera TpcdpovTa peTea diro

(TTcLp-ev a(7r'

hoppov

i^eip,ev,

TO hoppo heKaTov dv8pa<; '0\TrovTioi<; NauTra/CTiOj' Kal NauTra/cTtot?


'Ottovtiov;.

Hoo-Q-Ti?

poCpov, d-jro

Aoppov

elfiev,

he

may

Ka

evTe k diroTeicreL

share in these privileges, both

those of the people

and

those of the

bers of the societies, himself

The

scendants forever.

and

mem-

his de-

colonists of the

H. Locrians are not to pay taxes among


the S. Locrians, until one becomes a H.
Locrian again. In 6<na Xoj'x'^''e' Kal
Bietv there is probably the same contrast as in

Kal Saia or

lepdt.

\t7roTeXee]|t

Cretan

0hva,

in
i.

ey ISiavjrdKTO tov

to. v6\fjiia

common

e.

with the Western Locrians,


they are not to be subject to any

special taxes as colonists.

174.

hdiro pcKao-TOs^v:

9.

otherwise

the preceding).

6/3ov olKSude ?Ka<rTos, etc.

at

also

Ka SilXirai
li 11.

10

fat iv Tayopat.

Kc(o) foLvdvov

vHv.

f.,

11.
:

for the repetition

dSfiev 11.

20

ff.

4.

41

f.,

Kapv-

Ki(8) 8dfjio

Kal 4k 5i)pjov Kal iK kolvu-

94.6, 100.

wishes to return, he

ff.

may

If a

(cf.

I,p.286.

11

^s.

deuice.

Cf.

Hom.

Kiihner-Gerth

Oath for the colonists to


to

If they wish they may impose

colonist

the oath thirty years after this oath, one

do so without

.hundred Naupactians upon the Opun-

and

tians

pactians.

If the S. Locrians
are driven from Naupactus by force,
they may return without admission

irovTiov.

adult son or brother.

They are

sg. Tjv

forsake the alliance


Opuntians willingly by any

with the

vided he leaves behind in his house an

came.

ff.

Naupactus, not

taxes of admission (to citizenship), pro-

taxes to the town

26), see

See 163.3. Hence this is the 3 pi.


fjv agreeing with the logical subject
they

3.

1.

a 3

other dialects retaining the original

both terms refer to religious privileges.

at SetXiT:

known only in Attic-Ionic,

Kal dvffpdiriiia, tliougli it is possible that

-of.

for subj. without Ka (also in

is

iiri-

TSlaviraKTioc;.

from which they each


to pay no taxes except

the

Opuntians upon the Nau-

OTTOVTiov: ioi a.7r"0Probably here only a graphic


11;

omission, similar to haplology (88 a).

14

ff. Whoever of the colonists departs


fromNaupactus with unpaid taxes shall
lose his rights as a Locrian until he pays

GEEEK DIALECTS

216

r
pov

Ka fxk YeVo? ev rdi lerTiat ei e "'x^eTrdfiov tov eTn]foiNaV7raT0t, Aoppov tov HvjroicvafJi.iSidv tov iirdvy^ia-^Tov

Ai.'

ei ev

Kparelv,

AoppSv

hoTro

Si,

avrov Iovtu,

at,

ei e Trats, Tpiov

k avep

pievov al Se pe, rot? NauTra/cTtot? vopioi's x^pecrTai.


20

Navn-aKTO

ho K

Tcii TToXi,

Mvaaxeov

Kapv^M

ii,

eirei

rayopdi.
|

Ti'i

iroXi';

Ei{v)

Nau-

HviroKvapiBioK iv

TOL('i)

E HeppoOapiav

iv ^avTrdtcTOi y(pecrTai,

S'

to:,
|

HvTTOKvapiBioii; '^.pepaTa rots Hu'7roi'OjLttSi||ot?

(TTai, Ao'tto?

peKaa-TOV vopi^ei Aoppov tov

|||

kuI

ra XP^'

iv Aoppoi<s

vopiof; XP^'

Hv7ro/'|a/*.tStoi/.

hviro tov voplov tov iiripoipov avyppeei Jieppodapid^v Kal

M.va:a'X,eov, rot?

F At K
30

iv

'NavTrdKTi{6i; rt)? yeveTa\i avTd<i, Kai

Ka

paTa tSv l^avirdKTdi Toh

av

avy(^ope\\ovTa ev Aoppov'; tov<; HvTroKvapiSiovi iv

iraKTOi Kapv^ai ev Ta\rfopai, kSv Aoppol?

25 Tot?

[No. 55

'

avTOV vopioiv ^pecrTctt kuto, ttoKiv peKdaTOV;.

eovn to

aSeX<j>eol

'v

^aiiraKTOV poiKeovTa,

Aopp^\v TOV iivTroKvapiSiov pexdaTov v6po<;

icTTi,

Ao'tto?

Kal

at k cnroddvet,

TOV jApepdTOV KpaTelv tov iiripoipov, to xaTipopevov KpaTelv.

Naupactians his lawful dues.


16 ff // there is no family in the home,
the

or heir to the property


nists

among

the colo-

in Naupactus, the next of kin

among the H. Locrians shall


from whatever place among
crians he comes, and, if a

man

inherit,

the

Lo-

or boy,

may

as the law

be in the several cities

of the S. Locrians. If any of them,


under the laws of the colonists, return,
they shall be subject to their

who

goes as a colonist to Naupactus,

Otherwise the laws of Naupactus shall

H. Locrians

19 ff. If one returns from


Naupactus to the S. Locrians, he must
have it announced in Naupactus in the
market-place, and among theH. Locrians

is,

inthecitywhencehecomes.

mi.When-

laws,

then, according to

own

each according to the city of his origin,


29 ff. If there are brothers of the one

he shall go himself within three months.


be followed.

NaviraKTov Thv SiKav TrpoSipov hapecrTai

Toil? i-TTipoipovi iv

what

severally

if (one of

them)

the

(i.e.

law of the

in each city)
the colonist

dies,

shall inherit his share of the property,

what belongs

shall inherit
tlie

to

him. Note

double construction with Kparelv

accoi-ding as the sense

But many take

is

partitive or

TO

and the Muo-oxeis (probably the names of two noble

not.

or priestly families, the

not otherwise attested in Locrian, and

eeer

any of

the JlepfoBaplai

first

obviously

= xaBapbi) becomes a
Naupactian himself, his property in
Naupactus shall also be subject to the
laws in Naupactus, but his property
among the S. Locrians to the H. laws,
containing KoBapbs

as gen. sg.

to in relative sense, though this use

understand

^trrf

lating which

Aenf

32

f.

with

it is

is

KaTi<f6fusvov,

trans-

proper for him

to in-

may

bring

The

colonists

suit before the judges with right ofprece-

dence, they

may

bring suit and submit

LOCEIAN INSCRIPTIONS

No. 55]

7ro(T) Tov-; S\iKaa-Tepa<;,

hapearai Kal Sofiev ev

Aop^ov rov }lvTroKvafu^LOV

avTUfiapov.

217

Tov Aofpov T07rif\\oLpoi KoX TOP iiripoipov rot Aoppoi,


'iriaTk

Kal TO

evTifJ.01 <e?> (eovri).

TOV

fipo<i

cVet K

airoXa'x^elv tov eTripoipov iv l^avTraKTOV.\

fspaSepoTa Bia^deipei

Te-)(yaL

jrardpa

UTTor^eveTai, i^eifiev

HoWrt?
|

/xtdi,

7rXe^||at

;)(;tXt'oz/

hoiri.ve's ica 35

aTroXiTrii.

Kal /laxavai Ka\l

Hottovtiov re

dv(j}OTdpoi<; SoKeei,

Ho'crcr|Tt?

y^^pe/jLUTov TOi TTUTpi,

Kara f e'o?

'OiroevTi,

Trpoa-rdTav KaraaTaaai

hoTi

ku

to.

Ka

fj,e

Kal 'NafrraKTiov 40

TOV iiripoipov irXeOai, aTi/iov etfiev Kal j^pel/xara irafjiaTocjjayeLTovKaXeifievoi tclv hiKav Sofiev tov dplyov, iv ToidpovT dfid-

cTTai.
pai'i

Sofiev,

against themselves in Opus on

to suits

the

at Ka TpidKOVT dfj-dpai

same day.

This provision

is

in-

Some

7oi!s).

after evn/wi

at Opus,

'iriarh).

XajSetv Kal dovvai (cf.

Xapeti/ is

Hdt.6.83).

usually to bring

has

times used of a magistrate, to grant

34f.

Who-

ever are in office for the year shall ap-

point

from among

the

holrives,

may

be

H. Locrians a

.36 f.

left

colonist to

Naupactus who

behind a father and his portion

of the property with the father, shall inherit his share

38

Whoever

ff.

any

device in

when

{the father) dies.

violates these statutes by

any point which

is

not

one of the Locrians for the


one of the colonists for the Lo-

of the Thousand in Opus and the ma-

tov Aofpov HvTOKvafjiiSiov applies

jority of the colonists in Naupactus,

irpoffTdTTis,

colonist,

crian,

of eovn

such as is not infrequent in a clause of


this kind (Kuhner-Gerthl,p.41,n.2c).

f.

The omission

suit, as here,

usually to submit to suit


Thuc. 1.28), as here, though some-

41

to dittography (cf

the engraver's error, or simply ellipsis,

(e. g.

1.

E5

(f:)aT is possible.

due

the ending of the preceding

SIkt/v SoOvai is

as below,

is

dlKTjv

though sometimes the opposite, while

trial,

at Ka

dp')^d<;

correct to Vi(/re)T^s, but

a by-form with

tended to secure for the colonists the


greatest expedition in their litigation
hapiarai. (i.e. eKiirBai) Kal SS/Mev

ra?

Xei'7roi'T|at

agreed

to

by both parties, the majority

and

properly only to the appointment of

shall be deprived of civil rights

the TpbaTaT-qi for the colonist, this be-

have his property confiscated. For the

ing the important proyision in cbntin-

spelling 'NafTaxrlov see 32.

uation of

the one

the

preceding paragraph.

Making the provision mutual was an


afterthought.

/t

a tt i a t c s without cor-

rection is to be read xa 'iriarh, with

hyphaeresis where

we expect

elision,

from Ka and iwiarh, an adv. ^cpd. of


firos for which we should expect ^wiferh or iTricrh (intervocalic f is not
always written, of. '07r6ei'Ti, Sa/uovp-

who brings

41

shall

ff.

To

suit the magistrate

shall grant trial within thirty days, if

days of his magistracy remain.


If he does not grant trial to the one
thirty

bringing suit he shall be deprived of


rights

and have

civil

his property confiscated,

his real estate together with his servants.

The customary oath shall be taken.


voting shall be by ballot.

For

p,4pos

The
real

GREEK DIALECTS

218

BlSoc Toi evKaXei/ievoL

fie

45 TO<f>ajel(rTai,

rav

ev vSpiav

Aoppoh

Biicav, dTifJi\ov elfiev

\lrdcf>i^\^iv

koI to dedfiiov rots E.V7roKvafMSioi<!

el/ji.ev.

Taih-a reXeov elfiev XaXeteot?

Tbv ^evov

jLie

'AvTKpdrai fOiKiral'S.

Second half V cent. B.C. IG.IX.iii.333.


Roberts 232 and pp.354 ff. Solmsen 35.

avXovTa

dvdTo(<;) avXMv.

ra? OlavOiSo'i,

/iteSe

ra

xpe/J-ara at

al he irXeov

Be/c

a'i

hdyev

al fxeTapoiKeoi irXeov

tm

p,evo<: e
|

e-mBap.iai,

And

eirop.oTa'i heXea^To 6 ^eVo?

the similar use of kMjpos.

compact for the H. Locrians shall hold good in the same terms
for the colonists from Chaleion under
.

this

XaXeteus

SUai

TOV Trpo^evov, al \jreuSea irpo^eveoi, hnrX^eloi BoteaTO.

estate, cf .

dav|

dhiKo{s:) crvKoi, Te||TO-

djjiapdv e^oi to a-vXov, he^fiioXoiv

ev Olavffeai e 'Oiavdei)<; ev 'X.aXeioi,

yd^ovTi Tol ^evoBUai,

tov 8e

ti{<;) crxJ^oi

^eyiKO, i{6) 0a\d(a-)a-a<;

i(X) Xi/Mevo? to kut^, ttoXiv.

6(f)XeT0 poTi crvXda-ai.

46 f

SGDI.1479.

hdr^ev e(T) ra? XaXei^So? tov OlavOea, /i|eSe rov

e'(T)

pe? Spwx^/iai-

10

toI'; aiiv

3.

XaXeiea

\ov irXdv

koX xpef^'ara Trafia-

Sio/ioaai hdppov top vofiiov.

to fiepo^ /nerA po\\iKiaTav.

56. Oeanthea.
Hicks 44. Michel

rav

[No. 55

|||

y(\pe<TTO.

al k dvSi-

oirdyov Tav SiKav

off a foreigner from Chaleian territory,


nor a Chaleian from Oeanthean territorij, nor his property, incase one makes

seizure.

But him who makes a

seiz-

See introductory note.


56. The tablet consists of two documents inscribed by different hands, as

ure himself one mayseizewith impunity.

appears from the forms of the letters,


which also show, together with the absence of 9, that both are later than
no. 55. The first, ending with xpiaro

ject to reprisal, except

Antiphates.

8, is a treaty between Oeanthea and


Chaleion of the kind known as ri/ipo-

1.

XoK or crvix^oKd (the latter in

1.

15).

It

is

for the protection of foreigners, that

is

citizens of other

Greek

states, visit-

ing either city from reprisal at the

hands of

citizens of the other.

Such

enforcement of
claims was freely employed, so far as
it was not specifically regulated by
reprisal or seizure in

treaty.

JTor graphic peculiarities see

no. 55, introductory note.


1 ff.

An

Oeanthean

shall not carry

The property of a foreigner one may


carry off from the sea without being sub-

from

the harbor

If one makes a seizure


unlawfully, four drachmas (is the peiiralty); and if he holds what has been
seized for more than ten days, he shall
owe half a^ much again as the amount
he seized. If a Chaleian sojourns more
than a month in Oeanthea or an Oeanof each

city.

thean in Chaleion, he shall be subject

to

the local court.

The second document,


sists of
cities,

11.

8-18, con-

regulations of one of the two

presumably Oeanthea, regarding

the legal rights of foreigners.


8

ff

The proxenus who

is false to his

duty one shall fine double {the amount


involved in each particular case). If

ELEAN

Ko. 57]

wpo^evo

ex0o<;

INSCRIPTIOlSrS

219

Koi fiSio ^evo apiariv^av, iwl

Kal irXeov TrevTe/caiSeK avSpa^,

iirl

fjiev

rat?

iMvaia\{ai<:

/ieiovoK ewe' dvSpa<:.

rots

at

K 6 paaa-TCx;

Trot

tov f\\aa-TOV SiKa^erai Ka(T) ra? o-wi//3oXa?, SafMop-

15

70? heXearai tos hopKo fi6Ta<; apiarivhav tuv ir^VTopKiav o/iocravTa^.

hopKoiioTm tov avro^v hopKOV

TO'i

o/ivvev, ifKedvv Se VLKev.

Elean
57. Olympia. Before 580 B.C. SGDI.1152. Inschr.v.Olympia 2. Michel
Roberts 292 and pp.o64ff. Solmsen38. Damelsson,EraDOsIII,80ff.
Keil,G6tt.Naclir.l899,15ifi. Glotz,Solidarit6delafammeenGr6ce,pp.248ff.
195.

'A fparpa rot? FaXeiot?. irarpiav dappev Kal jeveav xal ravTo.
the ^evodUai (the judges in cases involv-

accounting (or in the body of the fuurrpol?).

ing the rights of foreigners) are divided

If any one maltreats one who


in a matter involving fines,

in opinion, the foreigner


tiff

{owdyor

rors

from

who

is

plain-

6 4irdyiav) shall choose ju-

the best citizens, but exclusive

wittingly.
suffer the

would be prejudiced in his

one.

teen

men

in cases involving a

more, nine

men

mina

If citizen proceeds against citizen under


the terms of the treaty, the magistrates
shall choose the jurors from the best citi-

zens, after

oath

(i.e.

having sworn the quintuple

oath by

rors shall take the

five gods).

same

oath,

The ju-

and

the

This covenant for the Eleans.

and family
and his property shall be immune. If
any one brings a charge against a male
citizen of Mis, if he who holds the highest office and the /Sao-iXeis do not impose
the fines, let each of those who fail to
impose them pay a penalty of ten minae dedicated to Olympian Zeus. Let
the Sellanodica enforce this, and let the

(An accused

man''s) gens

body of demiurgi enforce the other fines


(which they had neglected to impose).
If he (the Hellanodica) does not enforce
this, let

be

And let the scribe of the gens

same penalty

if he

wrongs any

This tablet sacred at Olympia.

fundamenAccording to that preferred here


the object of the decree is to do away
with the liability which under primitive
conditions, such as survived longer in
Elis than elsewhere, had attached to
the whole gens and family of an accused
inscription have differed
tally.

person, also to prevent confiscation of

majority shall decide.


57.

him

The numerous interpretations of this

or

in cases involving less.

accused

held to a fine of ten minae, if he does so

of his proxenus and private host (who


fa,voT), fif-

is
let

him pay double the penalty in his

and personal violence, and


manner in which penalties were to be imposed.
t/iis, the following, see Kuhner1. d

his property

to prescribe the

iroTpidv: like Delph.


= yivm, while yeve&
the immediate family. Oappiv be

Gerthl,p.597.
Trarptd,
is

Dor. irirpa

of good cheer, without fear, hence, as a


technical term in Elean, be secure, immune, just as the Attic 45a is in origin freedom from fear (Sio%). It is used
of pereons

and

things.

Cf

fl[(ppos]

ai-

Toi Kal xp^fjdrois in another inscription.

avT5

refers to fippevop FoXelo of the

GEEEK DIALECTS

220

al fe Tt? KaTiapav<reie pdppevop YaXeio, al ^e

op fieyLCTTOV Te\o<; exoi

ical

[No. 57

fie 'iriOelav to.

toI ^acriXae';, ^e/ca

fivai'i

^(\Kaui

ku airoTivoi
\

'imroeovTov Ka{6)6vTaC<; rol 7A '0\ui^|7riot. knrev^a/iiopyM al


TTOi fe K E'XXavo^iKa<; Koi rSXXa ^Uaia eirevirfTO a
al ^e tk tov ahia;ite 'vttSi, ^L<f>viov airoTLvero ev jxaarpSfii.

rov

5 feKaa-TO<;

p-e

fe

}^iKaiov IfidaKoi, ev

devTa

Kal

IfidcTKOt.

ral ^eKap.vaiaL k ^vexo{iT]o, al

Tav[T]d Ka

Trarpta? o 7/30<^ev?

fei^o<s

[al T]iv [a^'\i-

-Kdaicoi,
|

6 Tr[i]va^ lapb-; 'OXvvTriai.

Keo\C\.

58. Olympia. VI cent. B.C. SGDI.1149. Inschr.v.OlympiaO. Hicks


MiQhell. Roberts 291 and pp. 362 ff. Solmsen39.

9.

'A fpdrpa-Tolp Fa\etoi<; Kal rot? '"EplpaoioK. a-vvfiaxia k ea


eKarbv perea, dp^oi Be Ka rot al Se tl Seot aire f eVo? aUre f\dp|

yov, avveav k a{\)\d\oi';


jxa avveav,

rd t

apjiipo airoTivoiav rol

rdXavrov k

al Se rip

XeoiTO aire feTa<; acre T\eXea-Ta aire


Tol 'vravr

al he

At 'OXwirtoi

toi

Ka\{S)Sa\efj,evoi \arpei6p,evov.
10

d{X)'K{a) Kal Tra\\p TroXep.o.

'y\pd^ea rai Ka(S)Sa-

to,

Teindpot, k evej^oiTO

Sa/U.09, ei'

i'ypa(iM)fj,evoi.

59. Olympia. VI cent. B.C. SGDI.1156. Inschr.v.01ympia7.


Roberts 296 and pp. 369 fi. Ziehen,LegesSacrae61.

Michel

196.

Ka

al he

Oeapo'; eXe.

jSeveoi,

ev jlapol,

/Sot'

Ka 6dd(h)SoL Kal

ddpai TeXeCai, Kal rov deapov ev T|a[(u)]Tat.

ko-

al he rt? Trap to

following clause, which logically goes

years, beginning with the present year.

with the preceding as well as the

Jf there shall be any need of word or


deed, they shall combine with one another

lowing.

2.

but meaning
tion against

KariapavcreiE
first to utter

some one

fol-

KaBiepeiia,

an impreca-

(cf. (caretfxoMiOi

and then, since this was, or had been,


the manner of introducing a charge,
simply KaT))7op^w. See also no. 60. Like
various other expressions in Elean, this
reflects the essentially religious char-

acter of the legal procedure.


fkf

ktX.

cf no. 61

liMTTpiaL,

lfi.i(rKui,

13-16.

etc., see

Tor

al

iireviroi,

the Glossary.

68. This covenant between the Eleans

and

Heraeans (of Arcadia). There


be an alliance for one hundred

the

shall

and in war. If
those who violate (the agreement) pay a talent of silver consecrated to Olympian Zeus. If
any one violates these writings, whether
both in other matters

i^^

'i" i^ot

combine,

private citizen,

him

let

official,

or the state,

let

be held in the penalty here written.

69.

is the conclusion of an inwhich was begun on another

This

scription

tablet not preserved,


//7ie (some one previously mentioned)
commits fornication {1)inthe sacred pre-

cinct,

one shall make him, expiate

it

by

ELEAN INSCRIPTIONS

No. 60]

ypd<l)0<;

reXeia

exev

a SUa, a Se Ka fpdrpa a Bafioata

StKa(S)Sot, areXi'! k eie

ei\e 8t/ca(8)Soo-a.

7ro{T)

221

tov Se ku ypa<f)66v

rov 6{e)6v, i^aypeov Kal

on

SoKeoi A:a(\)\iTe/3o?

aw

e|z;7rotoi;

tIov apXaveoi Kal Bdnoi TrXeOvovri Sivd/coi

/SoXat {ir)evTaKa-

{Sivd)K0i Se

Ka

{i)v

aiT i^aypeoi.

Tpii\]pv, at Tt ivTTOiol

60. Olympia. Second half IV cent. B.C. Szanto,Oest.Jhrb.I,197fE.


Danielsson,EranosIII,129ff. Meister,Ber.Sachs.Ges.l898,218fE. Keil,G6tt.
Nachr.l899,136fE. Remach,Rev.Et.Gr.XVI,187ff. Solmsen40.

eo?
rpoirov,

raCp Se yeveaip

Tvxa.

^vyaSeiij/j, /jiaSe K\aT a-Troiov

/jlo,

ipaevaiTepav /idre dr)\vT\epav, fidre ra

fj-dre

'^(^prif^Ta

of an ox and by complete

and

and

same
way. If any one pronounces judgment
contrary to the regulation, this judgment

concerns matters happening later than


the time of the demiurgi under Pyrrhon.

shall be void, but the decree

off the

the sacrifice

purification,

the Beapis in the

shall befinal in deciding.

any change in

of the people

Onemaymake

the regulations which

seems desirable in the sight of the god


(136.3), withdrawing or adding with the

be free

from punishment

sofah
fa

Those next of kin shall not sell or send


property of the exiles, and if one

does any of these things contrary to the


regulation,

amount

he

shall

sent off

defaces the

stele,

and

pay

double

the

If any one
be punished

sold.

he shall

approval of the whole council of the Five


Hundred and the people in full assem-

like

One may make changes three times,


adding and withdrawing.
The resto-

tury b.c. the oligarchy and democracy

bly.

ration

and interpretation of the

sentence, (5iKi)CTi ktK.,

last

uncertain.

is

one guilty of sacrilege.


Several times during the fourth cen-

alternated in power in Elis, with resulting banishment

and

Macedonian period and perhaps

In 1. 4 the adverb af\ati4os (see 55) is


used loosely where we should expect

to the

an adjective in agreement with

were recalled in 335

/SoXai

recall of exiles.

It is probable that this decree belongs

refers to the exiles of 336 b.c.

or trevraKaTlov.

10. 1'HXeMit Sk roils

But one shall not exile the children {of an exile) either male or female,
under any circumstances, nor confiscate
the property. If any one exiles them or

84^avTO, Sti ^tTiJSeiot 'AXe^dwSpy

60.

confiscates the property, he shall be subject to

trial

before (in the

name

of)

Olympian Zeus on a capital charge, and


any one who wishes may bring the charge
against him with impunity.

And it shall

be permitted, even in case they


iled

any, to any one

have ex-

who wishes to return

who

Cf. Arrianl.

b.c.

^vydSas

aipSiv KareJjtrav.

It is a supplementary decree to another

on the same subject, as

is

shown by

S4

in the first sentence after the introduc-

tory formula, and the use of yeveatp


without modifier, which must be under-

stood from the preceding.


lect as

On the dia-

compared with that of the earlier

inscriptions, see 241.


1.

7Evca(p: the singular is of ten used

collectively in the sense of offspring.

GREEK DIALECTS

222

al Se rip (l)vya8\eioi aire

hafioaiSifiev
5

yerm

ttot rSi

avdarop

A||to/3

to, xp'^fj-ara 8a/Mocrtoia, <f)ev-

Kanapaimv

TwXvfnrica aifiarop, Kal

e^rjarm Se,

ijara).

km

^fJiV,

Tivppmva SafMopyaiv.

To\lp Se

10 eicirep.'^ai to, j^p\\ijfiaTa

eV

li^arapiv 'yevcovrai tS)v Trepi

d{a)a-ia-Ta

eovra

np

al Se

fJi,a

Ka

aSeaXTCohaie ra trrdXav,

airoSoaaat. fidre

al Se

Tolp ^vydSea-ai

rypd/Afia iroieoi, a-ironveTco St7rX[a]o-toi' t&j

cnroS&Tat.

6 SrjXo^irip

(jivyaSevavri, rol 8\r]Xofivoi vo-

ku
oaaa Ka

ariTTTjv'Kal arrdfjiiov

[No. 60

ravTcov irap to

eKirefiira Ka\l

tm Ka

cop a'yaXp.aTO<j>a)pav
\

ird(T')(r)V.

Firsthalf of IIIcent.B.c. SGDI.1172. Inschr.v.Olympia

61. Olympia.

Michel 197.

39.

1vj(a.

@eo'/3.

'Ttto

'^XkavoSiKav rmv

irepl

KIct^vKov, @vla).

5 oirap,

Aa/jLOKpdTtip 'Ay^ropop

eirel

Trap' a/is

yha

atiTol Kal

of

(SGDI.1334), Arc.

ix 7e>/eas

Kal iKySvois.

TiK yvvatKi re Kal rds yeveds


airoO (SGDI. 4689.97). Some take 7e'ealp here as members of the yevcal, under-

note.

4-5.

5.

8i)Xo|i.'^p

we

<|>6ii'y^to)

and no.

Probably an

expect

may

ttot

6.

9-10.

<|>u7a8EvavTi
It is

aor. subj. 151.1.

uncertain whether this

is

of

by

relatives, or

one directed against

them, preventing the relatives from


selling tlie property for them or sending it to them. In the former case
dirodiira-ai

estate,

may

and

refer to the sale of real

iKiriii-^ai,

to the sending off

rjv

at S^ rip

S4 Tis [riiv ari)-

ri, 7pdj[ijnaTo]

iracrx^w

Up6<rv'\os in

medium

of a verb SeiXKa

*S6aXT4M.
.

from

*5eaXT6s,

According to another view,

S4\tos tablet (cf. Cypr. SdXTos), so

meaning would be make the


i.e. remove the tablet
from the stele. For t4 a-riXav see 96.2.
61. Proxeny decree in honor of Dathat the
stele

a provision in favor of the exiles, preventing their property being disposed

71

cf

57)X(S/ie-

be responsible.

an inscription of lasus,
SGDI.5517. dSeXTAw= dSjjXAw, d^ai-IfiD,
is probably from *SeaXos (cf Siapiai, Sijperhaps through the
Xos), whence

error, for

Tijp (cf . iBeKovT'fip)

12-13.

aStaXriShau ktX.
us

57.2,

which the
existence of some such form as StiXopvop.

pretation preferred.

Xiji'] d0aj'[if'()i

standing these as noble families, but


kt\.. see 136.3

sale abroad.

dative of advantage or of

disadvantage, according to the inter-

For the plu-

ral cf . Mess.

this is less likely.

movable property for

<j>vyiSetra-i is

yevcd (Oest.Jhrb.IV,79), both

= usual airwi

Tu Atop

ireiroXirevKoap

||

avTop re Kal 6 Trardp, Kal ia-Te^avafj,e\vop tov re t&v

descendants, e.g. Bpir. oirSi koI yeveai


Kal

TeveSiop,

aSfXros,

mocvates of Tenedos, who is mentioned


as one of the Olympian victors by Pau-

On the dialect as com(6. 17. 1).


pared with that of the earlier inscriptions, see 241. With irb 'EWavodiKat
sanias

with gen., compare


with ace. in no. 66.66.

1.2 for visual iwl

Lac.

huTrd

NOETHWEST GEEEK KOINH INSCEIPTION

No. 62]

'0\vfi,Trl(ov

ayatva Kal

223

aXXoip koI ifKeiovep, eiraviTaKcap iv

tclv
\

rdv re Ta irarpop OeapoSoKiav

IBiav

Tolp deapoip,

Kal Tolp Xoiirolp roip Trap' ap,e(ov

o/ioicop Se

rav e^et evvoiav

fuipTvpeov
rai

iraXirav

Tcbfj,

o.irpol'^aaicrTtBp

oirmp Se Kal a

Tro'Xep

avTaTroSiS&cr(ra rolp avrdp

j^^dpirep

Trape^^erat, (fiavepav

ttotI tclv troXiv, Kadayp

10

Tav

waa-av j^peiav eKTevecop Kal


iroiecov

Kal vTroBeyerai

StallSe'SeKTai

irXeiovep awe-

||

KaTa^iaip

15

(jiaiva-

evepyeraip, virdp')(7jv

AanoKpciTT) Trpt^^evov, Kal evepyerav


yevop, Kal to,

8'

^evoip Kal evepyeratp virdpj^ei irapa


a(T<j)dXeiav Kal TroXe/ico

oaaa Kal rolp

Tap

iroKiop.

20

aX|\o{/3 Trpo-

Se Kal

rjfiev

Kal eipdvap, Kal yap Kal ^oiKiap eyKrr)-

itTeXeiav, Kal irpoeSpiav iv rolp AtovvaiaKolp

Kal

aiv,

rap iroKiop avrov Kal

^Wfiev

Xoiira Tifica ^fiev avrol

aymvoip,

25

II

rav re Ovaidv Kal rifidv rraaav

p^ere-^rfv,

Ka6a>p Kal rol Xoiirol

OeapoSoKOi

Kal evepyerai

Kpdr-q rov rafiiav ^evia

/lere'^ovrL.

ra

Sofiev Se avrol

p-eyiara k ratv

vojjlcov.

Kal Aa/io-

to Se

yfrd(f)i-

30

||

TO yeyovop arro rap ^coXdp ypa^ev ey

(T/ia

)(a\K(o\ixa

dvareOdi

iv ro iapov

ra Aibp ra

aiop iroirjaacrai
rSi

'OXv/mttico.

rolp

ro yeyovop

rav

||

rrepl Se 35
||

iinneXeiav

So6di rolp

Oeapolp

rav dvaiav Kai rov

rrorl

*0

AtSv/ieimv.

Northwest Greek
62.

\jrd(f)iap.a

Niko'S/so/aojo 6 ^(oXoypd(f>op, orrtop

^liXrjrov arroa-reXXofielvoLp

ifi

aywva

rav Se iirifieXeiav rap dvaOe-

rov irrifieXrjrav rdv Xirrrmv.

A.la'y^ivav

cnroaraXdiiev rolp T