Sei sulla pagina 1di 24

PARSHWANATH CHARITABLE TRUSTS

This is to certify that this report is submitted by . .

Enrollment No.

Seat No.

Third Year Diploma in Mechanical Engineering has satisfactorily completed the Project work of STUDY OF PNEUMATIC PNEUMATIC LOAD LIFTER in academic year 2010-2011 as prescribed in the curriculum of Maharashtra State Board of Technical Education.

PROJECT GUIDE

H.O.D.

PRINCIPAL

EXAMINER

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
NO PROJECT COULD BE CONSIDERED COMPLETE, WITHOUT A WORD OF APPRECIATION FOR ALL THOSE WHO CONTRIBUTED TO THE PROJECT.

WE ARE DEEPLY INDEBTED TO OUR GUIDE, PROF.______________________, WITHOUT WHOM, IT WOULD NOT BE POSSIBLE TO COMPLETE THE PROJECT. WE ARE ALSO THANKFUL TO THE IDEAS AND ENCOURAGEMENT GIVEN TO US BY HIM.

WE ALSO GREATLY THANK TO______________, FROM THE WOKSHOP DEPARTMENT; FOR HELPING US IN FABRICATION OF THE SELF-DESIGNED FRAME.

SPECIAL THANKS TO RESPECTED PRINCIPLE, PROF__________________________, FOR HIS KINDLY SUPPORT.

WE WOULD ALSO THANK OUR ENTIRE STAFF & WORKSHOP MEMBERS FOR THEIR APPRECIATION AND SUGGESTIONS.

Importance of Pneumatics
MECHANIZATION is broadly defined as replacement of manual effort by mechanical power. In all degree of mechanization, the operator remains an essential part of the system, all though with changing demands on physical inputs as the degree mechanization is incased. PNEUMATICS is an attractive medium for low cost mechanization particularly for sequential or repetitive operations. Many factories and plants already have a compressed air system installed, and manual machines can be mechanized with only moderate capital expenditure. Where the compressed air serpneumatic load lifter are extended however additional compressors may have to be meet the demand for alternative system.

Introduction to Pneumatic load Lifter


The Pneumatic Load Lifter machine is one of the most important machine tool in the industries. As regards it is important it is second only to the lathe. Although its primarily designed to lift the work piece. It can perform a number of similar operations. In Pneumatic Load Lifter the work piece is lift. Energy efficiency of Pneumatic circuits is far too often sacrificed to cost and design convenience. In the past, the pneumatics industry has approached energy considerations primarily from the point of view of improving the efficiency of components. For example, considerable effort has been devoted to improving the efficiency of the pump to the extent that one can now obtain units with volumetric efficiencies of 98%.

Types of Pneumatic load lifter


Pneumatic load lifter are made in different types & size, each designed to handle a class of work or specified job to the best advantage of machine. The different types of Pneumatic load lifter are: 1. HYDROLIC LOAD LIFTER. 2. MANUAL LOAD LIFTER. 3. PNEUMATIC LOAD LIFTER.

Methodology
This is a product has been producing by orcan, manufacturer of pneumatic load lifters since 1978. The pneumatic load lifter provide highest lifting at the minimal effort, hence decreasing the operatos fatigue and enhances the work ability dramatically. Also, its accuracy ground top and bottom faces ensures full stability. Key benefits: in-built sophisticated piston mechanism; clamping power of 4500 n at 7 bar [100 psi] air pressure. This pneumatic load lifter is available in 12 inch storke length.

The 4-way spool valve can be controlled by using two operators, one on each end or by a spring return and a single operator. The flow path when actuated at the 14 end of the valve is from port 1 to port 4 and from port 2 to port 3. Port 5 is blocked. When the valve is actuated from the 1 2 end, the flow path is from port 1 to port 2 and from port 4 to port 5. Port 3 is blocked. Each cylinder port has a separate exhaust port.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Specification of Pneumatic load lifter


Maximum lifting capacity Pneumatic Shaft Cylinder Pneumatic Power Kg/cm2 Overall Height Weight Table Size 500 Kg 5cm 5 kg/cm2 35 inch 26 Kg 720mm*350mm

DETAILS OF COMPONENTS

Reciprocating Air Compressors


Reciprocating air compressors are positive displacement machines, meaning that they increase the pressure of the air by reducing its volume.They are available in great variety This means they are taking in successive volumes of air which is confined within a closed space and elevating this air to a higher pressure. The reciprocating air compressor accomplishes this by a piston within a cylinder as the compressing and displacing element. Single-stage and two-stage reciprocating compressors are commercially available.

Single-stage compressors are generally used for pressures in the range of 70 psig to 100 psig.

Two-stage compressors are generally used for higher pressures in the range of 100 psig to 250 psig.

Note that

1 HP ~ 4 CFM at 100 psi

and that 1 to 50 HP are typically for reciprocating units. Compressors 100 hp and above are typically Rotary Screw or Centrifugal Compressors. The reciprocating air compressor is single acting when the compressing is accomplished using only one side of the piston. A compressor using both sides of the piston is considered double acting.

Load reduction is achieved by unloading individual cylinders. Typically this is accomplished by throttling the suction pressure to the cylinder or bypassing air either within or outside the compressor. Capacity control is achieved by varying speed in engine-driven units through fuel flow control. Reciprocating air compressors are available either as air-cooled or water-cooled in lubricated and non-lubricated configurations and provide a wide range of pressure and capacity selections. A reciprocating compressor uses the reciprocating action of a piston inside a cylinder to compress refrigerant. As the piston moves downward, a vacuum is created inside the cylinder. Because the pressure above the intake valve is greater than the pressure below it, the intake valve is forced open and refrigerant is sucked into the cylinder. After the piston reaches its bottom position it begins to move upward. The intake valve closes, trapping the refrigerant inside the cylinder. As the piston continues to move

upward it compresses the refrigerant, increasing its pressure. At a certain point the pressure exerted by the refrigerant forces the exhaust valve to open and the compressed refrigerant flows out of the cylinder. Once the piston reaches it top-most position, it starts moving downward again and the cycle is repeated.

Double Acting Cylinder

Rod Design
Due to the forces acting on the cylinder, the piston rod is the most stressed component and has to be designed to withstand high amounts of bending, tensile and compressive forces. Depending on how long the piston rod is, stresses can be calculated differently. If the rods length is

less than 10 times the diameter, then it may be treated a a rigid body which has compressive or tensile forces acting on it. In which case the relationship is: F = A() Where: F is the compressive or tensile force A is the cross-sectional area of the piston rod is the stress However, if the length of the rod exceeds the 10 times the value of the diameter, than the rod needs to be treat and a column and bucking needs to be calculated as well.[7] [edit]Instroke and Outstoke Although the diameter of the piston and the force exerted by a cylinder are related, they are not directly proportional to one another. Additionally, the typical mathematical relationship between the two assumes that the air supply does not become saturated. Due to the

effective cross sectional area reduced by the area of the piston rod, the instroke force is less than the outstroke force when both are powered pneumatically and by same supply of compressed gas. The relationship, between force on outstroke, pressure and radius, is as follows: With the same symbolic notation of variables as above, but also A represents the effective cross sectional area. On instroke, the same relationship between force exerted, pressure and effective cross sectional area applies as discussed above for outstroke. However, since the cross sectional area is less than the piston area the relationship between force, pressure and radius is different. The calculation isn't more complicated though, since the effective cross

sectional area is merely that of the piston less that of the piston rod. For instroke, therefore, the relationship between force exerted, pressure, radius of the piston, and radius of the piston rod, is as follows: Where: F represents the force exerted r1 represents the radius of the piston r2 represents the radius of the piston rod is pi, approximately equal to 3.14159.

MATERIAL LIST Sr No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Component Used Main Body Pneumatic Cylinder Body Stroke Shaft Pneumatic cylinder fitting plate Load counting Unit Surface Plate Pneumatic Shaft End Pneumatic Cylinder Lock Nut PU Tube Hand Operated Valve Material MS Al SS MS MS (Body) Wooden Plate MS SS Plastic Al, Plastic, Fibre, Rubber, SS MS MS Wood

11. 12. 13.

Fitting Bolts And Nuts Angle Frame Wooden Frame

Application
It can lift the material like boxes, containers, plastic moulding dyes. It can lift size of workpiece weight upto 500 Kg. Unless and until we first lift the workpiece any operation wont start even if any other lifting is pressed. Less fatigue, compact, and easy to handle. Very reliable and instantaneous in action.

Lift the workpiece of accurate position.

Limitation
Lift Work piece having weight Greater than 500Kg cant be lift. Long workpiece cant be lift due to small table size. As the compressed air is normally saturated with water vapour it leads to corrosion.

Lubrication is continuously from the system when its working.(exhausted to atmosphere)

Modification
We can use fixture instead of workpiece to be lift. The surface area of the pneumatic load lifter change from concave to flat.

We can use magnatic table for holding. We have designed

Conclusion
We realized that this aspect of semester pattern is very beneficial and helpful as regard to improve the knowledge and approach of students. The industrial project has helped us to relate the knowledge and practical field, which will surely prove very useful in our near future. The main advantage of industrial project is exposure to the technical environment, which cannot be simulated in the polytechnic. Here we become familiar with various working processes, which are easily and economically adopted by the industries.

We have gained a major knowledge through this project experience. Involvement in the project work also gave us the idea of preparing and presenting the project report. We also developed the skill of communicating and interacting with other people as well as in searching the information from the number of sources. We are thankful to our supervisors to have been given us the opportunity to come across various project field and are confident that it has indeed proved very advantageous. Lastly we would say that we have acquired great practical knowledge, this knowledge gave us valuable technical experience.

Biblography
1)Elements of workshop technology(volume 1) Hajra choudhary. 2)Elements of workshop technology(volume 2) Hajra choudhary. 3)Course in workshop technologyB.S.Raghu 4)Machine Design N.D.Bhatt. 5)Pneumatic Systems S.R.Majumdar