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Internetworking Basics

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1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Agenda

Networking History
How a LAN Is Built

LAN Topologies
LAN/WAN Devices

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Networking History

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Early Networks
Samuel Morse

Alexander Graham Bell


Emile Baudot

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Telephone Network

Bell Telephone
Analog Network

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Important Developments
1966Carterphone attached to phone lines to transmit radio calls to construction workers 1975FCC ruled that equipment can attach to phone lines if it meets specifications

1977FCC Part 68 enacted to define technical specifications


1984Court ordered Bell System/AT&T breakup
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Telephone Network

MCI AT&T
Pacific Bell

Bell Atlantic

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1960s1970s Communications

Digital Network
Low-Speed Access Lines

IBM Host Computer Systems Network Architecture (SNA) Application Programs Database Printing
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Problem

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Analog and Digital Signals


Digital Transmission 1s and 0s On or Off Computer-speak Analog Transmission Wires or wireless, Audio tones Info conveyed through signal amplitude, frequency, and phase

1 bit 0 bit

1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0

Start Bit

Stop Bit

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SolutionModems

ModemModulator/Demodulator
Translates digital computer signals to analog signals which the telephone world can understand and vice versa

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SolutionModems
ModemModulator/Demodulator Translates digital computer signals to analog signals which the telephone world can understand and vice versa

POTS

Modem POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service)


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Modem

Mainframe Host

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Another SolutionMultiplexing
MultiplexerAllows multiple signals to be carried across a single physical medium

BroadbandAble to carry multiple signals simultaneously BasebandCarries only one signal at a time

Mainframe Host

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Baseband versus Broadband


Baseband Local-Area Network (LAN)

Broadband Wide-Area Network (WAN)

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1960s1970s Communications
Sunnyvale Branch

Digital

Digital

POTS

Headquarters, San Francisco

Mainframe Host

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1960s1970s Communications
Sunnyvale Branch
Dedicated Leased Lines

Digital

Digital

Digital

POTS
Dialup Modem Connection

Morgan Hill Branch

Headquarters, San Francisco

Mainframe Host

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Birth of the Personal Computer


Applications

File storage
Processing power Printing options Smart terminals

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The Internet1970s and 1980s


ARPANETAdvanced Research Projects Agency Network, Dept. of Defense
Developed in mid 1960s Funded research to universities and companies First packet-switched network built by BBNDec 1969 Many LANs connected to the ARPANET with TCP/IP Shut down in 1990 due to newer networks emerging

NSFNETNational Science Foundation, late 1970s


High-speed successor to ARPANET Six supercomputers: San Diego, Boulder, Champaign, Pittsburgh, Ithaca, and Princeton Supercomputers given a microcomputer which spoke TCP/IP Overloaded from the word go
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The Internet
ANSNET (Advanced Networks and Services)
Took over NFSNET in 1990 Formed by MCI, MERIT, and IBM for commercial uses Upgraded 1.5-Mbps links to 45 Mbps, sold to AOL in 1995

NFS awarded contracts to four NAPs


Pacific Bell (San Francisco), Ameritech (Chicago), MFS (Washington, D.C.), Sprint (New York City) Additional government backbones

Mid 1980s, collection of networks viewed as The Internet TCP/IP is the glue that holds it together January 1992, Internet Society formed Primary applications
E-mail, news, remote login, file transfer, WWW
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1990sGlobal Internetworking

19921 major backbone, 3,000 networks, 200K computers 1995Multiple backbones, hundreds of regional nets, tens of thousands of LANs, millions of hosts, tens of millions of users

Doubling every year!


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How a LAN Is Built

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Local-Area NetworkLAN
What is a LAN?
A collection of computers, printers, modems, and other devices that can communicate with each other in a small area (< ~ 3000 m or 1000 feet)

What are the components?


Computers, operating system (OS), network interface card (NIC), and hubs

How is a LAN controlled?


ProtocolsFormal descriptions of sets of rules and conventions that govern how devices on a network exchange information StandardsSets of rules or procedures that are either widely used or officially specified
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Local-Area Networks
LANs are designed to:
Operate within a limited geographic area Allow multi-access to high-bandwidth media Control the network privately under local administration Provide full-time connectivity to local services Connect physically adjacent devices

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Network Operating System (OS)


Software that allows communicating and sharing of data and network resources Examples:
AppleTalk NetWare
PC or Workstation Loaded with NOS

Banyan VINES
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Network Interface Card


Amplifies electronic signals Packages data for transmission Physically connects computer to transmission media (cable)
Connector Port

PC or Workstation Loaded with NOS

Network Interface Card (NIC)


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Wiring Hub
Printer
(Also has a NIC)

PC or Workstation Loaded with NOS

Wiring Hub

NIC

Serves as center of network Contains multiple independent but connected modules where network equipment can be connected
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Cables or Transmission Media


Printer
(Also has a NIC)

Connectors
Wiring Hub

PC or Workstation Loaded with NOS

NIC

Cable Physical environments through which transmission signals pass


Twisted pair Fiber-optic cable Coaxial cable Atmosphere
RJ-45 Connector

Connectors (RJ-11, RJ-45, etc.)


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Network Cabling
Media connecting network components
NIC cards take turns transmitting on the cable LAN cables only carry one signal at a time WAN cables can carry multiple signals simultaneously

Three primary types of cabling


Twisted-pair (or copper) Coaxial cable Fiber-optic cable
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Twisted-Pair (UTP and STP)


STP only: Shielded Insulation to Reduce EMI Twisted-Pair Outer Jacket

Color-Coded Plastic Insulation

Speed and throughput: Relative cost: Maximum cable length:


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10/100 Mbps Least costly 100 m


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RJ-45 Connector

Media and connector size: Small

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Coaxial Cable
OuterJacket Braided Copper Shielding Plastic Insulation Copper Conductor

BNC Connector

Speed and throughput: Relative cost:

10/100 Mbps More than UTP, but still low

Media and connector size:


Maximum cable length:
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Medium
200/500 m
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Fiber-Optic Cable
Outer Jacket Kevlar Reinforcing Material Plastic Shield Glass Fiber and Cladding

Single mode: One stream of laser-generated light (100 km)


Multimode: Multiple streams of LED-generated light (2 km) 100+ Mbps
Multimode Connector

Speed and throughput:

Average cost per node:


Maximum cable length:
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Most expensive
Up to 2 km
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Media and connector size: Small

Throughput Needs !!

202,000,000 bits 841,000 bits

100,000 bits

7,300,000 bits/screen 30 pictures/second 224,000,000 bps!!! 2,457,000 bits/screen 30 screens/second 73,728,000 bps
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64,000 bps
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Throughput Rate and Bandwidth


Throughput rate
The rate of information arriving at, and possibly passing through, a particular point in a network

Bandwidth
The total capacity of a given network medium or protocol
THROUGHPUT = BANDWIDTH - OVERHEAD
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Throughput Rate
Speed 9,600 bps 24,000 bps
10,000 pages = 53 MB (Megabytes)

Transmit Time = = = = = 12.27 hrs 4.91 hrs 2.1 hrs 7.1 min 42.4 sec

56 Kbps 1 Mbps 10 Mbps

100 Mbps
1 Gbps

=
=

4.24 sec
0.42 sec

1 Byte = 8 bits
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LAN Topologies

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LAN Topologies
Define network device organization Four common types
Bus topology Tree topology

Star topology
Ring topology

Topologies are logical architectures


Actual devices need not be physically organized in these configurations
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Bus and Tree Topology

Tree topology branch with multiple nodes

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Star Topology (LAN)


Center: hub, repeater, or concentrator Typically used in both Ethernet and Token Ring 5 to 100+ devices

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Ring Topology (LAN)


Redundant ring to avoid network failure

Repeaters at each component Unidirectional transmission links Closed loop Typically used in FDDI networks

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LAN/WAN Devices

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LAN/WAN Devices

Hubs

Bridges
Switches

Routers

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Hub

Device that serves as the center of a star topology network, sometimes referred to as a multiport repeater, or in Ethernet, a concentrator; no forwarding intelligence

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Hubs
123 126

124

127

Hub
125

128

Amplifies signals Propagates signals through the network Does not filter data packets based on destination No path determination or switching Used as network concentration point
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Bridge
Device that connects and passes packets between two network segments. More intelligent than hubanalyzes incoming packets and forwards (or filters) them based on addressing information.

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Bridge Example
123 126

124

Bridge
127

Hub
125

Hub
128

Segment 1

Corporate Intranet

Segment 2

More intelligent than a hubcan analyze incoming packets and forward (or filter) them based on addressing information Collects and passes packets between two network segments Maintains address tables Different types of bridges: transparent and source route (used primarily in Token Ring LANs)
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Switches
Use bridging technology to forward traffic between ports.

Provide full dedicated data transmission rate between two stations that are directly connected to the switch ports.
Build and maintain address tables called content-addressable memory (CAM).
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SwitchingDedicated Media
Workstation

31

10-Mbps UTP Cable Dedicated Switch

34 35

32

100 Mbps

100 Mbps Corporate Intranet

33

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Uses bridging technology to forward traffic (i.e. maintains address tables, and can filter) Provides full dedicated transmission rate between stations that are connected to switch ports Used in both local-area and in wide-area networking All types availableEthernet, Token Ring, ATM
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Routers
Interconnect LANs and WANs Provide path determination using metrics Forward packets from one network to another Control broadcasts to the network
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Summary
LANs are designed to operate within a limited geographic area Key LAN components are computers, NOS, NICs, hubs, and cables

Common LAN topologies include bus, tree, star, and ring


Common LAN/WAN devices are hubs, bridges, switches, and routers
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Presentation_ID

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