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Pg 467 Chapter 11 Vocab

• Intelligence- It is the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and

use knowledge to adapt to new situations.
• Factor analysis - is the statistical procedure used to identify clusters of test
items that measure a common ability.
• General Intelligence- a general intelligence factor that according to
Spearman and others underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore
measured by every task on an intelligence test.
• Savant Syndrome- is the condition which a person is limited in mental
ability has an exceptional specific skill
• Emotional intelligence- is the ability to perceive, understand, manage and
use emotions.
• Creativity - is the ability to produce ideas that are both novel and valuable.
• An intelligence test - is a method for assessing an individual’s mental
aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical
• The mental age - was a measure of intelligence test performance devised
by Binet. The chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given
level of performance. So a child with at the age of 9 is said to have the
mental age of 9.
• Stanford – Binet- Lewis Terman used some parts of Binet’s tests and
added other parts to fit the needs of Californian children. He named it the
Stanford- Binet.
• Intelligence Quotient - William Stern then devised the intelligence quotient
also known as the IQ test. IQ= mental age / chronological age X 100
• Aptitude test- predict the ability to learn a new skill
• Achievement tests- reflect what you have learned.
• The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) - is the most widely used
intelligence test. It consists of verbal and performance subtests. It also
separates scores for verbal comprehension, perceptual organization,
working memory and processing speed. It can also reveal learning/
language disabilities. Allowing psychologists to reveal a new plan for those
who have suffered strokes, etc.
• Standardization - is defining meaningful scores by comparison with the
performance of a pretested standardization group.
• Normal curve - The test results from these standardizes tests form a
normal distribution that forms a normal curve.
• Reliability- is the extent to which a test yields consistent results, as
assessed by the consistency of the scores on two halves of the test, on
alternate forms of the test, or on retesting.
• Validity- it the extent to which a test measures or predicts what is
supposed to
• Content Validity- is the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is
of interest.
• Criterion- is the behavior that a test is designed to predict. The measure is
used in defining whether the test has predictive validity.
• Predictive Validity- is the success with which a test predicts the behavior it
is designed to predict. It is assessed by computing the correlation between
test scores and the criterion behavior.
• Mental retardation- is the condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an
intelligence score of 70 or below and difficulty in adapting to the demands
of life varies from mild to profound
• Down syndrome - is a condition of retardation and associated physical
disorders caused by an extra chromosome in one’s genetic makeup.
• Stereotype threat -is a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated
based on a negative stereotype.

Intelligence tests- tests for assessing a person’s mental abilities and comparing
them with the abilities of other people by the means of numerical scores

I. Origins of
a. Sir Francis Galton
i. Did the 1st quantative tests of mental abilities
ii. Male upper-class were superior in intelligence
b. Alfred Binet/ Simon
i. hired by Paris to develop a test to determine which students
might need help in school
c. Lewis Terman
i. Revised Binet test to fit US (Cali)
ii. Stanford-Binet test
1. Stern- IQ factor mental age=chronological age*100
II. What is intelligence?
a. IQ is a concept- to regard it as real, concrete is reification
b. Intelligence is a person’s capacity for a goal directed adapted
behaviorincludes several abilities
i. Factor analysis approach=statistical procedure that “clusters”
different types of intelligence questions together that test the
same kind of intelligence
ii. G factor-spearman’s theory that there is a general capacity
that underlies specific mental abilities
c. Gardner and multiple intelligences
i. Devised a curriculum for schools to tap all 7 intelligences (8
d. Sternberg and Wagner- stated that there are 3 types of intelligence
i. academic problem solving- one answer
ii. practical intelligence- required for everyday tasks, multiple
solutions-required for everyday tasks, multiple solutions
iii. creative intelligence- reaction to novel situations, solving
riddles, problem solving
III. Neurological measurements of intelligence
a. Head size and intelligence  no
b. brain size and intelligence  maybe so
c. seems to be a link between how quickly we perceive what is
stimulating thinking and intelligence=perception of things
i. speedy seems to be a predictor of some levels of
IV. assessing information (test on mental ability)
a. aptitude- your ability to learn
b. achievement- what you have learned
c. when one is way out  indicated learning problems
i. WAIS/WISC- mostly used intelligence test because it is
designed to test both aptitude and achievement
d. Test construction- ideal bell shaped pattern
i. Standardization- all needs revision from time to time due to
changes in society (number of students entering college
today vs. 50’s_= Flynn effect
ii. Reliability- test/retest the same group
iii. Validity- does it test what you want to test
1. aptitude tests have predictive value and predict future
possibilities for academic achievement but not in life
(EQ vs. IQ)
2. SAT is not predictive, why?
a. Same scores for all admits
b. Some people are on a party passes
c. Have learned laziness etc.
V. Dynamics of Intelligence
a. High scoring adolescents tend to have been early readers
b. Scores stabilize with age- little change after high school age
c. Extremes in IQ
i. Challenged <70 and difficulty adapting to everyday demands
ii. Giftedness >130 (seem to be able to process sensory stimuli
for processing more quickly)
d. Creativity- the ability to produce novel ideas
VI. Genetics and environment in relation to intelligence
a. Significance between intelligence and heredity
i. With age, genetic influences become apparent
ii. Adopted children’s scores more closely resemble those of
biological parents
b. Environmental
i. Other than neglectful/dwarfed=no significance except high
quality preschools improve performance because better
attitudes are formed
c. Ethnic similarities/differences
i. Cultures rise and fall over centuries; genes do not. This fact
makes it difficult to attribute a natural superiority to any race
d. Genetic similarities/differences
i. Girls are better spellers, talk earlier, stutter less, and need
less remediation for reading
ii. Boys seem to score higher on math problems