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Modern Russian 1

Library of Congress Cataloging in PubUcation Data Dawson, Clayton L.

Modern Russian. Includes indexes. I. Russian language-Grammar-19502. Russian language-Spoken Russian. I. Bidwell, Charles E\leretl. 1923joint author. II. Humesky, Assya. joint author. III. Title. PG2112.D36 1m 491.7'83'421 775837 ISBN o.8784().1695 (\I. I)

Copyright 1964 by Georgetown University All rights reserved Printed in the United States of America International Standard Book Number: o.8784().169-5

ABOUT

Modern Russian

In February 1960 the University of Michigan sponsored a conference of scholars to "develop criteria for a two-year college sequence of spccialized materials for learning the Russian language." In its proposal to the U.S. Office of Education for funds to support the conference, the University of Michigan stated its view that "The urgency of our national need to improve and increase the study of the Russian language in our schools and colleges and the comparative dearth and inadequacy of existing materials for this purpose dictate the collaboration of the U.S. Office of Education with the Russian language specialists ... in the production of a complete two-year colJege level course in Russian." The proposal advised that "pcrtinent decisions regarding personnel, institutional sponsorship, and methodology for the production of such a course should be made only on a broadly established basis of consensus among a widely representative group of scholars and specialists in this field." The twenty-seven scbolars and specialists listed on the page opposite collaborated at tbe conference to achieve tbat consensus, and designated nine persons, similarly listed, as an Advisory Committee to the project. Recommendations arising from the February 1960 conference and from the Advisory Committee resulted in the naming and empowering of the Working Committee-: Dr. Clayton L. Dawson, Professor and Chairman of the Slavic Department at Syracuse University (project coordinator); Dr. Charles E. Bidwell, Associate Professor and Chairman of the Department of Slavic Languages and Literatures, University of Pittsburgh; and Dr. Assya Humesky, Associate Professor of Russian Language and Literature, University of Michigan. Syracuse University undertook to house and administer the entire project, and assumed responsibility for the preparation of the new materials. Both the University of Michigan conference and the University of Syracuse project to produce the two-year course were supported by the U.S. Office of Education, under authority of TiUe VI of the National Defense Education Act. The University of Michigan, the University of Pittsburgh, and Syracuse University coopcrated by granting leaves of absence to Drs. Humesky, Bidwell, and Dawson respectively. Along with these universities, The American University, the Foreign Service Institute, Georgetown University, Indiana University, 51. John's University, the State University College at New Paltz, New York, and the University of Washington participated in the field testing of materials prior to publication, providing helpful suggestions and encouragement. Generous help was provided in typing, advising, and recording by a large group of native Russians teaching in the Slavic Department of Syracuse University. Professors Robert L. Baker of Indiana University and Tatiana Cizevska of the University of Illinois contributed timely information on culture and current usage out of their recent experience in the Soviet Union. Finally, special critical evaluations and recommendations were provided by Professors Baker, Richard Burgi of Princeton University, Kurt Klein of the University of Illinois, and Laurence Thompson of the University of Washington.
Modem Russian, together with the recordings and the teacher's manual prepared to accompany it, unique in both content and techniques in the Russian field, is the fruition of this cooperative group effort.

MDUlERS Of' TIlE 1960 ANN ARBOR CONFERENCE

Emma Birkmaier University of Minnaota Deming J. Brown University of Michigan Edward J. Brown Brown University William S. Cornyn Yale University Clayton L. Dawson Syracuse University Horace W. Dewey Universily of Michigan William B. Edgerton Ifldiana Universily Gordon Fairbanks Cornell University Wayne D. Fisher Universi,y of Ch~ogo A. Bruce Gaarder U.S. Office of Education Fruma Gottschalk University of Chicago Frances de Graaf Bryn Mawr Col/ege Ernest F. Haden University of Texas Morris Halle Massachusetts Institute of Technology Heien Jacobson George Wtuhington University Walter C. Jaskievicz FordJuun University Harry H. Josselson Waylll! State University Horace G. Lunl Harvard University Thomas F. Magner Pe1lJJS}'Ivania State Universily Fan Parker Brooklyn College Lawrence Poslon University of Oklahoma Peter Rudy Northwestern University Leon Stilman Columbia University Laurence G. Thompson University of Wtuhinglon Leon Twarog Ohio State Universi'y Donald D. Walsb Modern Language A5SOCiaiion Francis J. Whitfield Universily of California

ADVlSORY COMMJTJEB

Robert L. Baker William S. Cornyn

Indiana University Yale University Indiana Universi'y Cort/ell University Universily of Texas Foreign &rvice Institute

William B. Edgerton Gordon Fairbanks Ernesl F. Haden Carleton Hodge

Harlan Lane University of Michigan


Laurence C. Thompson
University of Wtuhington

Francis J. Whitfield

Universily of California

Introduction: Using Modern Russian

The matcriaJs of Modern Russian, like those of its prototype, the Modem Language Association's Modern Spanish, provide a new kind of language course based on audio-lingual principles and aimed at speaking proficiency within the framework of tbe traditional language program. Modern Russian consists of two volumes of eighteen lessons each, designed for a two-year course meeting from three to five hours a week. Stressing the fundamental structural features of the contemporary spoken language, the thirtysix lessons present a total vocabulary of some 2700 items. Magnetic tape recordings, available to accompany the written materials, are an integral part of the two-year program. In addition, longplaying disk recordings of basic portions of tbe lessons are obtainable for home study. Audio-lingual principles assume that fluency in a foreign language is acquired less by intellectual analysis than by intensive practice. Awareness of structure is acquired not by memorizing rules and paradigms but by imitation and repetition of basic language patterns and by performance of drills carefully constructed to capitalize on the leamer's natural inclination to analogize from material already learned. Language learning thus properly begins with listening and repeating and only later proceeds to reading and writing. These first two stages are of primary importance if the student is to gain even a minimwn control of spoken Russian; for this reason we recommend strongly that most material be presented and practiced with books closed, both in class and in the laboratory. A lesson consists of the following parts designed to be used as suggested: Preparation for Conversation. Anticipating the Conversation to follow, this part presents the basic elements of the Conversation in the order of their appearance, together with parallel English equivalents and, where needed, wilh phonetic transcription. This material provides a basis for understanding and assimilating the Conversation. Supplementary related words and phrases are also given here. Conversations. Simulating situations of contemporary Soviet life, these introduce the basic lexical and structural items of the lesson in dialogue form and in colloquial Russian. The first
v

four lessons contain a single Conversation each; the remaining lessons each contain a pair of Conversations. Notes explain points of cultural difference and of usage and style. For the first five lessons a parallel English equivalent of each Conversation is provided. A phonetic transcription of the Russian is also given as an aid to proper pronunciation in learning the materials; this is presented consistently in the first ten lessons, but only to clarify special problems thereafter. The Conversations, basic to each lesson, are best assimilated to the point of complete memorization. These are recorded on the tapes-and on the records as well-for individual repeated listening and imitation. They are presented in four stages: (I) the entire dialogue at natural speed without pauses; (2) the individual sentences, broken down from the end, with pauses for student repetition; (3) complete utterdnces, again with pauses for student repetition; and (4) the entire dialogue once again at natural speed without pauses. Bask Sentence Patterns. These are sets of patterned sentences, deriving from the Conversations and illustrating the major structural points of the lesson with the use of new and review vocabulary. They are to be mastered through repeated practice. The Basic Sentence Patterns are paralleled by English equivalents. Pronunciation Practice. To instill habits of correct pronunciation, every lesson provides pronunciation drills, frequently contrastive ones. Additional pronunciation drills, not appearing in the text, are given in the Teacher's Manual and on the tapes. Lessons 6 through II each present an Intonatioo Practice treating the fundamental patterns of simple sentences. Structure and Drills. These form the grammatical heart of the course, generally treating four or five major structural points per lesson. Each structural point is developed in five to twelve different drills, with an average of ten responses. The student imitates the models given (generally there are two, the first with an English equivalent), by responding orally to sentences, questions, and/or cues in Russian provided by the teacher. The drills are widely varied: repetition, substitution, questionanswer, subject reversal, transformation, structure replacement, integration, expansion, and pro gressive substitution. All drills are fully recorded on the tapes with appropriate pauses for student responses, followed by the confirming responses. To make the procedure clear, the desired responses for the first two lessons are printed in fuJI. A discussion of a structural point generally follows the drills in which it has been developed. Reading and Writing. Essentially a recapitulation of the lexical and structural items in lhe lesson and a review of past items, this part is a reworking of the Conversation materials and provides practice in reading. The portions presented in handwritten form invite practice in dictation or copying (easily self-corrected), as well as in reading a cursive script. Translation of the readings is not recommended; comprehension can best be checked by questions in Russian as provided in the Teacher's Manual. Experience suggests that presentation of dialogues is most effective when delivered at a normal conversational speed in natural word groupings (not as words in isolation), with a natural intonation. Class choral repetition is helpful in presenting new Conversations in order to bring the class into active participation, and choral recitation of the parts of the dialogue by designated groups of the class provides a useful check on memorizing the Conversations. Memorizing the Conversations, though not indispensable, does result in higher achievement in the structural drills. Intensive drill on the Preparation for Conversation and class practice on the Conversation, followed by the use of the tape in the language laboratory and/or the records at home, can make memorizing the Conversation a relatively simple task.
vi

Practice in writing-whether mere copying or writing out drill responses specifically assigned for that purpose-should not be neglected, despite the strong oral emphasis of Modern Russian. The writing of selected drills tends to reinforce mastery of the structure and to check on progress being made. Normally a lesson will take five meetings to cover, though clearly the longer the time spent on a lesson, the more complete the mastery of it is likely to be. The first four lessons are shorter and may therefore be covered in four sessions each. Where classes meet only three hours a week, drills which cannot be covered in class may be assigned for performance in a language laboratory. A course of three class hours a week has been successfully given by Syracuse University with these materials on just such a basis.

Contents

The Russ.ian sound system The Russian (Cyrillic) alphabet and the writing system Remarks on stress Discrepancies between the sound system and the writing system Preparation for Conversation: Crylletrr II CT)'Ahr'rxa Boy student and girl student Basic sentenoe paltems
STRUCTURE AND DRIUS

3
5

7
8

JO 12
IJ
14

The present tense of tbe first conjugation verb IlJ(ni

Preparation for Conversation: ,llUliO .ac: HC H.D.eJT J haW'n"' seen you lor (J long time Basic sentence pallems Correspondence bctYI'CCII Cyrillic vowel letters and the vowel sounds
STRUCIVR AND DR1LL.S

19 21 22 23

The present tense of the first conjugation verb pa60nn. The Russian handwriting system Syllabification of words in RussiaD

25
28 33
J5 J7 J8

Preparation for Conversation:


JIy'lllle 063)],00, 'fb.t IIHKorJl,li. Better late than
ne~er

Basic sentence pauems


The altemation of voiced and voiceless consonants
STRUCTURE AND DRIUS

39

The present tense of the second oonjugation verb Masculine, feminine, and plural endings of short-ronn adjectives
lIriRHe

cueu.m.

43 45

"mtCIo.'ItO

READING AND WJUTlNG

47

Preparation for Conversation: Puroe6p. o6weJO.u Conversation in fM dormitory Basic sentence patterns Introductory remarks on the Russian case system Remarks on Siems and endings: tbe concept of '''zero'' ending
STRUCJURE AND DIUUS

4' 51
52
53

54
55

Past tense of the verb 6Wn. The accusative fonn of inanimate masculine and neul.er nouns
'heDe .. lIIIOoMO IU!ADING AND WIUTING

57
58

Preparation for Conversation: "ITo Ha oMA? Wha/'s/or dinner? Preparation for Conversation: BW y.ae noo6tJ1&JbI? Have you had dinner already? Basic sentence patterns Pronunciation prnc:tioe: hard versus soft consonants (ltJ \IS. Grammatical gender of nouns Verbal aspects
STllUCTUllE AND DRIUS

61

63 64

65

[tl,

Id] vs.

[~I.

[oj

\IS.

['1D

66 68

69
10

Replacement of nouDS by third person pronouns: 611, oHi. ottO. and _ IntcfTogatives kTO and omS Introductory iTo The irregular present tcose of xOTin. The past tense
'ITe-e

12
73
74

75
76

IIIICI.M6

IU!ADING AND WIUT1NG

78
83
85

Preparation for Conversation: nepewii . . . . )'tIlIBeparrfre Preparation for Conversation:


AMepMK'8HC1Ol.i CTylt(\wr

86
88

Basic sentence panams


Pronunciation practice: hard vel1lus soft consonants ((s] vs. [~l, [z] ...S. (~l, Ir) ...s. [rJ) Intonation practice The four noun declensions in Russian: cr6JI-, oKH6-, .eKi~, and lIBipb-class nouns
STRUCTUM AND ORiUS

89
91

92 94
97 98 102
104

The accusative singular of nouns ending in ... and .... The second conjugation verb roBOpWn. Possessive modifiers The perfective future of the first conjugation verbs uoini and a:Dn. The second conjugation verb BJiJ.lnlo Second person imperatives: familiar versus plural-polite forms lITi:Iote ..o.MO

"

105 107 109

Preparation for Conversation: it 3A6Wn csOi 1JOI'T+Vao Preparation for Conversation:


Cry,/lbrrw JJ:IfWor 0 IIapOJIllX CCCP Basic sentence patterns Pronunciation practice: haed versus soft consonants ([P] s. lRJ, [bJ vs. ~). [m) Intonation practice: part I--questions without question words
SIllUCTUJU! AND DR.lU3

s.

(I{IJ)

111 112 114 115 118 119


120 125 127
131 133

The nominative plural of nouns The nominative plural of possessive modifiers The prepositional case: singular and plural endings of nouns Prepositions .. and Ha with the prepositional case The personal pronouns and interrogatives KTO, 'fTO in the prepositional case Remarks on stress shift in nouns
'heHHe K DMCb.'I10

135
136

Preparation for Conversation: totOi cnod,..! Preparation for Conversation: B lW"a3IitIe Basic sentence patterns Pronunciation practice: hard versus soft consonants (Iv) '15. [y), [f) Intonation practice: part II--questions without question words

rae

139
141
142 143
'15.

[fl, (1]

s.

un

145
147 149

SIllucrt1ll.E AND DRIUS

To haw in Russian: affirmative y constructions in the present tense To htn-e had in Russian: affirmative y constructions in the past tense The genitive singular of nouns The genitive of KTO, 'ITO, and the pen;onal pronouns The genitive case in Hb coostructions The genitive case in "" 6wJIo constructions lfTCmte III DIIaoM6

150 152 154 156


158

160 163

Preparation for Conversation: 3aM611811Te u MeHii ~o! Preparation for Conversation:


8~n

Basic sentence patterns Pronunciation practice: hard consonants lkJ, [g), and Ix) and their sort counterparts ~J, lil, and I'll Intonation practice: emphatic statements with rising-falling contours
STR.UcnJRE ANO OfUu.s

167 169 169 171 172 176 177


179 182

The prelX)Sition y; further uses with the genitive case Prepositions meaningfrom: 113, C. and OT Other prepositions requiring the genitive case Verbs with infinitives ending in ..... : MOon. and CM6<u. Further past tense drills lfTi:ne IDIaoM6

185
188 190 192

10

Preparation for Conversation: 8 cy666T)' 6yA)'T riKuw Preparation for Conversation:

195 197 198

Oner AYM8eT nom

Basic sentence patterns Pronunciation practice: unpaired consonants (~I, (f). Ie]. It], Intonation practice: review of falling intonation contours
STRucruRll AND DRUJ..S

~"M1f6

200
[~J.

and [jJ)

201 204 206


208 210

The accusative of tmi, 'ITO, and the personal pronouns The accusative singular of nouns Second conjugation verbs with a stem consonant change in the first person singular

present-future

213
215 218 221

'Il..-e-e II DC:IIoMO

The future of&.:m. and the formation of the imperfective future KyJd and r.: directional versus Iocational conceptS

11

Preparation for Convenation: B KIIJt6 Preparation for Conversation:


n6cJle~

225

'127 228
230

Basic sentence patterns Pronunciation practice: double consonants Intonation practice: review of rising and rising-falling contours
ST1t.UC11JRJl ANI) DRIUS

231
234

235
237

The present-future of first conjugation verbs patterned like pa66Tan. and ~ The genitive plural of nouns The accusative plural of nouns The genitive case with lie fijJ1el' constructions The genitive case for the direct object of negated verbs Demonslrative trOT in the nominative, accusative, genitive, and prepositional ca~s
lf~

240 243 245


246 248 250

MIDICIoMO

12

Preparation for Conversation: M.:i .


8 MoaaM! Basic sentence pauems Pronunciation practice: special consonant clusters
STRUCIUR.E ANI) DRILLS

Preparati~versation:

253 255 256 258 259 262


263 266 268 269

Two-stem first conjugation Yerbs Genitive plural noun ending!>: special problems The use of the genitive after numbers Unidirectional versus multidirectional verbs of motion Long-fonn adjoct.ives: nominative singular and plural lfn-e mte:Wot6

276

xi

13

Preparation for Conversation:


tUmine
~ t O Moa<sp

279

Preparation for Conversation:


nOCJJjwaeM Rllacnitaal Basic sentence patterns

282 283 285

Pronunciation practice: initial clusters with [f} or


STRUCTURE AND DRIlLS

[rJ

286 289

The fonnation of the second person imperative The declension of adjectives: Dominative, accusative, genitive, and prepositional cases The declension o f . and the possessive modifiers: nominative, accusative. genitive, and
prepositional cases

290 295

Review of second conjugation verbs lfTe-e .. mK:loMO

299 302 306


309
311

14

Preparation for Conversation:


Ha TllHllU.

Preparation for Conversalion: JiIl'B uD.XM8TW Basic sentence patterns Pronunciation practice: final clusters with Ir) or (r)
STIlUCT\.IRE AND OJUU..S

312 313 314 311


318 320
323 325

The dative of KTO, orrO, the: personal pronouns, and the reflexive penonal pronoun cdHi The dative case in impersonal constructions The: dative case with ..y..a1, H)'Qd, HjmIo, and ~ The imperfective verb JUlun. and its perfective .a,jn. Suggestions that include the speaker: part I-perfective verbs Adverbs and short-form neuter adjectives ending in 0() 1.f1'fHHe H nMCbMo

327
330 331 335 337

15

Preparation for Conversation:

notaeM to: Hi.~

Ka

,,-..uDcy-..
UJ

Preparation for Conversation: n.JlIII Dod3bfBaeT ~nny (20011'" Basic scDtence patterns Pronunciation practice: consonant clusters with [I) or
STRUCTURE AND DRIll.S

338 341 342 345


346

The dative of nouns: singular and pluml

Dative constructions with H8Jlo The past tense or the imperfective verb Jl.L{Ili and its prefixed perfecti~ derivatives Suggestions that include the speaker: part ll-imperfective verbs Impersonal constructions using the subjectless third person plural verb 1.fTituIe .. l:I'IlaoM6

350 352 355 356


358

16

Preparation for Conversation: Hec"uliC'T'HWH cnY'IaH Preparation for Conversation:


y LtOKropa

Basic sentence patterns Pronunciation practice: the voKing of ordinarily unvoiced consonants
STRUCTUJU! AND DRIllS

361 163 364 367 368 371


371

Prepositions requiring the dative: ll; and go The dative endings ofhar, 'Iii, and the possessive pronoun modifiers The dative endings of adjectives: singular and plural Reflexive verbs-part I HpaJllrrl>CJl, DOlipliBHThC1l
1.fmlNe H UHCJoM6

375 378 380 383 385 389


391

17
xii

Preparation for Conversation:


]a f]MI6i.\UI

Prepamtion for Conversation: nllp6r c f1l'M6a._ Basic sentence patterns Pronunciation practice: the unvoicing of ordinarily voiced consonants

392
394 ]95

398

STRUCTIJRE AND DRILLS

Nouns in the instrumental case


The instrumental oflO'6, 'ITO, the personal pronouns, and the rdl.e~ve personal pronoun ce6li The instrumental ofiWT, ..ei, and the possessive modifiers

Reflexive verbs-part U Nouns with declension irregularities: Min., A6-r... cWlI, ,ltipeeo, JDiicr 'lTi_ 11II IlJfCIoM6

400 404 406 408 412 414

18

Preparation for Conversation: npowii, ua.:&na! Preparation for Conversation: npollliJu.Hu ~... Basic sentence patterns Pronunciation practice: clusters beginning with the letters c and]
STRUCTURE AND DRIUS

419
422

424 426
428 431

Use of the instrumental in the predicate with verbs of ~illg and becomillg The instrumental of adjectives Adjectives and pronouns (in adjectival form) which function as nouns Rene;live verbs--part III Perfectivization by prefix 110- to indicate a limited amount of the activity
LfTCt!He II IIHCbMO

433
436
438 440

443 44' 449

APPENDIX

VOCABULAR"

46'
476

xiii

Recordings for Modern Russian

Modern Russian 1

Side A:
Cassette Lesson Page Minutes

Side B: Lesson

Page

Minutes

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
II

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22
23

I 3 5 6 7 7 8 9 9 JO 10 I1
II

24

12 13 13 14 14 15 16 17 17 18 18

3 35 61 83 109 127 139 167 185 195 213 225 240 253 279 299 309 323 335 361 389 403 419 436

45 46 30 43 28 25 54 29 26 26 26 23 30 40 30 24 25 29 49 47 26 27 24 31

2 4 5 6 7 7 8 9 9 10 10
II II

19 49 74 99 122
III

12
Il

13 14 14 15 16 17 17 18 18

156 180 189 209 216 237 245 268 293 303 320 327 351 376 40 I 409 424 441

31 31 25 39 29 27 55 27 24 25 26 24 30 36 30 23 24 28 51 46 24 27 23 31

LESSON

The Russian sound system


Russian sounds may be divided into two basic groups: vowels and consonants.
A. The vowels

Russian has five basic vowel sounds, all of tbem shorter than the very approximate English vowels given here for the sake of a rough comparison. l [al [0] star po,1

[el
[i I

met
machine lunar, soon

[tam, vas] [6n, n6s] [eIU, jel] [i, ivan]


[nu, kum]

luI

As aids 10 pronunciation, we also give two additional symbols to represent positional variants of [al and Ii].
sofa, about ship, weary
[papo, 6k,Ja I [bik, sin]

Sound Drill I: Practice the Russian examples illustrating the vowel sounds, imitating your instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you can. 2

B. The consonants

Russian consonants fall into two main groups, which we call "hard" and "soft." Hard consonants are pronounced with the main body of the tongue flattened, creating a hoJlow, open, mouth cavity. Soft consonants, conversely, are pronounced with the tongue raised in an are, creating a narrowed mouth cavity and a restricted passage of air. The consonants may be divided into four subgroups: those which occur in both soft and hard varieties regardless of what sound follows, those whose hardness or softness depends on the sound that follows, those which are only hard, and those which are only soft.
, In illustrating the sounds we use a transcription based on Latin characters. some slightly modified in form. Sound Drills 1-5 are recorded on tape and printed in the Teacher's Manual.

1. Consonants which occur in both hard and soft varielies regardless of the sound that follows. I

[mJ
[", ] [bJ

PI]

[pJ
[eJ

[vJ [yJ

m
[nJ
[QJ [dJ
[~]

If]

moose ","use boots beauty poor pure voice view food feud
DOW

[m6st, tam] [rpesb, rpM:;;] [bab:>, buduJ

PIll,

a'l&l.J

It)

[II
[zJ
[~J

[sJ

[IJ
[rJ [r]

PJ

menu do adieu, shouki you stool costume, what youth zoom presume (British), he's young SW'm as."iiwne, lhis youth trined r (as in Spanish or Italian) soft trilled r (no equivalent) belt million

[papk., slapl [sei , Il6sJ [yam, sI6Y.1] [yiZ:), yeLk~ J s16f] [fin, astaO (n6s, v6n] [Q6s, QCl) Ida, dim.)

em,

[~~', Ilim.]

(t6t, tut] [16k, mall (z6n~, vw] (pma, vqmu] (s6k, viis] [lidu, eilm6 J [rnka, ur6k) erika, govafll J [lampo, st61) [lagn, still

Sound Drill 2: Practice the Russian examples illustrating these hard and soft consonant pairs, imitating your instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you can. Notc that Russian consonants do not have the slight puff of breath characteristic of such English consonants as p, t, and k in certain positions. 2. Consonants whose hardness or softness ordinarily depends on the sound that follows. The consonants [k], [gJ, and [x] are ordinarily pronounced hard, but are replaced by their soft alternates [~], [3J, and [;OS] respectively when followed by the vowels eel and [i]:
(kl
[~J

[gJ

skill, scal acute, cure go


argue

[kak, drukJ [1pn6, ~em) [gum, g61:ls)

[gJ
[x)

[n631, nage)
[xud6j, ax]

[~)

(no English equivalent; something like the Scotch or German dJ. in loch or adJ.) (son variety; no equivalent)

(JPrpik, bran:sit)

Sound Drill 3 : Practice the Russian examples illustrating these sounds, imitating your instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you can.

, In the transcription, I small hook under the k:tta marks the soft COlUOl1Int. Notice thaI lhe.soft COlUOl1IDt has.somewhal the effect of a "y-like" glide rollowing the consonant.

LESSON I

3. Consonants which occur only in a hard variety regardless of the sound that follows:
[c]
[<)

its, waltz
shrimp

[capC:::l, alec]
[<Hr, !Utko)

[1]

azure, leisure

[!Uk,

uze)

Sound Drill 4: Practice the Russian examples iUustrating these sounds. imitating your instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you can. Note that the Russian [c] is a single sound unit. and that both ~J and (1J are articulated farther back in tbe throat than the comparable English sounds. 4. Consonants which occur only in a soft variety, regardless of the sound that follows:
[f)

!"J

doeap fresh cheese or wash sheets (pro-

[Cis, doc)
~i, ji~]

nounced as a single sound unit)


yes, boy

Ua,

m6j)

Sound DrillS: Practice the Russian examples illustrating these sounds, imitating your instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you can.

The Russian (CyriUic) alphabet and the writing system


Russian does not use the Latin alphabet employed by English and such Western European languages as French. Gennan. Spanish, and Italian. Rather, Russian uses another alphabet, called the Cyrillic. It is basically modeled after the Greek alphabet, but is supplemented by additional symbols for certain sounds occurring in the Slavic languages but not in Greek. Other Slavic peoples using the Cyrillic alphabet include the Ukrainians, Byelorussians, Bulgarians. Macedonians, and Serbs; while the Czechs, Poles, Slovaks, Slovenes, and Croats use tbe Latin a1pbabet. The Russian (Cyrillic) alphabet is given below in its conventional order, together with typical pronunciations of the letters and illustrative examples. Note tbat most letter.> are pronounced in more than one way, depending upon wbere tbey occur or the place of stress in the word.'
THE ALPHABIIT TYPICAL EXAMPLES

PRONUNCIATION

A a

[aJ
[a)

a,TiM

MaMa 631(,6a6a 66e. re6e 666, 6a6"a


B3.M,B6T

Ii 6

[b)

llIJ [P)

[v) [y) [I]


[g)

,..;.
BT6M roT6sa, T6ra 6ere. T6re 6er. M6r TOr6. Ku6ro

[gJ [1<) [vJ


I Stress is marked with all acute (.) accellt over the vowel.

LESSON I

)I, II

IdJ
[~]

Aa,.abM
r,rt, BOJle, oach 06tJl, r6A. B6JlKa

[t]

E e

[el Ue] Ii] Ui] 10] Uo] If]


(!]

o6tD.. Dena, Te eM, e,neT


.n.6Me. 6e,aa

W, erb
Mi.a.. TeTe
te,

r e
J1(lIC

Moe

.aa*e. m.6a e_.o.ne*Ka


38.86.a.. 6:ba JeB611:, &eXT 063, f.il
iii,
JKM3,

Iz]
I~]

Is]

11

Ii] Ui] Ii] U]

r8A

MOM, TBOIi

xNBi:T
MOM. TaJC6ii, MaiKa, iO.IJ.

Aii
KK
JI
Jl

[kJ
[%]

Kh, eOlt.ka KCM. lunij:j

m
[m] ['l']

PI

n6*I3, BHnxa,BHnen JlCA JIlho. 60neJHf


t

MM
H.

Mbil, T3.M

Mtn, ttMJI
HO, OHA

[0] IQ]

NeT,

oHJj
OO,ltKa

00

[oj raj [al [PJ

.nOM, 33.BO.ll..
OKII6, CJlO83

Mana, MOnOll:O
OOH,D;CM

II

fIl]
p p
Cc
[r]

.nlrJ, rJtlllJe
pyKa, Milp
ped, MOpe

III
IsJ IiI
[I)

acWIOI.

BaC, Jloaca

cent CeMent He<=H


TaM, npHoeT liM, TeK

TT
Yy
<1>01>

ru
[ul In

trPo. KY.n3, HlO'


4t6PMa, +An cIleVTa, 4)K/uinn

10
Xx
6
lESSON I

Ix]
I~]

ax, x6noJJ.Ho. xn66


XHMHJ:. XuTp6B

Un
q

[e]

OTtn, napHQa

lU

[] [I]
[!]

ill w

..au, nO"lTa, Bpa.. wap, WYM, xopow6


mH, OOplU,

11\
bI b
b

erne

],1>
bI

(hard sign)'

[;1
(soft sign)'
[el

TW, BbI, 6Wno, pa,llbl

:3

,
10

tro, :TrOT, iTH, no:h


BalDO, BCJO, 61Op6 tOOka, CBOtO, MOIO

10

[u] Gu] [a]


[i]

jig

naTb, OnSTb. roeopiT


mrrn, TSIXeno ., TB01i, CToD
II3b1K

Gal G;] !P]

neH.mil,

JlO

cBHll!mul

Remarks on stress
A.
s~

in the word

A stressed vowel is one pronounced wiLb greater intensity or loudness than an unstressed vowel. Words of more than one syllable can have only one syllable which is stressed in Russian. This contrasts sharply with English, when::: many words have more than one stress, for example:
ENGLISH propaganda

RUSSIAN npouaraKJ],a

[p~pag{md~]

When words are combined in a sentence in Russian, certain short words may receive no stress. For example, prepositions such as y and Ha, and the negative partjcle He arc nonnally pronounced as though they were part of the following word: yuee [UQij6] H3 nO'iTy [nap6tul He BH.a.CJl [Q;Y;Qil]
B. The major segment

A Russian sentence may consist of a single word or of one or more groups of words. Each group contains one word which has an even stronger stress than any of the other stressed words in the group. We call the groups major segments and the strongest stress in each group the major stress. We call the remaining word stresses in the major segment secondary stresses. The boundary between major segments represents a point where a short slowing up or pause may be made in speaking. In our transcription, the major sentence stress will be indicated by a double accent mark ("), and the secondary or word stress will have a single acute accent mark ('). On the material printed in Cyrillic, only the single accent mark will be used for both major sentence stress and word stress.
I The hard sign nipll.wii m&K and page 9.

son sign Mlin.:1Ii 3Hh have no sound

value. For a dC'$Criplion of Iheir function, see

LESSON I

Division of a sentence into major segments will often depend on the individual speaking style and tempo. A given sentence in rapid speech will be spoken with fewer major segments than the same utterance in slow deliberate speech. But the segmentation is not arbilrary--there are some places where a major segment boundary may be made and others where it will be rare or nonexistent. For example, a major segment boundary does not occur between a preposition and the following word, and it rarely occurs between an adjective and the noun it qualifies. In neutral, unemphatic style, the major stress usually falls on the last word of each major segment. In statements, a shift of the major stress (0 another word in the segment shifts the emphasis to that word: NEUTRAL
SPEClAL

or

.sf H).Ij ,ll,oM6U. [jf!. idli dam6j] I'm going home. .sf.H,/.\Y ,lJ,OMOH. [ja idfi dam6j] I am going home. .sf W,ll,OMOH. (ja idli dam6j] Fm going home.

To sum up, we indicate the degrees of stress (loudness) as follows: I. Major stress (one per major segment}---double accent mark on transcription, single accent mark on CyriIlic. 2. Secondary or word stress (no more than one per word}-single acute accent mark. 3. No stress--no accent mark. EXAMPLE

Ii H,ll.y Ha notTy.

[ja idu napi)Ctu]

Above all, the student should bear in mind that the best guide to accurate pronunciation is the way a native speaker actually pronounces the words, not the written representation of stress.

Discrepancies between the sound system and the writing system


A. Use of the same consonant letter to write both hanl and soft consonant varieties
As we know, most Russian consonant sounds come in hard and soft varieties. It is a peculiarity

of the writing system and the alphabet, however, that the same letter often represents both a hard and soft consonant in writing. For example, both hard [n] and soft fQ] are written H in Cyrillic; only the following letter can tell us whether it is hard or soft. Compare HOC [nos] with Hee [Qos]. B. Double set of vowel letters in the writing system To preserve the distinction between hard and soft consonants in the writing system, the Russian alphabet employs a double set of vowel letters which may be termed "hard-" and "soft-series" vowel letters. [n themselves the vowels are neither hard nor soft; rather, they indicate the hardness or softness of the preceding consonant. Thus "hard-series" vowel letter a typically follows a hard consonant, and "soft-series" vowel letter H typically follows a soft consonant.
HARD SERlES
$Off SERIES

a
e
H

a
bl

C
10

LESSON I

EXAMPLES HARD CONSONANT PLUS VOWEL


WlUlTEN

SOFf CONSONANT PLUS VOWEL

6.
[ba

60
bo

PRONOUNCED
WRITTEN

,,.

6y bu Ay du My mu
TY

6.
be

6", hi1
A'"

6. [i}a
AR

6e
i}o

6H> i}u AH> 4u MH> 'P u


TH>

50 i}e

6" i}i I
AM

PRONOUNCED
WRITTEN

(da

AO do MO mo TO 10

A' de M' me
T3

.ae
40

di) M'" mil

Ilia
MR

Ae 4e Me 'Pe
TO

4iJ
MY

PRONOUNCED
WIUTTEN

Ma [rna
TIl

Me
'Po

['Pa
TR

<piJ
TR

PRONOUNCED

Ita

tu

te

"" tiJ

-re
0 1

[\"

IU

\e

\i1

The special symbol h indicates the softness of a preceding consonant when no vowel letter follows. I Remember that this sign is not a vowel, Le., it has no independent sound value. It is merely an alphabetic device to show that the preceding consonant is soft. It is written principally at tbe end of a word or between consonants.
HARD CONSONANT NOT FOLLOWED BY VOWEL WRITTEN PRONOUNQ:D
WRITTEN

SOFf CONSONANT NOT FOLLOWED BY VOWEL

cn\. (stolJ
6pAT

table brother comer

cr6m.
[stoll
6pan.

so much to taJc:e
roa1

PRONOUNCED
WlUTTt'N

[brat) yroll [ugolJ nOfu:a [pOlbJ

[brall yrollh
{ug:)U

PRONOUNCED
WIUTTEN

shelf

PRONOUNCED

nOm."a [pOlbJ

polka

C. Soft-series vowel letters at the beginning of a word or following another vowel letter Tbe soft-series vowelletlers ii, e, e, and 10, also serve another function. At the beginning of a word following another vowel leller, they arc written to represent the consonant sound (written elsewhere ii) plus a vowel. Thus H in these positions is equivalent to ii plus a; e is equivalent to ii plus 0; e is equivalent to ii plus 3, and 10 is equivalent to ii plus y.

WRJlTEN PRONOUNCED

MOR

maja

elK jO!

MaC
maj6

MoeH
majej

wr
juk

MOJO

maju]

The soft-series vowel letter H differs from the others in that tbere is usually no preceding [j] sound in initial position, and there is a ratber weak [j] between vowels:
JiMj(
MOM

(iIp:)]
D. The bani sign ... and soft sign
h

[maji] or [mail

There are two leHers in the Russian alphabet with no independent sound value. They are called nep1lhlH 38llK hard sign ... and MTKKii 3HllK soft sign h.
'See item 0 below, fOf fuller treatment of this symbol.

LESSON I

I. THE SOFT' SIGN

Of the two symbols, the soft sign 10 is much more frequently encountered and serves two major purposes: a. To indicate consonant softness at the end of a word or before another consonant: onlo [gatl five, TOJlbKO [t6lb] only, 'INTin. [titiU to read. b. To indicate that a preceding consonant is soft and that the next vowel is preceded by the sound [jj: cer.tbli [~iqlja] family, nbU [IDot] he drinks. Note: Although the soft sign is sometimes written after the consonants and w for historic reasons, these consonants are nevertheless pronounced hard: Mymoli [mtdjaj husbands, H./leuu. [i46~j you're going.

2.

THE HARD SIGN

The hard sign 1> in modern Russian is only used after prefixes ending in a consonant followed by a softseries vowel. It indicates that a [j] sound precedes this vowel: cWn [sjel) he ate Up. on..i3.a: (atjest) departure.
PREPARATION FOR CONVERSATION

Except in certain fixed expressions, nouns are first given in their nominative case form. The nominative case is primarily used to indicate the subject of a sentence or clause. Russian nouns are of three genders: masculine, feminine, and neuter. Masculine nouns usually terminate in a consonant letter, feminine ones in -a or ....., and neuters in -0 or -e. The gender of nouns will be indicated in the Preparation for Conversation only where it is not obvious from the nominative form, as for example: . . . (f) door, Abn. (m) day. For the time being verbs and adjectives will be given only in the form in which they occur in the conversation. cryll,eHT (stu4ent] Ii) CTy.neHTK<l [stu4entka] EureHidi liivgeQijJ HHHa [Qina) npHB';'- [Pri~l) " _.... H" " .~" IIIIA.
Ubi H./leTe [vi i40ti] KY.lla [kuda] KYlJ,a BY H/teTe?

student
and

girl student, coed Evgeny Nina greetings! regards! hi! Hi, Nina! you're going, you're on your way where, where to, to what place Where are you going?
lesson, a lesson, the lesson 2 to the lesson, to dass singing singing class, a singing lesson To a singing lesson.

ypC" (ur6k] Ha ypCk [n~urok)


OeHMe fJleQ.ip] ypCK neHHjI (ur6k ~Qi'p]

Ha yp6K oettu.
Ii
HflY

Ua

iduJ

R HJti Ha ypOK ne.u..


a (a] JloMoif (damojJ A BW .LJ:OMOB?

I'm going, I'm on my way I'm going to a singing lesson. and, but. by the way, how about home, homeward And are you on your way home?

, Boldface sentences in the Preparation for Conw:rsalion are those lhat appear in the Conversation itself. l Notice thai Russian does not haw: definite or indefinite anie1es corresponding to English Iltt. a, on.

10

I...R'iSON

HiT [Qct] nO'ITa [p6Ct~ J H8 no'lT)' [oap6Ctu) HeY, Ji HJ.tY 118 no'lT)'. OHCbMO [gi~mo J nOCJlliTb nHchMo [paslat gi~m6J A HJti' HS ooarl'y nocmin. DHCbMO. co6pAHHe
6wo
[sabralJj~]
[bil~]

no

post office to the post office No, I'm on my way to the post office. a letter to send a letter I'm going to the post office to send a letter. meeting. a meeting, the meeting was, there was yesterday Was there a meeting yesterday? say! tell [me]! Say, was there a meeting yesterday? there was there wasn't No, there wasn't. club in the club, at the club At the club? No, there wasn't. plant, factory at the plant, at the factory How ahout at the plant? there I wasn't I wasn't there. but There was [a meeting), but I wasn't there. well excuse [me] Well, excuse (me].

B'Iepa [~ir3] B'Iepa 6brnO c06pafme? CK<UlCHTe [skaziti]


Ctca:lKH-re, B'Iepa 6"'no C06p8.HHe? 6hLno
[bil~]

He 6b1J10 [Qebila] Her, He 6b1J1o. K.ITj6 [klup]


B KJJj6e [fkhi~i] 8 KJly6e? HiT ..e 6wno.

3ason [zav6t] Ha 33Bone [nazavQ4i]


A
KS

laaO.lle?

T3.M [tam] Ji He 6b1J1 [ja Qcbill .st T3.M He 6b1J1. HO [noJ 6blJlO, HO Ii T1i.M lie 6b1n.

Hy
Hy,

[nul [izyiQ.iti]

JOBKHHTe

M3DMnne.

aBT66yc [aftobus] MowasT06yc [moj aft6bus] ao,. u.nCT [vat iQol] 80T lIJl:eT MOM BBT06yc.

bus my bus here comes, there goes Here comes my hus.


good-bye, I'll be seeing you Good-bye.

no CBHJt3,1UIR
)],0 CBllLI.iJooI.
SUPPLEMENT

[d~s'{idalJj;)]

Ji HJtY [ja idu] ,,;, HAeWb [li iQM] OH HlleT [00 iQat] oHiI H./l.CT [ana iQ6t] MhI HJleM [mt iQ6mJ BbI H./l.eTe [vi iQati] outi HJl.Yr [aQi idut J

I'm going you're going I he's going she's going we're going you're going l they're going

, Tw you is used in addressing a dose friend or a member of one's family. BLt)'OIl is u!iCd in addressing a person where a more formal relalionship e~ists. and it is also used whenever more than one person is addressed.
LESSON I 11

CLASSROOM EXPRESSIONS

The following are some of the classroom words and expressions your instructor will be using. Be sure you are able to recognize them when you hear them. eme p<b [ji~C6 ras} nOBTopiITe (paftapti] rIOJl<a.J1yMCTa [pazal';Jst<l J l"OBopiITe [g:waritil rp6M'Ie [gr6mCiJ once again, once more repeat! please speak! talk! louder all together read! good, fine, all right bad, poor, not good better

BCe BMecre
'1HTaMTe xopowo
[lJIOXO

[f~e

vrpestiJ

[citaj\i]
[x';Jm~61

[plox;)J
[Iuc~i]

JJy'lwe

Boy student and girl student


The following symbols are used in the transcription of the conversations to give the student some notion of the inflection of the voice at the end of a phrase or sentence: .J, indicates a dropping off of the voice t indicates a rise of the voice I indicates voice level sustained E. H. (Cl)',OeIlT) Evgeny (a student) HHH3 (CTy.neHTKa) Nina (a girl student)
EBn~HHH

E.
H.

TIpHeeT, HlbIa! Ky.ua ebl lIlti:he? 2 Ha ypOK neHUR. A ehl nOMoii? 3 Hh, }:\ H.uY Ha OOlf1)' nocJulTh mfcbMo.

priyet -Qin;) 1 kuda vi iQoti 1 n;}urok geQij;) 1 a vi damoj 1

Hi, Nina! Where are you going? To a singing lesson. And you're on your way borne F No, I'm on my way to the post office to send a letter. Say, was there a meeting yesterday? At the club?l No, there wasn't.

E.

vet j
ja idu napoctu

pas I,,! gijrn6j


skaZiti 1 fCinl bil;) sabraQj;) 1

H.

4 CKa)KHTe,
8lfepa 6bIJIO co6paHHe?

E.

5 B KJIy6e?
HeT, He 6hIJIO.

Qebil:-J 1 a n;)lavOQi i How about at the plant?


4,j

ved

fklii~i

H.

6 A Ha 3aBOll,e?
7 EhUlo, HO 51 TaM He 6h1Jl .

E.

bil, I n6 ja tam -Qebil

There was, but I wasn't there.

Superscript numerals in the Conversation refer to the Notes immediately following.


12 LESSON I

H.

8 Hy,

H3BIHlHTe.

nu

I izyiQit i !
1
j

BOT JUlCT

vot i46t

Well, excuse me. Here comes my bus.

Moii a8T66yc.

m6j aftobus 1 ddSyidciQjd


dosyida~j.

E.

Ao

cBH,naaH.SI.

I'll be seeing you.


Good-bye.

H. 10

Ao CBH,aaHHjl.

NOTES

I The terms ay.neHT and CTY~a refer only to university students, as compared with y'feIIKK and yqemiqa which designate pupils or students below university level. Russians make a much sharper distinction than we in the teIlllS used for university level as opposed to pre-university level, for example:
UNIVERSITY LEVEL
npo~p
yHKBeptH"ra

PRE-UNIVERSITY LEVEL

nexI.UUI
1

profenor university lecture


K

}"IHTenb (m) Y'lItTe.rlbllHU,a (f)


mK6na

teacher
school

yp6K

lesson, class

Russian has two words

and a both meaning and. 11 is used as a simple conboy and girl student

nector:
whereas a is used to point up a contrast or to introduce a new topic:

.R

itA)' Ha ypOK. A Bbl llOMOA 1

I'm going to a lesson. And you, are you going home?

) KJ1j6 means club in the sense of a group of working associates who meet for recreational or informal educational purposes. Clubs in the Soviet Union playa political-educational role in encouraging useful bobbies such as radio, photography, or airplane modeling; or in the study of technical subjects, malhematics, botany, zoology, and so forth. Recreational activities include amateur performances, dances, and games such as chess. .. II is not uncommon in the Soviet Union for university students to work in a factory during the day and attend classes in the evening. Unless they are excellent students. secondary school graduates generaJly must work for two years before entering the university. , Notice that at in Russian is H8 in H8 Juone at the plant, but B in B ICJly6e at the club. Certain nouns require the preposition 118 in this meaning, while other nouns require B. In the same way, when these prepositions are used in the meaning to, Ha must be used with JoOn (118. JaB6A 10 the plant) and B must be used with 1CJtj6 (8 1CJIj6 to the club).

Basic sentence patterns


The material in this section gives some of the possible variants of utterances found in the conversation. It is designed to provide the student with certain basic paltems before an analysis of the structure is given and before be is asked to manipulate the specific grammatical items. In this way it is hoped that he will not only be able to observe the over-all structural patterns of Russian, but also have some ready-made utterances for active use when be begins to converse. The material should be thoroughly drilled as repetition practice with books closed as the first step. After this, it may be used for reading practice.
LESSON I 13

I. KY,1l;3 Bbl liJlCTe?

Ha ypOK nemul. R lilly Ha yp6K m~lIml. Ha n6'lTy. R 1i.n:Y Ha nO'lTY. Ha c06p3HHe. R II,1l;y Ha c06pfulHc. Ha 3aa6Lt. R li/.{y Ha 3aa6,11;.

Where are you going? To a singing lesson. ('m going to a singing lesson. To the post office. I'm going to the post office. To a meeting. I'm going 10 a meeting. To the plant. I'm going to the plant. Where are you going? To the post office to send a letter. I'm going to the post office to send a letter. Home. I'm going home. To the club. I'm going to the club. Here comes my bus. _ _ _ _ Evgeny. _ _ _ _ Nina. _____ a student. _ _ _ _ _ a girl student. Here come Evgeny and Nina. _ _ _ _ a boy and a girl student.

2. Kywl Tb' HlleWb? - Ha n6'll")' nOCmlTh nHChM6. - R HJJ,Y Ha nO'!Ty nOCJlaTb T1I1ChMO. -):loM6H. - .R J.fJ.l:Y ,1I;OMOH.

8 KJ1Y6. R It,ll.Y B KJlY6.


Ean~lIllH.

3. 801' liLtCT M6H a.BTo6ye.


____ ____ ____ ____ B6T llJI.y,. ____ HHlla. CTy,u,eHT. cTy.n.eIlTKa. EareRHii Ii HHHa. CTy.n.CHT Ii e1)',1I;eHTKa.

STRUCTURE AND DRILLS

The present tense of the first conjugation verb


Ii H.lly Thl li,1l;eWb 6H It,ll.CT alia Ii,1l;CT Mhl li,1l;eM abI It,ll.eTe OHH liLty,.

lIJ\T1i

I'm going, I'm on my way, I'm coming


you're going, you're on your way, you're coming he's going she's going we're going you'rc going they're going

REPETITION DRILL

Listen to your instructor (or the tape) and repeat the above pronoun-verb model until you can say it perfectly.
REPETITION-SURSTITUTION DRILL

Repeat after your instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you can, imitating both the individual words and the sentence intonation. Then, on hearing only the subject pronoun, give the fuIl sentence. 1
I Complete student answers are given in the first two lessons only. Allhough instructions for the drills are addressed 10 lhc student, he is advised to perfonn them without looking at the printed page, preferably with his book closed. Boldface type always indicatcs the "model" sentence to be spoken by the studenl; the corresponding lightface sentence is the "model" to be spoken by the teacher. The English translation appears in italic Iype.

14

LE'SSON 1

TEACHER

STUDENT

I'm going home

I'm going home.

ii: My JJ.OMOU.
TM un.ewb .D:OMOj:j.
68 lIJ],CT ):lOMO".

A IIJJ.Y JJ.oMoii.

Oil

Tbl HJJ.ellU.. AOMO". H,!{e-r nOMOH.

Qua HJler llOMOii. Mbi un.eM llOMO". Bbi: H,lJ,eTe nOMoH.

OInt HAYr lloMon.


QUESTION-ANSWER DRILL

01130 lUleT AOMO". M bi H,lJ;eM ,D,oMoii. Rbi HJleTe .a.oMoii. OK" ItllYr JJ.OMOH.

Answer the question, using participate.)


TEACHER

Ha

oO'fTY with both short and full answers. (In class two students may

STUIJNT

Where lire you going? Where are you going? KyJJ.3. Rbi H/lere? KYlla BbI HlIere? KYAa 1"W ltlleWb'" KYA3. n:. HJ],emb? Ky.n3 611 H,LleT?

To the post office. I'm going to the post office. Ha nOln)'. A KJti HS OOorTy. Ha n6'1T)'.

A MAY H3 n61(1)'.
Ha n61fT}'.
68 H,Aih H3 no'tTy. Ha n6lfT)'. Mba: HJleM H3 no'rry.

KYllO. 611 MeT? Ky.na Mhz H,1l,eM?


Ky,ui Mhi H,J.teM?
Ky~ OHa HJJ,eT?

Ha n6'O)'.
QHa u,aeT H3 no'iTY.

KYM OHa H,/I,CT? KYAa obi: H,Qrn? Ky.n:a Obi u.n.eTe? Ky~ QUM HJJ;jT? Ky.nA Olllt H,I:{jT?
QUESTION-ANSWER DRILL

Ha n6'fTY.

ii: HJl.y

H3 n6lJTY

Ha nOlTy.
OHK ~ H3

nOlTy.

Answer the qucslion, using Ha c06pauHe. with both short and full answers.
TEACHER STUDENT

Where are you going, home? Where are you going, home?
Ky.na Ky.na KYJl:a Ky.na Ky.na Ky.n3. Ky.n3. Kyna KYJl,a Ky.ua Kyna Ky.na Bbi R,l.ten:, .noMoii'! Bbi It,Llere, .nOMO"'! 611 R,l.teT, .nOMa"? OH R,l.teT, .nOMon'! Olla lIJl.eT, .nOMa"'! Olla lIJl.eT, .nOMO" '! Mbi lIJl.eM, .nOMOit'! Mbi lIJl.eM, .nOMa"'! OHM IIJl.Yr, Jl,OMon '! OIlU IIJl.Yr, .nOM6H? TLi HJl,eWb, .nOMOit? rn HJleWb, .nOMOit '!

No, to a meeting. No, I'm going to Q meeting. Hh, ua co6piHHe.


Hh, Ii HJJ:i Ha co6piHHe. Her, lIa co6pallHe. Her, Oil R,lleT Ha co6pAHltc. HtT, H3 co6p3.HHe. HtT, oua H.lJ.CT Ha co6p:iHue. HtT, H3 co6p3Hue. Her, Mbi H.lJ.eM H3 co6pbute. Her, U2 co6prome. HCT, OH" HAYr H2 coGpaHHe. HCT, lIa co6p:iuHe. Her, Ji HAY H2 co6pIDflte.

LESSON I

15

QUESTION-ANSWER DRILL

Answer two ways, using


TEACHER

liS

ypOJ.:

ueIIHH.

STUDENT

Where's Nina going? Where's Niffa going?


Ky.na KYAa Ky.na KY.ll.a Ky.n.3 KY.ll.3 Ky.n.3: Kyna HHlla? HHHa? EDreHH"? EDreHH"? HJleT CT)'.ll.eHT? HJlCT CTY.ll.eHT? H,QCT CTY.ll.eHTKa? HJler CT)'neHTlCa? HJl,eT HJl,eT HJl,CT H,QCT

To a singing lesson. Nina's going 10 a singing lesson. Ha ypOK neHK", HMua HJJ.er Ha YpOK 001"11.
Ha yp6.IC nellHJI. EBreH"" HJleT Ha yp6K neHH.liI. Ha yp6K DeHIIII. CTy.ll.eHT HllCT Ha yp6K neuHJI. Ha yp6K neHHJI. CTyneHTICa HJl,eT lIa yp61C neu.HJI.

SUBSTITUTION DRILLS

Items to be cued by the teacher are indicated in parentheses.

J. The studenl is going to a meeling.


CTylleHT HJl,er lIa co6piurne. (CrY.ll.eHT H c:ry.ll.eHTK:a) __ (OH) _ (OHa) _ (OHM) _ (E''''HH.) _ (HRHa) _ (EBreHHA H HHHa) _ CTynewr HJJ.eT "a co6p2nHe, CTyneHT H CTY.ll.eHnr::a HJlYr Ha co6pAHHe. 6H HJleT lIa co6pAHHe. OHa n.n.CT Ha co6~He. ORu HJJ.Yr Ha co6p3.HHe. EBreHHA lUl.eT ua co6pauHe. HUHa IUl.CT lIa co6pAHHe. EBreUII" H HHlla HJJ.jT lIa co6palme.

2. Here comes my bus.


8M HJJ,eT MoA aBTo6yc. 8M lUl.eT HUHa. _ _ _ (E''''HH.). _ _ _ (CTY.ll.CIIT). _ _ _ (CTYHeHTXa). _ _ _ (M6A aDT66yc). _ _ _ (EBreIlHA H Huua). _ _ _ (C'rY.ll.eHT H CTYAeIlTKa).
BOT HJl,(IT MO. llBT66yc,

BOT HJJ.er HRna,


8M HJl,eT 8M HJJ,CT B6T HneT BOT UAeT 86T HJl,Yr BOT HAYr EBreHHA. CTYAeIlT. CTYAeUTka. MoA aBT66yc. EBreHHH H HHlla. CTYAellT H CTYAeIlTKa.

QUESTION-ANSWER DRILL

Answer the following questions, using a pronoun and B KJly6 in the answer.
TEACHER

SnJDENT

Where's Ihe student going?


Kyna Ky.n..3 Kyna Ky.n..3 Ky.aa Kyna HJl,eT c:ryJJ,enT? HJJ.jT c:rynellTKa H CTY.ll.euT? lUleT EBreHKH? ItJl;jT HHua H EBreEDdi? H,ller BMlla? HllYr c:ryneHT H c:ry.neHTK:a?

He's on his way 10 ,he club.

0" HJJ.eT B KJlY6.


Qmi HJJ,jT B JCJlY6. 611 K,llCT B J(JJY6. OHli "nYr B kJIj6. Qna K,llCT B J(JJY6. OHM HllYr B XJJj6.

16

LESSON J

DISCUSSION

As you have noticed, the endings of the verb H,a:n1 in the prescnt tense change for each person in the singular and plural. Thus the first person singular is Ii MM, second person singular ThI HJJ.Wn., third person singular OH (or ollli) HJJ.eT, and so forth. The present stem of the verb is H.z:t-, and the stress is on the endings throughout the conjugation. Note that the stem consonant .z:t is hard in the first person singular and third person plural, but is son in all the 01 her fonns.
SINGULAR PLURAL

J 2

.....j
M,lI--ilUb I

rid-ill

II,il-eM II,il-<::Te

..........

[ill-<\'I [iq-ot)

1I,il-Y"r

[ill-<\m J [ill-<\VI lid-uti

This pattern of endings is typical of firs! conjugation verbs with the stress on the endings. There are only two conjugations in Russian; the second will be discussed later. It is important 10 Dote that IlI{Tli means both to be going and to be coming. It describes motion in process and is generally restricted to going on foot.

, II is. convenlioa ill Russian 10 spell the socoud person singular ending wilh a ... even ll'lough the consonanl w cannOI be pron<:lllCCll sort. NOIice abo thai since lbe Ieua i Qb"QY~ carries the SITC$S. it is unnec::e$5ary to mark the S~ funher.
USSON

17

LESSON

PREPARATION FOR CONVERSATION

He BH.Il.en

[Qiyi~iIJ

Bac [vas] .Il.aBHO [davno] ,llaBHo DaC He DHJJ.eJl. BC.o 3HMy [f~u ;pmu] &.0 llhfy RaC He RM.Il.e.JI.
II.eJl3. [kag \lila] long [il) KHpH.!I.!1 niB..rlOBM'f! Kite ,Il,cmi?

haven't seen, didn't see you (dir obj) for a long time, a long time ago I haven't seen you for a long time. all winter, all winter long I haven't seen you all winter. how is everytbing ah,oh Ah, Kirill Pavlovich! How is everything? well, fine, good thanks, thank you Fine, thanks. sick, ill you were You were sick. I heard I heard you were sick. healthy, well, recovered
now

K3K

:i

A,

xopowo {x;)raS6) cnacli60 [spa~ioo] XOPOlllo., cnacM60. 6oJlbHbi: [balni] ew 6wlIl [vi bili] BbI 6wIH GORbIlM. Ji CJlWWaJI Uil sli~l) jl CJlblmaJI, Rbi 6bmH 6oJlbllbi.
3.1l.op6B [zdar6f] Teneph (\jgerl TCnePh li 3.1l.0pOB.
enORHe [fpaIQe]

}')ICe

[uze I

Teneph Ji }')Ke BUORHe 3.1l.0p6B. HO

[no]

na Ida)
Ai,
HO TCuepb Ii y:e 8110.!1..e lllOp08.

I'm well now. completely, fully, quite already, by now I'm completely well now. (Lil. Now I already completely well.) but yes Yes, but now I'm completely well. (Lit. Yes, bUI now I already completely well.) gorsovel (city council) at the gorsovet you work, you've been working

ropcooeT [gorsa yet) ropcooeTC (vgorsa yeti I Bb! pa60Taere [vi raoot;)jiti)

19

8b1 pa60TaeTe B ropcoBlhe? Bee Cute [f~ jiCo]

B" Bee ewe paooTaue B ropc:oehe?


j paOOTaIO [if!. rab6bjuJ J],li, li see cute pa66r.uo 8 ropcoBm. TO.C (t6ti] ceua (~na] .lti, II .eMa TO.e.

Do you work at the gorsovet? still, yet Do you still work at the gorsovet? I work Yes, I still work at the gorsovet. too, also wife Yes, and my wife [does] too. she works Yes, and my wife works too. to hear that, it, this glad Glad to hear it. For a long time?

aHa pa66TaeT (ana rab6l;)jitJ J],a, H 'lKeHa TO)Ke pa66TaeT. CmdWaTb [sli~\l :lTO let;)) pa.. [,at) Pi.a iTo e.m.auan..
)laBHO?

bee (0
C 6ceHH

[~J lsO~iQ.i]

,Qi, c OcetDl.

fall, autumn since autumn, since fall Yes, since fall. I'm hurrying, I'm in a hurry for the bus, to catch a bus I'm in a hurry to catch a bus. Excuse me, I'm in a hurry to catch a bus. regards to your wife, say hello to your wife Good-bye. [Give my] regards to your wife. good-bye thanks, thank you Thank you. Good-bye.

li enemy [ja sRi~uJ Ha aBT66yc [n::mft6bus) .st enewy Ha aBTo6yc. 113BMIII....e, Ii enemj Ma SBT66yc.
npltBCT 1Kene (Priyed fiQe J
xaro~iY.))

.lto CBIt.ltiHMIl. npM8k *ene.


acero xOpOwero [f~ivo cnacM60 [spa~ib::l) CnacWo. 8n) xop6wero.

SUPPLEMENT

My,..:

[mu~l

MYJtc H lKena [mu~ i fina) Tbl pa66Taewb [ti rab6l;)ji)

'"e

[g~eJ

rAe nd pa66TaeWb? - .st pa60TalO B KJIy6e. OHH paOOTaIOT [3.Qi rab6t;)jutJ r.lle OInt pa66TaIOT? - OUM pa66TaIOT ua 3aBO.lle. Mbt pa66raeM (mi rab6l;)jim) Mbt pa66raeM ua D<)'1Te.

husband husband and wife you work, you've been working, you're working, you do work where, at what place ' Where do you work. ? I work at the club. they work Where do they work? They work at a plant. we work We work at the post office.

There arc two words for ...hert in Russian: rAi and I(Y.d. rtti I .. pa60TlIen? Ky.d I" Illlfn?
LESSON

..:yIl,li 10 "'hOI plou.

r.

means ...htrt in the B ICJTY1le. B ICIJjfi.

5tTlS<:

01 whur plou as opposed to

Compare with

HI 31161lt. HI hUll.

Iii OO'ITt. HI D60rry.

20

,lI,aBHo BaC lie BUlleJl

1 haven't seen you for a long time


K.n. Ce!>. K.n. I CCMCII CllHJTHnnoBH'",l BctO 3HMy eac He BUllen.
KHPHnn: naBJIOBH'i UapaUXHH
CCMeH <1>H.n1t.nnOBH'I XHTpOB

~irp6n

ftlipic!
!

r~u ~imu

Semyon Filipovich! I I haven't seen you all winter. Ah, Kirill Pavlovich! 1 How is everything?2 Fine, thanks. I heard you were sick. Yes. But now I'm completely well. 2

vas

Qiyi~il

c.'!>. 2 A,
KHpHnJI naBJIOBUtI! KaK nemi?

H
~iril

paliC) kag \tila)

K.n. 3 Xoporno. cnacu60. oR CJlblWan, Bbl 6WlH 60JlbHhl.

x~raso

I spa~n)O)!

jli sli~l I vi bili balni !

c.'!>.

!la.
Ho renepb Ii YJKC
B0011l1e 3,O,0pOB.

dill
no ~ger I

ja uie
fpah;;IlS' zdarM J. vi
r~6

K.n. 5 Bbl
BCe ClUe

jisco

Ate you' still working at the gorsovet ?J

pa60Taen BropcoBe-re?

raootaji\i vgorsaye\i!
diU i :bna toti !

c.'!>.

!la,
II lKeHa TO:lKC.

Yes, and my wife is too. Is that so? Glad to hear it. For a long time? Since fall. Excuse me, I'm hurrying to catch a bus. Goodbye. (Give my] regards to your wife. Thank you. Goodbye. 4

K.n. 7 lIa? Pa.a. :ho


,llaBHo?

CJTblWaTb.

da 1 rat eta slis::l\ ! daVDO t


soiQi J. izyiQit i ! ja s~isu n::lafl6bus J.

C.11l. 8 C ceeHM.
H3nmnfTe, }j enewy H3 3ST66yc.
K.n.

9 Ao

cBHllaHHSI:.

npHBb :lKeHc.

dasyidaQj:;, J. pri yed iiQc !


spa~ib:} f~iv6

c.eJ>. 10 Cnac60. Bcero xopOlllero.

J. xarosiv;) !

NOTES

I Adult Russians commonly address each other by the first Dame and a middle name derived from the father's first name. naBJIOBH'i and CbHJlltDDOBH'i are middle names, or patronymics, formed by adding the suffix -OBIPI to tbe stem of first names naDM Paul and CbHJlliJlII Philip. Daughters of naDM and CbHJUilln have patronymics nliBJIOBI13 and CbHJllillllOBH3 respectively. with the feminine suffix

LESSON

21

-08Ha. Ir the rather's first name ends in -H, the patronymic suffix is spelled -eBH"t (for the son) and -eBNa (for the daughter).
FATHER'S FlRST NAME SON'S PATRONYMIC DAUGHTER'S PATRONYMIC

HHKOJl3.H EBreHi-IH Halm KHPH.mJ CeMeH

Nicholas Eugene John Cyril Simon

HHKOJl3.CSII'l' Esrel-ll1eSH'I l1aauoBH'I KHpUJlJlOBH'I CeMeHOBH'I

HIIKonaeBHa EBreHHeBHa. I1BaHoBlia KHPHJlJlOBlla CeMelloBHa

Patronymics are usually shortened in speech, for example: CCMeti lKJ1IfIlDOBH't is usually pronounced hirp6n (ilipiC); KHpLrL'l niaJlOBH"t [~paliC); HHaa CCMeHOSH3 (~n~ ~i1Jl6nn~]. Observe that the present tense forms of the verb to be (corresponding to English am, is, are) arc usually not expressed in Russian:
1

KAx .nena? ..sf BIlOJlHC 3.nOpOB.


J

How is everything? (Lit. How things?) I'm completely well. (Lit. I completely welL)

ropcoBiT (short for ropo1lcK6ii cosh) means city council and includes aU of the administrative offices necessa.ry to run a city.
4 Beero xOpOUiero and 110 CBHlIli.HHK are used marc or less interchangeably in saying good-bye. Note that both Been) and xOpOwero spell their last consonant with a ,. but pronounce it [vJ: [r~iv6 xar6~iy,)J. This pronunciation of r as [vJ is regular for adjective and pronoun endings spelled -oro and -ero.

Basic sentence patterns


I. r.ne rn pa66Taewb? - ..sf pa6oTalO B rop:;oBere.
_____ B

KJlY6e.

______ Ha 3aBO.ne. _ _ _ _ _ _ Ha n6'1TC. 2. Tb.i .naSHO TaM pa66Taewb? - )la, .na8HO. - .l.(a, YJKe .naBHO. - )la, c OceHH. - ,na, H )l(eHa TO)l(e. - ,na, H My)l( TO)l(e.

Where do you work? I work at the gorsovet. _ _ al the club. ___ in a plant. ___ at the post office. Have you been working there long? Yes, J have. Yes, for a long time now. Yes, since fall. Yes, and my wife too. Yes, and my husband too.
I haven't seen you all winter. I haven't seen you in a long time. I didn't see you yesterday. I didn't see you either.

3. ..sf BCIO 3"My sac He BH.AeJl. 1 ~ .nasltO sac Ite BH.D.en. ..sf s':Iepa sac He 8w.a.en. - ..sf TOJKe sac He BH.nen.

I Tn.:, past lense (onn .i.!tM is u$Cd only wben the subject is masculine. II is replaced by."!ttJUl when the subjtt1 is feminine: J1: acID :JUly de He UnCJl8.. J1: ,UIlHO de lie Il~. J1: I I . Ilk IlC UnCJfIl. JI T6lft de "e ....... M .

22

LESSON 2

4. I1JBHHHTe. R enemy. >l: enewy Ila 3BT66yc. ~_ _ Ha Ja80D.. ~ Ha nO'iTY. _ _ _ 8lU!Y6. _ _ _ B ropco&e"r. ____ D.OMO".

E",cuse mc, I'm in a hurry. I'm hurrying to the bus. _ _ _ _ _ to the plant. _ _ _ _ _ to tbe post office. _ _ _ _ _ to tbe club. _ _ _ _ _ to the gorsovcl. _ _ _ _ home.

Correspondence between cyrillic vowel letters and the vowel sounds


The Russian vowel letters have already been discussed, particularly with reference to their functions as indicators of softness or hardness of the preceding consonant. We bave also discussed the particular function of the soft-series vowel letters, ii, e, M. e, to, as indicators of the presence of a preceding UJ sound under certain conditions. Ln the following paragraphs the Cyrillic vowel leiters will be presented, with examples of their occurrence in both stressed and unstressed syllables. Observe carefully the correspondence between the Cyrillic vowel leiters and their sound values, noting particularly that the position of a vowel in relation to the stressed syllable often determines its sound value. A. The Cyrillic letters Hand bI have appro",imately the same vowel sound in unstressed syllables as in stressed syllables, [i) and [iJ respectively. Except for w, *, and Q, all consonants before Mare pronounced soft; all consonants before bI are pronounced hard.

Kn"
HMeTb JIlOD.II MHIIjTa

[iii!

0'

BbicOKHM 116BblH

[""ell
Ilu~i]
[J11inut~l

,,;,

[Ii]

to possess people minute you

6bln3.

[v;s6lpj] [n6vij] [bila]

high
new was

B. The Cyrillic letters K) and y have the same vowel sound in unstressed syllables as in stressed syllables: [u]. At the beginning of a word and after 'b, b, or a vowel, however, the letter 10 is pronounced Uu]. Consonants preceding 10 are always pronounced soft; except for .. and lIl, all consonants before yare pronounced hard.
~

ymma MUHyC D.pyroj:j py6mt n"IDYl"


JByK

[uliQ] [J11inusJ

[drug6j]
[rubiiJ
LRi~ut)

yKCyC YlOTHO M6pK> m061tTb

[zvukJ [uksus] [ujutn:)] [m6 ru ] Ilul>i\l

street minus other rubles they write sound vinegar

rOBOptO 3H3.K> nbtOT

[gov'ro!
[maju)

00",

IJ!iUI] Uug.]

I speak I know they drink of the south

co'y
to the sea lo love
LESSON 2

23

C. The Cyrillic letter e occurs only in stressed syllables and is consistently pronounced with the vowel sound (0). At the beginning of a word and afler I., h, or a vowel, the letter e is pronounced Uo]. Except for w and *, consonants preceding e are pronounced soft.

He<:
TeMHblH Hj],eT

[QasJ
[\6mnij]

[i(lat]

he was carrying dark he's going

enKa npllCM nbeT

Oal><.) [ppjam) !Riat)

spruce reception he drinks

Note: In our text e will be consistently written with two dots to keep it distinct from e. Except In textbooks and dictionaries, Russians do not normally make a distinction between e and e in writing.

D. The Cyrillic leller 0 has the sound value (0] only in stressed syllables. In the syllable immediately before the stress and at the very beginning of a word it is pronounced [a]. In aU other positions the Cyrillic leller 0 is pronounced [~J. Except for. and w, consonants before 0 are aJways pronounced hard. 060POT xopowo ropoJJ.oK [abarot]
[x;)ra~oJ

[g;)rad6k]
[ol~v)]

turn good small town

ouo Bonp6c

[anaJ
[vapr6s]

it
. question

onoao
Monok6 TOnl>kO

tin
milk only

[m:>Jak6)

[talk.)

E. The Cyrillic Jetter e has the sound (e] only in stressed syllables. In other positions it is pronounced as [i), varying in value from the sound of the Englisb e in emit or react to a shorter, more obscure sound as in the first syllable of dispatch. In certain grammatical endings it is pronounced by some speakers as short [i] and by others as [::I], for example, nOlle p6li] or [p6t::l). Remember that at the beginning of a word, or following I., h, or a vowel, the letter e is pronounced with a preceding UJ sound. Except for w, *, and .., consonants before e are pronounced soft.
'{eJ]OselC

[Cilayek)
[majej)

Moe" Jleno Tenepb nepcBeJlHTe MeHI1


Ocn" eme

petron my
business

GOnce
~nH

lb6lijiJ
[sjeli] [atjezcb]

more
they ate up of the departure whose

[(lel'l

oTbt3J1l1
'1be"

l\iRtr1
[gipyi(li\i)
['l'iQa]

now
translate

[cjej)

me
if yet, still

OtsliJ Oi!C6)

F. The Cyrillic lelter:J occurs chiefly in words of non-Russian origin and almost always at the beginning of a word. When stressed it has the sound value [e]; when unstressed it is heard as [I).
3TO 3TH let;)]

\i)
[ex~J

this these

3HeprHjI :HaeH

(iQ.ergij;))

[ita1iJ

energy floors

,xo
3K3aMeil )JleMeIJT

echo
examination element

[igzaftlin] [iliTJIent]

Some Russian speakers, however, tend to pronounce ') as Ie) wherever it occurs, for example, :Jri. [etM] or fir-at}.

14

LfSSON2

G. The Cyrillic letter H has the vowel sound la] in stressed syllables and the vowel sound Ii] in unstressed syllables excepl for certain endings, where it has the value (;)]. Consonants preceding 11 are always pronounced soft. At Ihe beginning of a word and after b, "b. or a vowel, the leiter A is pronounced with a preceding U] sound.
min nonJi MellJi MOpJi IIJlni rnA,lteTh

lRall [P*I ['l'iQaI [maral lRili) [glillerl Oal

five
fields

JiCHO RnTa
113b1K

Uasn;)]

Ua!t;)]

me
seas

OUikl

clearly Valla language

five
to gaze I

STRUCTURE AND DRILLS

The present tense of the first conjugation verb pa60TaTb

Ji pa66mlO ThI: pa66TaeWb (m paoomeT OHa pa66meT Mbi' pa66TaeM Ubi pa66TaeTc OHii pa66TaIOT

I work, I'm working, I've been working you work, you're working, you've been working he works she works we work you work they work

REPETITION DRILL

Listcn to your instructor (or the tape) and repeat the abovc pronoun-verb model unlil you can say it perfcctly.

REPETITION-SUBSTITUTION DRILLS

Repeat after your instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you can, imitating both the individual words and the sentence intonation. Then, on hearing only the subject cue, give the full sentence.
TEACHER

STUDENT

I. fm working noll'.

R Tenepb pa66TaJO.
QHM TenCpb paOOTaJOT.

Tw Tenepb paooTacwb.
Rbi' Tencpb pa66TaeTe. Mbi' Tencpb pa66TacM. OH Tcnepb pa60TaeT. Olla Tem!ipb pa6oTaeT.

I'm working now. A Tenepb paooTaJO. 011I11 Tenepb paOOTllJOT. Tbi' Tenepb paoomewb. 8b! Tenepb paooTaeTe. M WTenepb paoomcM. OH -renepb pa66TaCT. OHa Tenepb pa66TaeT.
LESSON 2 25

2. Il'I'ork roo, ..sf TOlKC pa66TafO. Obi TOJKC pa6onurrc. Tbi TOJKC pa60Taewb. )f(ena TOJKC pa60TaeT. Omi TO"'C pa60TaeT. My,.: TOlKC pa66TaeT. On TOJKe pa66TaeT. Mb.i TOJKC pa66TaCM. OHM TOJK:C pa66TaJOT.

I work too, A TOloKC paooTslO. B';' TO:C paooTaeTe. Tbi To"'e pa60TaClUh. )Kena TOJKC paOOTaeT. OHa TOJKC pa66TaeT. MYc TO*C paOOTaeT. On TO.C paOOTaeT. M';' TOJKC paOOTaCM. On" To:ce paOOTaJOT.

QUESTIONANSWER DRILLS

Answcr the qucstions in the negativc according to the models givcn.


TEACHER

STUDENT

Do you work? Thl pa66Tacllih? Dhl pa66TacTc? )KCHa pa66TacT? My,.: paOOTaCT? 011" paOOTaJOT? OHa pa60TaCT? Ou paOOT3CT?
Using
Kll

No, I dont. He'r, lie pa60I'alO. He-r. IIC pa60TalO. HeT, lie pa60TaCT. HeT, He paOOTaeT. HeT. HC paooTalOT. Her, He paooTaeT. HeT, HC pa6oTacT.

nO"fTc. answer with both short and rull answers according to the models givcn.

Where do you .....ork? Where do you 'work? r.l{e Obi paOOTaeTe? rne 8b1 pa66TacTe? rne OHa paocnacT? Cae OHa pa66Taer? r.ae Thl pa66Taewb? r.ae TbI pa66Taewb? r.ae OH" pa66TafOT? r.ae OU" pa6oTafOT? rJIC OH pa6oTacT? rll,e OH pa66TacT?
SUBSTITUTION
DRILL

At the post office. We .....ork at the post office. Ha no-rre. Mw PSOOTaeM as nOorre. Ha nO'fTe. OHa pa60TaeT Ha nO'fTe. Ha nO'fTe. ..sf pa60TaJO na nO'fTe. Ha nO'fTe. Omi pa6oTalOT Ha nO'ITc. Ha nO'ITc. all pa66TaCT ua nO'lTC,

He's been working there for a long time. On naSHO riM paOOTaCT. )Kena naSRO TaM pa66TaCl. (ESreHII") _ (HHua) _ (Oua) _ (CeMeH) _ (Ou,,) _ (Kllpllrtn H CeMeH) _ (My,.J _
26 LESSON 2

He's been working there for a long time. DM AaBHO TaM paOOnCT. )Ke.ui Jl8SHO TiM pa6lrraer. ESreH"" .aaOHO raM paOOTaCT. H"na )laOHO niM paOOTaCT. OHa ,naSHO TaM: pa66TaeT. CCMeH ,nasnD T3.M paooraer. Olli, .naSHO TaM paOOTaIOT. KHPK.rm 1.1 CeMeH A3SflO TaM paOOTaJOT. MYJK naBHO TaM paOOraCT.

QUESTION-ANSWER DRILL Following Ihe models, give both shorl and full answers.
TEACHER

S1lJDENT

Ha)'e you been working at the club long? Have you been 'Working at the club long? Bbi .naallo pa60Taere B KJlj6e?
8WltaBHO pa66T'.teTe B XJlj6e? Oil ,naBllo pa66TaeT B xnj6e? Oil ,naallO pa66TaeT B xnj6e? dm! ,naallo pa60TaloT B ICJly6e? OHM J.taBIlO pa60TaK>T B ICny6e? OHa J.taBIIO pa60TaeT a ICny6e? Olla naBHb pa66TaeT a KJly6e? KHpiUrn ,nullb pa66TaeT B xJIj6e? KllpiUrn ltaBllb paOOTaeT B KJly6e? Tt:.! naBHO pa60TaellIh B KJJj6e? TbI: ltaBHb pa66Taelllh B KJly6e?

Yes, for a long time, since fall. Yes, Fve been working there sincefall. lli, JJ.aBHo., c OceHK. Ali. Ii paOOTatO TiM c 0ceI1H.
JIa, ,naBIIO, C 6ceHH. .D.a, Oil pa60TaeT TAM C 6ce1l1l. Aft, ltaBH6, c bcelm. ,Qfl. OHl-l pa60nUOT TaM C OceHIl. .!l.fl, .lla8110, c OceHH. .!l.fl, olla paOOTaeT TaM c OceHH. Aa, ,naBuo, c OceHH. ,[la, ou pa66TaeT TAM C OceHH. JU, .naBHO. c OceHH. Aa, R pa66TaK> raM c OceHH.

DISCUSSION

Like tmTH, the verb pa6ch8'rL belongs to the first conjugation. It differs from tmTH in thaI its present stem appears to end in a vowel (pa60Ta-), whereas that or tmnt ends in a consonant (Il)t,-). This is only a convention of the writing system, however, since the actual present stem of pa60ntTb ends in the consonant sound [j). As we know, when [j) occurs between vowels it is expressed through the "sort-series" vowel letters which follow. Thus we may contrast the written stem and endings in the chart below with those of the transcription, which show the real division of stem and ending.

WRrrrEN FORMS
STEM

TRANSCRJ PTI0N
rab6I~j-

paooTa-

SINGUlAR

2 3
PLURAL

pa6c)-ra-1O -elUb

-eT -eM -ere


->aT

rab6I:>j-u -i -it
-om

2 3

-u.

-iti

It is only in the imperative forms that tbe UJ or the stem is written with a separate leiter i: paoonii (paooTaH-re)! work! PaOOTaTb is typical of the "j-stem" verbs in that it has a fixed stress which falls on the same syllable of the stem in aU forms.

LESSON 2

27

The Russian handwriting system


A. The alphabet
PRINTED
WRrrrEN

PRINTED

WRlTTEN

I'RINTED

WRITrb'N

A a -----!;JL"-'L---'Cl/"""---_

K
JI

_JJLX-"'---'K-"'----_

_-""X""--,,X,,-_

I> 6

----"ffi=---"'--d_ -----"",$,----.-".-t_
-----<?:>L~_';fy'----". 'iJ,,-------"G"----'/"'---~
---"JfC"-"----"'=-""'--_
---z-:3--;1,f---'L-3_
_U-""----"'Ck"---_
v

JJ

_-"~'-"---"vV"'___
_--,af?&="--,,vU.-=_
_-"Ji'-"--'-rG-""---_

L\ n
'I

UY;
-m-"-,+--,,,"iI_
=_
----',,'---_

M .. H
H

r
)l,

r~r~'V~~
n

1II m _-'LYt"",-""UV"--.

o
n
p

_-"0'------"17'-----_

U\ m
b "

E e

_o'f(;"--",-v--,-~-,,,-_

11 e -----'~"'--'e--"-----~
JK '"

~qlLP----1-'!'V"--- C e.c c
P
T

bILI

_oJi(",-,-,/ V'----'-I1"-'=_

3 10

_""'-3-----".3~_

11

y y
<I> oj>

--------":!1"-----'fi<--

10

_-,Jf),,--,,---,-/~~_
_-"Jl""--'..>l/""---_

iii

"--'U"-"----"'u:"----_

----""jJ~1J'----

B. Reading practice Conversations from Lessons I and 2 are given below in handwritten ronn as an introduction Lo the handwriting system. Now that you are familiar with the conversations, you should have no real difficulty reading them. Refer to the printed versions if necessary.

28

LfSSON 2

~-a4w-~~ ~. ~ fP~ / ~ J'M1f fa.e- 1- ~. -.Il, ~ :f(;J,~/Xu:- r?-~~

"'~~.-~tc~~t~~?
Jt-

~,

~,~

k:.AM<&V? -

~ . .JCo. ~

-~_ .- ~ ~. _c;a"",? ~

9fflq

~ . ~~?

-e acu=.
+MJ<.

! .r~

~,

Jt-

:J>CU<l- / -

~. ~ ~ /

+<4-

ak+- -%-~-

C. How the letters llrc formed


1. SMALL i.ElTERS

Il

0'

JH

d
I

G<{J
, 3

The first three lettcrs are formed in practically the same way as in English. The leuen 6 and. begin the same way as o. In 6, a vertical line then goes upward and curves at the top to tbe right. In .,., after the first circle, a straight vertical stroke goes downward and then back up along the same line, returning to the initial point and continuing up and clockwise to form another circle. The letters y and M are formed like the English handwritten y and u; ii is the same as M, but with the addition of a short half circle above. (Write it immediately lest you forget.)

jj

IN

"

IU

IU

1M..

The leiter II is also written like N, except thai it ends in a small loop below the line. Handwritten wand w consist of three vertical lines of equal height with a final drop to the line (unlike the English written w). The UJ has a small tail loop like 1(.
LESSON 2

29

bI

Make a small figure 6 to form the sort sign. The wriuen hi starts with the same downstroke and loop as b, swings up to a sharp peak. goes down again. and then curves to the right. Both letters are shon compared with the handwritten B.
7

The first letter is written like onc variant of the English handwritten r. The second is similar, but ends in a small circle, resembling a combination of "t and b. (Some Russians replace 1. with an apostrophe.) The third differs from the first in that it does not have the short horizontal line at the (OP, but is rounded. These three leiters begin with a small hook slightly above the line (remember this when joining these leiters 10 others). To form iii, begin with the same upward stroke as in 11 and /lI. Then make a small counterclockwise circle at the top, returning to the same point and ending in a line down (Sf looks like JI with a small loop to the left oC its top). Do not make the Russian JI as tall as an English I. The first two letters. D and T. arc Cormed much like the English handwriuen nand m. The Russian to is written like tbe printed English k; it is never tall with a loop as in the English written k (Ie not
, ... 3

&
, :t

>3

Iu.

"
,

10

,I.

For II, start Crom the top down, then go back halCway up the same line, turning to the right and upward, then finally coming back down to the line. To fonn fO, Collow the directions Cor II, but continue the last stroke back upward to Corm a circle.

'"

For handwritten 3, begin at the top and make a balf circle clockwise, then cui il in half by a small horizontal line. For :4>:. start al the top and makc the same halC circle, then slant back up 10 the right, then straight down and again up to the right; finish with anothcr halC circle (like the English writtcn c) going in the opposite direction.

30

LESSON 2

e
l!-

cr
x

Jp}
(XI 7

These lellers are all formed much the same way as in English. The letter e must be written
~(ne\ler

-'-); the Ictter

must be wrillen tall

and kept distinct from .. <.tversuskJ.

f(P) c II

:x.

NOle: Russians do nol print words, even when they fill oul official forms by hand .

HANDWRITING DRILL

Practice copying the small leiters above until you can write them easily and accurately.

2.

CAPITAL LEITERS!

iJ.

o.IL
H

:B
0

9J
C

oX
X

These arc similar to the English letters with corresponding shapes.

;X
lK

()

e.ft

X
JI

11

;)J(
III

U
ll\

11.
L\

JL,
3

~
10

These are the same as their corresponding small letters but taller and larger.

1JL
r

~
n

U
Ii

;)

;}{/ a..
All four letters start with a basic line that curves downward, turning to the left. The fourth letter differs from the others only in that it starts with a small flourish at the lOp. The same stroke in the first, second, and third is the curved line from left to right that caps each leiter. The second has another downward stroke, ending toward the right before the cap is added. The third letter has as its third stroke a large loop at the bottom (like a closed, looped 6gure 2). The fourth has two loops on either side of the down stroke which resemble a figure 8 on its side.

JI

<I>

[J

s;- iP d {cj5J

, Russian capital letters are used only al lhe beginning of the sentence, in proper names, and in the first word of a tilk. Russians do nOi capitalitt the names of months, nationalities, centuries, professions, or ranks; nor do lbey capitalize the personal pronoun Ii within a sentence.

LESSON 2

31

~
q

~
y

tG,

ZJ

Certain varieties of the English written capital are acceptable. Start outside and make the small top loop; the bottom half circle must be larger than the upper onc. For If, begin with an upward, clockwise curve, then make a downward, "u-shaped" curve. slanting back and down, finally curving to the right on the line. Capital Y is like the preceding Ictter, except that the curved downward stroke goes to the left. Unlike its small counterpart, capital Y starts high above the base line and mllst not extend below the line.

HANDWRITING DRILL

Practice copying the capilal leiters until you can write them easily and accurately.

D. Summary remarks on the handwriting system

I. All Russian capital letters except m and U have their base on the line and extend above it; Wand U. each has a small loop which extends below the linc.

2. Small handwriuen letters are of two types: long and short.


a. Long lellers

Three long letters have their base on the line and extend above it.

t d

,ndd

Five long letters have their base on thc line and extcnd below it.

b. Shori letters All the remaining letters are of the same height and are wrincn on the line except wand each of which has a short loop below the line.

II,

3. Most Ictters are joined together in writing; however, and are usually not connected to the following leher. ---

7J

32

LESSON 2

4. The IClIers 1, A, p. r. :lIld x, may be handwrillcn in two ways.

'}. 3

rr,7

10. IV

The first variant in each pair is the one used more frequently. Some Russians draw a horizontal linc above

+n..-.

and below Ut.- to make these letters stand out better. The student is advised to use

the first variant of

+n...-

be:::-he cannot substitute the usual English written tfor Russian-{-.

COPYING AND HANDWRiTiNG PRACTICE

J. Copy the handwritten versions of the first two conversations, ~ing careful to observe tbe connections of the letters. 2. Return to the first two conversations in printed form and copy each in handwriting.

SyUabification of words in Russian


80th in pronouncing words by syllable and in dividing them at the end. of a written line, there are certain important principles that should be followed. In pronunciation, the basic pallern is to end a syllable with a vowel wherever possible. cna--cH-60 pa-66-Ta-e-Te IUl--cbM6 CKa-)I(H-TC no-BTo-pH-Te
[spa-~i-ooJ

[ra-b6-ta-ji-ti] l!l;-lm6] [ska-fHi] [p....fta-r>-\;)

thanks [you] work letter tell [me)! say! repeat!

Consonant clusters beginning with p, n, H, and" are usually divided after these consonants. Final consonants are, of course, treated as part of the syllable which they end.

Ka-paH-,nalli 'ut-tiH-re
nOJJ-ka
'j-HI+--BCp-cH-Ter

[Krran-dM] [c;.-taH;) [p6l-k,)

pencil read! shelf [u-Qi-yir,i--v~t ) university

In dividing wriuen words at the end of a line, these same general rules apply, but there is slightly more leeway in the division f)f clusters of consonants. For example, cecrpa may be divided ce-cTp:i (as in pronunciation), cec-T]ta, or cecr-pi. Doubled letters are always divided when carried over to the next line, for example, AH-aa and ooA-AiT... Single letters are never left at the end of onc line or at the beginning of the next.
LESSON

33

LESSON

PREPARATION FOR CONVERSATION


[hic~i)

JIY'Iwe

n031lUO, '1fM HHKOr;:l,a

J1y'lwe
00311110
'1CM

(p6zn~]

IIHKOr,na

[cern) [Qikagda]

better late than

never
Better late than never. hello Hello. Lev! you're hurrying Where afC you hurrying to?
university to the university I'm hurrying to the university. concert to a concert To the university, to a concert.

Ry'llUC n03JJ.HO, 'IeM IIHKOflla. 3,llpaoCTByiiTe [zdraSluHi]'

Jle.,

311pauCTByiiTe!
SRi~itil

Rbi CneWHTe [vi KyAi. 0':' coeuofyc?


}'lIllOCpcHTCT

IUt.li'{i~itetJ
[vuQiyir~i\et]

B ytlHaepcHTe-r
~ cnewy

B YHHBePCItTeT.

KOHuepT

[kancert J
[n:Jkancert}

H3 KOHuc!:pr

B yHHOepcHTCT, U3 KOiluepr.

.R enemy

B ytlIlOCpcMTCT,

lIa KOIIU:(:PT.

I'm hurrying to the university,

to a concert.
IlllTepeCHO

6ecIlJlaTHo

HKTcpeclto.
1I0HTI-l

[intiresn:>] f9isplatn:>] 3m 6ecnmlTHo?

that's interesting

r",.,
That's interesting. Is it free? to go
you want

[pajVJ [Obi] xOTIhe [vi xaVtiJ XOTiiTe nom?

Do you want to go?


pleasure With pleasure! or I'd Jove to!

YAoB6nbC"nme C YJlOBOnbCTBHeM!

(udav6lstyij~1

[sudav6tst yij:)m I

, l~)"iTe is simplJliod In pronunciation to something that rangd from (zdrastuWlto Inlrf,~HiJ. dependmg on the tempo of speech and the informality of the speaker. Note also that ..ol!UlO is pronouna:d without lI. : [p6zmJ. Oustet'$ of three or more oon50nants are usually simplified. and Jl and T lire usually omitted between COlllOnan\$ except lit the: beginning of a word: lIpil!lHMl<: Iplf,~,kJ holiday.

35

Db! .aenacTe [vi \Iel;)jiti] 'fTO [SIO) 4TO Db!: .aenaeTe? KCraTH [kst3.ti) Kcd:TM, 'ITO 8W Tenepb ne..lJane l' na60paTopHSI (Iaooratopj;)] D na60paTopHH [vl;)ooratorijiJ

you're doing what What are you doing? by the way, incidentally By the way, what are you doing now? laboratory in a laboratory I work in a laboratory. [it's] so dull, [it's] It's so boring there.
SO

A pa66TalO
TaM Tal'

8 na60paTopHH.

13K CKy'lHO
CKfllHn.
D

[tak

sku~n;)J I

boring

yllHBepcHTCT (JxlsIUpaW VUlJi yir~itet] TaK [t;)k] Tal' flOCTYUaiiTe lInl DW! Y)Ke 0(3)),HO [u:fe Mite [mQc] Mue YJKC n03JJ.Ho.
pozm~ ]
B

DOCTYIlaiiTe

yHHBepclITiT.

enroll at the university! enter the univer sity! in that case, then Then enroll at the university. You can't mean it! or You're oat serious! it's already late, it's too late for me, to me It's too late for me. It's too late for me now. they say, people say you know you know [what] they say ... You know [what] they say: "Better late than never:'

Mue Tenepb yJto.-e Deh/lHo.


rOBOpn [t-lvaratJ [BW] 3UaeTe [vi znaji\i) 3HaeTe, rQBoph... [znajiti g:'lvarat] 3Uline, r080JHiT: uJ1yllwe u03A1ln, llhot lIHKOI,/.ui".
SUPPLEMENT

palla Eme pallO. 33.IUlT (m) 3allrn (f) 33.IUlTbi (pi) BbI: 33.HJlTbl? - ,[I,a, Ii 3aHSIT (or laIlSITa).

'laC,.o

.st .st .st


Ii

'faCTO pa6oTalo D na60paT6pl1H.


pe,QKO

pe./l.KO pa66T3.1O D na60paTopHH. HHor,na HHOOta pa66T3.lO D na60paTopHH. IlHKOr,lta ne HHKor,na He pa66TaJO D na60paTopHH.

early It's early yet or It's too early. he's busy, occupied, tied up she's busy, occupied, tied up we're busy, occupied, tied up Are you busy? Yes, I am. often I often work in the laboratory. rarely, seldom I rarely work in the laboratory. sometimes I sometimes work in the laboratory. never I never work in the laboratory.

ADDITIONAL CLASSROOM EXPRESSIONS

OTseq,Hhe latyicajti] or OTUeTbTe [atyeni ] OTlipOihe KtIHrH. (alkrojti KQigi)

answer! Open your books.

, cq-'IIIO IS pronounced [slni~n;)] by some spc;lken. jskutn;)] by others.

36

LESSON 3

'3uKpo'nTe Klllint.
npaBIUlbiiO

[zakroj\i

k~ligil

[pra Yiln;) J

lIenpaBHnbBo [Qipra yiin;)] rocnomiH [g:>spaQin} rocnmd [g~spazaJ rOCl'lo.na [g;:Jspada 1 laKpOHTe KIlHrl1, rocno.na. Obi: nOIUlMaeTe? (vi IX'Qimajiti]
~

Close your books. right, that's right wrong, that's wrong

If

nOIlHM{uO.

Un IX'Qimaju)

Me. Miss, Mrs. ladies and gentlemen, everybody, everyone Close your books, everyone. Do you understand '1 I understand.

JI yqrne m>J.llHO, qeM HOKOr.lla


Beller late than never
M.-MHna Jl. -JICB

M.

fleB, 3,ll,paBCTByHTe! Ky.ua ObI CneWHTe?

Iff!

zdrastujti 1 kuda vi SRisiti 1 vUQiYiI1itet 1


n~kancert

Hello Lev. Where are you hurrying to? To the university, to a concert. That's interesting. Is it free?

JI.

2 B yllH6CpcilTb,
Ha KOHUCpT.

M. 3 HHTepeeHO.
31'0 6ecnllaTllo?

in\iresn~ et~ l?ispltHn~

t
Yes. Do you want to gO?1

JI.

.lIa.
XOTHTe nOHnt?

diij xati\i pajti

t
1
I'd love to 1 By the way, what are you doing now?2 I work in a laboratory. It's so dull there! Enroll at the university then. J You're not serious! It's too late for me now. You know what they say: "Better late than never."

M. 5 C y,uoaollbcTBHCM!
JI.
6 KCT3.TH,
'ITO Dbl Tenepb ,Ll,enaeTe?

sudavolstyij~rn

kstii\i ! sto vi tiger


~eloji\i

M. 7 Pa60Talo
B na60paTOp"H. TaM 1'3.K CKY'H10!

rabot~ju

vl~ooratoriji 1

tam tfik skusn::ll t::lk PQstupajti vuQ-iyiqitet 1 5tO vi! mQ-e tiger uze pozn;) 1 znajiti 1
~vara(

JI.

g TaK nocTymHiTe
B yHHOepcHTeT.
41'0 abl! MHe Tenepb p<e n03JtHo.

M. 9

JI. 10 3HaeTC,
rOBoph: ttfly'lwe n03AHo, '1eM HHKorAa.

lucsi pOzn::l cern Q.ikagd1i 1


LESSON 3

37

NOTES

, Verbs in Russian almost always come in pairs called "imperfective" and 'perfectivc.' noiini is the perfective member of the imperfective-perfective pair of verbs HllTH and noiint. The imperfective member of the verbal pair usually describes an action viewed as a process (HATli to be going); the perfective usually describes an action in terms of its accomplishment or result (nom to go). Verbal pairs usually have the same root, but differ in their prefix or in their stem. The system of paired verbs is called "aspect," and the choice of which verb to use-imperfective or perfective-depends on how the Russian speaker views the action. In these early lessons, the student will encounter verbs of both aspects and will practice them as he meets them, without being expected to know both members of a particular pair or how one is formed in relation to the other.
J

Russian adverbs. unlike those in English, are usually placed before the verb: 4TO 8M Tcnepb ,ll,e.naeTe? B'fcpa 6W110 c06p{uHte? Jj nl.\t He 6b1J1. What are you doing now? Was there a meeting yesterday? I wasn't there.

It is also normal to place direct object pronouns before the verb.

Jj BOO 3ilMy lie BH./te11. Jj llalmO He Billle11.

Pan. iTO CJlblwan..

sae

uae

I haven't seen you all winter.

I haven't seen yOIl in a long time. Glad to hear it.

) The stressed word Tit.: in TiK cKj'fHO means so and differs from the un stressed TaK [bk] in TaK oocrynaiiTc B )lIHsepetrreT, which means then, ill rhat case.

Basic sentence patterns


I. KYl1a Tbl cnewHwb? - B YIU18epcI1Tth.

8 "11Y6. Ha co6piIrne. Ha nO'fTY. Ha KOHUepT. Ha yp6K. Ha ypOK neHHjI. Ha aBT66yc. Ha 3aJlo.n. AOMOi!.

Where are you hurrying to? To the university. To the club. To a meeting. To the post office. To a concert. To class. To a singing class. To the bus. To the plant. Home. Where are you hurrying to? I'm hurrying to the club. _ _ _ _ _ to the university. _ _ _ _ _ 10 the meeting. _ _ _ _ _ to the post office. _ _ _ _ _ to class. _ _ _ _ _ lO a singing class. _ _ _ _ _ to the bus. _ _ _ _ _ to the plant. _ _ _ _ home.

2. KYl1a Bbl cncuuhe? - Jj cnemy B IUIY6. _ _ _ _ B YJlHBepcHTb". _ _ _ _ Ha co6pimtc. _ _ _ _ Ha no'lT)'. _ _ _ _ lIa ypOK. _____ lJa ypOK nblilH. __~__ Ha aBT66yc. _____ lIa 33BOJJ,. _____ AOMOH.
38
LESSON 3

3. XOTIhe nouni Ha KOIIUepT? _ _ _ _ _ _ Ha c06pflHHe? _ _ _ _ _ _ ua nO'fTy? _ _ _ _ _ B KJly6? _ _ _ _ _ _ B )'HHBepcHTeT? _ _ _ _ _ _ B)'HHBePCHTeT, Ha KOHUCpT?

Wanl 10 go to the _______ _______ ______ ________ ________

concert? to the meeting? to the post office? to the club? to the university? to the university, to

a concert?

4. XoniTe nouru B KJly6?


-- Lla . .st ~aBH6 TaM He 6hl~. -- )lao .st ~aBH6 TaM He 6hl~a.1 -- HC"r, Ii 3amrr. -- Hch, Ii 3amrra. 1 -- He-r, Ii )')ICe TaM 6blJl. -- HeT, Ji )')ICe TaM 6blmL I -- Hh, TaM TaK CKy'lHO. - H&r, )')ICe m')3,IJ,HO. - HeT, ell.le paHO.

--c y~oB6~bCTBHeM.

Want to go to the club? I'd love 10. Yes, I haven'l been there for a long time. Yes, _ No, I'm busy. No, _ No, I was already there. No, _ No, it's so boring there. No, it's [too] late. No, it's still early. What do you do now? I work in a laboratory. _ _ at the plant. ___ at the club. ___ at the gorsovet. ___ at the university. _ _ at the post office. Where's Lev hurrying to, the plant? No, to a meeting. No, to a singing lesson. Where are Nina and Kirill hurrying to? They're hurrying to the club. They're hurrying to the laboratory. Where are you hurrying to, Evgeny? I'm hurrying 10 the university. I'm hurrying to a concert.

5. tho Bbl Tenepb .QenaeTe?


- Pa6oTalO B na60paT6pHH. _ _ _ _ _ Ha 3aBO.ne. _ _ _ _ B KnY6e. _ _ _ _ _ B rOpcOBere. _ _ _ _ _ a yUHBepcJ.:l.TeTe. _ _ _ _ _ Ha nO'fTe.

6. Kymi cneWHT flea, Ha 3aBo.n?


- HeT, 113 coGpau"e. - HeT, ua yp6K neHlIR. KY.ll.a cneW:lT HUlla H KHpH.nn? - Omi cnewaT a KJlY6. - Omi cnewa-r a na60paTopmo. KY.ll.3 Bbl CneUlHTe, EartH"u? - R cnemy B yllilBepcHTeT. - R cnemy Ha KOHUepT.

The alternation of voiced and voiceless consonants


Besides the important feature of hardness and softness, the Russian consonant system is dominated by another significant element: the presence or absence of what is called "voice." A voiced consonant is one pronounced with an accompanying vibration of Ihe vocal cords. For example, the Russian [b,~; v, y; d, 9; z,~] are all considered voiced consonants. So, too, are the English b in boys, v in view, d in dog, and z in zip. In contrast, a \'oiceless (or unvoiced) consonant is one pronounced without this accompanying vibration of the vocal cords. For example, the Russian [p, g; f, f; t, t; s, ~] are all considered voiceless consonants in the system. Similarly, the English pin poise,finfew, t in togs, and s in sip are voiceless consonants. The main difference between the Russian and English treatment of tbe voiced and voiceless consonants is that in Russian there is a systematic replacement of one by the other under prescribed circumstances while in English there is not. We can pronounce the English gooseberry wilh either
I

Feminine speaker.
LESSON

39

an [s] or a (z) sound, and both are acceptable. Russian, however, requires that the written JJ. of .o!lKa be pronounced (t) because it occurs before (k), an unvoiced consonant: [votb). Although all Russian consonant sounds may be characterized as voiced or voiceless, not all occur in opposed pairs. The following chart shows the regularly opposed pairs.
Voiced

\>

d
I

Q z f

z
!

g
k

SOUNDS
Voiceless

p R f

s I

The consonants (x, ~, c, c, ~l are all voiceless, but do not have voiced counterparts that operate independently in the system. They can, however, affect the pronunciation of a preceding consonant. The consonants (r, f, I, l, m, rp, n, Q, j) possess voice, but have no corresponding voiceless counterparts. They are considered "neutral" because they do not determine the pronunciation of other consonants occurring in combination with them. In terms of the Russian writing system, the paired voiced and voiceless consonants may be indicated as follows:
Voiced Voiceless
6 n 6b nb B Bb
A
T

Ab
Tb

, '" '"
C Cb
W

4> 4>'

<

Since the writing system does not accurately refleci the spoken language, it is essential for the student to know which consonants are voiced, which are voiceless, and, especially, which are paired in terms of voice or absence of voice. This is important because, in certain positions, only consonant sounds of one or the other series are spoken, regardless of the spelling. The automatic alternation of voiced and voiceless consonant sounds operates, UDder the following conditions. within a word or combination of words spoken together as a unit. 1

A. At the end of a word, consonanlS ordinarily voiced are replaced automatically by their unvoiced counterparts.
ANAL POSITION roTOR ,..OA
rpH6

NON-FINAL POSITION ready plant mushroom line rOTo8a JasolU>l rpH6b:i 6lepe.IDt [gatov;)J [zavOdi] [gribi] [6<! ir iQi]
ready

6'lepe.n b

[geIOf] [zavot] [gpp[ [6<!ir i\]

plants mushrooms lines

B. Consonants in clusters, either within one word or in adjacent words pronounced without a

break, are assimilated to the extent that the entire cluster is pronounced either voiceless or voiced. Note, in the following examples. that it is the second or last voiced or voiceless consonant in the series that determines how the preceding consonant(s) will be pronounced. 1. VOICELESS CLUSTERS SPELLED PRONOUNCED yesterday train bo< in the desk vodka at the club
[IC] [st) [pk] [fst] [Ik] [fk]

B"
'A 6<
acT

in

R'fCpa n0e3JJ. Kop66Ka


B CTOile

in

[lCira] [p6jist] [karopb] [fsta[c [


[v6tk~]

A<

80JJ.h"3
BtvTj6e
lot.

40

[fklu\>;)

, .

, SilKlC' the rn:utnli oonsonanls p. iI. II. lhey win be excluded from chis disclls.~ion.

and i do noc playa pari in lhe alternallon of voiced and voicelcss oonsonanlS.

LESSON 3

2.

VOICED CLUSTERS

eb6

""

'"

"'"

Kli.. ltcJl3 np6c..6a rdJ..-..:e

how are things request likewise, too

[g~)

[fbI [gfl

'"

[kag~ila)

[peofoo] [tagfi)

The consonant B (ab) must be considered a special case. Allhaugh it undergoes unvOIcmg (i.e., it is pronounced as [fJ or [0 either in final position or when followed by an unvoiced consonant), it docs nol cause a normally voiceless consonant preceding it to become voiced. Thus, both .JBiJtH (with cluster (zvJ) and cs.ari (with cluster [sv)) ex.ist in Russian. To summarize, we may say thaI the assimilation of consonants is a regressive process in Russian: the last element affects tbat which precedes it. Thus, in the following series, Position 2 dctcnnines the quality of Position J in terms of voice or its lack.

POSITION J

POSITION 2

a. Ordinarily voiced consonants are pronounced voiceless here

roTtle [""tol]
b. Ordinarily voiced consonants are pronounced voiceless her

when a word boundary or pause follows.

,7.~ SOJ.lKa
[v6Ik3]

wben a voiceless consonant follows.

c. Ordinarily voiceless consonants are pronounced voiced here

.H TalOKe
[tagfi]

when a I'oiced consonant (other than B) follows.

VOICING AND UNVOICING DRILLS Read the following Cyrillic words, noting the automatic changes in pronunciation that take place in certain positions. I. UNVOICING AT END OF WORDS 6 pronounced [p 1 61. pronounced
CkOp6L JJl:6b

w]

8 pronounced

(11

""6
cna6 rpH6 CToJl6

n66
3y6 .ll:Y6 pli6

(rap) [slap] [gpp] (stolp) [lop) (zlip J (dup] [rapi

."oob
rony6L JW6b pli6h rpa6b

66b

[sko'll] [pg] [deogl [golugl [zig] [ragl [grag] [ogl

[xrulMl] JIes Oel] Typreues (turgeQif] [!il] KOB [001] [slol] enoB [Ost...1] 6eTpoB (ri] "epa pes [rol] o6phlB [abrill CH';" [s~al]

XPYWCS

""'"

L!OSON 3

41

Db pronounced nplf63.Bb 3aCT3.Bb 6yp3.Bb JUOOOBb MOpKOBb 6p6Bb KpOBb HOBb '!ePBb 66yBb

[0

r pronounced [k]

.It

pronounced [t]

(PriMO [zastaO [bur.\O OubOO


[man:oO

war
CHer 6eper lIer

[ID)

pa~

mHr
nup6r .npyr Kpyr

[br60 [kr60 [n60


[~rO

lOr

[S9 ok J PIOpkJ 06kJ [kk) !Jlir6kJ [druk) [kruk) OukJ

ca.n
06e~

lIell BUll rO.n ropoll

[ralJ [sal) [a\>OIJ 061J evil) [g61J


[gornt]

p""
cTh<~

[rat) [stlt)

[6buO

JJ.b pronounced

ltl

)I(

pronunced ~]

:J

pronounced [s]

[kla\l rlIa.nb [g1aIJ [Iitra\l ~b lIOWa,llb 06! il) nlIOWa.Ab (p16!Ci\l MeM ['l'o\l O'lepellb [6CipI! 6Yllb [bUI)

"""".

rap3.:lK

,TII><
uap6Kb

ell:
CTpHJIC

UO:llC

y>< My><
3aM}0lC

[garalJ [ltalJ [narB) 06!J [strll ] [n61J [ul]


[mu~J

XOlIX03 MOpa3 COI03

0'"

pa, rna, rh pacel:b

[rasJ [g1asJ [gasJ


{raskas] [vlJis] [kalx6s] [mar6s) [sajus]

[zamulJ

:Jb

pronounced

[~]

M83b lI83b

[m"';)

ClIO,.
p&lb cmbb Bp63b

O"';J [s[<jJ
[~J [sV~)
[vr6~l

CjJb rplOb CBlOb KU.H3b 6i3b

[SU~)

[W~J
[sya~J

[k9a~1

l1Ia~ J

2. UNVOICING BEFORE AN UNVOICED OONSONANT

B pronounced [f]

6 pronounced (p J
06ul.ldi: pw6u pi6'!"x y.n66cno lUle6ua Kop66Ka Boo6we

r pronounced [k)
6OrcTBo KOlTli u6rTll lKenuHH

DCIO
B'Iepa

[r~uJ

[ffulI)

8XOll aBT66yc ooua npo.n.a8wHua


B 'laC

[fx61)
[aft6busJ

[6p!Cij) [ripk.) [[lIpelkJ


[udopsoo]

PIOkSlVoJ [k6k \'l1 [n61<\')


[f6k~ijl

[afcaJ
[proxiafStic:l]

[xlo"",,]
[kar6pb]
[Y.)ap~]

3Arc
.neITJI' miITe nOCTpHrwH

[zaksJ
[~6kl'J

[rcas)
[fkar6p~i]

[[akll)
[pastrik~jJ

Kop66Ke BOOJme
B

[fpa1 9oJ

42

LESSON 3

A pronounced It) JloJlKa UOXO.llKa 6moJllte MOJlO.lluU 80.llJt::a Jar.ia.K3 HMuHCh no./t cHeroM HM co66"
[Iotk~]

.. pronounced IOUfJKKa HeYx'ro noxKa Ha,ae)kJl

[~]

J pronounced [s) 6mbKo CK3.JKa n6e3.ll alllr M03r .llp03.ll H3 TaHl(3 CJle3Ka

[k~lb]

[paxotbj [b[uteo]
[m~latciJ [v6tk~]

[oju~t~]

IbIJsk,] [sUsk,]
[pOj;",]

HY>ut
HeMHO)kICO

[16Ik,] [na'iClt] [nult)


[oimno~k~1

(zagath) (na'gil] [paISoeg;lm) (n:ltsab6j]

[yJsk] [m6sk] [dr6st) [istAnb] [sI6sb]

3.

VOICING BEFORE A VOICED (X)NSONANT

.. pronounced
r.\D<e KaJ:: .ne.na BOnin JoaMell alleKJlOT K :lKene K3HMe K 6a6c
I(

(gJ
[tagZi) [kag4Jla] [v3gzal] [igWjUnj (aQigdot] [gZJQc] [lW'l'c]
[gba~ij

c pronounced (z]
CTOpaTh

T pronounced (d] OT ropo.na OT 6paTIl [adgor;xb]


[adbrat~]

[zgarall
[z~i\]

c6m
croaop c60p c66pml.K c.lla<Ja C TOphi

(zg6wr] [zOOr] [zOO '\lJk] [zdalo] [zgari)

OT66"
QT)kaTh
(Yr.u".

JI.6My

K3.KGbI

[gd6mu) [kagbi]

OT 3aaHCTH OTIKHJI OT6p6cbl OT )KeHbl oTra,naTb

[adOOj] [adfall [bdzif] [adzayJl\i] [bd!il] [adbrosiJ (adzini] [adgadall

Ch

pronounced

[~]

n. pronounced (~)

np6ct.6a Kocb6a

[pr6p.o]
(ka~ba)

ce.ruiTb6a :(eHHn.6a MOJIOTb6il

[li~'ibo]

[fiQi'ib,j [m,la'iba]

STRUCTURE AND DRILLS

The present tense of the second conjugation verb


li cnemy TlJ CneWHrnb Oll cneuuiT OHa CneW"T Mbl cnewliM Bbl CneW"Te 011" cnewfn

CJleunfrL

I'm hurrying, I'm in a hurry you're hurrying, you're in a hurry he's hurrying she's hurrying we're hurrying you're hurrying they're hurrying

LESSON

43

REPETITION DRILLS I

I. Listen to your instructor (or the tape) and repeat thc preceding pronoun-vcrb model until you can say it perfectly.

2. fm hurrying to a lesson.
T:

.sf enewy 113 yp6K. S: )1 cnemy Ha }'POK'.

QHM cnewaT Ha yp6K.

8b1 CnernHTe ua ypOJC. Qua cneWMT ua yp6JC. Mbl cneWHM lIa yp6K. 011 cneWHT Ha yp6tc. TbI: cneWHWb lIa yp6JC.

QUESTIONANSWER DRILLS

I. Where are you hurrying to? We're hurrying to a concert.


T: Ky.a3 Bbl cnewHTe? s: Mw cnewlOt Ha KOOuepT.

2. Where are you hurrying, home? No, rm hurrying to the post office.
T: Kyna BbI: cnewHTe, nOM6"?

s: Her, Ii cnewj IdI D6arry.


T: Ky,aa oml cnewHT, nOMoit? s: Her, 0lU1 cneunrr Ha u6orry.

T: Ky.a3 on cnewHT? s: Oil cneuuiT Ha kOfulepT. KYM OlUt cnew3T? Ky.oa TbI cnewHwb? Ky.rta OIU\. cnewMT? KYM MbI: CnCW"M?

Ky.n3. OHM cnew3.T, .aOMOn? Kyna Oil CnelUHT, LlOMO"? Ky.rta TbI cncwHwb, nOMO"'?

Using B Yluu~epcHTe-r, Student I first replies with a short answer. then Student 2 replies with a full answer.

Using Ha aBT06yc, answer the question with both short and full answers.

3. Where are )'ou hurrying 10? To the un;~ersity. rm hurrying to the university.
T: Ky.aa Obi CnCW"TC? 51: 8 yllHBepcHTlh. S2: )1 cneUlY B yIIHBcpcHreT. H"Ha, KHP"JlJI, Kyona Ohl ellCUl"Tc? Ky.aa Tbl cncUJ"Wb? KYll,a 6n cncwHT? Ky.rtfl amI. cncwHT? KY1l<l 011" cncwftT?

4. Where are you going in such a hurry? To catch a bus. rm Illirrying to catch a bus.
T: Kyna aLI TaK cllcwHTe?
SI:

Ha aB'l'66ye.
611 TaK CnCWH'"? OUH Ttu< cncwaT'1 Mbf T3K eIlCUHtM? Tbl TaK CtrCWltWb? alia TaK CnCUlliT?

S2: )1 enemy "a a8T06ye. Kyna Kyn3 Kyna Ky.aa Kyna

5. Where are you hurrying 10, the laboralory? No, fm }/lIrryi1lg to the club. T: KYll,a abl cnewHTe, B Jla60paTopmo?
s: He-r, j cnemY B KJlj6. T: Kyna TbI cnewHwb, a Jla6opaTopmo? s: HeT, j cnelUY B K'Jlj6.

Kyna Kyna Ky;:u\ Kynit Kyna

611 cncwHT, 0 Jla60paTopHf{)? OIlH cnew3.T, a Jla60pUT6puf{)? TbI: cnewMwb, B Jla60paT6pllf{)? aHa cnewHT, B Jla60paT6pHf{)? obi: enewHTe, a Jla60paTOpHf{)?

, Beginning wllh thIS lesson, both tnc teacher and student sentellCe$ an: Included in tnc same column.

44

LffiSON

DISCUSSION

CoernHn. is a second conjugation verb with the stress on the endings.

SINGUUR

PLURAL

mew-y
-IfWb

cnew-HM

2 3

-1fT

-om: -aT

Second conjugation verbs have linking vowel H, (cncwHwb, cnewHT, CllCWHM, cnewHTe) where first conjugation verbs have e or e (pa66Taewb, lflleWb). Where first conjugation verbs have Ihe third person plural ending in -yr or -toT (HlJ,jT, paOOTatoT), second conjugation verbs have -aT or -lIT (cnewaT, rOBOp"). It is only in the first person singular (hat first and second conjugation verbs share (he common ending -y or -to. Examples of other second conjugation verbs so far encountered:' c.'lbiwan. rOBOpH"fI>
CTOliTb

to hear to speak. say

CnJ:dut-y, e.m:1ut-HWb, c..nbIut-HT, CJ1LlllJ-HM, cnL'lLU-HTe, CJIb1LU-aT

rORop-lo, roeop-Jiwb, rOROp-IIT, rORop-HM, rOBop-RTe, rOBop-liT

to stand

CTa-IO, erD-RWb, CTa-IIT, cTa-liM, CTD-HTe, era-liT

Masculine, feminine, and plural endings of short-form adjectives


.R (rn, Oil) JaUSlT. pa.
JlI 0 POB. 66nell.
FEMININE
SUBJECT

MASCULINE

SUBJECT

I'm (you're, he's) busy. glad. well. sick . I'm (you're. shc's) busy.
glad.

..s1 (Tbl, ollii) JallRTa. pa.aa. JJlopOea.


6onbHa.

well. sick. We're (you're, they're) busy.


glad.

SUBJECT

PLURAL

Mbf (BM, OHIt) J3HJ1Tb1. paabl. 3JlOpOBbl.


6onbilLI.

well. sick.

REPETITION DRILL

Listen to your instructor (or the lape) and repeat the above models until you can say them perfectly.
I These verbs arc given here primarily 10 show ending and Slress panems. They will be drilled laler.

USSON 3

45

REPETITIONSUBSTITUTION DRILLS

Repeal after your instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you can, imitating both the individual words and the sentence intonation. Then, on hearing only the subject cue, supply the full utterance according to the given model.
I.

rm blLsy now.
T:

.sf Tenepb 3aIUlT. s: A Tenepb J.iuwr.


M~,

T: 01130 Tenepb 33IUITa. s: ORa Teneph 3aum. (OHM, ShoI, HHHa, :lKellli,

MhoI, MH.rta)

2. Are you glad 10 hear il? T: Tbi pan iTO C1Ib1WaTb? S: Tw pliiJt iTo em:uua..... ? T: OHa p3.na iTO C1IbIWaTb ? s: Olui paJta :ITo ClIbuuan. ? (CeMell, omi, U:apanICuII, BbI, MMa)

3. Tm completely well. T: .sf snonue 3.ll0pOS.

4. Tm sick. T: .sf 60nell.

s: A aooJIIle 3.ll0pOS.
T: Omf SnOnHe 3JJ.0p6Sbl.

s: Jt

MJlCH.

s: 0111' SDOJIIle 3JtOpOSbI.


(Sbl,

>KeHa, omi, EsrcHilii)

T: Om't 60111011<1. s: Olla 6oJIblla. (MHJla H CCMell, Bhl, EBremiH, Mhl, HHlla)

QUESTION-ANSWER DRILLS

I. Lev, are you busy? No, Fm not busy. T: 11es, ill :lAHn? s: HeT, Ii He 3aun. T: HMlla, ill 3aurn? s: Hh, Ii He JaHsrra. (MMa, XIrrp6s, Kllpw nWOSH'I, HMlla CeMenoslla, CeMell)

2. Nil/a, are you still sick? No, Fm completely weill/OW. T: "Hila, Rbi see eme 6onbllbl? s: Hh, Ii nnepb BoolIue 3.lopOaa. T: KllpliJut, ill ace eme 6611ell? s: Hh, Ii TeuePh BDOJlHe 3.llopOa. CeMeH <DHJlHOnOBH'I, Bhol aee eme 6onbllbl? MHna, TbI see eme 6onhu3? EBrefllul, TbI Bee cme 66ncII? Kllpw na01l0DH'I, Dbl Bee ewe 601lbubl:?

SUSSTITUTION DRILL

fm glad to hear that. T: .sf pan iTO CJJblwaTb. S: Jt pa,ll, no CJlbIlUaTb.


" (M ~) ,------,---_-,-s: Mw paw.. iTO CJwwaTb. (OIlH, K"pw, :lKella, CeMell

<DHJlHnnOSH'I, 01130, HHlla H Mlina, Oil)

46

LESSON

DISCUSSION MASCULINE FEMININE PLURAL


-Y

-a

The shorl-form adjectives agree with their subject in gender or number. Note that those used wilh masculine subjects have no ending, those used with feminine subjects end in -a, and those used with plural subjects end in _..... 1 Note that the stress may shift 10 the ending, particularly in the feminine form: OKi laRg-ni. (Compare il wilh OK :u'IUIT.) If the slem ends in more than one consonant. the masculine fonn may contain a vowel that does nOI appear in the other forms. This vowel appears belween the last two consonants of the slem. Compare Ott M.!lett with oHli 6oJW:li, W 6o.rn.itW. The soft sign is written in the feminine and plural forms to indicate that the 11 is soft.

4TEHHE H nl1CbMO

READING AND WRITING

The conversalion for Lesson 3 is presented here in handwritten form for reading and copying practice.

-J(J,'

~ ~?rfU7':~~ ~
1H.a-

-$
~(M?U<.(Y 1-

:ita. Xo-m..um.e

~.- ~8tno~

- ~I V>u>- k v<ahtn. 2- - $akn.a.r j! -t-ado/z-anu7j'U<AA.-, .71~ tn~ ~. -~ rf- ~i'nur k ,I JliH.e ~ tpt-e ~,I
1-o-t-~
/1

J.17~,

C ~tr' ~ p-.1.. -

"Jl~ /U'r7','Ur/

U',M:.

, T1'le neuter short adjective ending _0 is excluded from this disclrnion for practical reasons since Ihe subjects used ""th these: adjI:Ctlvc:s are mostly masculine, feminine. or plural.
L.ESSON

47

LESSON

PREPARATION FOR CONVERSATION


[apSeiti~ij~] [~pti1i\ijiJ

PS3rOBOp B 06lQe:lti:HnlH
donnilOry in t.he donnitory conversation Conversation in the dormitory. to enter, come in, go in it's possible, one may May I come in? of course, certainly to drop in, stop by, call [on someone]

06WeJkHTHe

B06weDntH

paJroB6p [~zgav6rJ PaJrOBOp B 06l1.teJKHl"HH. BOHni (prv)1 (vajti] MQ:lkHQ (m6tn;)) M6tHO 80m?
kOHe'fHO 3aXOJlHTb

[ka9csn;)]
{~x.a4iU
l~xaQi]

3aXO.rtH

come in!
locked door The door isn't locked. Come in! The door iso't locked.

33.nepri 1~l1irlal) llBePb (f) [d yel J ~aepb He JanepTa. 3axo.nH! ){Bepb He Janeyra.
6bITb [bill .Ii 6blm't. [ja bila] 311l1Tl.. [zna\] Tbl JllaClllb [Ii znajis] 3H<'t.ewb, r.Qe Ji 6bI1l<1? Bee YrPo [r~ (Jtm] lwi.eulI>, rJU~ li 6b1JUi Bee jTpo?
r6poJ],
B

to be I (f) was, I've been to know you know

Know where I've been?


all morning Know where I've been all morning?

{g6171]
Ivg6~iJ

r6po~e
B

A 6WJui

ropo,tl,e.
(padAr"k]
~kupAl,,]

city. town in the city, in town, downtown I've been downtown. gift, present I (f) was buying to buy, (0 be buying

no~apoK

i nOlcynana [ja
nOKynaTb

[p;lkupa\l

I The abbreviation pl-, will be used for tbe perfective aspect aod ipf-, for tbe imperfective. ) KtmeWll is pronoonced lkaQletn;) by many speakers. I Two prononciations are po$$ible: (z;llirtiJ and [ziIllirl:)).

49

.st nOicynana OO.napoK.


HilHe [QiQi] sl: OOKynina OO,lllipoK

"""e.
(~eQ. raZQeQij~]

I was buying a present. (for] Nina I was buying Nina a present. oh! Oh, yes!
day

ax

[ax]

Ax, .na!
At". (m) [~tQ) .neHb poJK.lleHWI

birthday (iii. day of birth) she has (lit. by her) She has a birthday or It's her birthday. tomorrow She has a birthday tomorrow. to buy
you (Q bought

[uQijO] Y Bee Jl.eUb poxmeBIUI. ""'Tpa [zAft,,)


y Hee

uee 38BTp8 .neal> po~fI.

KyOUTb (pfv) {kugi\} ThI: Kyoli.rIa [ti kugib] ljT6 n:i lCymlna? (pfv) lJ;osmatreU [m] X6<tCUlh [Ii x6C:iJ] X6oleun. 1lOCMO'I"ph.. ? Kop66Ka [kar6pk~] B Kop66Ke [l'kar6pip] ry-r [tut] BOT TjT, e KopOOKe.
OOCMO~

What did you buy? to take a look you want Want to take a look? box (cardboard) in the box here It's here in the box. briefcase to get you (f) got Where'd you get [it]? A briefcase! Where'd you get it?
GUM (State Department Store) at GUM handsome, pretty, lovely isn't it (lit. truth) Handsome, isn't it? At GUM. Handsome, isn't it?

(m) [part[tl] Aocn\Tb (prv) [dastall Tbl .nOCTana [li dasta.l~] r.nc nd .nOCTana? nopTlW"! r.ne Tbi.noC'TliTla?
UOpTojJtm.

rYM [gum) rYM' [vgUqU)


Kp3CHBbIH
[kr~ivij]

opae.a.a

LPnivd~]

npaa.na, rpaCKablu? B rYMe. "po.na, KpaCHeblH? 6<teHb [ociv-l o..eul> KpaCHeblii. .n6nro [d61~] CTORTb [stajaU Thr CTOMa [ti slajal~J Tbi .nOJlro CTO'rna? o<tepe.llb (f) [ocirj~l B 6'lepen. [v6tiri~iJ Tbi .noJJrO CTOua B O'tCpeltM?

vcry Very handsome. long. a long time to stand, to be standing you (f) stood Did you stand for a long time? line, turn in line Did you stand in line a long time? No, not very [long].

HeT,

He

O'tftll>.

50

LESSON 4

SUPPLEMENT

[c;!el,,\] lIT6 Bbl Jlenaml? - HII'Ier6. Qi~iv6J r.Qe BM 6WlH? cny:ll:Ga IslUtb~] - Ha C1I:y:6e. lIT6 8b1: KymUlH? MaTepH9.n [m;)\itial]
,nenaTb

nnaTbe
-

[pla\i~

MaTepll9.n Ha nnane. KOCTtOM [kas\um] Man:pllan lIa KocnOM.

to do, to be doing What did you do? or What were you doing? Nothing. Where were you? job, work, service At work. What did you buy? material dress Material for a dress or Dress material. suit Material for a suit or Suit material.

ADDITIONAL CLASSROOM EXPRESSIONS

JI3..n:bWe (dal~i] lIHTiHn: JIanbwe!

nHWH-re b2i~i\i] or lIartHwJfTe lIa JIOCKe (n:xl.as~el HanHWHTe IIa JIOCKe! ItAHTe [ic;!i\i J IC ,nOCKe [gdas\eJ I1.nHTe IC ,nOCKe! lOMemtTe [izrpiQi\iJ JaMelllITe (~lJli"Qi\il

[Del2i~i\i]

continue! go on! (iii. further) Go on reading! write! on the board Write on the board! go! to the board Go to the board! change! make a change! substitute! make a substitution!

PaJrOBOp B 061llelKUTHH

Conversation in the dormitory

c. o. C. I KT6 TaM?

Cawa (CTy,neHT) 6ml (CTYJlCHTKa) Who's there?

kto tiim l

o.
C.

2 3TO .Ii, 6J1lL


M6)KHO BOHTH?

et, jii l 6\, j


m6zn~ vajti!

It's me, Olya. May I come in?

3 KOHe"mO.
3aXO,llH. ,[I,Oeph He 3anepTa.

kaQS,n, l

z:>xa4il
dyer Qi~Rirta 1

Of course. Come in. The door isn't locked.


Know where I've been all morning? Downtown. I was

O. 4 3Haewh, r,lle .Ii 6bJna


Bee Yrpo? B r6po,lle. nOKynana nO,llapoK HHHe.

zDajis g4e ja biHi ! flo iHr;d

vgor04d
~kupal\)

buying a present for Nina.


padarnk

(llQd
l..ESSON 4

51

C.

Ax., .na!
Y Het: 33BTpa
JJ.CHb P0)KllCHHR.

ax da!
uQij6 zaftrn

A 'fTO TbI Kyruina?

QeQ raiQeQija I a 5tO L.i kURiI~ 1

Dh, yes! It's her birthday tomorrow. And what did you buy?
Want to take a look? It's here in the box.

O. 6
C.

XOlfewb nocMorpen? BOT TjT, 8 Kop66Ke.

x6Cis IXlSmatre\ 1
partreJ I g,1e ti dastal3! vgiirpij
pravd~ kra~ivij

vot tut I f1caroplp I

7 nopT4Jenb! rnf: Tbl JJ,OCTana?

A briefcase! Where did you get it?

O. 8 B rYMe. n pae.u3, KpacHBwH?

In GUM.2 Handsome, isn't it?

i
Very. Did you stand in line a long time?

c.

9 6lieHb.

ThI Jlonro CToJina 8 6'1epe,llH?

otiQ I ti d61g.:J stajAI:> vociriQi I Qet! QiociQ

O. 10 H6T.
He

No, not very.

6.. eHb.

NOTES

Infonnally Russians address each otber using nicknames based on the first name, for example: Cawa for AJiCKCa"lW, OJi. for Om.ra. Such names aft comparable to our Bob for Robert, Gene for Eugene, Betty for Elizabeth, and so forth.
I

Others are;

JIeaa KonJi

B".

)KeHSI

fo'

EareHl-IH

11...
JIea HHKOllaH

Eugene John

MHna

ranJl
nUB

fo'

Leo

neTS!
Anetua

ce""

liopSi B0110)1S1

Nicholas Peter nOTp AneKceH AJexis CeMeH Simon liOpHC Boris BnWMHp Vladimir

KATJI
3Hua lli06a Mawa lleHa JlH3a

Jho,llM"na raJUwa TaTbHHa EKaTepHHa 3HHaH.rr.a JIJ066Bb MapRJ! EneHa EnH3aBeTa

Ludmilla Galina Tatiana Katherine Zinaida Amy

Mary
Helen Elizabeth

2 rYM (rocyJ],apcrBelUl....ii YHHBepdnbllhlii ""81'83"") is the State Department Store, which is located in Red Square opposite the Moscow Kremlin. Note that, although GUM itself is written with capital letters, its declensional endings are written with small letters: " rYMe in GUM.

Basic sentence patterns


I. KTO raM?
-

Ji, 011J1. _ _ _ _ EOreHHH. _ _ _ HHHa. ~ KHpHlUI ITas1l0BJlll. _ _ _ _ CeMCH <I>lUuinnOBH'l.


3TO

Who's there? It's me, Olya. _ _ _ Evgeny. _ _ _ Nina. _ _ _ Kirill Pavlovich. _ _ _ Semyon Filippovich.

52

LESSON 4

____ UapaDXHH.

____ XllTpOS. _ _ _ MiUJa.


_ _ _ 1IeB.

___ ___ ___ __

Tsarapkin. Khitrov. Mila. Lev.

2. Cawa, r.a.e Thl 6b1:JI Bee yrpo?

- Jt

6blJl H3 co6paHHH.
yp6xe
neHH~.

_ _ _ _ U3

_ _ _ _ H3 3aBOAe.
_ _ _ H3 n6'fTe.
_ _ _ _ H3

l:oHU,epTe.

Where were you all morning, Sasha? I've been at a meeting. ____ at a singing lesson. _ _ _ at the plant. _ _ _ at the post office. ____ at a concert. Where were you all morning, Olya?
I was in town. _ _ at GUM.

3. OM, fAe TbI 6bUla see YJpo? - .It 6b1m\ 8 r6po.ne.

_ _ _ BrYMe. _ _ _ _ 8 o6Wl2Knrn.
Y!Ul.8epcHThe. _ _ _ _ B ropooBCTe. _ _ _ _ B UIj6e. _ _ _ _ 8 na60p3T6pKH.
____ B

_ _ in _ _ at _ _ at _ _ at _ _ at What I was I was I was I was I was

the dormitory. the univenity. the gorsovet. the club. the laboratory.

4. tIT6 TbI

JlCnaJI 8

r6po.a.e, CAwa?

- Jt - Jt
-

I1ol:ymi..n oo,naPOI:. oOKynan Do.a.apol[ HHHe.


nOl:ynan nopnpenb. nOl(ynan MaTepHan H3 lCocnOM.

$I CTOM B 6'!epe.nH.

- Jt - Jt

were you doing in town, Sasha? buying a present. buying Nina a presenl. standing in line. buying a briefcase. buying suit material.

5. A 'ITO Tbl .a.e.nana. OM" - .st TOJll:e 6bUla B r6poJI.e. - Jt TO:ltCe nOKynana nO,llapox. - A TO)fCe CTolina B 6'lepeAH. - Jt nOKynana IlJIAThe. - Jt nOKynana MaTepUan H3 nmin.e.

- Jt
6.

lloxynana Marepuan H3 KocnQM.

And what were you doing, Olya? I was in lown, too. I was buying a present, too. I was standing in line, too. I was buying a dress. I was buying dress material. I was buying suit malerial. Where did you get Ihal? In town. At GUM. At the university. At the dormitory. At the club. At the laboratory.

r.a.e Dbl3TO AOCTMH?


- B r6po.a.e. -B rYMe. - B YHHBepc~fTlrre. - B o6we'tl:ltTJ.U1. - B KJlY6e.
8 na6opaT6pHH.

Introductory remarks on the Russian case system


By now you have noled that Russian nouns may vary Iheir endings in accordance with the way they function in a sentence. Thus, in the following examples, the Russian word for laboratory changes its ending according to whether it indicates location or destination.
lOCATION OfSTtNATION

Qua pa66Tae-r B na60paTopHli. QHa ".neT B na60paTopHlO.

She works in a laboratory. She's on her way to the laboratory.


Ll'SSON

53

Compare the examples with English, where the word laboraTory does not change but a different preposition is used: in for location and to for destination. In Russian the same preposition (8) is used but a different "case" form of the noun is required: prepositional case for location and accusative case for destination. There are six cases in Russian, used in both the singular and the plural. They are given below together with a brief comment on their primary function. CASE NAME NOMINATIVE ACCUSATIVE GENlTIVE PREPOSITIONAL I DATIVE ABBREVIATION NOM or N ACC or A GEN or G PREP or p OAT or D PRIMARY FUNCTION TO tNDICATE grammatical subject of sentence direct object, complete goal of action possession, absence, limitation location or focus of activity indirect object, person affected (in impersonaJ constructions) instrument or means of accomplishment of activity

INSTRUMENTAL

INSTR or I

The nominative form is customarily used in citing nouns, pronouns, and adjectives in dictionaries or otherwise out of context.

Remarks on stems and endings: the concept of "zero" ending


Since Russian, like Latin and German, relies heavily on changes in the fonns of its nouns, adjectives, and verbs for grammatical purposes, the student must be able to identify and manipulate both stems and grammatical endings. Briefly stated, the stem is the part of a word that remains relatively constant; the ending is the part that varies to show grammatical changes. Compare the following sets, observing that both existent endings and the absence of endings provide important grammatical information.

MOCKBa OKHO o.u.uo CJI0BO

cron
6H 3J1.0pOB OH 6bi.n

Moscow window one word table he's well he was

s MOCKBy Ha OKHe MHoro cnos Ha crone omi 3,IlopOBa 0HiJ. 6blJUi

to Moscow on the window many words on the table she's well she was

The concept of the nonexistent or "21:ro" ending is a very important one for Russian. Nouns, verbs, adjectives, and numerals all have forms where a "zero" ending contrasts with explicit endings.
, The prepositional case is also frequenlly called the loco/ill/! ca5/!. II is the one case in Russian that is tlc.er used without a preposilion.

54

LESSON 4

For example, most masculine nouns have a "zcro" ending in their nominative singular case fonn. A "zero" ending also occurs after the suffix JI in the masculine past tense fonn, contrasLing with the feminine ending -s, the neuter ending -0, and the plural ending -H. Furthennore, mosl feminine and neuter nouns have a 'ozero" ending in the genitive plural, in contrast with all of their case fonns that occur with an ending. Compare cOOBO word, CilOB8 words with CIt6B ofthe words; and KHMra book, .mn books wilh IOlIir of the books.

STRUCTURE AND DRILLS

Past tense of the verb 6Lrrb to be


MASCULINE SUBJECT

>1 6bui TaM.


Tbt 6bl.J1 TaM. 6H 6b1:JI T<lM. nopT~m> 6w T3M .

I was Ihere. You were there. He was there. The briefcase was there. I was there. You were there. She was there. The box was there.

FEMININE
SUBJECT

.sf 6blJ1a T<lM.


T bI: 6b1J1a TiM QHa 6bUla T3.M. Kop66Ka 6b1JJ<\ TaM. C06palll1e 6wno TaM.

NEUTER SUBJECT PLURAL SUBJEcr

The meeting was there. We were there. You were there. I They were there. Lev and Nina were there.

Mbt 6bUlH riM. Rbi 6hIJIH raM. QUH 6WH TiM. ReB H HHua 6WH TaM.

REPETITION DRILL

Lislen 10 your instructor (or the tape) and repeat the above models until you can reproduce them accurately.
REPETITION-SUBSTITUTION DRILL

~'as

at the plant.

T:

.st 6w oa 3aB6.ne.
11 6WI "8 3aB6Ltc.
(611, ami, cawa, Hima, alia, Mbt)

S:

6ill1

H Res, BbI,

, Note thai aW. the plural-polite pronoun you. is Ircalod grammatiCIIlly ali. plural even when it refers to .singk person. Thus.. r. aW~? can be addressed 10 one penon who is DOl an intimate friend, or 10 more than DDC penon. Tw. on the olher hand. can only be addressed 10 one persoD.

LESSON 4

55

QUESTION-ANSWER DRILLS

t. Were they in the dormitory (oo?


Yes, they were.
T:

2. Halle you already been to the club, Nina? Yes, I have.


T: Bbl

OHlf n':I)KC 6WIH B 061l{e)I(HTHif?

}')Ke 6MJHt

a Kny6e, fnlHa?

S:
T:

Jl,a, 6WnH.
68 TO)KC 6hUl B 06mC>KHUtH? (lIeB H KHpn1UI, 00<1, CArna, 6JUI)

s: Jl,a, 6LuJ.

s: ,lJ;a, 6bUlll. T: BM )?Ke 6hlllH B KJly6e, flea? s: ,lJ;a. 6Lrn. TbJ }')Ke 6bIm't B KJly6e, MJi.n:a? TM )?Ke 6wJI B KJly6e, CAwa? Bbl )?Ke 6hJJIH B KJly6e, 6J1S1?

3. Where were you, Sasha? I was in the laboratory. T: r.lleru 6bm, cawa? s: A 6w B ns60pswpHH. T: DI,e Tht 6WT<l, HltHa? s: Jt 6bV1a B ns60pawpHM.

4. Nina, where halle you been all morning?

r lie been in town.


T: HilHa, fAe Bhl 6WUf Bee YrPo? s: Jt 6L1J1a B n:'poAe. T: Cawa, rAe Thl 6blll see y-rpo? S: Jt 6w B rOpoll.e. 61Jlt, rn.e ThJ 6blJ1a Bee y-rpo?

r,lI,C Shl 6hl1JH, KHpU1UI? f,lI,e BM 6MJlH, MUlla? r,lI,e 6" 6hUl? r,lI,e ami. 6bImi? f,lI,e MbJ 6blnIf? rn.e OKU 6MJlH?
5. Was she at work? Yes, she was.
T: QHa 6bIJia Ha CJI0K6e?

rn.e Thl 6hIJl Bee YrPo? SM 6M.rrn see YrPo? 6J1S1 Ii HlfHa, fAe Rhl 6MnH Bee y-rpo? flell if KliPKnn, fAe 8M 6blJlH Bee y-rpo?
KlipH1Jn,

JIcs, rn.c

s: ,lJ;a, 6wJlli.
T: OHit: 6hJnH Ha CJl~6e?

s: ,lI,a. 6LrnH.
My)f( 6hlll Ha cn~6e? aHIf 6hlllH Ha cny)l(6e? KHpJi.n:JI 6MJl Ha CJl~6c? )KeHa 6bUla Ha cn0K6e? KltpnJlJl It JIcs 6hlJIH Ha CJl)r"JK6e?

DISCUSSION

Thc past tense differs from the present and future in Russian in that it is nol based on personal endings but on gender-number endings. The past tense of the verb 6h.1.Th to be illustrates this principle.
SINGULAR PLURAL

Masculine
6hUI

Feminine
6bIJHi

Neuter
6MJI-o 6hm-H

56

LESSON 4

EXAMPLES

..sf TAM lie 6L1J1. 8bi 6b1J1H 6oJlhlrbl:. QHa 6h1J1a 8 ropo.lte. B'lepa 6bu1o co6paHlfe.

I (m) wasn't there. You were sick. She was in town. There was a meeting yesterday.

In the last example, 6bu1o agrees with the neuter noun co6pauHe.

The accusative form of iuauimate masculine and neuter nouns


MODLS

>1: cnewy Ha yp6r::. ____ Ha yp61C neHHJI. ____ Ha XOHUepT.


_ _ _ H8 a8T66yc.

_ _ _ Ha 38B6ll, _ _ _ Ha co6pAHHe.
>1: HAY 8 }'JIHBePCHTtr. _ _ BxnY6.
_ _ B ropcoser. _ _ B r6po.a..

l'm burrying _____ _____ _____ _____ _____

to to to to to to

a lesson. a singing lesson. a concert. the bus. tbe plant. a meeting.


the university. the club. the gorsovet. town. GUM. the dormitory. tbe city? the present? the briefcase? the club? GUM? the university.? the letter? the dormitory?

_ _ BrYM.
_ _ 8 06Wel:Kme.

I'm on my way to ______ to ______ to ______ to _ _ _ _ _ 10 _ _ _ _ _ _ to

Till yx<e BK.a.eJ1 ropo.a.? _ _ _ _ _ nOlla-pol:? _ _ _ _ _ nopnPeJlh?

----KJIY6?

_ _ _ _ rYM?

_ _ _ _ _ YHHoepcHTtT?

______ nItChM6? ______ o6U\e)l(}I.THe?

Have you already seen ________ _______ ________ _______ _________ ________ ________

_ _ _ _ _ _ nopTct>eJlh? _ _ _ _ _ _ nHCbM6?

r.ne Bbl.ltOcTA.JlIt no.a.apoK?

Wbere did you get the present? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ the briefcase? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ the letter?

REPETITION DRILLS

Repeat Ihe models after your instructor (or the tape), noting Ihal the accusative fonn is like the nominative for these masculine and neuter nouns referring to inanimate Ihings. Note also that certain nouns require the preposition. and others require ua.

l..ESSON 4

57

SUBSTITUTION DRILLS

I. Site's going to class.


T: QH<\ If.D:ih Ha yp6K. S: OBa M.D:eT 113 ypOK. T: (Ha n6'lTY). 5: OBa lIJl.eT Ha no'ny. (na KOHUepT, lIa 3aB6.D:, Ha c06paHHC, Ha ypOK neHHiI)

2. She's going to the club. T: OHa H.D:eT B {wy6, 5: Oua HJJ.eT B KJJY6. T: (8 ropcoser). S: QlIa HJJ.eT B roPCOBiIT. (B rYM, B rOpo.D:, B 06mC)I(lITlfC, B ymmcpcHTer, B KJly6)

3. We're hurrying to the bus.


T: Mbl CnClUHM Ha aBTo6yc, S: M':' COCUlltM Ita 8Brooyc. T: (B rYM). 5: M':' COewHM B rYM. (ua ypOK, B 06mC:lKHTHe, Ha KOHUepT, B yHKBepc"TtIT, Ha 3aIlO.D:, B r6po.D:, ua c06paHI1e, B KJly6)

4, rye already seen the present.


T:..st }'JKe BH,i.{eJl nO,l],apoK. s: ji yaul BIi.uen: nOAapoK. T: (06mC:lKHTIlC). S: ji y*e BN.t.eJJ 06me'llMrMc. (ropoA, rYM, nHchM6, KJly6, YHl1.BepCHTer, nopnl>eJlh)

DISCUSSION

Masculine and ncuter nouns such as ypOK, nopl'4Mh, c06pallHc, and IDIChMO, which refer to other than living beings, have the same form in the accusative case as in the nominative. The accusative case is used in Russian for the direct object of a verb, or for the object of certain prepositions such as B or Ha, used in conjunction with verbs of motion. It is important to remember that in the meaning to, certain nouns require the preposition B while others require the preposition ua.
B ropo.D:
B

rYM

B oGme>KHTHC B KJly6 8 YllllBepCl1TeT

to to to to to

town GUM the dormitory the club the univcrsity

Ha Ha Ha lIa Ha

KOHuepT aBT66yc ypOK n6'lTY C06paHl1C

to to to to to

the concert the bus class the post office the meeting

58

lmSON4

4TEHI1E 11 nHCbM6

READING AND WRITING

-~.~. J~
'lj-
.!l-

~"1" t f7'du,s~wn.uU-:ltnur ~ ~ - drntr $ / aa. ~rr


It<!

~ .z

~a.. ~. ~ ?- JJ ~, .Y~tldi2 ~~ ~. -./h ja- / .JI IU'/' ja-hyta. ~


jW""C~' Jt
/Wntr /?UC.

J~' -k.~/
~

.2. -

/U7--

~ e.~ ~ -tf K~, -J7/tyzmf"<U.6-z' ~e /nM. ~ ~ ~-.7J YY..&:e..~a. ~


~?- -~.$tuy~un.<7'~a.~ ~ ?
~.

- JC'e...n. / H-e

I...ESSON

59

LESSONS

PREPARATION FOR CONVERSATION

lfTO H3 06en?
dinner for dinner What's for dinner? how about How about dinner? How about dinner, Oleg?
open

o6eJl

[a~l]
(n;)3~t)

ua o6e.n lho ua ooeJl?

(Uk nascot] K<ix HaC'IeT 06e.na? KiK "a~ 06eA8, Oner?


K3.K HaC'Ier

OTKpbrra [alkri!:!] CTon6Ball (slaI6v:lj:l] CTOn6BaJl OTKpblTa.


CrOJJ08&a AUnG O'nCpbn"8.

dining hall, cafe, restaurant, dining room The dining hall's open. The dining hall's been open for a long lime. to dine, eat dinner let's go! Let's go eat dinner! Fine. Let's go eat dinner!
hungry

06e.nan (a~:lU H,AeM (itJ6m]


l1.D,eM 06e.naTb!

XopomO. I1nel\4 OOC.ll8n..


ronoAcH

[g6l:x;1inJ

R }')l'e

rOJlOJl.CH.

I'm already hungry. today What's for dinner today? I wonder (lit. (it is] interesting [to meD I wonder what's for dinner today.

cero,/uur [~iv6dQ;')J' th6 cer6JUU1 ua 06e.u? HIITtpeeHO [in\iresn:l] J1KTepkuo. "ITO ce.-OJllUiI as ooe.a?
CMOTpCn.

(smatreU

Tw CMO'I"pi.'I?
Bcer,lla
[f~igd3J

to look Did you look? always [Same] as always. farc, food, diet
our

Kale BCen:ui.
nltwa
rnj~:)]

HaWa

[mi~]

, NOle that .. is p..-onounced (v) in nr6!l11_I,iv{x!l;P:;lJ loday.

6.

uuf (PI)

[!ti)

schi (sauerkraut soup, cabbage soup)

,na [d;lJ' io:fu.ua [kab] l'UlH .lUI Kama - miu.ut tUiwa.

and
kasha (cooked cereal, porridge) "Schi and kasha is our diet:'

66Jlhwe [b61~iJ 66J1bwe IICh fb6li get] pbl6a [riixl]


6wnli. pW6a, NO 60JIMUe HiT.
~nca..a

more, bigger there isn't any more, it's all gone fish There was fish, but it's all gone.
annoyance, aggravation, disappointment,

ldasada]

BOT ~oc8JJ.a!
lie
XO"leTCSI

vexation How annoying! or What a nuisance!


[Qix6~it~]

Ty~a
He XO'leTCJI

[Iuda)

H.LtTJJ ry.na.
(dan]

~IDKe

llli.e K.lJ;I"ii rylUl He xO"eTC1I.


SUPPLEMENT

[one] doesn't feel like there, to that place I don't feel like going there. even I don't even feel like going there.

rOJioJtIlli.
HHH3, TI:>l

(f) [g;}ladna] rono.nHa?

r6110MbI (PI) Ow r01l0,IUlbf"

[g61:xini]

tho

oopm [bMc] H3 ooett. 66plll?

'6<1>< (ol) Ikof>]'


X6'fClllh K6$e?
IlHTb

(gill
[Uj]

R min K6<Jlc.
A min
.sf

,Ii' (m)
MOJlO"O

hungry Nina, are you hungry? hungry Are you hungry? borsch (beet soup) What's for dinner, borsch? coffee Want some coffee? to drink J was drinking (or drank) coffee.

tea
I was drinking (or drank) tea. awhile ago, recently. not long ago I drank tea awhile ago. milk Awhile ago I drank some milk.

"aH. He.aaeuo

{QidAvn:J]
(m:Jlak6]
MonoK6.

Hell,aeHO min '13.M.

R HemlBHo min

I Do nOI confu$e

unsu~

lllI [dOli (IIId With stressed .ld (da] ~J.


II.

2 K0+e is considered a masculine noun by some: speakers; Olhers Ireal it as indeclinable: nouns. i.e:., nouns thaI usc: the: same: fonn in all cases.

ne:Ule:r. II is one: of a small numbc:t of

62

LESSON 5

qTO us 06"1I?
What's for dinner?
O. fl. -

Oller
JIes

Jl. I KaK HaC'Ie-r o6cna,

OJH~r?

kak nascot a1ldo alek

CTonosaSi .ll.aBHO OTKpbITa.

stal6vaja davn6 atkrita!

How about dinner, Oleg? The dining hall's been open for a long time. I Fine. Let's go eat dinner. I'm already hungry. I wonder what's for dinner today. Did you look?
Yes. Same as always, "Schi and kasha is our diet.''2 There was fish, but it's all gone.

O. 2 Xopow6.

l1.o.eM o6e.uan.

xaraSQ ! i<;l6m a~edoll

.si

Y)f(e rOJ1o.ueH.

j<i ufe golaejin

Jl, 3 I1HTepecHo,
'iTO cero.uH)I H3 0OO.u.

ThI CMOTpCJI?

intiresna 1 st6 ~iv6dQa n~a1?et ! Il smatpS'l T

O. 4 )l.a. KaK Bcerna,


I.l(u aa dwa -

daj
kak fligdii I sci do kiiso I

miu.J.a mlllJa. bhIlIa phl6a,


HO 60JIhWe HeT.

RiSea nasa!

bila rib:} ! no b6lsi 'fel

!
How annoying! I don't even feel like going there.

JI. 5 BOT Jl.oc3..n;a!

vot dasadd!
dazi ini tuda
Qix6Cit~ !

Aa)f(e "nTH TynB.


He XOl.leTCSI.

NOTES

CTOJJ08alll is a feminine adjective which functions as a noun. It is derived from CTOJJ08aJf KO;\-lHam table room. CTOJJ08aH is used here as dining haJJ, but it also means [second class] restaurant as well as dining room.
I

1 <dlJ;1i Il,a KaUla -

millla HaUla is a colloquiaJ expression illustrating the humble

food that comprises the Russian rural diet. tnH is a soup made of sauerkraut or cabbage. Kama is cooked cereal. which may be served at any meaJ and eaten with butter. salt, or gravy; or with milk and sugar. lioplll is a vegetable soup, primarily made of beets.

LfSS()N 5

63

PREPARATION FOR CONVERSATION

Rbi Y:lKe uoOOe.a.aJlH?


to eat dinner, have dinner Have you had dinner already? children, kids, fellows, guys Hi, fellows! Hi, fellows! Have you had dinner already? yet, still; else, some more, another Not yet. again at (or in) the dining hall At the dining hall it's schi and kasha again. herring But I bought herring. just, it just happens Well, it just happens I bought herring. Well, it just happens I bought herring. Want some? another matter, a different thing That's different! Herring! That's different! we have (IiI. by us there is) bread We have bread. cucumbers Cucumbers too. We have bread. Cucumbers too. (unstressed emphatic particle) Where are they? cupboard, wardrobe, dresser in the cupboard Where are they, in the cupboard? window on the window [ledge] No, on the window [ledge]. slice ! Slice the cucumbers! Oleg, slice the cucumbers! drawer, bo;( (wooden] in the drawer The knife's in the drawer. desk, table in the desk, in the table The knire's in the desk drawer.

noooe,ltaTb (poa1?C<bU Bbi yxe noo6e,ltMH? pe6.m [p~a..) npHOCT, pe6ha! npHoh, prom! DbI yre noo6ell.aJlH? eme Hh eLl.le. omZTb
8 CTO!IOBOi

Ui~6]

[anaU
[fstalov;)j] omin. wIi H nDUl. hilotkOl]

B CTOJlOOOH

ce.n:e,[lXa

A Ji KyTIliJJ ceJle,llKY.

KaK p:b [kakras) A Ji Ka1C pob KyoHJI ceJle,ltKY. A Iii KaK plb KymiJi ceJlellKY. Xome?
~pyr6e ,lte.no

[drug6jOl

4eb)

31-0 ~pyr6e ,lttno!


Cenelll--a - iTo ,lQ)yrOe ,lttrlo!
y HaC OCTb

lunas j~U

""e6 [xlep) XJJe6 y HaC OCTb. orypubI (agurcl] OryPrnJ TOl"Ke. X.'100 yuac en... Ol'")'pl.lbl ro-e.

"'. [Ii]

Cae.e OHM?
wd<l> ~ka~ lllIta<l>Y (flkafU) r,lte:IKe omi? 8 wn.9j?
B

(akno] [n<:lakl}e] Hh, Ha o...ae.


OKHO Ha OKHe

Hapex.. ! [narB) Hapexb orypubi! O;m-, Hapim. 0f'}'P...w!


RIllHK
B

UMtik]

JiUlHKe [vja~i1p] HO)l( B Jiul,Ju:e. cron [slol] o CTOJle {fstale]

Ho*

CTO!.e, IiintHKe.

64

LESSONS

BU)I(y [yizll] He BU)Ky [Q.iyizuJ He 81hky.


[yilka) SUnKlt [yil)p ) Tom.lCo sWorn. nO;l(a [losk:;)]
8Unxa
JlOJKICH TOJlhKO

I see

I don't see I don't see [it]. fork forks There are just forks here. spoon spoons only, just There arc: just forks and spoons here. on the table. on the desk. Here it is. on the desk.

TY'r

[Io~JP]

[t6lk:;))
BJiJlKII H n62LKH.

Trr T6m....-o
BOT OR,

"a CTOne

[n:)Stale)

H8 CTOJU~.

SUPPLEMENT
CMO-rpeTh B OKH6

OH CMOTpCn B

OKUO.

to look out the window. look in the window He was looking out (or in) the window.

BM YlKe

DOOlleI\3J1H?

Have you had dinner already?


K. Knpw

o. - Oller

R. -Res
Hi, fellows! Have you had dinner already? Not yet. At the dining haJJ it's schi and kasha again. Well it just so happens I bought herring. Want some? Herring! I That's different! We have bread. Cucumbers too. Where are tbey, in the cupboard ?2 No. on the window [ledge}.

K.
o. 2

OpHBCT. pe6liTa! Bw )')I'e noo6eJlamt? Her eme.

ppyer

T pilal> !

vi uze ~a~dali ! Qet jisco i fstalovaj aRa\ sci i kasa 1 a ja kakras

B CT01l0BOH
oruiTb lUit " dwa.

K. 3

A " KaK pcb KynitJl CeJIellKy. XOTJt:Te?

kugil jil6lkU 1 xatil i T jilotk> !


eta drugoja fJelal

Jl.

4 CeneJJ,Ka:ho Jlpyr6e lle.nO. }(ne6 y HaC CcTb. Orypu;bJ TOJKe.

o. 5

xlop un:is jell! agurci t6Zi ! g4eii atil! f'lkafii T Qel! noakQe!

K.

r llC ",e ORe?


B wKaifly?
HCT, Ha Otme.

o. 7

LESSON

65

n_

8 Oner,
nape)l(b oryPUbt.

alek 1

HOiK B CTone,
8 siutHKC.

0_

9 He BH>Ky.

TYr TOJlbKO
H J16:lKKH.

BHnKH

K- ID BOT OB,
H3 CTOlle.

nares agurci 1 no! ISlaie I vjiiscits: i ! Qi yiiu 1 IIit lolb yilJ>i I i 1611p 1 vol 6n 1
n:;Jstale!

Oleg, slice the cucumbers. The knife is in the desk drawer.)

I don't see it. There are just

forks and spoons here.


Here it is, on the desk.

NOTES

Herring is a very common food in the Russian diet; it is served not only as

an appetizer, but as a main course as well.


2 Each room in a university dormitory has its DlKicll. which may serve both as a cupboard and as a wardrobe. (Built-in closets are not to be found in the Soviet Union, nor are they generally found elsewhere in Europe.) Each floor in the dormitory has a kitchen where students can prepare tea, snacks, or light meals.

here as drawer, but it also means box. It differs from KopOOKa, which designates a small box or onc made of cardboard, in that it is usually larger and made of wood. Note also that nOn means both table aDd desk; the latter comes from mtCLMelIH.... ii crOJi writing table.
J

Auttil' is used

Basic sentence patterns


I. HHTepCcHO, '1T6 cer6.a.llR na 06e.a.? - W,u 1-1 l:3.wa. - Ii6put H xawa. - Cene.a.Ka. - Pbl6a. - 66put H pt:J6a.
2. 6H He.o.fumo min 'IaiL
DHa
DnH

Wonder what's for dinner today? Schi and kasha. Borsch aDd kasha. Herring. Fish. Borsch aDd fish. He drank tea awhile ago. She draDk _ They drank _ He drank coffee awhile ago. She drank _ They drank _ He drank milk awhile ago. She drank . They drank _ Is Ihe dining hall open? _ _ laboratory open? _ _ post office open? _ _ box open?

OHJla

minH 6H He.a.aBHo n1ln Kcxpe.


n"Jla
rlIinlJ

_
_
_

DHa
DHH

6H He.a.3.BHO n1U1 MOJlox6.


DHa nHJla
OWU!

_
_

Dmt

3. CTOJl6oa.lt OTKpblTa" Jla6opaT6pH.It OTKpt:JTa? 06'fTa OTKpt:JTa? Kop66xa OTlCPblTa?

66

LESSON 5

D,aePb OTKpbfTa? 3aBO.n: On:PbIT? KJIY6 orxPbl'r? .stlU.lt.K OTXpbl'r? ropcoatT on:pblT? nopTlCnb orxPhn"? C06paHHe oncPhn"o? OlmO orxPbrro? 06m.e:llCHTHe OTKpblTO?
4. 8w y:ce r6no)),HhJ? - D,a, Ii )':lICe rono.n:eH. - )l,a, Ii )':lICe rono.a.ua. - D,a, Mbl )':lICe rono.lUlbi. - HtT, Ii ewe He rononeH. - HtT, Ji ewe He rOJloJIHa. - Hb, MbI ewe He rOno,lJ;Hl:>l. 5. 8b1)':l1Ce noo6eJ:ta.Jrn? - )l,a, Ji y:ce noo6e.n:an. - Jl.a, Ii )':lICe noo6e.n:ana. - ,l{a, MbI y.e noofie.n:anH.

Is the door open? _ _ plant open? _ _ club open? _ _ drawer open? _ _ gorsovet open? _ _ briefcase open? _ _ meeting open? _ _ window open? _ _ donnitory open? Are you already hungry? Yes, I'm already hungry. Yes, _ Yes, we're already hungry. No, I'm not hungry yel.

No.

No, we're not hungry yet. Have you already had dinner? Yes, I've already had dinner.

Yes,

Elll.e OCT.

8b1 }':lICe ofienanH? - Her, Ji eme lie o6Cnan. - Her, .Ii emc He o6C.n:ana. - Her, MbJ ewe He Ofie.n:aJIH. 1

Yes, we've already had dinner. Not yet. Have you already had dinner? No, J haven't had dinner yet.

No.
No, we We have bread.

_
_

6. Y HaC ten. ___ ____ ____

XJle6.

60pw.
p";6a.

_ _ _ bon;ch.
_ _ _ fish. _ _ _ kasha.

dwa.

_ _ _ wHo
_ _ _ orypo..:..
_ _ _ _ ':Ill". _ _ _ K6<j>e. _ _ _ _ MonoKo.
7. r.n:e:llCe UO:llC? - Ha CTOne. - 8 JiLWiKe. - Ha OI01e. - B CTOne, a lhuHlte. - B nopnptne. - 8 Iop66Ke.

_ _ schi.
_ _ _ cucumbers.

_ _ _ tea. _ _ _ coffee.
_ _ milk.

- BlllIa4JY.

Wherc's the knife? On the table. [n the drawer. On the window sill. In the desk (or table) drawer. In the briefcase. In the cardboard box. In the cupboard.

, In both the question and answer, either the imperfective oM.itll.ll or tlie perfective IIoo6enaJI may be used. The difference in meaning is slight. with IK)(l(iiLUlll focusing on the completion of the activity: H(ne you alrMdy finiJhed eating dinner? NOle. however. thaI in the ncgative answers, only o6b.aJI is used.

lBSON 5

67

Pronunciation practice: bard versus soft consonants


A.

III

vs.

10

Usual Cyrillic

spe~ling

T; also Th,.a t or lU>.

Note the pronunciation of hard [IJ in the following:


[na~tu]

to the post office

[stuQent]

student

and compare it with soft [lJ:


[SRi~iti]

cnellutTc
nOCJIaTb

(paslilU

you're hurrying to send, mail

The formation of Russian hard [I] differs from that of English t in thai the tip of the tongue closes off the air stream by making contact against the back surface of the upper teeth. whereas English 1 is fonned by stopping the air stream Carther back, on the ridge of the gums behind the teeth. Sort Russian ltJ. on the other hand, is formed by a closure of t..he front part of the blade of the tongue (not the tip) against the ridge of the gums and has the effect on the ear of being followed by a ylike glide. In addition, neither Russian hard [t] nor soft [tJ (nor any other Russian consonant, for that matter) ever has the puff of breath that usually accompanies English I.
Sound Drill: Practice the Russian paired examples illustrating hard [t] and soft Itl, imitating your instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you can. Be sure to avoid the puff of breath that often accompanies the English I.

B.

(d] vs. [4]

Usual Cyrillic spelling A; sometimes Ab, T, or Th.

Note the pronuncialion of hard [d] in the following: [davn6] [zdar6vi] [kudil] [;du] .ll.aSll6 3.ll.op6obl for a long time healthy where to I'm going

"yaa
HJlY

and compare il with soft [4]:


Iy;~il] 1~;lil]
[n~zav64i]

BliAeJI
~enil
113

3a86.ue

li~6lJ

HJleT

saw affairs at the plant is going

Russian hard [d] is made wilh the tongue in the same position as Russian hard (t] and [nJ, Ihal is. well forward of the posilion for making the corresponding English sounds and with the

68

LESSON 5

tongue touching the teeth. Russian soft Russian [\1 and [9].

[4J is made with the tongue in the same position as for

Sound Drill: Practice the Russian paired examples illustrating hard [dJ and soft [4J, imitating your instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you can.

c.

[n] vs. [Q]

Usual Cyrillic spelling H; sometimes

lib.

Note the pronunciation of hard [n) in the following: [n:>ur6k]


[napot!u]
Ha ypOK

ua n6<JTy

[nul

nJ'

to the lesson to the post office well

and compare it with soft [9]: [Qin: [d:>syidAQj:>]


IrpaJ~el

Hiiua
)l0 CBu.na,DillI DUOJlDe )leHb

Nina good-bye fully. completely

l~e~J

day

Russian hard [n] is formed, like Russian hard It], by closing off the air stream with the tip of the tongue which strikes the back surface of the upper teeth. (Be careful not to make an English n. where the air stream is closed farther back on the gums above the upper teeth 1) Russian soft (Q] is formed like Russian soft It], that is. with the front part of the upper surface of the tongue against the ridge of the gums above the upper teeth and with the tip of the tongue touching tbe teeth. It has the effect of being followed by a ylike glide and sounds something li.ke English ny in such words as canyon and onion; however, the y*like glide in Russian must never be separated and made a separate consonant sound as it is in English. Sound Drill: Practice the Russian examples illustrating hard [n] and soft {Q], imitating your instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you can. Notice par* ticularly that before [k) and [g], Russian [nJ does not take on the ng sound that occurs in such English words as bank and finger.

Grammatical gender of nouns


All Russian nouns belong to one of three genders: masculine. feminine. or neuter. Besides distinctions based on natural gender. such as we find in English, Russian assigns all nouns to one of the three categories.
LESSON 5 69

MASCULINE CT)'.neHT student club KJJj6 lesson ypOK '!Milea city r6po.n y'l.JtTCJIb teacher

FEMININE CT)'.neHTKa :lKemi. n6'1Ta pbi6a npae.na JIa60paT6pHJI student wife post office fisb truth laboratory rntChM6
OICUO

NElITER

II1Ian.e

co6pAHJle o6llte:lKihHe

letter window dress meeting dormitory

It is essential for the student of Russian to know the gender of each noun be encounters. This is important because such words as adjectives and past tense verbs vary their form in agreement with the gender of the noun they accompany.
EXAMPLE

MASCULINE SUBJECT M6ii nopT<PCnb 6WJI TaM. FEMININE SUBJECT Moli 'lKeUa 6b1JIa TclM. NEUTER SUBJECT Moe nHchM6 6LIJIO TaM.

My briefcase was there. My wife was there. My letter was there.

The gender of most nouns can be predicted from the written nominative singular form. Nouns whose final letter in tbe nominative singular is a bard consonant, "I, lit, or ii (i.e., with a zero ending), are masculine. Similarly, most nouDS ending in -a or -II are feminine, and nouns ending in -0, -e, or -e are neuter. FEMININE
ceCTpa 3HMa Kop66Ka U1X6JIa J1PHRa POCCHlif

MASCULINE
My><

NElITER

o6eA
CT6JI H6",

11...
KJlJO'I

OOpllt

husband dinner table knife Ivan key bo=h lea

ra..
ceMbi

sister winter box (cardboard) school Irina Russia Galya family

Yrpo
nepO

morning
pen

Aeno
M6pe n6JIe

"'........ 6enbi

business sea field existence linen

Nouns ending in -8 or --JI are masculine, however, if they refer to a male person: JJ.iJIK uncle, .neAYUlKll grandfather, BaM Vanya (Johnny), MHma Misha (Mike), Crenll Styopa (Steve), rpHwll Grisha (Greg), BJiCSil Vasya. Most of tbese are nicknames. Nouns whose gender cannot be ascertained from the written fonn alone are those wbose nominative s.inguJar ends in the soft sign ....... Most of these nouns are feminine, but many are masculine. They will be identified as m (masculine) or f (feminine) in the glossaries. for example, Ocettb (f)/all, OOiepem. (I) line, ,a:aePb (f) door, I10pTtenb (m) briefcase, aetu. (m) day; otherwise the gender of nouns will not ordinarily be indicated.

Verbal aspects
Compared with the higbJy complex system or tenses in Englisb, the Russian verb is structurally very simple. English makes considerable use of such auxiliary verbs as do, have, be, and will in forming its many compound tenses. Russian uses only a single compound tense used to fonn one kind

70

La'iON

of future; otherwise, past, present, and future in Russian verbs are expressed by simple, one-word verb forms. To illustrate the economy of forms in the Russian system, compare the following:
RUSSIAN ENGLISH

pa60TaJJ

worked, was working, did work, used to work, have worked, had worked, had been working

Similarly, all of the following English verbal concepts can be expressed in Russian by the simple present verb paOOTafO: [I) work, [I] am working, [I] do work, [I] have been working, [I] have worked. Despite its structural simplicity, bowever, the Russian verb possesses an added dimension called "aspect," which enables it to make refinements comparable to the English. The system of "aspects" involves two contrasting categories: imperfective aspect versus perfective aspect. The aspect a Russian speaker uses depends on tbe way be views the action. Broadly speaking, the imperfectiW! aspect focuses on tbe activity as a process, without regard to ils tenninaling point in time. The perfective aspect, on the other hand, focuses on tbe activity as a completed (or to be completed) action marked off in time, often emphasizing the result rather than the process. Compare the use of the two aspects in the past tense of the verbs oo... ymin. and t.::ymin.; IMPERFECrtVE PERFECTIVE

1t uOKynarra nomipo.:.
4TO JKe BY KyniUtU?

I was buying a present.

And what did you buy?

Note also the differences between tbe following:


IMPERFECTIVE PERFECTIVE IMPERFECTIVE
PERFECTIVE

Mbi He,l],3.BHO miJlH 'UiH.

My y;e BbmJuuI 'tali. Om\ CM'OTpMB B OIWO.


Qlla UOCMo~a B OKHO. 4TO Bh"1 ,l],emu.:H? 4TO ab! CltenaJJH?

tMPERFECTIVE
PERFECTIVE

We drank (or were drinking) tea not long ago. We already drank (or finished drinking) tbe tea. She was looking out the window. She took a 'ook out the window. What did you do? Or What were you doing? What did you do? Or What did you get done? Or What have you done?

Imperfective and perfective verbs often differ structurally only in that one is prefixed and the other nol. Both imperfective and perfective verbs may be used in the past and future. In the present, only imperfective verbs are used.

PAST

PRESENT

FUTURE

IMPERFEcnVE

Ii CMoTpCn I was looking Iloaked

Ii

CMOTplO

I'm looking I look

Ji. 6YJlY CMOTpCTb 1'1/ be looking

I'll look

PERFECTIVE

Ii nocMoTJ>C:]1 I took a 'ook

Ji noeMoTplo I' /I take a look

Note that it is almost always the perfective verb that is prefixed:


IMPERFECTIVE
PERFECm'E

IMPERFECTIVE

PERFECTIVE
nOCMOTpCn.

ruiTb
,l],tnaTb

ab!nHn.
c,l],enan.

"OHTlt

LESSON 5

7]

STRUCTURE AND DRILLS

Replacement of nouns by tbird person pronouns: oU, OH8, ouo, and OHM:
MOOELS

rll,e

KHpHJUl? -

8M 611.

r./le

noprq:.enb? -

8M 611.
8M
OHa.

Cue HpHlla? ~ BOT Qlla.


rll,C Kop66Ka? -

rll,e 06UAC)fOITlfC? -

8M QUO.

r.ne nl1CbM6? -

BOT 0116.

rll,C K"pliJIJI 11 HpHHa? -

BOT ami.

rne orypu.b.l? REPETITION DRILL

BOT OHil .

Wherc's Kirill? Here he is. Wherc's the briefcase? Here it is. Wherc's Irina? Here she is. Wherc's the box? Here it is. Wherc's tbe dormitory? Here it is. Wherc's the leiter? Here it is. Where are Kirill and Irina? Here they are. Where are the cucumbers? Here they are.

Repeat the above models after your instructor (or the tape) until you can answer the questions automatically according to the pattern.
QUESTION-ANSWER DRILLS

1. Where',s the student? He's here. T: rJJ,e CTYIlCHT? s: O"TYr'


T: Cae cry,actfn::a"

2. Where's the briefcase? It's there. T: rae nopTlenh?

s: OHriM.
T: rae nO'lTa?

s: OBi TYr.
(HHua, Uapam,HH, EBreHHH, ::teeHa, My::, Oner, 6ml, neB)

s: OBi ri.",.
Mlina, (nHcbMo, co6paHHe, lUIy6, na60paTopHg, 06me)KHTue, ce.ne.nxa, .I;Bepb, Kop66Ka, O'lepellb, 'Iaii, OKllO, nOiKICa, BKnka, lilllHK,
nOAapOK)

3. Where's the knife, 011 the tab/e? Yes, it's 011 the tab/e. T: rAe 1I0)l(, Ha crone?

s: )la, OH H8
T:

CTOJU~.

rAe 'Iail, 113 crone?

s:

)la, 6ft H8 crone.


(66pm, nopnPen.b, ll:op66rta, ce.ne.r:u;a, nO:ll:lCH, BHmrn, orypubf, rrnCbMo, 'laM, MaTtpHan, MonOJ:o, 06eA. XJlOO, pblOO)

4. Is the knife there? Yes, it's lhere. T: HO)l( TaM? s: ){li, On T8M. T: Pbi6a TaM? s: .lI;a, nHa riM. (rrnChMO, orypubr, 'IaH, coUpaHHe, CT6.n, aSTooyc, ICOlltlepT, nOAapolC, nopTcpe.m.,
pbl6a, nnaT'be, wd<t

DISCUSSION

The masculine pronoun 08 substitutes for masculine nouns such as nOJi lab/e, BanH Vanyo, ypOK lesson, and ,/leHb day. The feminine pronoun om~ substitutes for feminine nouns such as ""eHa wife, ceJlCltKa herring. Jla60pn6pHR laboratory, and epem line or lurn.

o..

72

U!SSONS

The neuter pronoun OliO substitutes for neuter nouns such as nHCbMO letter, 01('110 window, jTpo mornil/g, and nJTli'rLe dress. Oil and OHa mean he and she respectively when referring to person and iJ when referring to things. Ouo means only if, since one does not use oHO in referring to persons. l

Interrogatives KTO and 'ITO


MODELS

KT<) TaM

6w.? TaM 6hlJla HJ.lHa. TaM 6bln Hoal... TaM 6bllIH HHlla H YlaaH.

Who was there? Nina was there. Ivan was there. Nina and Ivan were there. What was 011 the table? There was a present on the table. There was a fish on tbe table. There was a leuer on the table. There were cucumbers on the table.

YT()

6bll1O lIa CTone? Ha CTOne 6b.ln no.aapoK. Ha CTone 6blmi. pbJ6a. Ha crone 6b.lno nJICbMO. Ha CTOne 6b.lnn Orypubl .

REPETITION DRILL

Repeat the above models after your instructor (or the tape) until the verb agreement becomes automatic. (Note that in the question 6w is used with KTO and 6Y.'TO with 'ITo.)

CUED QUESTION-ANSWER DRILLS

The following drills should be performed as 'simple repetition drills until the student(s) can answer automatically. (During the repetition stage the teacher may ask for both group and individual responses.)
l. (Mila) Who was there? Mila was there. 2. (a lable)
T: (CTon)

T: (MHna)

KTO TaM 6bln?

What was there? There was a table there. lho TaM 6bUIO?

s: TaM 6L1na Mlina. T: (XJI-rpOO) KT6 T3.M 6bln? s: TaM 6buJ XHTpOB. (M}0k, :ella, HHHa, JIeo, EoreHHii, CeMeH, Oner H OJlR, H,iHa H HoalL CTy,l],eHT H CTY.QeHTKa)

s: T: (pw6a)

TaM 6w crOJl. YTO TaM 6uJlO?


TaM 6L1Jui pbi6a.

s:

(mlcbMO. ypOK. co6paHHe, KOHU.Cvr, no,l],apoK. 66pm, ilIlaThe, Kop66Ka, orypu.bl, 'fail, xnoo, oWorn H nO)ICJl:H)

, The Russian pconouns 611, Old, and 0IIli are used only in rd'erem:e 10 a specific masculine. feminine. or neuter- noun. They are never used to Iranslale lhe emplY English inlroouctory if in such sentences as: I(s fUff!. The it of such sentenco:s is simply omitted in RllS$ian. EXAMPLES Y:a: noollffo. It's already late. Was it interesting then:'? Tbf 6Wno KHTepCcuO'? It's still early. Em!! pano.
LESSON 5 73

3.

(Nina)
T: (Hlllia)

Who was standing there? Nina was standing there.

KTO TAM CTOli.n? TiM c-roina Hua. T: (nes H MJina) KTO TAM CTOJln? s: TiM C"fOJirIH Jlea H MiiJIa. (CTYJteHT, CTY,QeHTl:a, OIler, 6Jll1., llapanJ:HH, XHl"pOB, CT}'JteKT H CTYJteuna)

s:

DISCUSSION

In terms of grammatical agreement, t..-rO who is treatoo as masculine singular even though the person asking the question may know that the referent will be a female person or more than one person. Similarly, "ITO is treated as neuter singular. Note that "TO what is pronounced [sto).

Introductory :ho
MODELS

liTO :)TO '! - 3TO fiHCbMO. A 3TO "ITo? - 3To nOJtapox 6Ile.
~~~ . v.. ? ..::7TO Tbl, IUlPHJUI

- Her, no Ji, ReB. :no Jtpyr6e Jteno. liTO :no, orypubi?


CUED QUESTlONANSWER DRILLS

What's that? It's a letter. And what's this? It's a present for Olya. Is that you, Kirill? No, it's me, Lev. That's different. What 3re those, cucumbers?

The item to be substituted is to be given first, followed by the question and then the student answer.
1.
(a letter) What's that? 2.

It's a letter.
T: (nHCbMO) liTO :iTo?
S:

3TO nHChMO.

T: s:
T:

T: (JiWHK)
S:

liTO :)TO?
3TO~.

s:

(CTon, pw6a, kAwa, ceneJtxa, .ztBtPb, omo, UOpTlenb, 'fan, x6le, 3BT66yc,
UOllC)

Who's there? It's me, Evgeny. (EsreH"") KTO T<iM? 3TO Ii, EBrelIHH. (HHHa) Kyo TAM? 3ro Ii, UHua. (KHpw, ReB, CeMeH,llapanxHH, MJina, XHTpOB, KHpW, 6nbra, Oner, CeMen <l>It.1IH:nnOBH'f)

(Evgeny)

DISCUSSION

The introductory word iTo usually indicates something not previously described or specified, but about which some statement is to be made. It can be translated as this, that, these, those, and sometimes (particularly in a rejoinder) it.
74 LESSON 5

The irregular present tense of XOTeTb


MODEL

J1. XO'ly naunt Ha KOHuepT. Tbi X6..ewb _

I want to go to tbe concert.


You want _

Ou

XOlfeT

Mbi XOTHM Rbi XOnITe


OHli xOTn ~

_
_

He wants We want
You want

_ _
_

They want

REPETITION DRILL

Repeat the model afier your instructor (or the tape) until you can reproduce aU forms accurately.

REPETITION-SUBSTITUTION DRILL

She wants to go
T:

(0

the concert.

0ua XO'feT noiint H3 kOHuepT. s: QHa xO..eT nom 118 ti:OHJ.lepT. (KHplffin, ThI, Ii, "liHa, Mbl, OHU, BbI, Oner
II

CArna)

QUESTION ANSWER DRILL

Don', you want 10 go there? No. I don',. T: DbI He xOTiITe ItJtTI't: TY.na" s: He-r. He xo"lj. T: 6n He XO'leT HJ1TH Ty.na? s: HeT, He xO<teT. (ThI, carna, EerCIlHH. OHM, MHna. BbI, HHHa Ii Oner)
DISCUSSION

The verb xOTh.. has an irregular present tense. It follows a first conjugation pattern in the singular and a second conjugation pattern in the plural. Note that the final stem consonant is 'I in the singular and T in the plural, and that the stress is on the endings except for the second and third persons singular.
SINGULAR
XOOfy XO'lClUb x6'leT

PLUJW.
XOTHM XOnITe XOTJIT

LESSON 5

75

The past tense


MASCULINE SUBJECT
6H

6Wi

r6po.ne.

A .nasuo oac He BlI.rteJI.

Tw Kymi:Jt cene)lKy? Ceromul Mj)K He 6b1Jf lIa cnYJo:6e.


FEMININE
SUBJECT QHa 1138110 B3.C

He was in IOwn. I haven't seen you in a long time. Did you buy herring '] My husband wasn't at work today.

He BH,a;eJla.

Hillla, n;, 6t.vJa B r6ponc? .[la, Ii OOk"Y"ana nnan.e.

11 .n6nro CTma 8
NEUTER
SUBJECT

OlfCpeJlH.

She hasn'l seen you in a long time. Nina, were you in town? Yes, 1 was buying a dress. I siood in line for a long time.
There was a meeting yesterday. The letter was on the table. The milk was standing 00 the window sill.

B'lcpa 61.71110 co6pallHc. nUCbMO 6bU1o fla CTOne. Monol<o cTolino IIa oKHe.
A

PLURAL
SUBJECT

rne

!:lb' 6bu1H?

OIlH CToilJlH B 6'lcpe)lH.


4TO Dbl JtCJUlJIH?

Mbl IIc.rtaBHO 116)1(101 6bmH


REPETITION DRILL

liMN
113

'fail. CTone.

And where have you been? They were standing in line. What have you been doing'? We drank tea awhile ago. The spoons were on tbe table.

Repeat tbe above models, observing the basic pattern. The past tense is regularly signaled by tbe suffix -n, usually added to a vowel-ending stem. The endings that follow are gender-number endings, with zero for masculine, -8 for feminine, -0 for neuter, and -II for plural. Note that the past tense fonns always have a hard n in the singular, but a soft n in the plural: nM (gil] versus mimr (gitil, CToliJl [stajal] versus CTo!i:n:. [stajaliJ.
REPETITION-SUBSTITUTION DRILLS

1. We drank tea not long ago. T: Mbl HeJl3..BHO mim.. 'laH.

s:

MY HeJlUIlO

n".Jul .. aii.

(MYJK. ami, EBremlH, Hlilla, cry,nellT " cTYJleHTKa, )l(eBa)

On",

Bhl,

2. Ivan was hurrying to the meeting. T: HBllH cneWHn lIa co6pa.lHe. 5: JiBall CUernHn lIa c06paIlHe. (Thl, HHHa, Mf.'K, Bbl, )KeH8., aHa, li, Mhl, MY>K " )KeHa, OIlH, 6u, olUi)

3. He hasn't seen you in a long time. T: Oil JlaBII6 BaC lie BH,aen.

s: Ou

JUlBHO BaC He BtiJJ.e.rr.

(w, Mj:lK, )l(eua, O..IUI, rAmI, w, OHIt.


UapOrnrnu)
TRANSFORMATION DRILLS

I. The borsch is on the table. The borsch was on the tab/e. T: 66pLU Ha CTOne. s: I)6pI..Q 6LI.'1 Ha CTO.'1e.
76 LESSON 5

T: finan.e Ha crone.
S: fLn:jn.e

6Wro

Ha CYMe.

(n6)l(, KOp66K3., OHCbM6, nOJ],apoK,n6:lKKa. n6JKKJ1, d.ll.la, 'laH, 06eJ],. mH, xne6)

2. The herring is in the cupboard. The herring lI'as ill the cupboard. T: CeJle,nKa 8 wKa4JY. S: CeJIe~ ... a 6h1Jui 8 WKa4!Y. -

T: MaTcplia..n 0 wKa4JY. s: MaTCpHM 6LIJI 8 wli'alY. (orypubl, pbi6a, Kama, "faH, OKnxH, nO)i(KH, lUle6, UOPT~llb, nHCbMO,

Kop66Ka)
QUESTION-ANSWER DRILLS

I. Where was Evgeny? He was aJ the meeting.

2. What was she doing? She was standing in line.

T: r.ae 6bm Eoreu""?


s:

1': 41'0 aHa .a.enana?


s:

Ou 6Wi Da cOOp'tlMH.
r~e

Oua CT'Oina B o-tepe.a.lf.

T:

6wui Hfuta?
H8 co6p8HHK.

s: Qua 6t.u1li

(On,., KupuJUI, CT}'~eHTKa, :lKeml, lIeo Oller, cry,neHT Ii crY,l.l,eHTKa)


3. Where's O/ya, dOWlltOWII? No, bur she was downtown.

Ii

T: r.tl.C OnJl, 0 r6po.o:e? s: HeT, 110 OHa 6blJUl 8 rOpo)l,e. T: r.ne EOreHHH, 0 r6po.tl.e? S: HeT, 110 OH 6bvi 8 rOpo)l,e.
(UapinxHll, KJlPHJUI
OHU,

1': 41'0 0" ,nenan? S: OK crotin B O"lepe,llJl. 41'0 ami .nenana? 41'0 Obi .nenana, CeMCH? 41'6 abl ,ucnaml, MMa? 41'0 TW ,ue.n.an, Cama? lIT6 Tb' .n:e.nana, HJ.lHa?

naenOOIi"f,

OH,

aHa)

TRANSFORMATION DRILL

Where was O/ya sJanding? Where was she standing? T: r.o:e crOlina O.JlJl? S: CT01iJIa? I

nte Ofta

T: r.a.e crain EoreHHH? S: rAe OK croM? r.o:e CTO.liJrn KupHm1 II CeMeH? (HIIHa, 11eo, Mlflla, MY:lK Ii )KelH'i)
QUESTION-ANSWER DRILLS

t. What did you buy, O/eg?


I bought bread and herring. T: lho obi: Kyrnirrn, OJIcr? s: H li'YmUi XJlOO H CeJle.rtKy.
T: ""ITO Obi KyrnuDI,

2. What were you doing, O/ya? I was buying a briefcase.

T: liTO Obi .n:e.nanH, Omr?


s: A IIoKYrulJla nopr(lenb, T: LITO SbI .n:enanl1, lIes? S: ~ aOKynall nopTlMb.

unJi. s: A Kymina xne6 H ceM,llKy.

....

LITO Obi Kymurn, pe6lin? LITO Kymin 11eo? LITO Kymina O.JlJl? 4TO Kymina )i(r.;':r? 4TO kymin Mt.?

(MMa, KIfPH.rtn, HHtta, CeMeH, Cama)

, In I'{Ji questions of this Iype the pronoun must puc~ (he verb: Cf.e otdi crOli.rla! A noun, however, may appear either bc:foll: or after the verb: rne Om.n crotina! (Or rlle crojna OJlW"a!)
LESSON 5 77

DISCUSSION The past tense of Russian verbs is expressed by the past tense suffix -JI plus the appropriate gender or number ending to agree with the subject. With most verbs the past tense suffix is added to a form of the stem ending in a vowel: 6':'-n, AYM&-J1, nOKyna-n, BHn.e-n, cToli-n, rOBOpH--n, and so forth. Stress. The stress is usually the same in aU four forms of past tense, but may shift to the ending in the feminine fonn, particularly with the shorter verbs. Compare 6bvi, 6':'Jlo, 6WH with 6l.1na (t); also nHJI, n"Jlo, nHJDI with DHna (t). In the combinations uii 61:>1J1, HC 6l.1J1o, and lie 6b1nH, the stress shifts from the verb to the negative particle He, Note, however, that it remains on the verb in the feminine form lie 6wJla.

REFERENCE

LIST

Of

PAST

TENS" FORMS

Infinitive

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Plural

6W'L be min. drink 3HaTL know nocmiTL send ,1I,CJlaTL do JJ.ocTaTL get CJrbuuaTL hear pa60TaTL work 06e,1l,aTL dine noot}CAaTL dine nOKymh'L buy
Kymin.
buy

6hlJl min
3H!vI

cnelmtTL hurry BH,neTL ",e CMOTpCTL look nOCMoTpCTL look XOTeTL want

nocn3.n nenan .l:IOCT3.n CJlblll.lan pa66Tan o5eAan noo6ellaJI lloKyn3.JI KynHJI CnClllHJI 8H,uen cMoTpCn nOCMOTpeJi XOTeJI

6h1n-a nHn-a 311M-a nOCJllln-a nenan-a AOCTan-a CJIbIWan-3. pa66Tan-a o66n.aJT-a noo6ell.aJJ-a nOKymi.JI-a KyoHJI-a CneWHJI-a BH.ll:CJI-a CMoTpe.rr-a nocMorpen-3. XOTeJJ-a

6blJl-O nHn-o
3HiuHl

nocniuJ--o nen3n-o AOCT3.n-O CJ1hlWaJI-o pa6oTan-o oGeAan-o noore.ll:aJJ-o nOKymlJl-o KynHJI-o CneWHJI-o Blf.rr.eJl-O CMOl'pen-o IlOCMOTpCJI-O XOTe.........

6hl))-H rrHJI-M 3Ha.JI-H nOCJ1aJJ-M JJ.CnaJI-H LIOCT3..JI-H CJlbIWaJl-H pa60TaJI-H oGeaaJl-H no05cLIaJJ-H nOKynan-H KyoHJI-H CneWHJI-H BH,uCJI-H CMOTpe.rr-H OOCMOTpen-H XOTCJI-H

qTEHHE H nHCbMO

READING AND WRITING

78

LESSON

LESSON

79

80

LESSONS

J,

:J

LESSON 5

81

LESSON

PREPARATION FOR CONVERSATION

nepowii lleHb B yllHBepcHTbe


the first day The first day at the university_ nine almost It's almost nine already. time, it's time It's time to be going.
ready

nepOblH ,neHb nepSblH ,neUb S yHJtBepcHme. ,neBnb no'fTIi


Y:lKt
00......

1I,eawn..

napa nopi 1U{Ili.


rOT08 (m), rOT08a (f)

Ho li

ewe He f'OTOBa.

But I'm not ready yet. pen, penholder my pen I know I don't know where my pen is. shelf, bookcase on the shelf, on the bookcase over there, over yonder But over there on the shelf, isn't [that] it? notebook these notebooks, those notebooks all those notebooks for you, to you why, what for, for what purpose why do you need And why do you need all those notebooks? truth; it's the truth, tbat's right
Yes, you're rigbt.

PY<tK3

pY'tICa [H]3H3.Jo He lHlUo. r,a;e M01f PYOUI:a.


MOJi

n6JlKa

lIa nonICe
SOH TaM

A BOU TiM, aB. uomce, lie omi?

TeTp3Jlb (I) 3T" TeTp3..AH


Te6e
33.'1CM

ace 3TH TeTp8M:


Te6e Te6e ace in T~!

31..

33'1CM

~a.

npas.na npaa.na.

""".... (pfv)
83m

KH"ra

book books to take 83

[Ji]

803bMY

>1

803bMY TOJIhKO KHHrH.

OlIHY TeTpMb Bo3LMY TOJu"KO KIIIinI H OAHY TeTp8ro:.. 803bMH

I'll take I'll take just the books. one notebook 1"11 take just the books and one notebook. take! pencil And take a pencil. And take a pencil too. let's go! we're off! Well, let's go! all, everything (here all set) Well, all set, let's go! Here's the university! lhe chanccllor, the presidenl (of lhe university) hc'lI speak Where will the chancellor speak? building the large buiJding you see 00 you see tbe large building? Over there. Do you see the large building? library opposite the library Over there. Do you see the large building opposite the library?

Kapaa.na rn
H kapaH.lJ.Aw BOObMH. H ewe .... pa.u.a8.tu a03LMIi,

noUJJtH

Hy, noumii!

see
H Y ace, n(llll.llli!

n.e 6Y,ller rOBOpH-rL pCKTOp?


3.aaHHe

OH 6Y.aeT rOBopHTb

[zdaQj;)]

60JlLWOe 3.aaltHe

Tbl:

8H.zJ.HWb

Tb.i 8H.n.uWh 6oJIhrnOe 3JJ.3.HHe? B6H TiM. BH,.amrn. 60JlbrnOe 3.Q.3.HHe?


6H6mto-reKa

up6THB

6H6JIHOTeKH

80H riM.

KMIIHlIJL

fionbUJ6e J.aiHae

np6nm 6H6mtoTelOl?

,lIa,

BDiy.
Torna

Yes, I see.
then, in that case long Well, so long then.
SO

nod.

Hy, TGrll,a nod.


SUPPLEMENT

nepo

r.ae nep6?
'leU (m)

4eu 3TO

KapaHJJ.3m!

-Mou.
""" (I) 4bJl .iTo KHHra?

-Moli. '"" (0)


4bt

no fiHCbMO?
6YAe-r

-Moe.

3an
BOT 3an, rlle
ptKTOp.

rOBOpHTb

pen point, pen Where's a pen? or Where's a pen point? whose Whose pencil is this? Mine. whose Whose book is this? Mine. whose Whose letter is this? Mine. hall (room within a building) Here's the hall where the chancellor
will speak.

84

LESSON 6

IIePBLIH )leu.. B yUUBepCUTeTe


H. HHKomBi (K61l.ll), 6pAT ranHHa (ranJl). cecTp3.

r. -

H.

raJUI,
YJKC DOlfTH ):leBRTb.

napa H.ATH.
r.
2 Ho H eUle He rOTOB3. He :malO,
rAe MO" py'lK3. I
HiM,

gal' ! ufe patli ~eyil para illi!


Qiznaju
g~e

no ja jisco !J.igatov;) 1

I I

maja rutb!

H. J, A BOH
H3

a v6n lam
napol~i!

neniCe,

He 0",1? M: 3a'lCM Te6e Bee 3TH TeTpa)l,J.t?

Qiana

i zatem Ii lie

I
I

rle eli

lilra~i j

r.

4 .lI.a, npaBLl3.
B03bMY TOJ1bKO KHHni
H O,llHy

TeTpa,ab.

da j pravda j va~mu tolb kQigi i adnu titnit 1

H. 5

M ewe KapaHltam B03bMH.

i jisco k;:>randas vappJ

r.

Hy BCe.
nowmiP

nu

rio j

palli j

H. 7 BOT H ynHBepcHTh!

v6t i uQiyir~i\et!
g~e bu~il

r.
H.

r.n.e 6y,neT rOBopHTb pCKTOp?l


TaM.

govapI rSkl,r j

9 B61:1

von lam 1
balloj. zdaQj. protir lI ib !ia lelP j
dii j yifu j nu tagda pad 1
yi~il

BH,uHWb 60JlbWOe 3.a.aHHe npoTHB 6H6J1110TeKH?

r. 10 }:la, BIDKy.

H. 11 Hy, Tor.uA nOKa.

NOTES

1 Of the two words for pen, py"Ka is more commonly used in the Soviet Union now than nepa. More specifically, PY"tK8 means penholder and nep6 pen point.
Notice that these teons all refer to the old-fashioned type of pen used with an inkwell. Fountain pen is aBTOpy"lK8.
let's go is actually the plural past tense fonn of noiiTIi to go, to set off used as a special imperative in highly colloquial style. Compare it with the English expression we're off.
2 DOUlllN

PeKTOp is comparable to our university or college president or chancellor. At the beginning of eacb academic year freshmen assemble in a large hall to hear an address given by him.
j

LESSON

85

PREPARATION FOR CONVERSATION

AMepHK8HcKHii: crY.l'CHT
American (adj only) an American student He's an American student. your first day to pass, go by passed, went [by] How did your first day go 1 all right (lit. nothing)
All right.

aMepHlCaucKHH aMepHkauclCHH cryAeHT 6H aMepHXanCICHH cryAeHT. TaOH nepSblH ,a,eHb


npoRTH (prv I)

npowen

IUiK npornen TB6ii nepln"H ,!leu.. ?


HH"Icr6

lfHqer6.

OJUln (m) aMepHXaHeu OroiH aMepHk3.Hen TiM 6blJ1 OmlR aMepHXaHeu.

neUUUl
Ha neICWtH y HaC Ha nellauUf Y HaC Ha nekUHH 6bui OMH aMepHIC3Heu.

one, a American an American There was an American there. lecture, class (at university level) at the lecture, in class at our lecture, in our class There was an American at our lecture. you know You know, there was an American at our lecture. be's standing, he stands He's standing over there. that (over there, yon); that person, that one that person over there, the ooe over there That fellow standing over there 1 maybe, perhaps That fellow standing over there perhaps 1 Why that's Philip Grant. him; his Do you know him 1 to become acquainted, meet, be introduced [It'd be] interesting to meet [him]. Do you know him 1 [It'd be] interesting to meet [him]. This is my sister. Hi Philip. This is my sister Galya. brother This is my brother, Kolya. now, just now, right away I saw you just now.
[~i~sl

TbI 3Haewb
3Jllietub, y IISC Ha mSh.'"UHM

ow. oAHu aMepHKaneQ.


OR crOUT

6H TAM CToHT. TOT, Til, T6;"Ii SOH Tin BOa TOT, "ITO TiM CTOHT1 MO)l(:eT 6bm. [moZ(Kl)bi~] M6>eT oWn., .oH TOT, "ITO
TaM """"

Tat>: iTo
er6
Tbl ero

())HJlHtm

rpallT.

3H8.CWb 1

n03I1a"OMHTbCH

[J)Qznakoqtitc:l]

I1HTepeeHo n03RakOMHThCJI. lW er6 lH8euu.? KHTepkao


D031UlK6MJrn.ca.

:no MOR cecTp3.


npHBfi,
())HJlNIBI. ~o

MOti cecTpli

ram..
6pAT
3TO

MOR 6pAT KOnJI.

.>t

ceH"IaC' sac ceH"IaC 8HJlCJt.


This word may be pronounoed either
LESSON

or

[~iMsJ.

86

JdtJKeTC~

Jt

BaC, KfmeTCSI, ceii'lac BH.aen.

ayJtHTOplUI B ayJ.tHTOpHH R TOM ayJtHTOpHH J1: de, n*e-rCK, ceirlac 8Jtnen 8 T6ii

ayllllT6p1D1.
IJ.i, Ii rl." 6LvI1i.

it seems It seems I saw you just now. auditorium, lecture room, classroom in the auditorium in that auditorium, in the auditorium there It seems I saw you just now in the auditorium there. Yes, I was there. Russian you speak You speak Russian. You speak Russian well, by the way. you think it seems to me You think so? It seems to me I don't [speak it] very [well]. you're not serious! what do you mean (lit. what are you saying)! Why what do you mean! [You speak] quite well. you studied Russian, language Russian Where did you study Russian '1 school (below university level) in school Where did you study Russian, in school?

no-pjccxu
Rbi roBoprn

Rbi rOBoprn no-pyccKH. A 8Y xopoo.o roBOpH're . .pyttKH.


Rbi J(jMaeTe

MHe d)l(eTCSI

BW AYMae-re? A MOe d]Ke-rCR lie O'lCtlb.

'tTO BbI ('iTO BbJ rOBopine)!

Hy 'ITO BY! Bno.rme xop0w6.


BbI YIflUm:
pyCCXHH lOW:

Ca.e BbI y'Uirnt PYccKHH

~3b1.K?

WJCoJia
B WKOJle

Ha, 8

ymmepcIfTbe.

No, at the university.

SUPPLEMENT

AMepHKa On Y'lHJI pyCCKHH S13b1K R AMepHKc. aMepHKanKa KTO aHa, aMepHxaUl<a? H r080piO

A rOBopiO no-pYccKH. A rOBopiO no-aJlTmHickH. A He roBOp.o nO-aHTmiiickH.


HenJ10XO Rbi Hennoxo roBOPH're nopYccxH.

America He studied Russian in America. [an] American (f) What is she, an American '1 I speak I speak Russian. I speak English. I don't speak English. not badly, not too badly You don't speak Russian too badly.

LESSON 6

87

H. -

HlfKonaH (K6nSl)

r. - ranHHa (rA..rur) 41. r. - 4IlfnHnn rpallT (aMepHK3lleuj


H.

KaK npomen TROit nepBblit .n:eUb,

kak pra~ol Iv6j gervij QeQ!

ramI? r.
2 HH'fero. 3HaeWb, y HaC H3 neKUHH 6blJl O.n:HH 3MepHK3Heu.. I , J MO)KeT 6bTTb, BOH TOT. 'iTO TaM CTOHT? TaK :ho <llmninn fpaHT.
4 Tbl ero 311aewb?

gal' j
Qicivo 1 znajis ! unas nalekciji I bi! aQin arpirikaQic 1
moz(id)bi~ von toil

H.

st";) tam slajil T I";)k el";) fitip granl ! Ii jivo znajis T


in\iresn~ p~znakorpit~

r.
H.

J.1luepeeHo n03HaKOMHTbCJI.

n PHBe-r. <l>HJlHnn! 3To MOJl cecTpa ranJi.

ppyel filip j
el~ maja ~islra gal;,)!

<1>.

r.

6 3.n:paBCTByitTe !2 ii: BaC. KA)KeTCl'I, ceii'iac BH.n:en B TO" aylHtTOPIHf.

zdrastujti ! ja vas kazit~ ~icas yiQil ft6j aUQit6riji !

r.

7 Jja.
g TaM 6b1na. A Db!: XopoWO rOBopHTe nopyccKH.

da j
ja tam bila ! a vi x~raS6
g:wari~i panjs~i

<1>.

r. 8

Bhl nyMaeTe? A MHe K3)KeTCJI He OleHb. BnonHe xopomo.

vi dum~ji~i 1 a ffiQe ka1itc-;)

QiociQ j
nu. sto vi! fpalQe x-;)raso! gQe vi ucili rus~j jizik 1

H.

9 Hy, 'ITO BM!


10 fne Bbi Y'lHJlH pyCCKHH $lJhIK. B llJKOne?)

r.
<1>.

15koli 1 Q<t I
vUQiyir~i~e\i

r.

J 1 HeT.

B yHHBcpcHTe-re.

NOTES

nouns aMepHK8Helt and aMepKKaHKa refer to an American male and female respectively. The adjecLive &MeptlKaHc!'HH can never be used alone 10 refer to the person. Thus alHepllKllHckHii CTYJl.M or aMepHriHCKIlJI CT)'J1.e.mca is used for all American sludent, but only a\tepHK8HeQ or aMepHKiHl.-a for an American. Notice that none of these words is capitalized in Russian.
LESSON 6

1 The

88

2 When introduced, Russians usually say simply )JlpasCT8yiiTe hello. With older people or distinguished individuals, however, one should use the more polite ronns corresponding to our Very pleased to meet you: O<tetlb op..mo (or OqOOL npUmo DO:utaKOMllTLCll (c !liMN}).
l PjCCt.':HM Klbo\ is used for Russian here, but the adverbiaJ form no-pYCCt.':N

is used with such verbs as roBOpm to speak, oomin. to read, and llllcin. to write.

Compare with

pyccKllii 1I3boc? r,Qe ebi )"'IWm PYCCKJlM K3WK?

Bbi

lHaeTe

Do you know Russian? Where did you study Russian? Do you speak Russian? Do you read Russian?

Bbi rosopiITe no-pyCCKII? Bbi 'lHT3.eTe no-pyttKH?

Basic sentence patterns


I. 3TO Moil nepBLrii ).leHL B yHHBepcHTere. _ _ _ _~ B wK6ne. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 8 na6opaTopltH.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 8 06lUe:lKHTHH.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ua :saa6Jle.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ H3

CJIy*:6e.
rOTOR?

It's my first day at the university. _ _ _ _ _ in school. _ _ _ _ _ _ in the laboratory. _ _ _ _ _ _ in the dormitory. _ _ _ _ _ _ at the plant. _ _ _ _ _ _ on the job. Time to be going, Kolya. Are you ready yet? Yes, I am. Not yet. Yes, I'm ready. No, I'm not ready yet. Time to be going, GaJya. Are you ready yet? Yes, I am. Not yel. Yes, I'm ready. No, I'm not ready yet. Time to be going, fellows. Are you ready yet? Yes, we are. Not yet. Yes, we're ready. No, we're not ready yet. Is it already time to go to the lecture? Yes, it's already time. Yes, it's long since time. Yes, it's already nine. Yes, it's almost nine. Yes, Jet's go. No, it's early still Lei'S go to the university. _ _ _ to the library. _ _ _ to the auditorium.
I..ESSON

2. napa Hllut, KomI. Tbi

ytlCe

- Aa, rOTOB.
-

Her ewe.
Aa, Ji Y'ke rOT08. Her, A ewe He rOT08.
raJUI. Tbi ytlCe rOTosa? Aa, rOToBa. Her eme. )la, A yxe rOToBa. Hth, .Ii ew:e HC rOTo8a.

3. nopa HJJ;TIi:,

4. nopa HllTH, pe6liTa. Bbl


J].a,
Mbl

)"Ke rOTOBLJ?

rOToBbL

Hheute.
Mbi )')Ke rOToBbI. Her, MbJ ewe He rOTOObl.

- Jl.a,
-

s.

Y:lKe napa HJJ:TIt Ha neKUHJO? - 113, yxe nopA. - ll.a, ,QaBl:IO napa. - )la, 'flKe ).leBRTb. - )la, noomt. n.eSJlTL. - )la, nOWJIH. - Ha, ewe pano.

6. J1D.eM 0 )'ltHBePCHTCT. _ _ 8 6H6JIHOTe"y. _ _ 8 aY.Q.HTOpmo.

89

J.1JleM

l(nY6.

_ _ B 06ll.le)fOtTJ.fe. _ _ B na60pn6pHIO. ___ 8 r6po,ll,.

Let's go ____ _____ _____

to to to 10

the club. the dormitory. the laboratory. town. to work. 10 Ihe post office. to the concert. to the lecture. to the meeting.

7.

>t enemy ___ ____ ___ ___

H3 H3 Ha H3 Ha

pa66Ty. n6'fTy.
KOHUepT.

neJW.HlO.
co6panHe.

I'm hurrying ______ ______ ______ ______ This is __ __ __ my my my my

8. ~TO Moli cecTp3 raJlll. __ 1016H 6ph K6JU1.


__ Moli ",eHa. __ M6H MYc.

siSler Galya. brother Kolya. wife. husband.

9. >t B3C BH.a.en Ha nenum.


co6pAHHu. _____ H3 1C0Hltepre. _____ H33aa6p;e. _ _ _ _ 8 repone.
_ _ _ _ D.
____ B

rS'Me.

I saw you at Ihe lecture. _____ at the meeting. _____ at tbe concert. _ _ _ at the plant. _____ downtown. _ _ _ in GUM. He's at __ at __ in __ in __ at tbe the the the the university now. club _ dormitory _ auditorium _ library _

10. OH ttnepb 8 )'HHBt'pcHT're.

_ _ _ B<nj6e.
_ _ _ _ 8 06ll.leIHTHif.
____ 8

aynHT6pHlf.

_ _ _ _ 8 6H6nH01i"e.

II. Ow He rOBOpHre no-pyccDS?


_ xopow6

Bw Henn6xo r080plrre no-pYccKH.


_

scer.d

_
_ _ _
~_

_ T6JKe _onnb _ _ 6'feHb xopow6 BnonHe xopow6

You don't speak Russian, do you? You don't speak: Russian [tooJ badly. You speak Russian well. You always speak Russian. You also speak Russian. You're speaking Russian again. You speak Russian very weU. You speak Russian quite well. Do you speak English? Yes, I do. Yes, I speak English. Yes, but not very well. No, I don't. No, I don't speak English. Do you understand English? Yes, I do. Yes, I understand English. No, I don't. No, I don't understand English. Did you buy herring? _ _ _ _ fish? _ _ _ _ a book? ______ a notebook?

12. Obi rOBOpHTe nO-3Hrmrn:CKH? - .Qa, r080p.o. - .QA, Ji rOBop.o no-aHrmiitckH. - .Qa, HO He 6'feHb xopow6. - Her, He rOBop.o. - Her, A He rOBop.o no-aHrJlHHCKH. 13. Bbi nOHHMae-re nO-aHrnHHCKH? - .Qa, nOHKMAJo. - .Qa, Ji nOHHM8.1O nO-aHrJlKHCKH. - Her, He nOHHMcUo. - Her, li He nOHHM8.1O no-aHrmmCKH.

14. BWlCyminH cene.axy? _ _ _ _ pw6y? _ _ _ _ ""Hry? _ _ _ Te"l"j)3Ab 1

90

LESSON

---_."", , .......
____ 0""'...' _ _ _ _ TeTpaaH?
A.
_ _ _ _ Monox6?

----""=.

~,

---_.""" .

_____ ____ _____ ____

bread? tea? coffee? milk?

_ _ _ _ _ cucumbers?

_ _ _ _ _ notebooks?

Pronunciation practice: hard versns soft consonants


lsI vs.
I~J

Usual Cyrillic spelling c; sometimes e...

3,

or

:lb.

Note the pronunciation of hard [s] in the following:

[vasl
[aft6bus]

",;C

aBT66yc

you bus

and compare it with soft


l~iIjl6nl

[~]:

Simon

If~uJ !Il;~m6J

all
Jetter

Russian hard [s] is fairly similar to English s. Soft [~) is made by bringing the front part of the blade of the longue toward the upper gum ridge. It has the effect of being followed by a ylike glide. Sound Drill; Practice the Russian paired examples illustrating hard [s] and soft [~]. imitating your instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you can.
B.

[zl vs. I~I

Usual Cyrillic spelling J; sometimes

lb, C,

or a..

Note the pronunciation of hard [z] in the following:

(zdrastuWJ [zdar6vi]
[nozav~1

3JJ;paoCTByilTe
J.ll.OpOBbl

Ha JaBo,D;e

hello healthy at the plant and compare it with soft

h:J:

Ipmul Ipnol

JHMy 3Hua

winter Zina

and

I~],

Russian [zl and [~] are made with the vocal organs in the same position as for Russian Is] but, in addition, they are voiced. Sound Drill: Practice the Russian paired examples illustrating hard Izl and soft [~l, imitating your instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you caD.
LESSON

91

c.

['I

vs.

[rl

Usual Cyrillic spelling p; sometimes ph.

Note the pronunciation of hard [r] in the following:


[zdn\stujti]
[n~ur6k]

3JJ,pfl.BCrB yihe

113 ypOK
3.D:OpOObl

[zdar6vi] [x::lras6]

xopow6

hello to the lesson healthy good, well and compare it with soft [r]:

fIIipl]
[g~varat]

KJ.lpHJlJl
rOBopRT

Kirill they say


nnw

[tiger)

Tenepb

Russian hard [rJ is unlike any variety of American English r. It is something like the "rolled" Scottish r and practically identical with the r of Spanish, Italian, modem Greek, Serbo~Croatian. or Polish. In pronouncing Russian [rl, the tongue is trilled or vibrated, making one or more taps against the ridge of the gums behind the upper teeth. (American children sometimes make such a trill in imitating the sound of a machine gun or an airplane engine.) Soft [rJ is formed similarly, but the middle surface of the tongue is arched higher giving the effect of a y-like glide. l
Sound Drill: Practice the Russian paired examples illustrating hard [r] and soft [rl, imitating your instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you can.

Intonation practice
Introductory remarks Within any major segment of speech some syllables are spoken at a higher relative pitch level than others. We designate these as 1 low, 2 middle, 3 high, and 4 extra-high, with the extra-high level occurring much less frequently than the other three. These levels are indicated graphically by a line which we call the intOflmion contour, drawn above the major segment through the primary and secondary stress points and ending in an arrow. An upward stroke indicates a slight rise in the voice (typical of certain kinds of questions), and a downward stroke indicates a falling of the voice. The primary stress point is indicated by a small circle and the secondary stress points by small black dots on the intonation contour directly above the stressed syllables.
EXAMPLE

4 3

2 1
HHHa 6hJJla 8 rYMe.
, One hears something like the Russian [r] in certain imitations of upper-class British speech, for example, in the pronunciation of lerribly when the r sounds almost like a d.

92

LESSON

Intonation drills A. Slatemel1ls with fo//ing contours. In contours of this lype lhe high peak occurs in the first part of lhe segment, dropping gradually thereafter and making lhe sharpest drop on or immediately before the syllable with primary slress. The basic range is from 2 or 3 down to I, although the slarting point may be an upward rise from level 2 to level 3. These countours are typical of neutral statements, exclamations. and commands. lmilale lhe leacher or tape as accurately as you can.
4 4

J
2 I
on:pbrra. B Kop06Ke. Ha :JaBCme. B JiUUtxe. rOnoAcH.
4

J
2 I
B'iepa 6bu10 co6paHHe. Y HaC ecn. KAwa. Tenepb omi 3AOpOBbI. I1pHHa 6b1J1a B rYMe. OliH 6buut B rOp<)J1e.
4 J

J 2
I

2
I

BM MeT aBT06yc. TaM 6wno HHTepecllo. BM MarepJ.tan Ha nmlne.


4

aac He aHnen. 6H B'iepa lie 6bUJ H3 CJ1p!<6e. Mhl ceronHR 6WJ1H B ropo.ue.

.H AaBHo

J
2
I

4 J 2
I

OGen rOTOB. OrypuW Ha CTone. Ha CTOne 66pm. B Kop66Ke MaTepJ.tan.

M~

Jl 6H

ran.

Hell3aHO oMJ.t 'taM. He.naello riM 6bu1. rOBopiIT Bnonue xopow6. TIIM 6bJJ1a. l""C

B. Questions with falling cOntours. The contour is similar to thai of statemenls, but the range is wider, starting with level 4 and dropping gradually thereafter to level 2. The primary stress may be either on the question word itself or on the last stressed syllable. This contour is typical of questions beginning with a question word. Note that the voice does not rise at the end as it often does in English. Imitate your teacher or the lape as accurately as you can.
4

J 2
I

J
2 I

aHa? :no? '!T6 :ho? Kyna BW? r ne ",e OH?

KT6 KT6

a Kop66Ke? c06paHHe? r.c rononeH? KTO yxe He 6bUl Ha CJ1)0K6e? KTO 3a'ieM BaM CneWHTh ? l.ITO
LESSON 6 93

TYr Hawe

4 3

2
I

110;1 rlle r.ne orypu;bi?

4 3

2
I
Ky.aa 8M Db! H,ltCTe?

Cne KHpiUtn?

rae KTO BAc


4TO Db! ami:

6bum?
BH.neJI?
.aenanH?
CTOJiJflt?

rn.e

tlTo

DbI
B

4TO 6brno

8H.aeJUf? Kop66Ke?

The four noun declensions in Russian: CTOJl-, OIWO-, *eHft.-, and ,lI;Bepb-ciass nouns
According to the pauerning of their case endings, Russian nouns may be divided into four basic types. We shall usc a model noun to represent each basic type.

1. crM-class

2.

OI.. uo....class

3. *clla-class

1. CroJl-ciass nouns are masculine. Their nominative singular ends in a consonant letter (including -ii) or -to.
EXAMPUS

aBTooyc, npHBh, ypOJ:. KHpH.n.n, CeMeH, Mp:, UJj6. ylUlBCpcHTeT, 66plll. 'faH. Atm., nopTlC.rrb.
2. OKBO-class nouns are neuler. Their nominative singular ends in the letter -0, -c, or-e.
EXAMPUS

nHcbMo,

y-rpo, a61o.

lIJIan.e, co6pallHC, m!HHc singing, 06Ulc"ofTHC, 6eJlbC linen.

3. JKeaa-class nouns arc chiefly feminine; a few thai refer 10 maJes are masculine. Their Dominative singular ends in the letter -a or -H.
EXAMPLES

cnPt<6a, pbl6a, cene.a.Ka, na6opaT6plUl, Kop66Ka, npaBna, HiiHa, Miina, riJul, K6n.H Koiyu, MHwa Misha, lIW uncle. 4. .LJ.gept.-c1ass nouns are feminine. Their nominative singular always ends in the lelter-h.
EXAMPLES

JUU:pb, 6cellt., 6lfepeJtt., TeTp3,L(b.

EXERCISE

Arrange four columns with the following heads: I. aM

3. *eM'

Put each of tbese nouns in its proper column: TCJIe$SH, yooPlUHua, aeno, O<iepe.lJ.b, nnan.e, wxona, neKltlUl, C06p3HHC, 'Iaii, OKIIO, .H3b1:K, UDOlf, IfCTOplUl, kapaH,ll,3.W, K3.pTa, 6ce:Hb, lPUJn.M, repOii, lIe,a,enSl, nepO, CBHJl3,lOte, y-tHTenbHHua, nemre, yron, MOpe, TcTp3.nb, MonoK6, pe3ym.T3.T, c.rrYJtc6a, JleB, Kawa, orype[{, aeut., nop~b, K6n.H.

94

LESSON

STRUCTURE AND DRILLS

The accusative singular of nouns ending in -a and


MOOELS

-9

.R

KynHn cenCAKY.

I bought herring.
_ _ _ fish.

_ _ _ pbI6y.
_ _ _ PY'ikY

_ _ _ a pen.
_ _ _ arork. _ _ _ a spoon. _ _ _ a bookcase. _ _ _ a book.
I see __ __ __ __ __ __ __ Nina. Mila. (he coed.

_ _ _ BMkY
_ _ _ J10)I(KY _ _ _ n6nxy.
_ _ _ KIIHry.

R DIDiey

HHHY.

___ MHJlY
_ _ _ CTyn.CHTKy. _ _ _ ceCTPY
_ _ _ :lKCUY

my sister. my wife.
Olya. Kolya. Sasha. the laboratory. the lecture ball. the library. schooL the post office. work. the lecture.

_ _ Omo.
_ _ _ K6Juo.

_ _ Cl.tuy.

.st u.nY 8 na60paT6pHIO,


_ _ B aYAHTOpHlO.

_ _ B 6H611HoTexy. _ _ B UlKony. _ _ liB n6ITy. _ _ HB CJTjx6y.


_ _ HB nCKlUDO .

I'm going to ____ to ____ to _ _ _ _ to ____ to ____ to ____ to

REPETITION DRILLS

Repeat the above models, noting that when nouns ending in -a or -'IiI in the Dominative singular serve as the direct object or the object of a preposition after a motion verb, the endings -a and ...... are replaced by -y and -fO respectively.
RESPONSE DRILLS

I. Where's the wxlka? Did you buy Yodka? T: rAe BO,D;l:a? s: BY KyminH aOJJ.KY? T: rAe pbl:6a? s: Rbi KymirrH p.:.6y?
(KJllfra, BKJUca, nO)l(Ka, nonKa, cene,lJ;Ka,

2. There's the post office. Yes, I see the post office.


T3M nO'ITa. lUf:Y uO'IT)'. T: T3M na60paTopIl.Jl. s: JJ,i, , BM*y Jla60paTopKtO.
T:

s: ,na, Ji

py'lKa)

(Kop66Ka, pbI6a, dwa, aYllHTOpHlI, nO)l(Ka, BllnKa, HUlfa, 6IU1)

3. The schoors open. rm going to school. T: llh:ona onpbf'ra.

s:

a w.nY BlUKOny.

T:.AYJlHTOpWI OTKpblTa. s: A HJtj B ay.LUIT0pKtO. (na6oparopltJl, 6H6nItOTeKa, UIKona, aYAHTOpWl)


LESSON 6

95

4. Nina was al the lecture. Did you see Nina?


T: HHHa 6bfJHl Ha neKl.um.

T: Komi 6hJ:n ua neKl.UUf. s: BbI BH.rteJ1H KoJIlO?

(cecll'a, MHna, 6nR, raJIS!, carna,


CTY.QeHTKa HfuIa)

s: BL:I
CUED

8H.tteJIH

HHHy?

QUESTiON~ANSWER DRILL

T;

S;
T:

S:

Where are you going? To a lecture. (neKl.J;HJl) KYM flbl HJJ:CTC? Ha JIeKQHJO. (6lf6nHoreKa) Ky.ua BM H,ue-re? B 6HMHoreKy. (CJlpc6a, n6lfTa, wKona, aYll.I.fT6pHR,
na60paTOpHJl,neK~)

(a lecture)

DISCUSSION NOMINATIVE SINGULAR ACCUSATIVE! SINGULAR

-a

and-~

-y and -to

)KeHs. pw6a ceneAK3

ran,.

)Keny pbl6y cenc.QKY

6
Kont!

ramo 6mo
K6ntO

The direct object of a verb or the object of a preposition accompanying a motion verb is in the accusative case. )KeHs.class nouns replace -3 and --51 of the nominative singular with -y and -10 respectively in the accusative singular. Note that while most of these nouns are feminine, some are masculine; TaM 6blJl KonH Kolya was there; R BMJJ;en Komo I saw Kolya. Inanimate CTM- and oKUo-class nouns have accusatives which are like their nominatives both in the singular and the plural:

.sf BfuKy cTOn. _ _ _ CTonw.


_ _ _ OKUO.

I see the table.

_ _ _ Olma. _ _ _ orypeQ. _ _ _ orypn;bi.

__ __ __ __ __

the the the the the

tables. window. windows. cucumber. cucumbers.

All ~p ..-class nouns (animate and inanimate) have singular accusatives like their nominative singular. (In the plural, the accusative is like the nominative only if the noun is inanimate.)

51 BOY JJ;sepb. _ _ _ ...ePM_


_ _ _ Jho66Bb rTerp6BHY.
96 LESSON 6

I see the door. __ the doors. __ Lyubov Petrovna.

The second conjugation verb rOBopHTb


PAST

fOBOpUJl, rOBOpHlla, rOl~OpHJlO, rOBopHlHf

PRESENT

rOBoplO, rOBOpHrnb, roBOpHT, rOBopHM, rOBopiITe, rOBopsiT

SUBSTITUTION DRILLS

1. You ta/kedfor a long lime. T: Bbl .QOJJro rOBopHlm. s: Rw .n6JIro rOBOpH.rlH. (ou, 08<1, OHlt, TbI, Mbl, Bbl, si)
QUESTION-ANSWER DRILLS

2. He speaks Russian.
T: 6H rOllopkr no-pYccKlf. S: OR roBOpHT Ilo-PYCCKH. (OHH, Bbl, Ii, Mbt, T1:d, OHa, MbJ, 6H)

I. Do you speak Russian? Yes, I do.


T: Bbl rOBopHTe no-pyccKU?

2. How do I speak Russian? You don't speak Russian [tooJ badly. T: Kflx Ji rosopIO no-pyccKH?
s: Bbi HeWlOxo roBOpHTe no-pycCkH. T: KaK OHM rOBopJi'r no-pyccKlf? s: Olla HeWloxo roaopliT Uo-pyCCKH. (all, MM. TbJ. OHa, Rbi:, Ii, $lfnHnn, aMcpmd.Heu rpfl.lfT)

s: lI,a. rOBopw.

T: Qua rOBoplh nO-PYCCKH? s: .lI.a, r080pHT. (TbE, ami, <l>81111nl1, Bbl, aMepuKaneu, rpaHT)

3. Does she speak English? No, she doesn't.


T: Omi roaoplIT no-aJlfJUIHcKU? s: HCT, He rOBopliT. T: Tw rOBopllWb no-aHfmHkKU?

s: AeT, He I"OBOPro. (Komi, BW, 6paT, OH", ceCTpa, ru)


CUED QUESTlONANSWER DRILLS

I.

(Tsarapkin) Who's speaking? It's narapkin speaking.


T: (UapaoKuu) KTO rOBopHT? s: rOBOpHT LI.apallKHR, T: (Hima) KTa rOaOpH:T? s: fOBOpilT H.rn8. (KlfPH.rr.n naBJlOBH'l, pCKTOp, Hima, EareHlf", 11eo)

2.

(the chancellor) Who spoke? The chwlcellor spoke.


T: (pCKTOp) KT6 rOBoplrn? rOBOpaJl peKTOp. T: (era iKeHa) KTO rOBOpH.n? s: fOBOpaJl8 ero *ella. (aMept1KaHeu fpiHT, XHTpOB, HHKOJlaH,

s:

MHJla, EBrcmdi, HHHa, f3JI.H)

DISCUSSION

The second conjugation verb l'OBOpH-rb, unlike COeIUHTh, has its stem ending in a soft consonant. The spelling ending of the first person singular of rOBOpKTb is -w, and that of tbe third person plural is -AT: rosop.o, rOBopn. Since CnernHTb has its stem ending in a hard consonant, the firSI person singular has the ending ~Y and the third person plumJ has the ending -aT: enemy, cuernaT. The stress paltem is the same in both verbs. The endings for the other persons are written the same for both verbs: -Hmb, -tIT, --HM, -tITe. Note from the transcription following that p is soft throughout in rosopal"b, and that ill is hard throughout in CUernHTb. (It is only a convention of tbe spelling system that H and not LI is written after hard consonant Ill.)
LESSON

97

f'Osop-JO

[g:;Jvar---il
~i~

-Kwb -HT

.......-y -Kwb
->IT

["IIiH

-u
-it -1m -I\i

-it

-HM -MTe
-b

-im

-tti -at]

-HM -MTe

-AT

-at]

Possessive modifiers
MODELS
NONCHANGING FORMS

:no ero CTOn.


3TO

ee cron.

:no Jix C'T6n.

This is his table. This is her table. This is their table. This is his bookshelf. This is her bookshelf. This is their bookshelf. This is his letter. This is her leuer. This is their letter.
CHANGING FORMS

3m ero noma.
:no ee noma. 3m '" nOnKa.

:no ei rutCbMO.

3TO er6 nHCbM6.

3m lix nHChuO.
"lei :ho nopTQ:lC.lJb?

- :no M6i DOpnpem.. - 3ro nOI ""p*"".


lIJ.iI .no .Il:HHra'1 - :no Moi .Il:HHra.

Whose: briefcase is this? It's my briefcase. It's your briefcase. Whose: book is this? It's my book. It's your book. Whose: letter is this? It's my letter. It's your letter. Whose table is this? It's our table. It's your table. Whose: shelf is this '1 It's our shelf. It's your shelr. Whose: dormitory is this? It's our dormitory. It's your dormitory.

- :no ~ DUtra.

- ::no Moe DHCbMO.


-:no....oe OHCbMO.
"lei .no cron? - :no HUD CTon. - :no Uw CTon.
lft.j

lfJ.i 3TO nHQ>MO'1

no n6nxa?
..ama nom:a.

3TO 3TO

aawa n611ka.

- :n-o R.iwe 06w.a:Hnte.


:no Uwe 06warne.

'b.i

no 06m.e:llC.HTHe?

98

LESSON

REPETITION DRILL

Repeat Ihe above models observing the pattern. Note that there are two types of modifiers: I. Those thai do not change Iheir form to agree with the word they modify: en>"ee, Hx. 2. Those that change their form according 10 the word they modify: ..ei, 'IhK, Moi, Moli, Haw, BJiw, TOOii. Observe also that TB6ii, TBOli, and noe relate to n:., while aaw, aawa, and same relale to Bbl.
QUESTION-ANSWER DRILLS

I. Where's my briefcase?

Your briefcase is on lhe lable.


T: rll,e MOU nopnt>enb? s: Raw DOpT+em- Ha cyone. T: rae Moil M3TepHan? s: Raw MaTeplllin Ha CTOJIe. (li:w.KI, 66pw, K3paHllaw,

2. WIJere's our dinner? Your dinner is there.


T: rae Haw 06ea? s: Raw ooeA d.". T: r.a.e Ham 66pm? s: Raw 66plQ ni.". ('1aH, JaBoa, wd*, CTon, XJJe6)

..au, HOJIC)

3. Where'of my sisler? Your sister's here.

4. Where's our school? Our school is lhere.


rae Hama ~ona? s: Hlitua III.k'"6Jla ,-a,,,. T: rae HaWa kHura? s: Hliwa IOUira TA.". (nonKa,.wrepb,CTOn08aA)
T:

T: rae Moli cectp3.?


s: Rima cecrpi

TYr.

T: rAe Moli KHHra? s: Rawa ICIIlira TjT.


(,aBi:pb, .emi, pY-tKa. WKona, TeTp3..ah, xop66Ka,aYJlHTOpKK)

5. Where'of my husband? Your husband is lhere.


T:

rae MOil My:*?

s: TaOii My" TiM.


T: r.ae MOil CTOn? s: TaO" CYOJJ dM.
(noa3poK,A~,6paT,nOpTeJJb,WK3.*)

6. Where's your malerial? My malerial is lhere. T: rll,e nM MarepHan? s: Moii MaTepKU TAM. T: rae noii CT6n? s: Moii CTM TliM.

(KapaHa3.W, 66pLU, Mj)K, o6eJI)

SUBSTITUTION DRILL

Whose pencil is lhal?


T: L):ei:i iTO Kapalf,A3w? S: lfeii iTO KapllHJlliw?

T:
S: l.ft.e iTO

(n,p6) 1 "ep6?

(MarepHan, 1IJ1l'tTbe, pbl6a, R1UltK, 6opw, ,UBepb, OKHO, nHebMo, 1I0)J(, Kop66Ka, nopTq,enb, CTon, nonKa)

QUESTION-ANSWER DRILLS

I. Whose letter is that?

Thar's my lelter.
T:

4..e iTO "HCbMO? s: ~o Moe IDtCbMO. T: 4bR iTo Dura? S: ~TO MOli: ..."rira. ' (nopT4ltnb, .wrepb, omo, HO:lll:,

2. Whose pen is lhat, yours? Yes, that's my pen. T: 4bi5 iTO nepO, Bame? s; ){Ii, iTO Mae "epO.
T: 4eA :iTO nopnflCnb, BAw? S: D,... iTO Moii nopTten.. (mitra, llBeph, JiJ.QKI, TeTpA,lu., OkHO, KapaH.ll3.w, nonn)
L.E5SON 6

Rwme,

KOp66Ka,CT6n,nnaTbe)

99

3. Whose dress is that, yours? Yes, it's my dress. T: t.fi>C :ho nniin.e, TBoe? s: )li, STo Moe wuin.e.
T: \.IbJi:iTO KAma, TBoJi?

4. Is that your pencil? No, it's his pencil. T: 3To dw UpaH)l3.w?


T: 3TO

S: )),li, i"ro MOll KlIma. (u6)1(, CTon, o6e.n., pw6a, 1l:00000M, 'faH, ll:opOOn)

s: HeT, iro ero Kapaa!titu. same "cpO? s: HliT, iTo erO nep6. (nopTll!:Jlb, CTon, ,a,aepb, 'Iau, KHHra,
"HCbMO, :lKCUa, UO:llC, Marepean)

cecrpa,

mmo,

5. Is that your dress? No, that's her dress.


T:

6. Is this our bread? No, that's their bread.


HaW XJIe6? S: HliT, iTo Iix xnOO. T: 3To HaWa cene,Q,Ka? S: Hh iro Mx ce.ne.lJ.Ka. (CTon, 'laM, KHHra, OKHO, Ma-repH3.n, UO:llC, KOpOOll:a,06tn,nonxa, ~a)
T: 3TO

S: HeT, :iTO ee wuln.e. T: 3To TaM MYx? S: Hh, iro ee MY"'. (TBOJi TeTp<i.m., nep6, 'IaH, "HChMO,

3To noe

MaThe?

cecrpa, omo, MaTepuan)

PROGRESSIVE SUBSTITUTION DRILLS

I. This is my briefcase. 3m Moil OOpTcPCnb. _ _ _ (KHHra). _ _ _ (UHCbMO). _(TBoe) _


___ ____ _(BiuJ) ___ ___ (TO"'.....). (KapaHqam). _ (no'ITa). (o6W;elKHTHe).

This is my briefcase.

:no Moii UOpT~. 3To


3TO

~ro MOll KHHra. Moe nHCbMo.

3TO TBoe

IIHCbMO. TBoJi TeTpa.nb.

3T0 TBOM Upa.JJ.t{3.w.

:no saw xapatt.Jt!w.


3To sawa nO'ITa. 3To sawe 06w;a:JITHe.

2. This is our dormitory.

3To HaWe 06me:lKHTHe.


_ _ _ (no.n). _ _ _ (nO"apoK). _(M6H) _ _ _ _ (=rpa).

This is our dormitory. 3TO mime 06mnl.:HTHe.

3ro Hawa oW....:a.


3To HaW DO.n.aPOIl: 3TO MOM no.aapox. 3To Moli c:ec'I"p3. 3To Mot: omo. 3T0 TBOO omo. 3TO TBoli ll:op66Il:a. 3TO TBOH Ma-repH3.n. 3T0 Bam MarepHan. :no aawa wJ(Ona. 3To aawe 06ma:K'THe. 3-ro Hawe 06mexHTHe. 3To HaWa mhua. 3-10 lIam CTOJI.

_ _ _ (omo).
_(TBoe) _ _. _ _ _ (Il:Op06Ka). _ _ _ (Ma-repHin). _(Bilw) _ _ _ _ (llII:ona). _ _ _ (06mez me). _ (HaWe) _ _ _ _ (nHwa).

_ _ _ (CTO.).

100

LESSON 6

3. Here's our chancellor. T: BOT miw (>CHOp.


S:

BOT name "liChMO.


_(Moe) _

BO'r

lIliw peKTOp.

T:

(o6ute:JIOITHe). _(BaWe) _

_ _ _ (nep6).
_ _ _ (nopTcPe Jlh). _ (TBOU) _

S: BOT nawe 06ntexainfe.


BOT BaWe 06We:lKHTlIe.
_ _ _ (aBT66yc). _ _ _ (yp6.). _ _ _ _ (JleKu,HlJ).

_ _ _ _ (m:lChMO).
_ _ _ (KHHra). _ _ _ (KapaHJlaw). _ _ _ (nnaTbe).

DISCUSSION

There are two types of possessive modifiers in Russian: 1. Those that do not change their form to agree with the word they accompany.

en)

ee
Hx

his, its her, hers, its their, theirs

Note that
EXAMPLES

era is pronounced
e.6 nopTcPeJIb

(jivo]. ero ceCTpa ee ceCTpa

e.6 nlfChMO
ee

ero l'eTpi.ulf

ee
HX

nopTcPeJIb nopT$CJrh

Hx ceCT'"

HX

"UChMO nHCbMO

ee
HX

rerp3.lu<
TeTp:l.J{H

2. Those with grammatical endings which change to agree in gender, number, and case with the word tbey accompany:

MASCULINE F1!MININE

NEurnR

'leu
Moil

TBOH
H'rn Barn

'lbll MOll TROll HaWa


sHrna

'1hi: Mae

TBoe
Hame BaWe

whose my, mine your, yours our, ours your, yours

Note thai l'BOH, T801i, and


EXAMPLES

1'8oe refer to n:a, while Baw,


'lbll cecrpa

Barna, and Blime refer to BLI.

'1eil KapaH.ll:aW

'1be ffilChMO

whose pencil
Moii KapaHA3w my pencil BaW Kapau,n:l.w your pencil

whose sister
MaR CCCTpa
my sister

whose letter
Moe nHCbMO my letter Barne nHcbMO your leiter
LESSON

BaWa cecrpa

your sister

101

The perfective future of the first conjugation verbs noitTo and 83HTh
11 noH.D:Y lIa KOHu.epT. Tbl noii,neWb _ On noH.1.leT _
MbI
nO~eM'--__

Bbl nOH,neTe

I'll go to a concert. You'll go _ He'll go _ We'lIgo _ You'll go _ They'll go

Omt noHJJ.Yr

REPETITION DRILL

Repeat the model after your instructor (or the tape) until you can reproduce all the forms accurately. Note that the endings are exactly like the present tense endings of the imperfective verb IIJl.nI, but
that the meaning is future.

SUBSTITUTION DRILLS

I. fm going to go to a dinner.
T:

2. rll go to the library tomorrow.


T:

>t

nOHlIY 1:13 06eA.


DOHJJ;y US

>t

now B 6H6J1HOTeKy 3asTpa.


B

s: jl

06C.a.
_
U8

TO (OUH)

s: Jt now " (6u),

6M6mloTelCy 38BTpa. _

s: Qmi noWT

ooeJl..

s: On noii.nh B 6H6nHon~KY Janpa.


(MbJ:, 6pAT, ccc-rpa, Thl Bbl, OHlt, 6ph If ceCTpa, li)
t

(0113., Tbl, Bhl, Mbl, Cawa, Komi H r<i:JuI, Ii)

TRANSFORMATION DRILL

Fm going to the dormilOry. FlI go to the dormitory.


T:

T: TLT MeWh a 06me:lKHnle.

.sf

HaY B 06me:lKHTHe.

s: Tw DOH,aelUb B 06rn.eDnle.

s: B DOiiI.tY 8 06we)Kme.

(MW, HHKonaH, r3JUI,

OHH,

BbT, OH)

QUESTION~ANSWER DRILL

Are you going (0 the club today? No, FlI go there tomorrow. T: Bw MeTe B Kny6 cer6AH.II. ? s: HeT, Ii uoiiAY Ty.n;S lSBTPS.

T:

OHH

HJJYr B KJI)'6 cero,llTUl?

s: Hh, OuK noii.rtjT TY.n;s 3S81"pS.

(EareHHH, -rbI, MbI, om\, ceCTpa, HHHa, L{apamCHH)

Tw
6H
Mhr

.s1

a03loMY TonhKO KHHrH.


B03bMeillb B03bMeT _ _

I'll just take books. You'll __ take

a03loMeM
B03bMeTe

_
_

Bw

OHK B03hMYr

He'll __ take We'll __ take You'll ~_ take They'll __ take

_ _ _ _ _

102

LESSON 6

RBPETITION DRILL

Repeat the model after your instructor (or the tape) until you can reproduce all the forms accurately. The pattern of endings is the same as for the present tense of M,a:nt and the perfective future of nom. Note that since B3m is a perfective verb, the meaning of the forms is future.

SUBSTITUTION DRILLS

1. They'// take these notebooks.

2.

ru take these books.


T:

T: Om-I S: Omf T: (Jt)I


s: s1:

B03bMYr 803bMjT

3TH TeTp3.nH. 3TH nrpW. _

.st

B03bMY iTH KHHrH.

3TH nrpiJJ;H. (rami, Thl, Bba, Mbr, cecTpa, OlTer H KHpiUul, Thl, li)
803bMY

s: s1: 803b.\tY iTH KIUInr. T: (0"0)1 _ s: QHi 803MteT iTH KHHnt. (KHPH.nn, Thl, Mbi, OKM, 6ph, 6JU1, cawa H K6JU1, li, Bba)

CUED QUESTION-ANSWER DRILL

Who'// take these Mtebooks? I wiJ/. T: (li) KT6 B03bMer iTH Te-rpa.nH?
(I)
S:

s1:

B03b.""'.

T: (6H) KT6 B03bMer 3TH Te"Tp3.J:tH?


5:

Oa

803bMe-r.

(OHM, Mba, BbI, Thl, cawa, HHHa, 6paT)


DISCUSSION

The perfective verb nom is the aspect pair of the imperfective verb tI)ITIi. Both nom and 83m 10 lake are first conjugation perfective verbs which take the same set of endings in their perfective future as MJl,ni does in the present.

SINGULAR

noiiJI.-y
-eWb -eT

I'll go you'U go he (she)'ll go we'll go you'll go they'U go

B03bM-Y
-eWb

-eT

I'll take you'll take he (she)'11 take we'll take you'll take they'll take

PLURAL

-eM

-eM
-eTe

-cre

-y,

-yr

For convenience, we may call such endings as these "present-future" endings. Although they are the same for both imperfective and perfective verbs, they have different meanings, depending on the aspect of the verb. When the verb is imperfective, the endings signalize the present tense; when the verb is perfective, the endings signalize the future. It is important to note that the perfective future has in it the particular limitations inherent in the perfective aspect. It describes a future action in terms of its realization, completion, or result; thus it contrasts with the imperfective, which focuses on either the process itself or its repetition.

LESSON 6

103

The second conjugation verh BUllen.


MODELS

H (ilia

!lca MbI

8HlteJ1a 8HlteJ1'-

Omo

rYMe.
_

Nina saw Olya in GUM.


Lev saw We saw _ _

B",uelHl

11110n;Ul 11 BIi:Jy KOJJlo B KJlY6e.


_ _ _ Tbi BIIJl,.HLUb _

Sometimes I see Kalya at the club. _ you see _ _ _


~~

_ _ _ 611 BHJ.tIlT
_ _ _ Mbi BH.nIlM

_
_

_ _ _ Sbr 8HltHTe
_ _ _ OlUf SWT

_
_

_ _ _ he sees _ _ _ we see _ _ _ you see


_ _ _ _ they sec

_ _ _
_

REPETITION DRILL

Repeat the given models, noting that in the first person singular, prescnt tense, replaces the final stem consonant JJ., which occurs in all other forms.
SUBSTITUTION DRILLS

I. J oflen see Nino in lown. T~ ~ 'IaCTO BH:lKY HHUy 8 roponc. s: Jl ..aCTO aM"'y HKUy B roPOJJ.e. T: (M,;,) _
s::

2. He oflen used 10 see Nina in town. T: Oil '1aCTO RH.nen HilHY B r6po.ne.

S: Oil "aero BK.a.eJ1 Hli:tty B rOpo,lte.


T:

(O,;,)!(Mali ccCTp<i,

_
Olllt,

Mw ..aCTO BMJUIM HliHy B ropo,lJ,e. (HlHconau, rut lit BbI, Moli cecTpa, OIlH,
Moil 6p3T)

s:

Bw "aCTO BM./leJIlI HNHy a roPC>lle. rw, M6H 6ph, MhI,

Hawa Y'urrenbHHu,a)

TRANSFORMATION DRILLS

I. I rarely saw Ga/ya there. I rarely see Golya there.


T: J1 peAkO TiM oMen ralUO. s: A pCJt,KO TliM BH:.Ky ramo. T: OH" pellKO TaM BIUteJUl rtUIlO.

s:: Ollfi pCAKO nlM BKnHT ramo. (611, Mbl, Bbl, $i, cecTpa, Tbl, ami, Mbl, $i)
QUESTIONANSWER DRILL

2. We sometimes see Nina Ihere. We sometimes saw Nina there. T: Mbl IfllorAA T8.M OH.nIlM HUIIY. s: Mhi HIIOI-"a Tli.M BJi"eJIH HUHY. T: !lnKomBI HltOr.na TaM Bll"IfT Hlilly. S: HHK'Wlllit HUOr.na TllM BH"en HUny. (li, Tbl, Bbl, omi, cecTpa, 6paT, Mhl)

Do yOIl see Ihe knife? No, I don't. T: Tbi B"A1iWb 116*'

s: Her, lie RK-,y. T: Rbi 8".nIlTC .16*1 s: Hh, lie BIi;l;:y. (011", 611, ami, Tbl:,
DISCUSSION

RbI)

The verb aJi.ncn. differs from tbe other second conjugation verbs already discussed (cneunin. and rOBOpHTb) in that there is an alternation of stem consonants in the first person singular of the

104

LESSON

prescnt tense. In BH.a.el'l., the .a is automatically replaced by in thc first person singular and the ending is -yo Compare the three patterns of second conjugation verbs: cneuMri.

to hurry

rOBopm to speak rOllOprOllOp-.o -KWb -itT -liM -liTe -JiT rOBoplirOflopH-n

BH.a.Cn. flH.a.-

to see

PRl:'SENT ST'E.'d

cnem-

cnew-y
-Hrnb -liT -KM -KTe
-aT

fllblc-y fllia-HWb
-HT -HM

-HTe
-OT

PAST STEM

cneuntcltcwli-n

BHJl,eflKAC-n

-na
-no -nH

-na
-no -nH

-na
-no -nH

Second person imperatives: familiar versus plural-polite forms


MODLS

CX<m.K. rlle ill fl'lepa 6bm? CXIDlC.ne, r.ne Bbi B'Iepa 6butH? H3BIUIK. li enemY Ha aBT66yc. H3BHHHTe. li enemy Ha aBT66yc. 3axo.nH. AaBRO Te6li He BIi)len. 3axo.luiTe. AaBH6 BaC lie BH,nCJ1.
Hapc,Kb. nO:lKanyHCTa. orypt..u:1. Hape:lKbTc. noxanyHCTa. orypu,bl. B03bMH 3TH KHHf"'. B03bMHTe 3TH kmlrH.

Say, where were you yesterday'! Say, ? Excuse me, I'm hurrying to catch a bus. Excuse me. _ Come in, I haven't seen you in a long time. Come in. _ Please slice the cucumbers. _ _ slicc _

Take these books. Take _ Hello, Oleg! Hello, fellows!

3.np3BcTByH, Oller! 3JtP3:scTByiITe, pe6liTa!


REPETITION DRILL

Repeat the given models, noting that the plural-polite imperative is exactly like the familiar imperative except for the addition of the unstressed suffix - Te. I
, Atlhi$ Slage the student is oot expected to fonn the imperative: rather. he should recognize those which he encounters and either add or delete the formal-plural suffix -Tt- Thus, given the familiar imperative ..lfrii! rUld! he will Ix expecled to know that the fonnal-plural is ",""li'Te!

L'iSON 6

lOS

TRANSFORMATION DRILLS

J. Slice the bread! T: Hape:b xnoo! s: Ha~I>Te XJle6! T: JaXO.lllt, nO:lKa.nyikra! s: 3axomiTe. oo*iJJyiicra! CI(IDKH, B'Iepa 6buJO co6paHHe 1 BoJbMH TOJlbKO O,ltlfy TeT'J)3.nb! 3.np<iBcTByH, neB! HJBHHH, BOT Moii aBT66yc! He rOBopH! nOCM<Yfl>H! nOCTyn3.ii B )'lIllBePCIfTt:T! 4HTaii ! nOBTOpH! He cnew"!

2. Look, here comes Nina. T: CMOTpHTe, BOT HJJ.eT HHlla. s: CMorpH, IMh _,neT HKHa. T: BOJbMlITe 3TH DuirH. s: BoJbMII 3TH KHIinI. JaxotuiTe, n.eePb He 3aJ1epri.. Hapaa..re XJ100 H orypu.W. HJSHHKre. j cnewY oa ypOll:. He rosopKre! OOCMOTpKTe! nOCT}'IlaHTe B ynH.oepcHTt:T! 4 HTaHTe 004PYcctc"!

DISCUSSION

Imperatives call primarily for action rather than a verbal response. The most common type is tbe second person imperative.
EXAMP,"",

nO:3..nyHCT3.3aXO,ltHTe! H3BHHHTe. BOT HJ1er Moii a.oT06yc. CMOTpH. BOT Mer CMHpHOS. Hap6Kb orypu.W. CK~Kre, B'Iepa 6b1no co6paHHe 1

Come in, please! Excuse me. Here comes my bus. Look, there goes Smirnov. Cut the cucumbers. Tell me. was there a meeting yesterday?

The familiar imperative (used in addressing Thi) differs slructuraUy from the formal4pluraJ imperative (used in addressing .oM) only in that tbe unstressed suffix -Te is added in the latter form.

FAMILIAR

FORMAL-PLURAL

nape)l(b CMOTpH cnpocH OTBeTb nODTOpH 1f3MellH 33MeHli 3.npaSCTByH

Hape)l(bTe CMoTpHTe cnpocHTe oTBe-rbTe nOBTOpHTe 1f3MeltKre JaMeHHl'C 3D.pa8CTSyHre

cut! look! ask! answer! repeat! change! substitute! beUo (lit. be healthy)!

106

LESSON

'lTEHHE H nHCbMO

Uqj'UUlO?n~-"7?U, ~

~ ,/

Uq;tak.:-nuI1~'U:, e/!d ~,/- ~


n-t<X!C

--k

~ 2 ~ ~ ; ' -~, ~

-~,~~~2-0a.,

~,dk~?-.. /;t'~'

2t rJ..,w ~ ~,- ~, ~ ~~~,~~/ -2J.o ~,/ ~ ~,/

LESSON 6

107

LESSON

PREPARATION FOR CONVERSATION

ceo" nopTq,eJlh
Jt
3a6b.rTb (prv I) 3a6but cao" nopTlf:nb. TeJle$On (TeJle<POHbI)
3BOHHTh (11)1
3BOHHT Tenetjx)H

Mawa (variant of MapHSI) Mawa, 3BOH11T TeJJe+t)a.


TeJle$6ny nOllOK-rH (prv I)
It:

my briefcase to forget, leave (inadvertently) I forgot my briefcase. telephone (telephones) to ring, to phone the phone is ringing. Masha Masba, the phone is ringing.

nonoW

It Tene4M>"Y! nOJl.oii.rot, OmKlistyiicra,

K' Tefle~!

to (or toward) the telephone to approach, go up to Go to the phone! Go answer the phone, please!
hello to listen
Hello! (Lit. Hello! I'm listening.) to ask, request Ask Ivan Nikolaevich [to come] to the phone! Please ask Ivan Nikolaevich to come to the phone!

a.rtnO [a16) CJljwan. {I} A1U16! $i CJJjWlUO.


nonpocHTb (prv II) nonpocltTe j.1BaBa HHKOn3.CBll'l3
It

TeJlC$6uy!

nOhpoCMTe, UmKaJl}'Hcra, Mealla


HHKOJIIICBH'Ia K TeJlclft6ny!

KTO rOBopuT7
Ceii'tic. A KTO roBOpMT? KjPO"tKHH.

Who's speaking? or Who's calling? Right away. And who's calling? Kurochkin. on the phone, on the line (lil. at the phone) Hello (/il. I'm on the line), Boris Mikhailovich. tbing(s), matter(s) in what What's the matter?

y Te1lee:p6Ha

ACno (.a.em\)
B '1eM

B ..eM JJ.e.rto?

I The symbols (I) and (II) stand rot the rmt .nd second conjugations. Henoeforth Yab aspect will be indicated only rot perfective ~'erbs. Thus, (I) means that the verb is imperfective and first conjugation; (pfv I) means that the verb is perfective and first conjugation.

109

y sac

n"
He 3a6WI nH J1 He 3a6btn nu J1 y sac COOK nopT4J6Tb? YlH3.Th (pfv II) Jt XOTe.!1 pH8T'1>o He u6bui JIM Ii y CB6H OOJITojoem..

ue

at your place; you have whether, if (question particle) didn't I forgel, whelher or not I forgot Didn't I leave my briefcase al your place? to find out, learn, recognize I wanted to find out whether or not I left my briefcase at your place. just a minute nowhere, not, .. anywhere Just a minute. No, I don't see it anywhere. to leave Maybe you left it at the university? to think, think a bit about, of, on (concerning) about that, of that How is it I didn't think of that! there, to that place to get in (lit. to enter there) to be able, can I'll be able But I won't be able to get in. doors, door, doorway The doon; are already locked. cleaning woman (cleaning women) How about the cleaning woman 1 to OpeD to be able, can she can How about the cleaning woman? She can open [the doors).
key(s)

MHHYnY
HHr.lle

MIfIIjn.'"}', Hn, HHr.lle He BIVq.

OCT3.BHTh (pfv II) MOlEn 6brrb BY 8 yHHBeparre-re

OCTliBJI1IM?

uonYMan. (pfv I) 0, 06, 060 (plus prepositional case)


06 J,TOM

KaK 9 06 :7roM lie nOAyMan!


TyAa
BOHn!: 1)')),3

CMO'ib (pfv I) Ji CMory Ho,; lie (:M0rY T)'Ai

80m.

.naepH (pI of .n:aePb) ,lI.aepil Y*i :uinepn.l,


y66puuma (y66puv",,,,) A y66pWHQa? on:pbrrb (pfv I) MO'Ib (I)
aHa MOxer

A }WpuuIII3.? Otui MO.eT OTIq)bm.,

nee ecn. KnJ01(H.


o HeH
jf

1U1K>'1 (KJUO'lH) Y Hee ecrb [uQij6 je~U

she has She has the keys. about her Of course. I forgot about her. completely, altogether Of course. I forgot all about her.

KOHe1(HO.

0 HeR 3a6w.

COBceM

Kone'lHo.

Jt 0 neii OOBc:eM 386bvt.

SUPPLEMENT

saXTep (saXTepbl)

r.ne saxrep? 6u MO.CT OTXpbrTh .asepH.


(3BOHKH) 4TO :ho, 3BOHOl(1
3BOH6" n03BOHlfTb

(pfv II)

Oua n03BOu:H.na .nOMa".

custodian(s) (compare Fr. concierge) Where's the custodian? He can open the door[sJ. bell(s), doorbell(s) What's that, the bell? 10 phone, call on the phone She telephoned home.

no

LESSON 7

H 3a6b'JI caou
M.H. -

nopTll>eJIL

Hean HHKomleBH'I (npo4)eccop OpnOB)


MapH.lI
HsaHOBH3

M.H. IJ.M. -

0PJl083 (Mama, ero )Kena)

Sopite MHxaH.nOBH'f (npo4leccop Kypo'lKHB)

11. H.

Marna,
3BOHHT Tene$6H!

nOJIOHtlH, nO:JKanyHCT3.
M.I1. 2 AJIJlo!

rna!:> j zvaQit \iliron ! podaj~i pazal,s', j

..st
6. M.

C.njW3JO! I

al6 T ja shibju!
p~pra~i\i paza!:;lst:;l I ivan:;l QikalijiC-:l kVlif6nu 1

J nonpocH"re, nO)l(MyuCT3.
I1BaH3 HHKOnaeBH<fa K TeneqxJHy.

M. 11. 4 CeH'fac.

A KTO r08op,h?
6. M. 5 KypO'lKHH.

jiM' j a kt6 g~varit !


kiiroC~in

H. H.

6..st Y TeJle$oHa,
60pHC MHdHnOBHlf. B ..eM .acno?

ja u\ilif6n:J I

baps rpixa.liC ! ffern ~el, j


ja xatel uzm'it I Qizabilli ja uvas

6. M.

7..st XOTe.n: y:maTb,


He 3a6bUl JIM Ii Y BaC

cacH nopTepMb. 2

svoj part[el j
rpiniilku! Qetj Qig~e Qiyifll j moi(id)bi\ I vi vUQiyir~i\e\i astayilil

11. H.

8 MHHyTKy.

Her,
MUr.ae He BHJKy. J MOiKeT 6b1Tb,
ObI B yHHBepcHTCTe OCTaBHlUt.

Ii. M.

9 KilK Ii 06 3TOM He no.nyMa.n! Ho Ii He eMory TyJ13 BOHTit:. )lBepH Y)l(e 3anepTbl."


QHa MO:lKeT OTKpblTb,

kak ja abet~m Qipadum-:>I! no ja Qismagu tuda vaW i dyeri uze zagirti 1


a ub6r~6~ 1 ana m6zit atkrit! llQijo jell klllCi j .

H. H. 10 A y66pIUHua?
y nee ecrb KJlJO'IH.

S.M. 11 KOHe'tHo!

..st 0 8eii cosceM 336w.


NOTES
I

kaQesn, j ja aQej safjim ubil j

Russians answer the telephone in various ways, corresponding to our heJJo: ..sf y TeJteqx>Ha. Ann6! or A..nn6, Ii cnywaJO. Ita? or )].a. A cnywafO. [..sf] cnywalO. Despite its spelling, a!L'IO is pronounced with a single n, usually soft: [alo].
LESSON 7

111

The possessive modifier CBOH is equivalent to MOM in this sentence. CBoii means one's own and can refer to any person. It is not used to modify the subject of a sentence, but refers back to 'he subject for its meaning:
2

R 3a6bu1 csOM nopT<Pe.nb. Tbl 33.6brn CB6ii nopTl6tb. Omi 33.6brna cBbii nopTlC.nb.
l

I forgot my briefcase. You forgot your briefcase. She forgot her briefcase.

Note that IIHf"Jle nowhere is used in a double negative construction in Russian. This is true of all such negative constructions: mo..'"Ormi, HMt4erO, HMKYJla, and so forth.

R er6 H....Jle He BlfJKy.


DbI HNKorJla He rOBoplhe no-pycckll.

R HM<ferO 06 nOM R HMKyJUi, He HD.Y.

He 3H31O.

I don't see it (or him) anywhere. You never speak Russian. I don't know anything about it. I'm not going anywhere.

.. Russians often use the plural form ABepn to mean a single door as well as more than one door. In the meaning doorway, the plural is used: 6H CTOlUl 8 ABeplix. He stood in the doorway.

PREPARATION FOR CONVERSATJON

CrylleHTLI nHcaJIH 0 napOll3X CCCP


the peoples of the U.S.S.R. about the peoples of the U.S.S.R. 10 write The students wrote about the peoples of the U.S.S.R. result(s) not half bad, pretty good pretty good results in my opinion, I think In my opinion the results are pretty good. What's that you're talking about? examinatioo(s) What are you talking about? The examinations? work(s), paper(s) (written) about the students' papers No, about the students' papers. They wrote about tbe peoples of the U.S.S.R. really! you don't say! is that so! Where are their papers? Is that so! Where are their papers?

HapO.Qb.I

CCCP o lIapO.Qax CCCP


nHeaTh (I)
OHcinH 0

CTy.QCHTbI

Hap6.nax CCCP.

pe3ynbT3T (pe3ynbT3Tb.I)

HellJlOXOH

HennoxHe pe3YJlbT3Tbi
nO-MoeMy

no-MocMy,

pelYJl.bTsn.r IICIIJIOXHC.

Dbl 0 'leM ;ho? (full form Dbi 0 'leM 31'0


r080pHTC?) 3K3a.MCII (3K3a.Mellhl)

DbI 0 ..tiM iTo? 06 3K3aMeuax?

paOOTa (paOOTbl) a pa66T3x C1)'llCItT08 HiT, 0 paOOTaX CTyAewrOB.


OttM mtd.',"
0

HapOAax CCCP.

S6T k3.K!

r.Qc HX pa66Tb.I?

BOT K8K! rJJ.i HX paooTl.r?

112

LESSON 7

cTyn (CT)'nblt) 3.u6clo BOT 3J1.Ccb, na crYlJe.

chair(s) here Right here on the chair. aha! ahhh! Aha, I see! Yakut(s) this, that This paper is on the Yakuts. Ukrainian(s) these papers These papers are on the Ukrainians. This paper is on the Yakuts, and these are on the Ukrainians. to write And what did Kozlov write about'! Georgian(s) Kozlov wrote about the Georgians. excellently About the Georgians. And he wrote excellently. one who does an outstanding job He's terrific! Glad to hear it.
-0, -bl

ara

[aha]

Ani. B.o..y!
"KYr ("KYrbl)
nOT (m), 31<1 (t) . . o (n) h 3Ta pa66ra 0 ltKYrax. ylCpaHHCu. (YJCPUHHlI,bJ)
3TH paOOTbl

3TH paOOTbf 06 ylCpaHHU,3X. :ha pa60Ta 0 tu..-jTax, int 06 YKPaKuuax.


HanHc3Tb (prv I) 0 ..eM HaoHCan KOl.lJ()8?

rpy3HH (rpy3HHbI) K03J108 HanHcln 0 rpY3HHax.


oTJUi'lHO o rpY3Huax. 11 OT1IM"IHO HanHci.'1. MOJlO,lleu. (MOJlO,llu.bl)

Ou MOJlOAtU!
Pli.a. 3TO cnw.uan! D,oD6J1eH, ,lIODOJlbHa,

npo<j>Cccop (nP"'l><=opa) Bee npo<J>eccopa ,lJ,OBOJlbHbl.

HM
Bee npo$eccopa HM
.n080JlbHbl.

Bc:e uaUIM

npo~C'Opa

lOt

.nOBO.rlbHLI.

pleased, satisfied professor(s) All the professors are pleased. hy him, with him All the professors are pleased with him. All our professors are pleased with him. the Russians on the Russians, about the Russians And here's a paper on the Russians. Miss Petrov Miss Petrov wrote that. much, a lot, a good deal about her Yes" I've already heard a good dcal about her. the best students She and KozlOv are the best students. department(s) in the department in this department She and Kozlov are the best students in this department.

pyCCKMC o PycclOtx A DOT pa66n 0

PYCCKJlX.

neTpoaa :ho neTp08a lIaOKCana,


MH6ro

)l,li?

o HCH J1 0 oeM y....e MIIOro CJlbouaJI.


Jly'lUJHe CTyttefITbi JlY'!UJHe CTy,lJ,eUTbI.

aHa 1-1 K03J168 -

$ucYJlbTCT (lakYJlbTtn.r) lIa $aKYJlbTere

Ha 3TOM laIC)'JlbTere OHa H K03Jt08 - lIy'flllHe


:iTOM

CT)'~

ua

tllKyJlbTbe.

USSON 7

113

SUPPLEMENT
CO'lHJlCIUlC M

bt

IUlc8.Jm CO'lHHCUHC.

y'lHTenb (Y'IHTCmi) saw Y'lI.tTCJlb? Y'IHTe.nbJlHUa (y'lHTCJIhHHU,bl) QHa saws y'lltTeJ1bHHua?

OJ!

rpynna (rpynnbl) 8 rpynne

QHIt Jly'lwHe eryLleHTbI 8 now rpYnne.

composition We were writing a composition. teacher(s) (below university level) ]s he your teacher? female teacher(s) (below university level) Is she your teacher? group(s), section(s) in the group, in the section They're the best students in this group.

11. H. E. M. -

HeAH HHkonae8H'I SOpltC MHX3.AnOBH'I

Ii. M.

n O-MOeMy, Pe:JynbTaTbI HennoxHe.

pamojimu I pzultati Qipla"iji.l

11. H.

2 Bbi 0 'IeM 3TO?


06 3K3aMeHax?

vi acorn el:l !
abigz3q:tin~x
Qel

6. M.

3 HtT, o pa60nx crYJIeHToB.


OHit mfC3.nH o HapOJIaX CCCP. I

araool;lx slUQent;lr! aQi gisali anar6d;lx eseseser ! 'lot Uk 1 g4e IX raboti !


v6d nastuli'l

11. H. 6. M.

4 BOT K3K! rJIe HX pa6oTw? 5 BOT


3AeCb,

z4el!

113 cTYne.

11. H.

6 Ani,
BH)I(y.

aha

I yitu I
ajikut~x abukrain~x

0 }fKYT3X, 3TH 06 YKpaHllu3x.

3Ta pa60n
A

et;l rab6ta

eti

0 'leM H3nHC3.n

K03J10B?

a acorn n;lgisal kazlOf i


agru~in;lx 1

E. M.

7 0 rpy3Hu3x.
11 OTllH'IHO H3nHcAn!

6H
11. H.

MOllOAeU!2

i 3 tlicna n;lgisall 6n m;llaQec 1


rat eta sli~t 1
kazit~
r~e

8 Pan. 3TO CJlblW3Tb.


Ka:lKeTCR, Bee HaWH npotpeccopa HM AOBOllbHbl.)

nMi pr;l(isara

im dav6lni!

114

LESSON 7

Ii. M.

9 A BOT pa60Ta 0 pyCCKHX. :)TO ne-rpOBa HanHcana. 4

a vot rabot~ arils~ix !


et~ Ritr6v~ n~Risal~

H. H. 10 }:\a?

.st 0 HeH )lJKe MHoro CJlI~wa..n:.


OHa H K0311oel1y'lwHe cry.neHTbI Ha :hOM 4>aKyl1bTCTe.!

ja aQej uze mn6g~ sli~l! ana i kazlOf t JUdiji stucJenti I


naet~m f~kulte\i

dar

NOTES

In the abbreviation CCCP U.S.S.R., the letters stand for COIOJ COOCTCKHX COUH3JlHCTlf'leCKHX Pecny6muc Union of Soviel Socialisl Republics. Unlike rYM, CCCP is not declined:
1

Compare. rYMe in GUM with

CCCP in lhe U.S.S.R.

1 The noun MOno. is a term of praise that can be applied to anyone who does

a good job or comes through suce::essfuUy. It is onen used when we would say: nice going! fine! good boy! good girl! i.e., as an exclamation of approval.
1

npo+etrop

is grammatically masculine, but may refer to a woman as well


Qna HaW npo<peccop.

as a man: She's our professor.

Compare it with the masculine noun yooiTe.m., which has a corresponding feminine equivalent rnrrenhUHQ&. Note, however, that the masculine plural )"tHTerui can refer to a mixed group of teachers, but that the feminine plural rnrreJlbUMUbI refers only to women teachers.
.. nnp6u is the feminine form of neTp6B and may mean Miss or Mrs. Petrov, depending upon the context. It is not considered impolite to refer to a man or woman simply by using the last name; for example, BOT lIlIeT u.api..aK1Dla means Here comes Miss (or Mrs.) Tsarapkin. In addressing the person, however,

either the first name and patronymic or the nickname is usual. rOCOOrofH and rocoo~i are used by Russians only when referring to foreigners or by emigre Russians. does nol meanfacully in the American sense, but corresponds to the branches of the university we call schools, divisi01Lf, or departments. For example, +HJIOJlont'lecKHi +8KynbTeT (4JHnrflAx for short) means departmenl of languages and Iileratures, and Me,!I,JIUHItCKMii 4!8Ky.'IbTU school of medicine.
J

lJ)sKynbTu

~N7

ItS

Basic sentence patterns


1.

rae orypUbJ?
_
_

HX paOOTbI?
KJJfO'Ui.

_ _ 8HJlkH.

__ n6)KXH?
_ KHHrH.

_TeTJlWt?
2. r.ne cryAeHTbf?
,
" __ Y'!Httml .

Where are ____ ___ ____ ____ ___ ____

the cucumbers? their papers? the keys? tbe forks? the spoons? the books? the notebooks?

_ _ Y'fHTeJ1bHHl(bl

Where are the students?


_ _ _ _ the women teachers?

npo<J>e<:copa?

_ _ _ _ the teachers? _ _ _ _ the professors?

3. 8M XIUO'IH.
_ TeTpA.a.H.
_lOtHrH.

_ _ BH.nI:H.

_nbC.IH.

_ _

orypubi:. H:x pa66Tb1.


nHcbMa?

Here are the keys. _ _ _ the Dotebooks. _ _ _ tbe books. _ _ _ the forks. _ _ _ the spoons. _ _ _ the cucumbers. _ _ _ their papers.
Where are the letters? Here on the chair. _ _ on tbe window sill. __ on the desk (or table). __ on the shelf.

4. rlle
-

B6T 3.1lecb, HB

CIjne.

_ _ _ _ _ _ H3 oKHe.

_ _ _ _ _ HB CTOne.
_ _ _ _ _ 113 n6nKC.

5. rAe "HCbMa?
86T 3ltecb, B lI111HKC.

_ _ _ _ _ B nopT<l>6Je.
_ _ _ _ _ _ B KHHre.

_ _ _ _ _ B TeTp3JJ.H.

_ _ _ _ _ B Kop66KC.

Where are the letters? Here in the drawer. __ in the briefcase. _ _ in the book. _ _ in the notebook. __ in the box. I've heard a lot about her. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ him. _ them.
_ ynu,

6.

.st 0

Hei{

MII6ro

CJII.dwaJ).

_HCM _ H"X

_ _

_,.;c
7. 0 116

X6M Thl r080p"Wb? 0 BaXTepe. 0 KHp".IU1e. 0 L(apanxHHe. 0 K6ne. 0 rane. 0 came.


LESSON 7

- 0 H"He.

Whom are you talking about? About the custodian. About Kirill. About Tsarapkin. About Nina. AboUl Kolya. About Galya. About Sasha.

8. 0 KOM omi rOBopliT? - 0 np<><jJCccope. - 06 I1Balle. - 06 y66pwHlle.

- 06 Y'lMTeJle. -06 One. - 06 aMepmC3.HlCe. - 06 aMepHIC3.HUe.

Whom are they talking about? About the professor. About Ivan. About the cleaning lady. About the teacher. About Olya. About the American (woman]. About the American (man).

9. 08 rOBOpKn

EBt-eIIHH. MapiDt. _ _ _ _ O,..,."a.nH. _ _ _ _ 0 na60paTopHH. _ _ _ _ 0 C06p<ilUlH.


0 ____ 0

_ _ _ _ _ 0 CO'lHHeHIIH.
____ 0

____ 0

,asepH. JlCICUHH.

_ _ _ _ 06 06meIHnrn. _ _ _ _ 06 OceHH. _ _ _ _ 06 o'lepe.Q.H.

about about about about _~ about _ _ _ _ _ _ about _ _ _ _ _ about _ _ _ _ _ _ about _ _ _ _ _ about _ _ _ _ _ _ about _ _ _ _ _ about

He was talking _____ ______ _____

Evgeny. Maria. the notebook. the laboratory. the meeting. the composition. the door. the lecture. the dormitory. autumn. the line.

10. 0 'leM Bbi rOBOpHTe? - 0 ""l'6e. - 0 JaBo.ne. - 0 6opme. - 0 lCoHuepre. - 0 nopT<t>ene. - 0 rnK3.4>e.

- 0

'lae.

- 0 cene.nlCe.

What are you talking about? About the club. About the plant. About the borsch. About the concert. About the briefcase. About the cupboard. About tea. About herring.

II. 0 'leM Thl rOBOp"lllb? - 0 wKone. - 0 I1HCbMe. - 0 MOnOKe.

- 06 Y1UfsepcHTcre. - 06 3K3aMelle.
- 06 aSTo6yce. -0606C.nc. - 06 oKue.

What are you talking about? About school. About a letter. About the milk. About the university. About the exam. About the bus. About dinner. About the window.

12.0 '{eM nHcl.nH CTYAeHTbI? - OH" mtcl.nH 0 Hap6.nax CCCP.


_ _ _ _ _ _ 0 RKYralC.

______ ______ ______ ______

0 rpY3HHax. 06 YKpaHHUllX. 06 aMepltXamvu. 06 aMepm::amax.

What did the students write about? They wrote about the peoples of the U.S.S.R. _____ about the Yakuts. _ _ _ _ about the Georgians. _ _ _ _ about the Ukrainians. _____ about the Americans. _____ about American women.

LESSON 7

117

Pronunciation practice: hard versus soft consonants


A.

[PI vs. [ul

Usual Cyrillic spelling 0; also

11I>,

6, or 6...

Note the pronunciation of hard [P) in the following: [nap6etu] [palll3S13 J


113 nO'iTy

to the post office no:lKanyiiCTa please and compare it with soft [g):
[SRi~iti]

cnCWHTe

you're hurrying

lJlC",ij]

nepObl"

first

These are labial consonants, fonned (Like the English p) by completely closing the lips. Soft has the effect of a y-Iike glide following it.

m]

Sound Drill: Practice the Russian paired examples illustrating bard (PI and soft imitating your instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you can. Be sure to avoid the puff of breath that often accompanies the English p. Note that before [il, a w-Iike off-glide is often heard after hard [PJ.

rnl.

B.

[h) vs. Ill]

Usual Cyrillic spelling 6; also 61>, n. or

Db.

Note the pronunciation of hard [b] in the following:

[h,6ji\l [aft6bus]
[spa~ib;)]

6p6cHTb aBT66yc cnacu60

to drop
bus

thank you and compare it with sofi [:>alitt)


[ndu~iJ [.asIUf~il
~

J:
for dinner at the club at work

Ha o6e.n
B

kJlY6e
c.njx6e

Ha

soft

[tIJ will

Russian [b], like the corresponding English sound, is made by completely closing the lips. The usually have the effect of a ylike glide following it. Sound Drill: Practice the Russian paired examples illustrating hard [h] and soft [9], imitating your instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you can. Note that before (il, a wlike ofTglide is oflen heard after bard (b].

118

LESSON 7

c.

ImJ ". ['1'J

Usual Cyrillic spelling

M;

sometimes

Mh.

Note the pronunciation of hard [m] in the following;

[pmn)
[m6j]

3HMY MM
UJiCbM6

winter
my

IR;jm6)

letter

aDd compare it with soft lip):

[jUp6n) [qUI.)

SemyaD Mila

Russian 1m], like Russian [b] and {P] and the corresponding sounds in English, is made with a complete closure of the lips. The sort {Ip] usually bas the effect of a ylike glide following it. Sound Drill: Practice the Russian paired examples illustrating hard 1m] and soft [rp], imitating your instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you can. Note that before Ii], a wlike ofT-glide is often heard after hard [m).

Intonation practice: part I-questions without question words


Questions with a rising contour. This contour is characteristic of questions without question words; these sentences usually present an alternative which can be answered "yes" or "no." In such questions the final word carries the major stress. The pitch begins at about level 2 and rises to a peak on the major stress. It is either sustained or, in unstressed final syllables, it may drop.
Practice the following drills, imitating the tape: or the instructor.

4
3

2
I

/
Oil
l.ItlA
ryT?
PbJ.6w neT? :$co TbJ.? CCTb?

4 3

2
I

-Bbl cncWlhe Ha yp6K?


rOT6s? HJJ.eT?
Ha

66pUl)"KC ABT66yc)"Kc Oryp.LU:d )"Ke

CTone?

4
3

4 3

2
I

2
I

06e.a. rOT6B? A Bb! AOM6H? Xonrre nOHTH? Oncr 3Jl0p68?

TaM

co6p3Hlte?
B

OH
Cron68Wl

ropcoeeTe?

Ew.e

:no

oncpblTa? ue n63JlHo? HHTepeenO?


L.ESSON 7

119

4 3

2
I

-ObI

2 1

-Tbl Bbi Qui!


3TO

0mi

AsePH

yxe It,ltere? pa66Tacrr 8 WKOJlC? cme ue J3nCpTbI?


TYr B Kop66KC?

06 nOM

}"IKe
rOBoplh' pa66ThI

f10AYMan? noo6e.llaJHI ?
06 3I<)aMCllax?

31'0 a,;,

CTYAenT08?
3HaeWb?

HJl.ere

us nb'ny?

Tbi

er6

TRANSFORMATION DRILL

Pronounce the following questions as statements.


4 4

3 2
I

3
2 I

--~

On
3TO

IUl,CT?

On

'taii ?

3<0
DIID OrYPubl tla
CTom~ .

DlUi OrYPt.t.b1

-ryT?
H8 CTom:?

TRANSFORMATION DRILL

Pronounce the following statements as questions.


4
4 3

3 2 1

2
1

-68 HJl.CT

On
P:bl6hl
ABTo6yc

It,ltCT llOMO". ooJlbwe HCT_


H,lteT.

llOMOU?
Her?
H,llCT?

Pbl6bJ

OOJJl>UJe

B<[cpa

66pLU.
rOToD.

06e,n

ABT66yc )')ICe 8'lCpa 6hrn 06en }')Ke

66pUl? rOTOO?

STRUCTURE AND DRILLS

The Dominative plural of DOunS


MOD""

KaK lIena? Y HaC CcTh orypllW.

Ty-r TonbKO

BMJIKK H 110-...... . "".

rlle ee TeTpaJUI II

Killinl?

How are tllings? We have clIcwnbers. Here are only forks and spoons. Where are her notebooks and books?

120

LESSON 7

):{sepn Y)I(e 3anepThi. Y lIero eCTu K'JUO<iJi. Pe3ym.TltTbl l:leWlOxHc. r~e I1X pa6on.J?
o 'leM OHearUl cTy~eIlT"'?

r~e Y<iHTeJltl? Bee npolj)eccopa 11M AOBOJ1bHbJ. Bee 3~aHHJI 6blJ11f 33nepThI.

The doors are already locked. He has key.~. The results aren't bad. Where are their papers? What did the sludems write about? Where are the teachers? All the professors are pleased with him. All tbe buildings were locked.

NOMINATIVE PLURAL: TABLE OF BASIC NOUN ENDINGS

jKClla-ciass nouns and most cTO.rI-ciass nouns


-w
~

oK'HO-ciass nouns and some CTtl)J-c!ass nouns

~epL-ciass nouns

HARD STEMS SOFT STEMS

-"
~

Notes
I. The ending -H occurs instead of ---bl in the hard stem nOJl- and *eHa-ciass nouns whose final consonant is *, 01, 14'. r, or x: 1100h.-H, K'apaJIAalUH, aMCpHK'3.IIKH, KUHnt, JlO:llOCH. 2. Some eToJl-ciass nouns take the nominative plural ending -a or -H, which is practically always stressed: npolj)eccopa, yU....eJIH, ropoAa. 3. Many nouns have a different place of stress in the plural than they have in the singular. Compare *CH8 with *elll>l, oteHO with otcns, UHCLMO with mtCLMa, f"opo)J, with ropoA8, and cecrpa with cccrp.... 4. Some cToJl-class nouns have an inserted vowel in the nominative singular which does not appear elsewhere in the declension. Compare the singular AellL with the plural AUH, 3BOuOIC with 3BOfiKIi, and IJOLtapoK with 1I0Ltap1CH. Most nouns ending in -eLt in the nominative singular have this feature. Compare aMepHICauen with sMepHICtUlI(LI. YK'PaHHClI with yK'paHnl...., and Of"ypeQ with OI)'pQY. 5. A few CTOJI- and O~1l6-class nouns have their stems soften<.'O and expanded in the plural by the addition of [j]. The nominative plural of such nouns is written with -I. plus II (-MI). Compare nepci with nepbll, 6paT with 6paTbH. and cryJl with CTyJlLH. In the plural of My*, the soft sign is written but the * is not pronounced soft: My:lKbH [muijaJ. STRUCTURE REPLACEMENT DRILLS Nominative singular to nominative plural.
I. Where was tlte bus?

Where were the buses?


T: S: T: s: rAe 6blJ1 aOTo6yc? rAe 6bmH SBTOOyC"'? rile 6b1Jl3 UlXOJ1a? r AC 6btJlH UIKOm.t? (3aRoD, CTOJl, MaTep"aJI. TeJle~IOI:l, YIiIfOCPCHTeT, KOllllep1'. 3K3aMen. pa6oTa, rpyllna)

2. There was a book on the shelf There were books on the shelf T: Ha nome 6blna KHMra. s: Hs uOJlKe 6bmH KHHnt. T: Ha nonxe 6bui silll,HX.
s: Ha n6JIKe 6WIH RutHICH. (xopo6xa. TeTP3ilb, oHJIxa. nopTJCJlb, JUliO'!)

LES&ON

III

3. Where's the key? Where are rhe keys? T: Cae iUttO'f? s: fJIe KJltO'fJ1? T: f.ne KJUO'fli 1 s: fAi nOjltKH? (JlBepb. nOJllca, p}"fKa, nopnfx:.m.. O'fcpeJlb)

4. OrlQV was here. The OrIQv!>' were here. T: OpJ16a 6blJ1 3.nCcb. s: Opn08b1 6iJ:JIH :mecL, T: KYpO'fKHH 6bln 3ltCct.. s: KYpooIKHULI 6LiJJ. l.nOCL, (UapanKHH. aMepHKanKa, XHTJ)6B, y6opU!Hua, CTYJIeHT. CTy.neUTKa, }"IHTeJ1bHH ua)

MIXED STRUCTURE REPLACEMENT DRILLS

Nominative plural to nominative singular and vice versa.


I. The windows are there. The windbw is there. T: 61ma riM. s: OkKO riM. T: OKHO TAM.
S:

2. The knives were in the drawer. The knife was in Ihe drawer. T: HO:lKH 6b1JlH 8 lillUt&"e.

s:

H~

6WJJ *wKKe.

T: Kapa.u.nArn 6b1Jl 8 lillUt&"e.

OKHa riM, (roPOJI3, ropo.n,


npo<j>eccopA)

s: KapaHJl.llllDi 6WJJ liuvuce.


npo4>eccop,
(HO::,

lCapall.nawH,

HO::H.

Jtapaa.nam)

MIXED STRUCTURE REPLACEMENT DRILL

Nominative singular to nominative plural and vice versa.


Where was the be//? Where were Ihe bells? T: f.ne 6b1Jl380u6x? s: f.a.e 6baJJH 38OHK1l? T: f.ne 6blnH yKpaHHUbl? s: f.ne 6Lan yKpUHeq? (orypeu, 3801lKH, aMepHKaHeu, orypUbl, no.uapoK)

YKpaHHel.{,

MIXED STRUCTURE REPLACEMENT DRILLS

Nominative plural to nominative singular and vice versa.


I. The chairs are here. The chair is here. T: crynbJl 3.necb. s: CrYJI T: SpAT 3JlCcb. s: 6paTLII 3,1lb. (nePbJl, M}')kb.li, 6p3TbJl, M}0K, ncpO, crYlI)

3Jtea..

2. Where's Ihe chqir? Where are Ihe chairs? T: rM CTyn? s: fJle C"rYJlLfI? T: fJle 6paTbR? s: f,lle 6piT? (M)'JIC, nepbR, CTyllbJl, 6paT, M)'JKbJl}

In

LESSON 7

STRUCTURE REPLACEMENT DRILLS

I. The students have already found out about it. The student has a/ready found out about it. T: CTy.u.euTbI yce y:JH3..rut 06 jTOM. S: CTylliHT ~e pfUU. 06 :STOM. T: Y66pUJ;HJ.tLI yce )'3HanK 06 :ITOM. s: Y66puuma Y*i y3fuiJIa 06 jTOM. (y-LHTeJlbHHI..lhI, :a::eubI, My;KbJl:, 6pa.TMI, cecrpbl, }"IJf'TeJlJi, n~pa, ~1epH dHDI, aMepmr.:aHUhI)

2. The student a/ready found out about it. The students a/ready found out about it. T: CTy,l.l,etlT 'j)I(e )'3HM 06 jTOM. S: CTyll,e.rn.. p..-e YlHW 06 :iTOM. T: )Kel:la 'j)I(e y:JHana 06 jTOM. s: )l{em.. r-e y.nui.mI 06 :hOM.
(My*, 6paT, cecTp3., )"uiTenb, yOOpUOfua, npo<peccop, )'J:paHHeu, aMepHx:ama)

3. You don't know where the knife is, do you? You don't know where the knives are, do you?
T: TbI: He 3uaeUlh, rAe HO)l(?

S: Tw He 3tltieun.. r.ne HOD? T: Thl lie 3UaelUb, rAe upaH,nallJ? S: TY He 3Haeun., r.ne Kapa1uuumf?
(nopl'<PeJlb, KHHra, KJItO'l., TeTpa.ub, SHJlKa, nJlaTbe, CO'l.HHeHHe, nOll,apok, CT)'n)

QUESTION-ANSWER DRILLS

I. Was Professor Or/ov there?

All the professors were there.


T: nporpeeeop Opnos 6bul T3.M?

2. He's a student, but who are they? They're students too.


T: 6H CTy,ll6rr, a no OHM:? S: Omi T6.e cry,l.l,etrrw, T: Qlla )"IHTc.nbHH1t3, a no OHti? s: Omi TOOKe y'IIiTe.ru.HIII1W. 6H n~p, a no OuM? QHa y66plJ.lHlt3, a no ami? 6H Y'!M:TeJlb, a no anti? On )'kpaM:ueu, a no OIill? OH rpy:JtiH, a no omi? OH S1kYt", a lITO ami? QHa aMepmr.:{mxa, a no OHlt? OH aMepHxaucLI, a KTO Oil"?

s: Bee npo+eccopi 6w.m. riM.


T: CTyAeHT K03JIos 6bul TAM? s: Bee cry,l.l,e.m.. 6t.in.H TiM. CTyAellTXa nerp6Ba 6blJ1a. Tfw? Haw rp)'3HH 6bul T{w? Haw YKPaHueu 6WJl TAM? HawSlKjT6bulT3.M? Ha.wa rpYnna 6b1JJa. TaM? Baw ynhenb 6bui TflM?

MIXED STRUCTURE REPLACEMEiNT DRILLS

Nominative plural to nominative singular and vice versa.


I. You don't know where the pens are, do you?

You don't know where the pen is, do you?


T: T:

2. Is there a chair there? Are there any chairs there?


T: TaM S: TAM T: TiM

Tw

He 3HaeWb, rAe py'fXH?

S: Tw He mtieun.., r.ne p:f'uc:a?

s:

Tw He 3UaelUh, rAe nnaThSl? Tw He 3H8.eun., r.c.,e wuin.e?


(CO'l.HHeHHJI., co6paHlUI, CTyJlhSl, Y'!HTCJlj(, lUxaiPbI, nepbSl, TeTp3JlH)

ecn. C'ljIl? ecr.. crjm..?

s: Ta.'\4 ecn.. uepu?


(xop66x:a, wdiP, 01010, orypeu, I10)l(xa,
Jl:WHJ:)

ecn. nep6?

LESSON 7

123

SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION

NOUNS: TABLE OF NOMINATIVE PLURAL ENDINGS

cniJI-dass - ... or ..... (in most instances)

Oh....o-class

*etuidass - ... or-N

Juu~p..-dass

only

-lit

-8 or-li
(in some instances)

-8

or-II

I. All JJ,Ilep..-class nouns spell their nominative plural ending with -N (usually unstressed), which replaces -I> of the nominative singular: .IlBiPb, AUptI; OotepeJJ.b, o..epeJJ."; nT'pliJu., TeTpW.

2. Most oKH6-class nouns spell their nominative plural ending with -a (replacing nominative singular -0) or -II (replacing nominative singular -e or ~): OKR6, OK'fUl; Aeno, Aemii; co6plimte, co6pliJuul: Min.e, Man.JI.

3. Some aMclass nouns spell their nominative plural ending with -a or -II, which is almost always stressed: npo+ettop, npo+eccopa; ropoA, ropoJJ.a; rnrreJU., Y'fHTe.ruI; Kpaii, KpaJil regions. Note that the plural ending -JI replaces ........ and -ii of the nominative singular in the spelling of these forms.
--Lt

4. All *etulc1ass nouns and most croJl-ciass nouns spell their nominative plural ending with or -H: .eua, :lKem.r; crOJJ, CT01tW; aBTooyc, aB'rooycw; cecTPa, cecTpw; K'JltO.., 1(!IIO..ti. Note that nouns ending in -II, -ii, or - .. in Ihe nominative singular replace these letters with -II in the nominative plural: IlCTOpHlI, HCTOptrM history; 'I:iii, 'laM; UOpT+en". UOpT+enM.

Hard stem ZeH.8.- and crM-class nouns take the ending -H instead of - ... if their stem ends in K, r, x, w, or *: ypOK, ypOKH; KHIira, KHMnI; no*, HO.... ; KapallJuiw, KaPa.ll.Aawti; Kop66Ka, KopOOKIlI. Note that K, r, and x are then pronounced soft before-No

Inserted vowels and alternation of stems

As compared with endings, which regularly change, stems are relatively stable. However, some stems show a regular paUern of alternation, with a vowel occurring in certain forms and not in others. In Ihe examples below, nole that the nominative singular contains the inserted vowel 0 or e as its next to last letter, while the nominative plural occurs without the inserted vowel.

NOMINATIVE SINGULAR

NOMINATIVE PLURAL

BASIC STEM

aMepHKilHeu
MOJlOAeli

aMepllxa.luthI
MOJlOAl(bl

aMepll KilutMOJlOllU-

yKpauneu J80HOK

yKpaHHUbl J80llKH

yKpaHlut)801IK-

orypht

orYPllbl

OI"ypn-

124

LE'iSON 7

The vowel is inserted between the last two stem consonants and serves not only to break the cluster, but also, frequently, to carry the stress. Such inserted "c1usterbreaking" vowels typically occur in case forms with a zero ending. i.e., in the nominative singular of CTOJI-c1ass nouns and in the genitive plural of *etta- and OIOi6-class nouns.
Expanded stems in tile plural

Although singular and plural stems are usually the same, some nouns have a plural stem that differs in certain respects. For example, some OKHO- and CTM-class nouns with a singular stem ending in a hard consonant, soften this consonant (if it can be softened) and add a liJ for the plural stem. Note that in the Cyrillic writing system, the U1 is expressed by means oft. followed by the softseries vowel letter SI for the nominative plural.

NOMINATIVE SINGULAR

NOMINATIVE PLURAL

6pOT
nep6 MjlK

cry"

[brat) [uuoj [mils] [still]

6pATbM

[bniti]

ncpu M)')Kt.Ji

rued')
(mufja) [stau)

crY1IMI

The nominative plural of possessive modifiers


MOOELS

qt.. 3TO VlJO'lH? MOIi VlJO'lIl s nopTle.ne. 3To nooi TeTp3nH. Bee Hiunt: opoleccopA HM ,nOSOm.Hbl. r.ne aiuof ICtufrn? r.nC lix pa66Tb1?

Whose keys are these? My keys are in the briefcase. Those are your notebooks. All OUT professors are pleased with him. Where are your books? Where are lheir papers (lit. works)?

STRUCTURE REPLACE1.tENT DRILLS

I. Is lhal your key? Are those your keys? T: 3TO B3.W KJUO'l? s: ai.w:M kJIIO<lli:? T: 3ro B3.rne CO'lHHCHHe? s: :no ai.unI cooometnur? (lUIan.e, OICHO, nopnpe.nt., ICOp06lC:a, .n;sepb, lCapaH.D.aw, HOX, TeTpaJlb, crOll)

:no

2. Whose book is thaI? Whose books are lhose? T: 4bJi TIO KHitra? s: lfbli :ho KtUfnI? T: 4t.e:ITo nepO? s: 'fwi :Jro nepla? (CTOJI, pa60n, CO"lKHeHHe, Ory-ptll, M3TepHaJI, HO:JIC, rapalt,lJ;aw, 001l)(a, nopntJenb, lUUO'l)

LESSON 7

125

QUESTION-ANSWER DRILL

Whose pens (Ire these? These are our pens. T: 4bH :ho nepbSl? s: 3To HlUllH nepLK.

T: 4bH jTO KapaHllaWH?


S: 3TO HliUIH KapKHJl:KunI.

(KHHrH, TeTpa,ll,H, CO'lltHCHHSI, pa60Tbl, MaTeplta.Jlbl. Kopo6KH, lI~HKll, HO)f(H)

MIXED STRUCTURE REPLACEMENT DRILL

Singular to plural and vice versa.

Where is your brother? Where are your brothers?


T: r,ne TOoH 6pAT?

T: rJle TDOH cecrpw?

S: rAe TBOR cecrpa?

(p)"lKa,

nopTtPeJIH,

nomca, 3K3aMCHhI,

S: rtJ,e TBOM 6p3.TLA?

CTon, y'lHTCJUI, llBCpb, KJlJO'fH, HO)J(H, KapaHJI.arn, TeTpa;.u,)

QUESTiON-ANSWER DRILLS

I. A re those his keys?

No, those are my keys. T: 3TO er6 KJUO'l"? s: HeT, :ho MOM KJIlO'lll. T: 3TO era orypu.hl? S: He'T, :ho MOM oryp1lbl.
(nopTenb, nopTtPenlt, Kop06Ka, KH"flt, pa60Ta, ncpb$!, HOlK, cTy,neHTbI, nepo)

2. Whose notebooks are these? Yours.


T: 4 bH :ho TCTpaJlI1 ?

s:

TBOH.

T: 4bliiro KHHm?

s: TBOH.
(CTOJI, CO'lHHeHlte, U1Ka(/)bJ, Kopo6KI1, pa60Ta, nepo, nepb$l, HOlK, KapafUlarnl1)

RESPONSE DRILLS

I. Here's my sister. The.~e are her books. T: BOT MO$! cecrpa.


S: 3TO eli KHHrH.
T: BOT Moil 6pAT.

2. This is my pencil. And whose is this?


T: 3TO MOti KapaH,tl,arn.

S: A :l'rO'leH?
T: 3TO MOH TCrpallll.

s:

3TO era KHHrH. (MOIl CTy.l.l,{:HTbI, Moli cecTpbJ, MOR Y'lHTenbHJ.fUa, MOM My:.K, MOH 6paTbSl, Moil npexpeccop, MOH Rpo$eceopa)

s: A :l'ro 'ibM?
(OKHO, HO)J(H, Kllla'lH, CO'lHHCHHe, 'fail, 001lKa, KHHrH, nOpTQ>e1lb, xne6, py'fKa)

PROGRESSIVE SUBSTITUTION DRILL

I. Where is your brother?


T; r,ne B<1W 6ph?
S:

r }tt~

BalU 6p;h'?

TDO$! )"lHTeJlbHllua? _ _ _ (6KHa)? __ (Harne) _ ? _ _ _ (aBT66yc)? _ _ _ (KJIIO'fH)?

r.n:e

T:

(6paTbSl)? S: r,ll,e RautH 6paTLlI?

T: (c&TPbl)? S: r,ll,l;~ BalUN cec-rpbl? _(TBO.li) _ _ ?

_ _ _ (My,.)?
_ _ _ (Y'lHTCnblIHn a)?

lUi

LESSON 7

2. This is my briefcase.
T;

3TO MOH nepMI.


_ _ _ (Kop66Ka).

:)-rO MOH nOpTlt~Jlb.

:}yo MOii IIOJIT+em-. " _ (ero) .


S:

_(ero)

_ _ _ (KOpOOlClt).

S: :}'fO en) nop'rtenb.

T:

(KapaUlIaW). S: ~ro ero Kapatl,luiw. _ ~_(nepO).


_(MOlf) _ _.

_ _ _ (}''fHTenb). _(HX) _

_ _ _ (Y"HTellli). _(e') _

DISCUSSION

All possessive modifiers of the changing type have Dominative plurals that end in

-M.

whose
'tbH

my, mine
MO"

your, yours
TBOH

our, ours
HllWH

your, yours
BarnH

The third person possessives, ero, fonns for the plural.

ee, and Hx, never change their fonn and thus have no special
Where a~ her papers? Where are his papers'1 Where are their papers?

rlle ee paOOTbl? r,lJ;e er6 paOOTbl? rlle Hx pa66Tb1?

The prepositional case: singular and plural endings of nouns


MODELS

rlle Bbl Y"Kmt pyccICIfii S13but, B wKOne?


Hb,
B

yUHBepcKThe.
ua miKltMM.
B SYJUfTOP"M.

A BaC BHAM sf BaC BHAen

86T 116*, us CTOJIe. OHa 6blJ1a B rOpolle.

3m TeOH KUHrH us oOJJKe'1 On H neTp6Ba - nyliwHe CT)',IJ;eHTbl II noi


rpYnne. 86T HX paOOTbl, 3J1ect. ua C"'IjJle.
Bblllonro CTOliJlH B 6..epeLJ;H? o ..OM Bbl ):JjMaeTe? - 0 MapH".

- 06 Haaue. - 0 JI,,&e. CTYlltUThl n"can" a "apOllax CCCP.


K03JIOB

n"can a rpp,"ax.

Where did you study Russian, in school? No, at the uTlil'ersity. I saw you at the lecture. I saw you ill the auditorium. Here's the knife on the table. She was in tow". Are these your books on the shelf? He and Miss Petrov are the best students in this group. Here are their papers on the chair. Did you stand in line long? Whom are you thinking abaul? AboUl Maria. About fl'an. About Lev. The students wrote about Ihe peoples of the U.S.S.R. Kozlov wrote about the Georgians.
LESSON?

127

PREPOSITIONAL CASE: TABLE OF NOUN ENDINGS

most CTOJ1-, 01(110-, and ",eml-c1ass nouns

In

,1J,BepL-c1ass nouns and all nouns ending -Kii, -UH, and -He in the nominative singular
-H

-e
Ha CTOne B wK6J1e 06 OKHC 06 Y"HTCJle o nlHiThe
HARD STEMS SOFT STEMS

0 ~

B 6'1Cpe,1J,K o EBreHHH Ha JleKI.UIH 06 06meiKH-rHH B 3,1J,aHJlH

-ax
-HX

-ax
B o'lepemix B ll.BepAX Ha neKI.UIHX 06 06me)ldiTHHX B 3,1J,aHHHX

~
~

Ha CTomlx B lllK()JIax 060KH3X 06 ylfHTemix

Note: The prepositional case is always used with a preposition, usuaJly one of the following:
8

(or

80)

Ha

o (or 06, or 060)


80

in, at on, at about, concerning, on, of

The alternate form of B is BO, used before certain consonant clusters: 80 8eeM in everything, (J)paIlQHH in France. Alternate forms of 0 are 06 and 060. 06 is used before words beginning with a, 0, y,:I, and H: 06 :iTOM, 06 yKpaHttlt3x. 060 occurs only in a few fixed phrases, such as 060 Mne about me and 060 DCeM about everything.

REPETITION DRILL Repeat the models given above until you are familiar with the endings of the prepositional case.

CUED SUBSTITUTION DRILLS

I.

(Lev) She \lias talking about Lev. T: (JIeB) ami rOBOpHna 0 JILBe. s: Ollli roBopMJla 0 JILBC. " (6ph) (OHa) _ s: Olili rOBOpMJla 0 6plhe, (cecTPa, M)'iK, np<Xfleccop, rallSl, ropo.u, .KHlira, Kapalfllaw, HOiK, .ueno, nOJIKa,
'1aH)

2.

(Ivan) We were thinking about iI'an. T: (MBaH) Mbl llyMaJIlf 06 I1nalle. s: Mb.i llYM3J1H 06 I1BllHe. T: (o6en) (Mbl) _ s: Mb.i ".yM3J1K 06 ooclle. (ypOK, Y'l.UTeJIb, yHlfBCpcUTCT, OpnoB,
3K3aMCIl, y'lUTCJlbHHua, 06tUCiKuTue,

Ocellb)

128

LESSON 7

CUED QUESTION-ANSWER DRILLS

Cue should be given beron: the qucslion is asked.

J.

Who are you fhinking about? Aboul Kirill. T: (KHpW) 0 Il:OM 8bl ttYMaCTt:?

(Kirill)

2.

s:
T: (KonJl)

0 KNpKnIlC. 0 XOM 8W .aYMaCTt:?

Whom are you talking aboul? Aboul Ivan. T: (Wsau) 0 kOM ill roBOpJ"IWb? s: 06 HBauc.
(OnSl, Y'HfTeJlb. y'fHTeJlbUilLUl, OpnoB, aMepHll:aHk8, y6oPLUHua)

(han)

s:

0 KOJle.
(TaJIJI. K03JIo8. CeMeu, Mapnfl, Marna, HHua, E8reHHii, Uapanll:HtI, !>oplfC, Kypo'fIl:HH, HmwJl8ii)

3.

(Professor Orlov)

Whom is he asking oboul? Abollt Professor Or/ov.

T: (npo$eccop OpnOB) 0 KOM OH cnpaWHBaeT? s: 0 lIPO~CCOpe Opno8c. (WBnH, HHHa, KonJl, aMepUKaHK8, MapuSI, y'flfTCJlb. y'lIlTeJlbHHua, Oner, HItKOJlaH)

QUESTION-ANSWER DRILLS

I. Hal'e yOIl /orgollen aboul Lev? No, I haven'tforgollen about Lev.


T: s: T: s: Thi 3a6hui 0 JIbBe? Hh, Ii He 386t:VI 0 JlLBC. Tbl 386b'ut 0 JBOHKe? HeT, Ii He 386bin 0 JBOH"e. (06 8MCpUld.Hue. 06 yKpaHHue, 0 JIbee, o lBOHKe, 0 no.napxc, 06 aMepHKllmre)

2. Were you thillking about Lev? Yes, I was thinking about Lev.
T: TblllYMart 0 JIbBe? s: .li, Ii n.YMll.II 0 JlbBC. T: Tbi11YMart 06 }"IHTeJle? s: .la, Ii .l\tMll.II 06 Y'flhene. (0 npo$eccope OpnoBe, a cecTpe, 0 rane, 0 6paTe. 0 Kone, 06 WeaHe neTpDOHlfe, 06 WpltHe neTpDOlle)

STRUCTURE REPLACEMENT DRILLS

1. She forgot about Ihe students. She/orgol about Ihe studenl.


T: s: T: s: Omi 3a6blna 0 CTy.neHTax. Ollli la6bina 0 CTy.nCIl"l'C. OHa 3a6blJla 0 npQ(l~ccopax. Ollli 3a6blJla 0 upoepcccope. (0 6paTbl'IX, 0 cecl'pax, 0 KHHrax, 0 WKOJlax, 0 neKUHRX, 0 ncpbRx. 0 nnaTMIX, o pa6oTax)

2. han didn'l write about the schools. Ivan didn't write about the school.
T: s: T: S: WoaH He n"ci.n 0 WKOJlax. WBan lie UHciin 0 IUKOJIC. Haall lie O"ci.n 0 npoQ>eccopax. Wealllle IDlC8.rJ 0 upoepcccopc. (06 y'fUTeJ!HX, 0 6paTbHx, 0 KIIHrax, 06 ypoKax, 06 ylllmepcHTeTaX, 0 rOpD.nax, 06 O'fepeJ1.llX, 0 rpyJHHax)

3. Do yOIl want to find out aboUl Ihe exam? Do you want 10 find OUI aboul the exams?
T: s: T: s:
Rbl xonhe yJHaTb 06 .3I03McHe? Obi xoniTe y:JHaTb 06 :teoaMeHax? Rbl xOnf"re y:maTb 06 ypOKe? 0 ... xonlTe y:J.luin 06 ypO"ax? (06 aBT06yce, 06 o6ene, 06 y'fIlTeJle, 0 nCn.lHH, 0 co6palllm)

4. What "ave you heard about her brother? What "ave you hf!(Jrd about her brolhers?
T: s: T: S: 4TO Obl CJ1bllUaJlJI 0 ee 6paTe? LITO Bbi CJlbnuaJIH 0 ee 6p8.TbIlX? 4T6 Bbi cnh.nnartH 0 ee cecTpC? LITO Dbi cnbuull.llK 0 ee cec"fpax? (0 era npo4x:ccope, 0 ero Y'I"TeJlC, 0 ee Y'fHTeJ1bHIlUe, 0 ero CO'fIlIlClIlIH, 0 ee pa60Te)
LESSON 7 129

SUBJECT REVERSAL DRILL

STRUCTURE REPLACEMENT DRILL

The sislers forgot about Ihe brOlhers. The brothers forgot about the sislers.
T: Cecrpbl Ja6butH 0 6paTbHX.

The book if in tire drawer. Tire books are in tire drawers.


T: KHiira B siml-nce. s: KIIHrH B liulHKax. T: PY'lKa Ha CTOile. s: PY"IKII lIa C"l'oJJax. 1<JttO'{ B nopT~e. nOMpoK B Kop66Ke. CryACHT Ha neKullll.

s: fipaTMI Ja6NJJII

cecTpax.

T: npexpeccopa Ja6bl11l1 0 CTY.QeHTax.

s: CryncHTbl Ja6bllu. 0 npocfleccopax.


M)')KbJl Ja6buJH 0 :lKellax.
CTYAeUTbI 336bmll 06 Y"IITe.11J1X.

Y66pUUtU,bl Ja6butH 0 npo4leccop3.x. rp)'JHm.l: 336b1JlH 0 JlXYnu. Y"pal-fHU,bl Ja6wnH 0 rp)'Jl-fHax.

Cecrpa Ha :noaMeue.
CTYACHTbI B aYAHTopHII.

Y'lHTerui Ja6bUHt 06 y'lTeJlbIlHuax.

Y'{ffTenb B 6116;IHOTcKe.

CUED QUESTION-ANSWER DRILL

(The meelings)
T: S: T: S:

What did they write about? About the meetings. (C06p3.KH'I) 0 '{eM Oll nllcalm? 0 c06paIlHIIX. (HapO)lb1 CCCP) 0 'JCM au mtcanH? 0 HapOJJ.ax CCCP.

(KHHrn. era pa60Tbl. '1Jb!KH. neKu,IIH. 3K33MeHbI. aMepHXaHU,bl. Y"HTe.IIR. ropoAa CCCP)

DISTRIBUTION OF ENDINGS IN THE PREPOSITIONAL CASE

I. Singular: -e and -II a. Most CTOJl-. 01\110-. and *CHa-<:Iass nouns take -e as their ending in the prepositional singular: Ita CTOJIe. 06 oKHe. 0 eette. 0 pLl6e. 8 ropoAe. 0 MaThe, 0 ra..'Te. 06 "salle. 0 J1hae.' Hard consonants are regularly replaced by their soft counterparts before -e in the prepositional singular. Compare crOIl [stolj with Ita cro.'Ie [n:)Stale) and 0...H6 [akn6] with B oKHe [vakQeJ. )g, m. ' and u remain hard in this position since they have no sort counterparts: y66puoma [uborSCico], 06 y66pu.\lIlle [abub6r~~ici].
b. All JJ.BepL-c1ass nouns and those nouns with a nominative singular ending in ......ii. -Mil, or ......e spelilheir prepositional singular ending with -M: 0 .ltlIipH, 8 O-.epellH, 06 0cettH, 0 co6paHHH. 0 neHIIH. 06 EBreuK, 0 lltliuu.

2. Plural: -ax and -'IX


a. Nouns whose stems end in a hard consonant or .. or Ul spell their prepositional plural ending -ax: 0 KJDO'tax, 0 lQax, 0 croJlax. 0 *euax, 0 KHHrax. 0 nOJIKax. 0 npo4teccopax, 06 YlCpaHlluax. 0 IIHcLMax. b. All others take the ending -fIX in the prepositional plural: 0 JJ.8eplix. 0 nopTeJlinRx. 06 y-.KTemix, 0 IIJJliThRX, 0 6pan,1IX. 0 nCpL1IX. 0 co6pauHIIX, 0 CO"lHBCIIHRX. Note that -b is written in the prepositional plural only if it is also written in the nominative plur,ti: Compare 0 MyeLliIx (nom pi Myebli) with 06 o-.epe,l],lix (nom pi O"IepeJl,tl).
, Note that the name)ln. U~ has the inserted vowel e in the DOminative: singular only. In the other forms... must he inserted to preserve the softne5$ of the 11: 0 Jh.ae.

130

LESSON 7

Prepositions Band ua with the prepositional case


MODELS

rne sam 6pAT?


Ha pa66TC.

Ha 06CJ1e.
Ha KOHuepTe.

Ha OOliTe. Ha 3k3aMeHC. Ha yp6Ke. Ha co6paHHH. Ha neKUKH. Ha 3386ne. Ha CIlYJK6e.

Whcre's your brother? Al work. At a dinner. AI a concerl. At the post office. At an exam. Al a lesson. At a meeting. AI a lecture. At the plant. At work.

r.ae BAwa cecrpa?


-

B YIIHBepcHTrn. B Im:6ne. B Jla60paTopHlt. B 6H611HoTcKe.


B ropo,ae.

- 8 cYMe.
-

B aYJlHTOpH". 8 "")i6e.
B 06ll.leJKKnrn.

B ropcoBeTc.

Where's your sister? At the university. At school. At the laboratory. AI the library. At GUM. Downtown or In town. In the auditorium. At the club. In the dormitory. At the gorsovet.

REPETITION DR I LL

Repeat the models given, noting tbal with certain nouns only Ha can be used, with others only B.

STRUCTURE REPLACEMENT DRILL

They're noll' al Ihe exams.


T:

They're now af lhe exam. Omi Tcncpb Ila :')K33.MCllax.

s:

OliN Tcnepb Ha JKJlb,elle.

T: OHH Tcnepb Ha nCKUlfjfx. s: OHN Tencpb us neKuHH. (Ra co6pamurx, lIa JaBo.a.ax, Ha ypoKax, B 6H6nHOTeKaX, B ayD,HTopHSlX, B o6meiKHTHJlx, B na60paTopHJIx, B 11IKOnaX, B Kny6ax)

CUED QUESTION-ANSWER DRILLS

I.

(singing Jesson) Where were you? A t a singing lesson.


T: (yp6K nemur)
r.a.e BbI 6MnH?

2.

(laOOralory)

JUSI

where is she? Al lhe laOOralory.


B Jla60paT6pHH.

T: (na60paT6pHJI) r.a.e l:e olla?

s:
T: (pa66Ta)

Ha

ypOKC ueHMIl.

s:
T: (r6po.a.)

s:

r.a.e Bw6htnH? Ha pa61he.

s:

(o6e.a., 3aaoD" nOlfT3, 3103Mcn, KOlmCpT, co6pallHC, cnyx6a, nCKUHjf)

r.a.e.e olla? 8 r6poJl.e. (rYM, 11IKon3, 1UIy6, ay.a.HTopHJI,

6H6nHOTeKa. ytlHSCpcHTeT, 06IJJ,CJKHTHc)

LfSSON

13J

3.

Where is he now? At ....wk. T: (paoora) Cae 6" -renepb? (work)


S: H a pa6che. T: (UJ.JCona) rne ou renepb? S: B WKMe. (}'HHBepclITeT, nO'lTa, 3K3aMeH, na60pa TOpHJI, co6pallHe, laBOn, KOIIL\ePT, ropon, ypOK, o6en, neKLlHH)

4.

Where did they hear about it? At the meetings. T: (c06paHHlI) rae Olllt 06 :)TOM c.ru:.iWaJlH? S: Ha c06pUHJIX. T: (.3K:.aMeHbl) Cae omi 06 nOM CJIb1WaJlH?
s: Ha ::n.-:sattteuax.

(meetings)

(JaBoabl, ropona, ypoKH, WKOJ1bl, 6"6JIHOTeKH, yHHaepcHTeTbl, na6opaTopuu)

RESPONSE DRILL

There's the school. Kolya's in school. T: B6T wtcona.


s: KOJUI 8 UIKOJle. T: B6T JaSO,ll,.

s: Komi 118 3aBo.a.e. (nona, lUly6, ayaHTOpHJI, yHltBepcUTeT, rYM, na60paTOplU~, 6u6nHOTeKa, WKOna, 06meIltTHe)
CUEO QUESTION-ANSWER DRILL

T:

s:
T:

s:

Where's Ivan? At the plant. (3aaoA) rll,c MBan? Ha 3aBone. fae HHna? (wKona) 8 UIKOne. (ytrnBepcmeT) rae ptlITOp? (pa60Ta) rae Oirna? (planl)

(neKtJ.HH) (ropoA) (aYJIHTOpHJI)


(3K3aMeH)

Cae CT)'J1eHThI?
rJIe JIea?

f.ue KupHnn?

rtte npoq,eccop OpJIOB? (na6opaTopHJI) Cae MHna? (XOHUepT) fAe TBO" 6p;h? (o6eA) fJIe TBoJi cec;rpa? (06wexHnle) Cae CTYJIeHT1Ut?

PROGRESSIVE SUBSTITUTION ORILLS

I. Irina lvanovna was in town.

T: Hpillla HaalloBlla fibUla B r6poJ1e.


s: I1pliHa "ulloBHa 6wul B n~pone.
T: (BArna
cecTpa)~

.
B

2. My brother is dowmowll. T: MMi 6paT Bropo.a.e. S: M6ii 6pliT B ropone. T: _ (cecTpA)


S: Moti cte1lla B rOpo.ne. _ _ _ _ _ (wx6ne). _ (6pAThH) _ (3aBone).

s: 88ma ce<::T])8 6wni

ropone.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (noorre). _ _ (6,3<) _
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (co6'am<H).

(E,o) _ _ _ (Y"HTO'''') _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (3IOaMeHaX).


_ _ (CTytteHTbl) (H....) _

(Ee)----_ (nCKL\HHx). _ _ _ _ (rYMe). _ (MYx<) _ (TB6ii) _

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (3K3flMeHe). _ _ (npo<j>eccopA) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ()'IIHaepcHTe-re).


132 LESSON 7

_ _ _ _ _ (06ute:HTlflI).

DISCUSSION

English in (i.e., in (he interior) is usually rendered by Russian 8 and English on by Russian ua. in the desk (or table) BCTone on the desk (or table) ua CTOne io the book B 1t1llfre 00 the book "a )Quire

(011

the surface)

However, the English concept at may be rendered by either Hll or .. especially if the place described is viewed in tenns of its function or the activity carried on there. In such instances, the choice between ua or a is not dictated by the idea of position "inside" or "outside;' but is fixed for a particular noun and must be memorized by the student as a set phrase. As a general rule, B is more commonly used if the place is a building or enclosure, and ua is used if the place is described in tenns of the activity carried on there.
I.
DB

lIa C06p<iIlIlIl, Ha C06P<iU1l.llX


113

!fa lIa
Ha Ha

"a

ua ua 06e.a.e

3K311MeHe, H3 3K3aMellax 3aB6.ae, H3 3aB6.aax yp6Ke, Ha yp6Kax neKUIIH, ua neKUII.IlX oO'ne CJlYx6e pa66Tc

at at at at at at at at at at at at at at

a meeting, at meetings the exam, at exams the plant, at plants the lesson, at lessons the lecture, at lectures the post office work, on the job work a dinner the club, at (or in) clubs (or in) the library, at (or in) libraries (or in) school, in schools the university, at universities (or in) GUM

2.

B UJj6e, B Imy6ax
B 6H6J1HOrelCe, B 6H6nHOTt;ICaX

llIX6nax B YHHBCpcHTCTe, B ymmepciITtTax


B 1l1l(OJlC, B
B

rYMe

The personal pronouns and interrogatives KTO, in the prepositional case


MODELS

'ITO

a ..eM OlUi nllcA.Jm?


a
K6M Bbl

aua
-,-

rOBopiITe? rOBOpHJla 060 MMe.

_ _ _ _ _ 0 TOO<. _____ 0 0

aac.
Hic.
~

R0

HiM MII6ro
UJix

_ 0 ...0 _ 0

e.m:una..n.
_

What did they write about? Whom are you talking about? She was talking about me. _ _ _ _ _ _ about you. _ _ _ _ _ _ about you. _ _ _ _ _ _ about w. I've heard a lot about him. _ _ _ _ _ _ about her. _ _ _ _ _ _ about them.

REPETITION DRILL

Practice the models until you are familiar with aU the fonns.
LI?SSON 7 133

QUESTIONANSWER DRILLS

I. Were you thinking about Nina?

Yes, J was thinking about her. T: BbJ AYMaJIll a Hi1HC? s: .l{a, Ii ~MaJI 0 HiN. T: Bbi AYMamt 0 Kone? s: .l{a, Ii .n;YMaJI 0 HeM. (06 }"IHTeJTbllHue, 0 rane, 06 J.1aaHe, 0 ero ceCTpC,

2. Who was he writing about, me? Yes, about you.


T: 0 .cOM 6u nucilJl, 060 MHe?

s: l{li, 0 Te6e. T: 0 XOM OU nHcAn, 0 Te6e?

s: .l{a. 060 ,..,.e.


(0 Bac, 0 HHX, 0 HeM, 0 Heit, a nac, 0 Te6e)

o ee 6paTe)
RESPONSE DRILLS

I. She was tMnking about me.

2. Oh, you're here!

About whom? T: Qmi AYMana 060 MHe.


Q "OM? T: Qua llYMana

s:

06 yp6ke.

s: O..eM?
(0 WKone, 0 raJIe, 0 Te6e, o Hac, 06 3K3aMeHax, 06 )"IHTene, o co6paHHH, 0 cecrpe)
CUED QUESTIONANSWER DRILL

We were just talking about you. T: A, Bbi 3,uecb! s: M.bI KlUI': pal roBOpM.rrM 0 de. T: A, ThI 3,!1ecb! s: KIlK pa3 1"000pKnM 0 TOOe. (OR, OHH, alia, Komi, HHua,

Mw

ranJl)

T:

" (Tho)

" " (jI,

(You) Whom was he asking about? About you. (Bbi) o KOM OH cnpaw"san? o 1Uie.

o ICOM OH Cnp3.wHaan? o Te6e.

OHa, MbI, BbI, OU, OU")

QUESTION-ANSWER DRILL

Who is he?
I haven't heard of him.

T: KT6 Bbi?
s: H 0 sic He CJJWWaJI.
(OIlR, TbI, aHa, all, Bbl, OHa)

T: KTo 611?
s:

H0

HeM

He

c.ru.:.:wa.'I.

RESPONSE DRILLS

I. rye heard a lot about American women. What have you heard about them?
T: MH6ro cnbuuan 06 aMepHJ:3.HKax. s: If.TO aW 0 mix c.rn:nuam.? T: .st MH6ro em.lwan 0 sac. s: If.TO sbi 060 Mne CJlbrWllJIM? (0 era cecTpe, 0 ero )"IHTemlX, 0 ee 6paTC, 06 YKpIUIHuax, aero )"tHTeJle, 06 aMepHxaaQaX, 0 ee npo4leccope, a ee

2. She's terrific.
The professors speak highly of her.
T: Qlla MOnOlleQ.

Jt

s: Opo+eccopa 0 iteR
T: Bbi MOnOlleU.

xOpornO f"OBopfl.

s:

npo~pa 0

B8C xOpowO rOBopiT. (on, Mbl, Bbi Bee, OIlH, TbI, JI)

MjJKe,
134

er6 ::.:ene)

LESSON 7

PROGRESSIVE SUBSTITUTION DRILL


I didn't think about that. T: R 06 jTOM He nOAYMan. s: A 06 He DOn,yMaJI, (On) _ _ (0 HeH) (8';') _ _ (060 MHe)

nOM

OKJ1 0 m'lc He CJlWWa.n.II. _ _ (0 Te6e) _ _ _ _ _ _ (He nHcAnH).


_

_
_

_ _ (0 HaC) (OnM)

------c- (ue CJlWWanH).


_
_

(On.) - - - c - - - - - _ _ (0 Blie) _ _ (ue 3a6btna). (M';') _ _ _ (0 RHX) _ (On) _ _ _ (06 jTOM) _ _ (ue Don,jMan).

Remarks on stress sbift in nouns


A change in the position of the stress occurs frequently in the Russian declension of nouns, but it follows fairly regular patterns. The most typical of these pauems are given below.
1. Stress shirt from stem in the singular to endings in the plural.

NOM so ropaLl
~eno

PREP so B ropone o nine o MYJKe 06 Y'lirrene o npo4)Cccope OWx3.<Pe

NOM PL ropoAa

PREP PL B ropoAax o L1eJ13,x o Mj')lCMix 06 Y'lHTeJuix o npo4leccopAx o wICa41ax

My><
yuheJll. npo<j>ec=p WKafjl

~en' M)'*bli Y'lHTeJlli npo<j>eccopa uu:afjlw

2. Stress shift from endings in the singular to stem in the plural:


NOM so :lICeHli
=pO

PREP so o :lICCHe

NOM PL :lICellbi
cecrp~

PREP PL o :CHax o cecrpax o 31iM8X lIa oKHax o nepb)lX o m.fcLMaX

o cecrpe
o 311Me H80KKe o nepe o IlIICbMe

3HM3 OKHO ncpO nllCbMO

3HMbI oKHa nepbJl nJ1CbMa

3. Stress shirt from stem in the nominative singular to endings in all the singular and plural forms where a vowel ending exists. NOM so cron 3BOHOK Kapau.A<iw KJUO. 110. orypeu. Jl3WK PREP 50 lIa CTOne o 3BOHKe o Kapallnawe o ICJ1101Ie o 1I0.e 06 orypu.e o Jl3b1Ke NOM PL CTonw 3BOHK" KapaHnaWH V1lOlIH HO:ltai
orypl.l.bl

PREP PL Ha crona-x o 3BOHdx o KapaJlLI,awax o V1JOlIax o ROXaX 06 orypuax o Jl3b1Xax

Jl3l>/K"

The third group of nouns actually have tbeir stress consistently on the endings, where there actually are endings. Where the ending is zero (as in the nominative singular) the stress is of necessity on the stem, usually on the last syllable.
LESSON 7 135

4TEHHE H nHCbM6

~ ~ ruwuv 'Ul:d- / H-O $ ~ ~.-~~~~~~. y>= ~~,/<XUU<L,~~~.


-

-k~~~'<-<Z

~.~~~.&w~/~ ~,~~~.~~

~U~~~.

j<2./UO ~ ~ ~

~~~fW.~.&va
U-

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ur:?:.
~ ~

~~.

136

LESSON 7

- Oner.
-

Tbi CJlbIWa.n? rOBOpRT. HHHa 601lb8a.

HeT, OIHl 3Jlop6aa. CMOTpli, BOT OHa HJJ,eT.

HUHa, Ky.na Dbl HlteTC? A, 3.npaeCTByihe. Ji: H,ny B :ho 3JJ.aHHe. TaM ceH'IaC 6Yn.CT rOBOPHTb peKTOp. nOWJIH If Mbl, Oner. 3To HHTepeeHo.

CerOJlHSI Y HaC H3 ntnurn 6bIn omm aMcpHxaucu. OM Y'lKn PYCCKHH $l3bzK B yHHBePCHTeTe B AMepHICC II BROJlDe xoporno rOBOpH"r nO-PYCCKH_ MHTCpeCHO C HHM n03HaxOMHTbCJI. Ho xlix? MO:lkeT 6b1Tb 38.BTpa DB 6ylteT 8 CTonOsoH.

XOTifTC nOHTii 113

KOHUepT.

MHna?
B

- C y.noB6J1bCTBItCM. KCnrlTH, :ho 6ecnmiTIIO? - }la. Hy, nod. >1 ceH'tac enemY H3 co6paHHc

JellYG.

- Ao

CBH,l],3HH5I.

LESSON 7

137

LESSON

PREPARATION FOR CONVERSATION

rue Moii cnOBapb?


dictionary (dictionaries) Where's my dictionary? you'have; at your place. Do you have my dictionary? Vladimir, do you have my dictionary?
I have; at my place No, I don't.

CJ10Bapb (CJ1oBapli) (m) rAe Moil CJ10Bapb? y Te6li Y Te6li Moil CJ10B!lPb? BJla;:uf.\tHP, y n6li MOM CJlO8ipl. ?

Y MeHli Hk, He y Med.


OH y CeMellOBa
p.i3Be

Pbu Ott He y CeMeHOBa?


y Hero [uQiv6J y Hero HCT, y Hero cnpaUHfBaTb (I)

Semyonov has it really; are you sure! Are you sure Semyonov doesn't have it? he has; at his place he doesn't have it No, he doesn't have it. to ask, inquire just, just now t just asked. No, he docsn', have it. I just asked. Kozlov has it Then maybe Kozlov has it? studies, classes at classes Kozlov was absent (or missing). Kozlov didn't attend his classes today. Maybe you left your dictionary at the library? I haven', been there.
139

ne-r He-r.

(prv cnpocliTb) TOJIblCO 'ITO [tolk;>~t;>J .st TOJIblCO 'ITO cnpaWHBM. HeT, y HCI"O m!:T. A TOJILKO 'fTO cnpaWHBM.

OK y K03J10Ba Toras, MO*eT 6brT.... Oil


Y KoJJtou?
3auliTlUI (pi)
Ha 3amiTHJlX

K03J16Ba
Ha

He 6blJlO. KoJJtoBa CerO,llHK He 6LrJlO


3aUnurx.

MO:'eT 6Wn., ..... ocriBlJJT CB6ii


CJlOBSp.. B 6tt6mtoTiKe?

st riM He 6WJ1.

nowen,nowma,nowmo,nowmu (irreg past of nOHTl1:) 51 nowen .llOMOH. nOCJIe 3aHliTHH nOCJle 3aHlhHH $I nowCJt .llOMOH. cp<iJy Cpa3y nOCJle 38HlITHH H"owerl .llOMON. KaKOU-TO cnooapb B CTonoBou $I BU.llen KaKOU4To cnoBapb. y Hac B cronooou 'y Hac U cTonOBoH si BUtleJI KaKO"~TO CJIOaapb. nOtlO>KJl:3.Tb (prv I) noJJ.o*.lUi, y HaC B CTOJlOBOH 11 BH.neJI K8KOii-TO CJlOOapL. lfaocpHo 3TO, HaacpHo, Moil CJIOBapb. nocMoTpIO 3TO, HaBepllO, MOH. noiiJJ:Y DOCMOTpID. Mara3HII
.lI6n~eH,.lIOn*H3.,.lIOJl*H6,.a0~HhI

went I went home. after classes After classes J went home. immediately, right away, at once Right after classes I went home. a dictionary, some sort of dictionary I saw a dictionary in the dining haH.

in our dining hall I saw a dictionary in our dining han.


to wait (a limited amount of time) Wait a second, I saw a dictionary in our dining hall. probably, likely It's probably my dictionary. I'll take a look It's probably mine. I'll go take a look. store must, have to, got to (lit. obliged, obligated) I've got to go to the store. a thing or two, a couple of things And I've got to go to the store to buy a couple of things .

nOHTH a Mara3HH. Koe-'!To [k6jd t6] A Ii JJ.om..eu Dom B Mara3HH ..6e--'1TO "ynHTL.

R .aOmKeH

SUPPLEMENT
I1CTOPI1S! Y

Y
Y Y

MeHR rerrepb I1CTOpll.sf. nHTCpaTypa MeHJ1. Tcnepb JlHTepaTypa. rcorp<icflH.lI MCHJ1. Teocpb reorpacfmSl. MaTeMannia MeHli Tenepb MaTCMann::a. 4)1bHKa MCHJ1. Tenepb epH3HKa.

Y MCHli Tenepb

""'"'"

xHMHS!.

history I have history now. literature I have literature now. geography I have geography now. mathematics 1 have mathematics now. physics I have physics now. chemistry I have chemistry now.

140

LESSON

r Jle Moii CJI0BapL?


H. HHKomiit 8. BJla,IlHM.Hp

H.

BnaaiiMHp,

y refili MOM CJJOOapb?

vlac;tirpir 1 u\i~a m6j slav3f !

B.

2 HCT,
He y MeHJi. A p3.Joe OU He y CeMeHOBa 11

Qe' j
QiUqUQil j a nizyi 6n Qiu~iJllon~\p,}! Qet!
uQiv6

H.

J HeT,
y Hero Rer.

.st TonbKO 'iTO cnpflWHBan.


B.
4 Torna. MO)KeT 6bJTb,
Oil y K03nooa? K03Jl003 cer6.nHSl:
He 6blJlO

Qetl

ja

t61bst~ spdisiv~1

lagda m6iidbit 6n ukazJov~ 1


kazlbvd ~iv6dQd
~H~biI3 n3zaQa\ijax!

H. 5

ua

3aHJlTlUlx. 2

B.

6 MO:>KeT 6bl:Tb,
TId
OcT3BHJI

CBOK cnoBapb

B 6H6nHoTeKe?

m61idbi\ Ii astayiJ sv6j slavar v~iblia\elti j


ja tam Qebil j

H.

A TclM

He 6b1J1. )

Cpa3Y n6cne 3aHJiTHH nowen .nOMO".


B.

Sfazu p6sli 7.aQa\ij


pasol dam6j

nOJIOJK.llH,
y HaC B CTOJl680H

Ji BH.a.en K3KOii-TO
CJlOOapb.

podafQi j unas rstalov;)j I ja yic;tiI kak6jta slavar!


eld oa yem;) moj

H. 9

3TO, HaaepHo, MOij. nOH,lJ;Y nOCMOTpiO.


A

pajdu
B

! JY.)smatrii 1

B.

10

Ji )l611)KeH noAnf K6e-<IT6 Kytut.Th.


I

Mara3HH

a ja d61zin paN vm~ga~in f k6jo!l6 kURi\ j

NOTES

Pli,3Be is a word used to express surprise or incredulity, such as: you don', mean to say! it is,,'t possible! really! and so forth. Note the use of the pluml uwrrH.II to mean class. This is the usual word for classes or studies at the university. JleKltH.II may also be used to refer to university classes, but it is more often used in its literal sense (lecture) to describe an event outside class, such as a talk by a visiting lecturer. Compare also ypOK (literally lesson), used botb to mean any kind of pTimte lesson and c/as.s at the preuniversity level.
2

CTYJJ.CIITbi TeOepb Ha 3auliTltJut

.st MY Ha nCKluno.
Y'leHHKH Ha ypOKax.

The students are in classes now. I'm going to a lecture. The pupiJs are in class (lit. at their lessons).
LESSON

141

) Contrast A TaM He tiblJl I haven't been there with K03J10S8 cerolUul lie tiblJlO
Ita 3aHlITHRX Koz/ov wasn't at his clusses today. ln the second example, a neuter

verb and a genitive case subject are used to emphasize Kozlov's absence, i.e., to point oul that he was missing.
4 lI.0Jnl('etI is a short-form adjective used together wilh the infinitive must, has (or have) to. lIS literal meaning is obliged or obligated. 10

mean

PREPARATION FOR CONVERSATION

B Mara3HHe

d.pn ,Eep6na KapTbI Eep6nbl


y eac

map

ecn.
ESpOllbI?

Y sac

ecrb K8.pTW

Europe maps of Europe you have Do you have maps of Europe? saleslady to expect No, but we're expecting them tomorrow. week(s) next week No, but we're expecting them next week. this week No, but we're expecting them this week. China a map of China Do you have a map of China? Don't you have a map of China? And you don't have a map of China? too, also; either And you don't have a map of China either? there is, there are We do have a map of China. please, you're welcome here you are Here you are. also, too I need a map But I need a map of Europe, too. nevertheless, still, just the same But just the same I need a map of Europe, too. stand, newsstand to ask, inquire Ask at the newsstand. comer

npo.naelUHu,a
olKnMTb (I)

Her,

MbI. OXHJl,aeM 33eTpa. He.u.e.rtH (He.a.CnH)


HO

Hh,

Ita cne.a.ylOlUeH He.ll.ene HO MW O~eM Ha eJle.a.yJOweti

He.QC.'1e.

Ha :hOH HeLlene Her. HO Mht OlKH,ll;aeM ua iTOH He.a.e.ne.

KHT3ii
dpm KHTfuI Y eAc ten, dpm JurraJI? Y Bac ue-r Kii.pTbl KHTb? A K3pTh1 KUl'b Y BAc mh? T6xe A dpTW K'wr8.A: Y alic To:e Her?

/cTb
Y
HaC ecrb

KapTa KHTali.

nO)l(3.IIyHCTa a6T nO)l(3.IIyHCTa BOT, nmriJlyHcrs.


H MHe Hy)ltHa

dpm
It

Ho
Ho

MHe nyJKHa
aceTaKH

dpTa EBpOnbi.

MHe BCe-TllKII H)']DIa II ...1ipn '


KnOCK

Eo.......

cnPOCHTb (pfv II) (ipfv cnpauumaTb) A 8M cnpoclhe a IOIOcke. yroJl (gen sg yrna)
142 lSSON 8

Bbi

ua yrJ1Y cnpocNn

B Ktt6cKe 113

yrJlY.

on the corner Ask at the newsstand on the comer. [it's] not there either I've already been there. They don't have it there either. atlas How about an atlas? How about an atlas then? expensive, dear An atlas is probably very expensive, isn't it? No, Dot very. to bring I'll bring No, not very. I'll bring one right away.

TaM TO:lKC lib A )?Ke TaM 6b1J1. Tht TOlKe Hb. aTnac
KflK uaC<JeT 3.Tnaca?

Klili: Tor,na Hac.." iTJlaC8?


AoporOH ATJlac, "_puo, 6"Iettb LlOpor6i?

Her, He O"leHb.
npHHecTH (prv I) Ii npllHecY Hh, He 6oteRb. Cei..lic DpHHecY.
SUPPLEMENT

y Hee OCTb
Y Hee

eCTb ilTnac?

y HHx ecrb Y Hlix ecn. lhnac? ICyeOk (gen sg KycKa) XOTIITe ewe kyooK xnt6a? CT3k3.H Xonhe eute CTadH MonoJCa? <JaWKa XOTl1Te eute <JawKy K6le?

she has Does she have an atlas? they have Do they have an atlas? Want another piece of bread?
glass

p'''''

Want another glass of milk? cup Want another cup of coffee?

B Mara3Hue
B. BnaJUtMHp

n. B. Y 03C ecTb KlipTW EBp6nw?

np0,D,aalUl1l{a uvas je~t

karli jivropi !

n.

2 HOT,
HO Mbl O)KH,naCM

Ha CJ1eAYlomcH HCAMe.

Vel) no mi alid:ijim I nasltdujultij vi~Cli )

B.

) A KlipTW KHTfur Y Rae T6J1CC Her?l


4 Her,

aUrti !sitaj;J ! uvas toli 'Jet!

n.

ecrb. 2

B6T. no>d:.JIyHCTa.)

vet) j~\) VOl) pilil,"')


LESSON 8 143

B.

5 XOpoUJo. Ho Mite ace-Yak" " dpTa E8pOnbi.


6 A 8bl cnpocHTC

H)1)KH3

x~raso 1 no mQe r5l~\i nuzna I i Idirl~ jivropi 1

n.
B.

B KuocKe Ha yrny.

a vi spraiti f\i6s~i nouglii )

..st

)?Ke TaM

6blJI.

ja uze tam
aTnaca?

bill

TliM TO)Ke neT.

tam tozi Qet 1


kak tagda na~6t 3tbs:d

n.
B.

KaK Tor.na U3ClIeT

9 ATJlac, uaaepHo, 6 .. eHb Jl.oporoii" 10 HiT, He O'leHb. Ceii'lac lIPHHecy.

n.

atlas nayerD~ ociQ d:uag6j 1

Qet! Qioci\l )
icas ppfJ.isii 1

NOTES

I Note that TOOKe means 100 or also in affirmative sentences, but neither or not . .. either in negative ones:

Compare

with

)KeHa T6)Ke pa66TaeT B ropcoaeTe. KapThl Kunhl y. B3C T6:.e HCT?

A To:tce ero Be 3H{UO.

My wife works at the gorsovet, too. You don't have a map of China either? Neither do I know him or I don't know him either.

In answering negative questions, Russians lIsually begin their answer with HeT regardless of whether the answer is affirmative or negative:
2

A dPTbi KimiH Y oac TO:lKe HCT?

T~

HOT,

ecn..

riM He 6b1R?

Her. 6bln. Her, lie 6hlJ1.


l nOiKaJIYHCTa

And you don', have a map of China either? Yes, we do. Weren't you there? Yes, I was. No, I wasn't.

is a polile word used in various situations: Come in, please. Here you are. You first (at a door or entrance). Thank you. You're welcome.

nO:lK3.nyHCTa, JaXOMTe.

B6T, nO;Jl(3.nyHCTa.
nO:lKanyHCTa. CnacH60. - nmlC3.nyMCTa .

A few CT6JInouns like WKa+ and yroJl have a second prepositional case ending in stressed -Yo which occurs only when they are used with prepositions Ha and B.

Compare with Compare with


144
LESSONS

KH6cIt ua yrJlY. Ji rOBop.o 06 yrJle.

The newsstand is on the corner. I'm talking about the corner. The cucumbers ace in the cupboard. I'm talking about the cupboard.

Orypuhl

IllI:8<pY.

Ji rOBop.o 0 lllK3.q>e.

Basic sentence patterns


I. Y Y Y Y sac tX:Tb cnoBapb? ):la, tcTb. ):la, y Melili ec-rb cnOBapb. re6li tcTb cnosapb? )la, ecn.. ):la, y Metui tX:Tb cnOSapb. Her6 ecrb cnosapb? )la, ecn.. J],a, y Her6 ten. cnOsapb. Hee ecn. cnOBAPb? )la, ecn.. .L13., y llee tcTb CJI0Bapb. HaC ecTb CJI0Bapb? )la, ecn.. J],a, y Hac ecn. CJI0aapb. HHX ten. CJlOBapb? )la, ecn.. J],a, y mix ecn. CJlOaapb. BAc ecn. CJ10aAPb? HCT, Y MeHli HeT cnoaapli. Te6li CcTb cnoBapb? HCT, Y MeHli HCT cnoBapli. Her6 tcTb cnoaapb? HCT, Y Her6 Her cnoaapli. Hee ecrb cnoaapb? HCT, Y Hee Hlh cnoaapli. HaC tcTb CJI0Bapb? HCT, Y HaC HCT CJ1oBapli. HHx ecrb cnOBapb? HtT, Y HHX neT cnoBapJi.
nopT(I~J1b?
eCTb nOpT~b.

Y Y 2. Y Y Y Y Y Y -

Do you have a dictionary? Yes, I do. Yes, I have a dictionary. Do you have a dictionary? Yes, I do. Yes, I have a dictionary. Does he have a dictionary? Yes, he does. Yes he has a dictionary. Does she have a dictionary? Yes, she does. Yes, she bas a dictionary. Do we have a dictionary? Yes, we do. Yes, we have a dictionary. Do they have a dictionary? Yes t they do. Yes, they have a dictionary.
t

Do you have a dictionary? No, J don't have a dictionary. Do you have a dictionary? No, I don't have a dictionary. Does he have a dictionary? No, he doesn't have a dictionary. Does she have a dictionary? No, she doesn't have a dictionary. Do we have a dictionary? No, we don't have a dictionary. Do they have a dictionary? No, they don't have a dictionary.
Do you have a briefcase? Yes, I have a briefcase. No, I don't have a briefcase. Do you have a pen? Yes, I have a pen. No, I don't have a pen. Do you have milk? Yes, we have milk. No, we don't have any milk. What do you have now? I have literature now. _ _ Russian _ _. _ _ geography _ _ _ history _ _. _ _ mathematics __. _ _ physics _ _. _ _ chemistry __
LESSON

3. Y sac OCTb
-

,[la, y MeHl!

Her, y Me"" neT

nOpT~nJl.

4. Y Me CcTb py'lKa?
,[la, y Meilli CcTb py<JKa. Htr, Y MeHR HeT py.urn.

5. Y sac ecTb M01l01(6? - ,[la, y HaC OCTb MOJlOICO. - Hlh. Y HaC HCT Monod.

6. 4T6 y sac Ttnepb? - Y MeH.li renepb IIHTepa-rypa. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ pyCCXHH J13blX.

______ ",ocpa<l>".
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ HCTOPHJI.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ MaTeM3.THka.

_______ 4lH3HK:a.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ xHMHJI.

145

7. KOJJIosa cerOJlHR Her.


BJlaJ:tlIMHpa - - EBreHIDI _~ _ KHpJinJla _ ~MeHa __ Jlbaa _ Onera _ HHICOJl.h _

Kozlov is absent today. _ Vladimir ~ Evgeny ___ Kirill _ Semyon _

Lev
Oleg Nikolay _

_
_

8. KOJIH B'Iepa

IU~

61>1J10 Ha JaHjnuu.

rI"m
HHHbI

_
_

M""",

Map... MAwH

- - - - - -__

On.
9. Er6
TaM

Kolya was absent from classes yesterday. Galya _ Nina _ Mila _ Maria _ Masha _ Olya _ Wasn't he there? No, he wasn't. Yes, he was there. Wasn't she there? No, she wasn't. Yes, she was there. Weren't tbey there? No, they weren't. Yes, they were there. Whose briefcase is that? Vladimir's. Semyonov's. Oleg's. Semyon's. Professor Orlov's. My brother's. Khitrov's. Tsarapkin's. The teacher's. Nikolay's. Evgeny's. Whose keys are these? The cleaning lady's. The saleslady's. My sister's. My wife's. Maria's. The teacher's (t). Nina Petrovna'~.

ue 6blJ1o?

Ee

Her, He 61>1110. Her, Oil TaM 6W.


TaM

He 6bJno?

H&T, He 6bJJlO.
Hh, olla riM 6blJ1a. He 6blJ1o?

Hx riM
-

H&T.

He 6hlJlO.
TaM

Her, omi

6b1J1H.

10. tUM no noPTltru>? - BJla.nHMllpa.


CeMeuoBa. Onera. CeMeHa. npo4leccopa OPJlosa. Epha. XHT'p6Ba.

Uapan.ICHHa. Yo:nhe.nR.
HHKOJli.H. EBreHIUI.

II. 4bH 3TO KJ1IO'Ui? - Y66plJ.tHllhl. - npOJlaBlUHLl,b1. - CecTpbi. - )f(eHbJ.

- MapH".
Y'IHTeJThHHLl,b1.

H"Hhi neT'p6BHbJ.

146

LESSONS

12. ~TO

.aeno HHllbl. ___ 6"".


_ _ _ r<um.
_ _ _ K6nll.

_ _ _ CAw".
____ npo,lUlOWHUbI.
_ _ _ y60PUll1Ubl.
_ _ _ _ OWlTtpa.

_ _ _ _ K03JI6oa. _ _ _ peKTOpa. _ _ _ JIb".

ThaI's Nina's business. _ _ Olya's _ _ _ Galya's _ _ _ _ Kolya's _ _ _ Sasha's _ _ _ the saleslady's __. _ _ the cleaning lady's __. _ _ tbe custodian's _ _ _ _ Kozlov's _ _ _ _ tbe chancellor's __, _ _ Lev's _

Pronunciation practice: hard versus soft consonants


A. [v) vs. Iyl Usual Cyrillic spelling
8;

sometimes ... or

81..

Note the pronunciation of hard Iv] in the following: (ivan] [vi]


Ivan
you

and compare it with soft [V): [d;)svidaQ.j.,) (yi~jlJ


,0:0 COItJl.aHItSi

B~cn

good-bye saw

Russian [v), like the corresponding English sound, is made by bringing the upper teeth close to the lower lip. Before [0] (and especially (iJ) tbere is often the auditory effect of a w-like off-glide. Soft [V), on the other hand, has the auditory effect of being followed by a y-like off-glide.

Sound Drill: Practice the Russian paired examples illustrating bard [v] and soft [y], imitating your instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you can.

USSON 8

147

B.

l~ vs.

lO

Usual Cyrillic spelling

til; also

8;

sometimes

BE.

or ....

Note the pronunciation of hard (f] in the following:


[~itif6n]

rAfri!<.j
[rpal~eJ

telephone Africa completely and compare it with soft

m:
Philip professor briefcase

WlipJ
[prafCs:lf 1

<t>HJumn
npocj>6ccop
nopT~

[part[eIJ

Russian (fl, like the corresponding English sound, is made by bringing the upper teeth close 10 the lower lip. Soft has the effect of a y-Iike glide following it.

Sound Drill: Practice the Russian paired examples illustrating hard [f] and soft [0, imitating your instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you can. Note that before [0] (and especially [in, a w-like off-glide is often beard after hard [fl.

c.

[IJ

v>.

III

Usual Cyrillic spelling ]I; sometimes

JIb.

Note the pronunciation of hard [I] in the following: [yi4ilJ [Qebil] [4 il'J [rpalQeJ
8H.D:en

saw
wasn't affairs completely and compare it with soft
nc~

IIC6bU1
AM' anOJIIle

nJ:
Le,
sick briefcase teacher

JIea
60JlbHhI

[balniJ
[p"t[e[)
[ucili[)

nopTtj>e.nb
}"lHTeJlb

Russian hard Pl is made with the tip of the tongue against the back of the upper teeth and wil.h the middle of the tongue lowered or hollowed out. English has a somewhat similar I in words like ball. bull. and whole. In Russian the tongue muscles are tenser and the tongue hollower. Russian soft OJ is formed with the front part of the blade of the tongue (not the tip) in contact with the ridge of tbe gums behind the upper teeth. Soft nJ bas somewhat the effect of being followed by a y-like glide as in English miffion. Sound Drill: Practice the Russian paired examples illustrating hard [U. imitating your instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you can.

Pl and soft

148

LESSON 8

Intonation practice: part II--questions without question words


Questions with a rising-falling contour. This contour is typical of questions where the major stress is not on the last word. The pitch rises to a high peak at level 4 on the major stress and then ~rops to a point somewhere between levels 1 and 2.

Practice the following drills, imitating the tape or the instructor.


4 3 4

2
I

3 2 1
Bbl

rOBopkrc no-pyccKH"

Rbi

CJIblIlIaJIH

06 3TOM?

3TO

rbi,

6J1Si?

Bqepa 6bIJlO c06paHHc? 68 .naBHO GoneR?

QRa MOlKeT Bid .n.onfo RbI xontre

nOKnt? pa66TaJIH? KO<Pe?

TRANSFORMATION DRILL

Pronounce the following statements as questions.


4 3 2
I

4 3 2
1

-o.
3TO

o.
QHa

He 6b1J1
.D:OCTana

H3 3K33.MCHC.

He 6b1J1
Barna

Ha 3K3a.MCHC?

orypuhI.

Y HaC
3TO

0cTb
Barna

KOcf>e.
KuHra.

OHa .Ilocnin:a <cTb YHac

orypuhI ? K6le ? KIill:ra ?

TRANSFORMATiON DRILL

Pronounce the following questions as statements.


4

3 2
I

-QHli 6WlH H3 KOHUepTe? Ha o6eJl OnJITb Kama? Marna odriImJla KJllO'fH? ORa KynHna nOJlapoK?

3 2 1

/~~

6buTH Ha KOHl.,tepre. Ha o6eIl Oruln. Kawa. Mawa ocraaHJIa KJlIO'fH. OHa K)'lliUta nOJlapoK.

Omi

LESSON

149

STRUCTURE AND DRILLS

To have in Russian: affirmative y constructions in the present tense


MODElS

Y Bac

ecn. upaJ1.I1aw?

- Aa, CCTh. - Aa, y Me",1 ecn. KapallJ{am. Y sac ecn. KHHra ?


All,

- A.a. y MeHi ecn. Iluira. y sac ecn. nepO" - Ali. ecn.. - .!la, y Memi ecn. nep6.
Y sac TeTp3..tuf" - All, <\cT. - )l;a, y MeHlI ecn. TeTpa.o:H. Y Te6i M6" Kapau.nam? -}ta, yMeHA.

ecn..

ecn.

Do you have a pencil? Yes, I do. Yes, I have a pencil. Do you have a book? Yes, I do. Yes, I have a book. Do you have a pen [point]? Yes, I do. Yes, I have a pen [pointJ. Do you have notebooks? Yes, I do. Yes, I have notebooks. Do you have my pencil? Yes, I do. Yes, I have it. Do you have my book? Yes. I do. Yes, I have it. Do you have my pen [point)? Yes, I do. Yes, J have it. Do you have my notebooks? Yes, I do. Yes, I have them.

- Ai, 6H y MeRJi:.

- .ai.

Y Te6i Moi Iluira? - ){a, y MeHi. OHa y MeUJi:. Y Te6i M0C5 nepO? - )l;a, y Mem. - .!la, oU,6 y MeHR. Y re6li MOK TeTpfuI,H? - Aa, y Mel:Ul:. - Aa, OIlK y Melli.

Y sac cer6,llHJ1 3D<lMeH? - Ali, y HaC cer6,lUul 3oaMeH. Y sac cer6,llHJ1 1IeICUHR? - )l;a, y HaC cer6.ItHR JleK1UUI. Y MC cer6l{HH co6pallHe? - )l;a, y HaC cer6.11HJI co6piIrne. Y BaC cer6,lUU1 3K3aMeHbI? - Aa, y HaC cer6JU1R 3103.MeHbl.
REPETITION DRILL

Do you have an exam today? Yes, we have an exam today.


Do you Yes, we Do you Yes, we Do you Yes, we have a lecture today? have a lecture today. have a meeting today? have a meeting today. have examinations today? have examinations today.

Repeat the models after your instructor or the tape until you are familiar with the patterns.

REPETITIONSUBSTITUTION DRILL

T:

We do have cucumbers. Y HaC ecn. oryPuhl. s: Y HaC ecn. 0I'yplIW. (60pl.l.t, Kama, 'laM, ([<$e. cene.ltl:a, MD1IOXO, pbi:6a. TeJI$H. I:JIIO<[H, CJ10saPb)

ISO

l.fSSON8

QUESTION-ANSWER DRILLS

I. Do you IUlve a pencil? Yes, I do. T: Y Te6li ecn. x:apaww?


S: ....... ecTlo. T: Y Te6li ecn. KllH:ra?
11'
J

2. Do you have fish? Yes, we have fish. T: Y sac ten, phl6a? s: )li. y Hlle ecn. pWtia.
T: Y

s: .lI.li. ecn..
(P)"llta. HO*, TeTpa.D.b, aTnac. nopnPem>, MonoIo, 6opm. ceneAICa)

sac ten. oryp~? s: )li. y ..ae ecn. 0I')'plIhI.


(CTonbi. aTnac, KapTa EBPOnbl, Kapau,I1aWH, KHHnt, TeTp3JlH. Marepl-laJI Ha MaThe)

3. Do you have a pencil? Yes, I have a pencil. T: Y re6li ecn. KapanJlA.w?


s: .all, y Men ecrb kapaH,Ilam.
T;

4. Do we havefish?

Yes. we do.
T: Y HaC teTb pbi6a 1

s: .lI.a, ecn..
T: Y HaC ten. KJIJOIfH?
5'

Y re6li

eCTb

py'l.x:a?

s:

)la,

y Memi ecrb PY'Ika. (KUHTa, re:rpMb, lIonka, nopT~JU., Kop06Ka, TeTpMH. HO*)

,lla, ecn..
(Kap1'a EBPOIIhl, BHJlKH, JlO)KKH, KapTa Kl-ll'all, kHHr1f, KapaHJ{aW.H, nepbg)

QUBSTION-ANSWER DRILLS

I. Do you have my keys?

2. Do you have my notebook?

Yes, I do. T: MOR KJJI()'lH Y re6li?

Yes, I have it. T: Y re6li MOJii

~1

s: .lI.a. y Metn1.
T: MOH XJDO'iH Y K03J1oea?

s: .lI.a.. y Hero.
(y uee. y HHX. Y Bac. y Hero, y re6S1, y Bn3.lUiMHpa, Y HHHbI)

s: )la, OIIa y Memi. T: Y Te6Ji Moa aTnac 1 s: .all, 6H y Me:tni.


(MOg p)"lKa, MOR J:apTa KHTaJI, Moli HOX, MOI-l nHcbMa. Moe nl-lCbMO, MOX Jlo:lllll:a. Moe CO'(HHeHHe, MO" npaH,L{aw) T: 41'6 y re6i reDepb, xMMHJI?

3. What do you have now, history?


Yes, I have history now. T: lho y re6li Tenepb, HCT6pH1I:?
s:

s; )la, y Metlli Teoepb xHMHJI.


(JIOaMeH, co6paHHe, ypoK DeHHR. HCTOpHJI, MaTeMaTHXa, JlHTepaTypa, lH3Hka, reorpaqlH.lI)

.lI.a.

y Mewi Tellepb

HCTOptlSl.

DISCUSSION

The concept to have is most commonly expressed in Russian by means of the preposition y plus the genitive case form of tbe noun or pronoun to indicate the possessor. The thing bad or possessed is in the nominative case and is the grammatical subject of tbe Russian sentence.

Y sac tcTb KDJira ?


Y MeHli

ecn. xllUra.

Y HaC tcTb pw6a.


Y BaC tcTb orypubl:? - )la, eCTb. Y Bna.uHMHpa ec-rb nopTlf>enb.

Do you have a book? (Lit. By you is a book?) 1 have a book. We have fish or We do have fish. Do you have cucumbers? Yes, we do. Vladimir has a briefcase.
LE'SSON

lSI

en. is required in those constructions where the speaker wisbes to establish or affirm the
presence or existence of the subject under discussion. If it is used in the question it must be repeated in the answer. It is omitted when some other part of the sentence is focused on.

'ho y Te6R renepb, pjCCK'HH R3b1K? H6T, Y MeHR reDepb MCTOpMll. Y aae MOH CJlosApb? Y sac Moii CJIOBapb? Y sac CJI0Bap.. ?

What do you have now, Russian? No, I have history now. Do yOIl have my dictionary? Do you have my dictionary? Is it a dictionary you have?

To have had in Russian: affirmative y constructions in the past tense


MODELS

Y sac 6btn ::noaMell?


_ _ _ ypbK? _ _ _ _ yp6K nemf}!? _ _ _ _ aHrmHicKHH fl3b1K? _ _ _ _ PYCCKlfH H3brK? Y sac 6blJ1a JleKu,lf$l? _ _ _ _ lfCTOplUf?
~

Did you have an exam?

_ _ _ _ _ a lesson?
_ _ _ _ _ a singing lesson? _ _ _ _ _ English? _ _ _ _ _ Russian? Did y~)U have _____ _____ _____ _____ a lecture? history? mathematics? geography? literature?

MareM3TKKa?

_ _ _ _ reorpallUf? _ _ _ _ JlHrepa:rypa? y sac 6blJlO co6paHHe? _____ CO'tHHeHHe? _ _ _ _ neHHC?

Did you have a meeting? _ _ _ _ _ a composition? _ _ _ _ _ singing? Did you have _____ _____ _____ _____ exams? lessons? meetings? Iectures? classes?

____ WO KH ?

y sac 6buJH 3k33MeHbl?

_ _ _ _ co6p3JIJUI? _____ JlCkllHII? _____ 3<lIlRTHSI?

RepeTITION DRILL

Repeat the above models, nOling that for the past lense the appropriate form of 6wJJ, 6blJ1a. 6wJJo. or 6WtH must be used to agree with the noun denoting the thing had or possessed .

QUESTIONANSWER DRILLS

I. Did you a/ready have an exam? Yes, we did.


T: Y BaC

r-e 6bm 3oiMeH?

s: 11... 6WI.
T: Y sac y:Jt.e 6bUlo co6paHlte? s:)li, 6Wto. (neKU,HJl, ypok nelUUl, reorpalHJI, 3K33MeHbl, lH3Hll:a, MaTeMaTHIa. XHMIDl)

2. Did you have exams yesterday? Yes, we did have exams yesterday. T: Y sac B'lepa 6buuf 30aMeHbI? S: 11li, y HaC B"lep:i 6Y.rut 3JOaMeu:Y. T: Y sac B'lepa 6w wOk? S: 11li, y de B'lep8 lWn yp6K'. (c06pamte, ypoKH, neklUUl, HCTOpIDI. mrreparypa, 31OaMeH, PYCCKHH 1I3blK. 33.1I$lTHJI)

152

LESSON 8

STRUCTURE REPLACEMENT DRILLS

I. I have a box. I had a box. T; Y MeHJI 6cn. Kop66Ka. s: Y Memi 6h1J1i KOpOO... a. T: Y MeRJi: ecTb nOpTlI>eJlb. s: Y Met(li 6blJl nopTcfCnb. (KapaH~alll, n6JIKa, nepo, py'lKa, Tel"paJtH, 110)1(, HO:lKll, KJUO'l, lUllO'lll)

2. We're having a meeting loday. We had a meeting today. T: Y "lic cer6.nlUl co6paHHe.
s: Y Hic ttr6LUU1 fibulo co6pi.uHe. T: Y HaC cerO~llJI neHlie. s: Y Hic cer6)l1U1 6b1JJO oeHMe. (PYCCKI1H J13bIK, JK3aMell, JlOaMellbl, CO'lMllelllle, ypoK, phl6a, 6opm, Kawa)

QUESTION-ANSWER DRILLS

I. We had an exam, did you? So did we. T: Y lIac 6wJI JlOaMeH, a Y B{IC? s: Y lIlic TO"lKe 6blJl. T: Y Ilac 6b1J]a JICKUJ.HI, a y sac? s: Y Hie To*e 6b1Jui. (JlOaMellbl, CO'lHHeUHe, Pycclnrn J13b1K, neUIle, IICTOpHJI. reorpa<pHJI, co6paHHe, J3.IIJi1THJI)

2. Did you already have singing? Yes, I did. T: Y Te6li 'j>KC 6bmo nCHlle?

s: lI.a, 6w.o.
T: Y Te6Ji: )"KC 6b1J]a MaTeMaTHKa?

s: lla. 6b1JJa.
(neHHe, ypoKH, HCTOpMJI, <pH3ltKa, XHMH.II, CO~MHeHlJe)

CUED QUESTIONANSWER DRILL

(a meeling) Whal did you have yeslerday? We had a meeling.


T: (co6palUle) 4TO y BaC B'Iepa 6wno? 'S: . Y HaC 6wJlO c06piuHe. T: (3I03.Melll>i) 4TO y sac B'lepa 6bmo?

s:

Y HaC 6bvrH ;nnbletlbl. (PYCCICHii Jl3bDl:, J3.1IJ1T1U1 B na60paTopHH, CO'lHfleHHe, neHIle, neKUHJI. 1'3601"3 B na6opaTopHH)

DISCUSSION

To express the concept 10 haw! in the past tense in an affirmative sentence, Russian uses the appropriate fonn af 6WI, 6wJla, 6Woo, or 6ba.'IlI to agree with the grammatical subject, i.e., the thing ""d.
Y HaC 6bUI 66pw. _ _ 6Wla phl6a. _ _ 6ht.no co6pallHe. ___ 6hlnH JK3aMeHbJ.

We had borsch. _ _ fish. _ _ _ a meeting. _ _ _ exams.

The most typical affinnative response to questions using this construction is a short answer containing tbe confirming roi plus the appropriate verb form.

-.ni, 6bUI.

Y Te6Ji: 6bt.n Jk33Meu?

Did you have an exam? Yes, I did.


t.f$()N

153

The genitive singular of nouns


MODELS
3TO KJIw<Ul:

npo4Jeceopa.

_____ BaXTepa. _ _ _ _ pCKTOpa.

_ _ _ _ 6pfna. _____ BJIa.D:w.mpa.


_ _ _ _ _ HllKOJlb.

_____ ylIl:TCmr.

These are ____ ____ ____ ____ ___ ____ Where are ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

the professor's keys. the custodian's __. the chancellor's __. Brother's __. Vladimir's __. Nikolay's __. the teacher's __. Sister's keys? the teacher's __ ? the saleslady's __ ? the cleaning lady's __ ? the American woman's __ ? Maria's __ ?

r,lJ,e KJIlO'IH ceCTpbT?


_ _ _ _ _ )"fHTeJlhIlHLU./?

_____ npO.a.aBUl:HLU>I? _ _ _ _ y66plUHl.J;b1? _____ aMCpl1K<lHKH?

_ _ _ _ Maplin?

CnpOCK HaC'IeT

nHcbM~L

_ _ _ _ _ _ oKua.
_ _ _ _ _ _ MOJlOxa.

Ask about the letter. _ _ _ _ the window.

____ the milk.


____ ____ ____ ____ the the the the singing. composition. dormitory. meeting.

_ _ _ _ _ _ neHH.If.
_ _ _ _ _ _ CQ'H1HeHHR.

______ o6wc)fdITlliI.
_ _ _ _ _ co6paHHJ'I.

TABLE OF GENITIVE SINGULAR ENDlNGS

CTOJI- and oKHo-class nouns


-R
0'

)Kemi-class nouos

Luu:ipb-c1ass nouns

-R

CTomi
TeJle4>6H3

HHKOJlatl

31l0HK8

}"Uh=o
DJIaThH co6paIDfH CO'lHHemut

...

-'"
:lKCuW

0'

-"
rluuo
KOJIH MapHH Hcr6pHH
KliWH
KHHfH Kop66K11

-"
llBCpH
6"l.epeJtH

KapTW

"""'J'Y
EBpOlILI

6",..

cry,aeHTa ,aena
OKRa

H_

TeTJ'luuo

nepa
nHCbM8

cry.n.eHTKH

Notes

I. CToJl-c1ass nouns ending in -L and -ii and oKHo-c1ass nouns ending in -c or -e in the nominative singular take -II in the genitive singular. All other CTOJl- and oKHo-c1ass nouns take -8 in the genitive singular. OKHo-class nouns have the same ending as in the nominative plural, but the stress may differ. Compare nHCLMa (nominative plural) with nHCbMa (genitive singular) and .!teJlli (nominative plural) with ,Il,ena (genitive singular).
154
LI!SSON

2. JKetlli~ and .ltBipb-class nouns have tlie same ending in the genitive singular as in the nominative plural. BUI note thai with *eaa-c1ass nouns, the stress may differ. Compare *eKLI (nominative plural) with :litem:. (genitive singular) and ckJpw (nominative plural) with ct!CT'pW (genitive singular).
REPETITION DRtLL

Repeat the above models after your instructor or the tape un IiI you are familiar with the pattern of genitive singular endings.

CUED QUESTION-ANSWER DRILL

(Kurochkin) Whose briefcase is that? Kurochkin's.


T: (Kjpo'lxHH) Yeit :iTo nop~b? s: Kjpo'tKIUIa. T: (Bna.a.H:MHp) qeit no nOJ'llPCnb? s: 811anKMHpa. (HuBa, K03JIoa, HHtconaH, y'lUTeJlb, aMeplUCaHeu, Opnoa, aMepUXal1JCa, l1aall, Mapml)

INTEGRATION DRILLS

I. This is a book. This is a student. This is a student's book.


T::no XHHra::no CTYllCHT. s: :no Kmira CT)'JJ,eHTa. T: 3TO xapaH)),aw. 3TO Opnoa. s: :ho Kapaww 0p110sa. 3TO TeTp3Jn.. 3To Bna.luThfHp. 3To nopTle.rn>. 3TO npocl:lf:ccop. :fro pa66Ta. :fro 'l'Y3MH. 3To CTYllCHTbl. ::no npo4leccop Opnos. :ho CO"HUeHHe. 3To K03JIOB.

2. This is a dictionary. This is the teacher. This is the teacher's dictionary.


T: 3To CJl0eapb. 3To )"IHTeJ1b.

s: :ho CJlOBapb )"IHTenlil. T: 3TO KapTa. 3TO KUTaii. s: :ho KBPTa Kn8ll. 3TO KJUO<fH. 31'0 HHKonaH. 3TO J>C3ynbTaTbl. 3TO co6paHHC. 3TO IC3pTa. 3To Eepcma. 3T0 arnac. 3To EBreHKii. 3To yq:Hre.nb. :no wxona. 31'0 py'lxa. :no aMcplUCaHcu. 3TO KHHra. 31'0 npo.o.aBlltHua. 3TO CTaK3.H. :ho MonolCO.
4. This is a dictionary. This is a professor. This is the professor's dictionary.
T: 31'0 CJI0Bapb. :ho npolCccop.

3. Here's a briefcase. Here's a teacher. Here's a teacher's briefcase.


T: B6T nopTlfl6lb. BOT )"IJITem,HHua. s: BOT )"OiTCJlbBt.uw. T: B6T y66plllHlta. BOT wr:ona.

DOpT+emo

s: BOT yOOpdlMlUl UU\Mw.


B6T dpTa. BOT EBpana. BOT llBCpb. B6T aY.lUtTOpIDI. BM y'llhCJIb. B6T rprnna. BOT OKHO. B6T aMepHlCaHJCa. BM KHHra. BOT npOJJ,aBUJ.Hua. BOT nnaThe. BOT HHHa. B6T BHnKa. BOT MHna. BOT 'IawKa. BOT 'Iaii.

s: :ho CJIOUpb npo+eccopa. T: 3TO nopT~. 3-ro Komi. s: :no DOPT+em- KOmi. :ho CTOn. :ho MapJiR. 3TO paOOnt. :'no rAJUI. :ho olSen. 3To KonSl. 3TO Oma. 3TO 6ll6JIHOTCKa. 3TO lllIaThC. :no npo.o.aBll.tHtla. 3TO CJI0eapb. 3-ro rAJUI. :fro mpH. :fro rYM.
LESSON 8 155

5. Here's the library. Here's the university. Here's the university library. T: BOT 6H6JlHOreK3. BOT yaHBepcHTth.
s: BOT 6n6J1HOTeKa YHHBepcHTiiTa.

6. The teacher is here. But where is her husband? Where's the teacher's husband?

T; BOT KHura. B6T y'llfTeJlh. S: BOT IrnHr8 rufyeJUl. BOT nopTleJlb. BOT np<xPeccop KyPo'iKHR. BOT Kapra. B6T 3,ua.lHe. BOT KmfrH. BM HHKOJlaH. BOT CO'fHHeHlle. BOT EarellliH. BOT CTy,ueHTbJ. BOT npoleccop OpJIOa. BOT MaTepHi.rIhJ:. BOT co6paHHe. BOT 'farnKa. BOT KO<f.te.
DISCUSSION

T: Y'fHTeJlbHHll,a TYT. A r,lJ,e ee M'Y'K? s: r.ll.e My'" )"UITeJ1h1lHULI? T: npCxpeccop OpJloa TYr. A r,Oc ere CTy.uCIITbl ? s: r.ll.e CTY.II.eHTb.l llpolj)eccopa OpIlOBa? BJIa,uHMlfp TYr. A r.ne ero ceCTpa? K03J1oa TjT. A nre ero 6ph? YqlfTeJlb XHTpOB TjT. A r.ne era iKeHa? HHKOJl:rn TYr. A r.ll.e ero 6paT? HHHa T)h. A r.ne ee MYx? MapH}! TjT. A r.ne ee Y'fHTeJlb?

Unlike the prepositional case, the genitive is used both with and without a preposition. Used without a preposition, it indicates 3 relationship of possession or descriptive limitation.
My)l(

ceCTpbJ

KRura Haana py.uca Mapu" KapTa EapOlIhJ napOn KHTb y'BfTeJ1b neHltH )'pOX reorpamH cTaxaH MOllOK;}

sister's husband Ivan's bqok, a book of Ivan's Maria's pen, a pen of Maria's a map of Europe the people of China a singing teacher, a teacher of singing a geography lesson a glass of milk

Note that, unlike the English possessive, the Russian genitive normally follows the noun indicating what is possessed or described.

The genitive of KTO, 'ITO, and the personal pronouns


MODELS

Y aae ec-rb CJI0napb? Y Te6H ec-rb CJI0aapb? Y Koro MO" ATnac?


Y MOO.

Y Hero.
Y nee. Y HaC. Y Rlix.

HaC'feT "lero OHII cnpalllHaaJUi?

Do you have a dictionary? Do you have a dictionary? Who has my atlas? I do. He docs. She does. We do. They do. What was it they were asking about?

NOM

MellM
LE.'iSON

Tbl

6H

OHa

Mbl

Sbl

oUlI

KTa

oHa re6M ero (Hero) ee (Hee)


HaC

GEN

aac

IIX (HUX)

Kor6

"era

156

The alternate third person pronouns, uet'"o, H~ and mix. are used only when the personal pronouns are preceded by a preposition: y Hero, Y H~ and y KIix. Note that r in en). Hero. KorO. and 'fef'"O is pronounced [vJ: Uivo], [Q-ivo], [kavo], and [~ivol.

REPETITION DRILL

Repeat the above models after your instructor or tbe tape.

QUESTION-ANSWBR DRILLS

I. Where is he, at th~ university? Y~s, he has exams today. T: r.Qe OU, B YHH.BepcHrere? s: )la. y uero ceroJnlJl ::nOaMetibl. T: rJJ.e omi, B YHHBepcHTthe?

s: )la. y uee

CerO)1lUiI 3K18MettLiI.

2. And where are you going, to a lecture? Yes, I hav~ history now. T:: A BbI xy.ni, H8 JlexLtHlO? S: .ali., y MetUi ceii'l8.c HCTOpHliI. T: A OHK kyJJ.3, H8 lIeKltHIO'1 s: )la, y nHX CetNac HCTOpHH.
(J1pHlIa, Tbl, Baw CT)'J.l.eHT, Tl1051 cecTp8,
KOlUl,

(ORU, KHpKJl.ll, raJI5l, CTYJJ.eHTbl:)

TBOH 6p8ThJl, HpltH8

raJIst)

3. What does Galya have now? She has history now. T: LITO Y ranH Tenepb?
S: Y Hee TeoePb Hcrop.... T: 1ho Y Te6li Tenepb? s: Y MemI TeoePb HcroPIUiI. (y HUX, YKOJll.f, Y Hac, y K03Jlooa, YBac)

CUED QUESTION-ANSWER DRILLS

I.

(We) Who has Russian now? We do. T: (Mba) Y kO(6 Tenepb PYCCk.rn st3bu:?
Y .uic. T: (oua) Y koro Tenepb PYCCKHlI Jl3huc? Y mix. (Bbl, OHa, st, OU, OHH, TbI, MbI, OKH, OU)

2.
T:: S:

" "

T: S:

(They) Who has my dictioTJlUy? They have your dictioTJlUY. (omi) Y xorb MOB c.noaapb? Y iIIItx. (on) Y Korb Moil c.nOBapb'1 Y Hero.
(OHa, Bbl, OH, 51, MbI, OHH)

STRUCTURE REPLACEMENT DRILLS

1. Vladimir has the key.


He has the key. T: KruO'I Y BJla.z:tHMHpa. S:: Kmo'l y Hero. T:: K1II0'l y ceCTpbl.

s:

KJDi>q

y aee.

(y CT)'.QeHTa, y *eElhl, y KonH H r3.JIH, y 6paTa, Y K1>3JIoBa H CeMeHOBa, y Hm:oll8JI., y MapHH)

2. My sister has an at/as. She has an at/as. T: Y cecTpi>l 3.T1I8C. S:: Y Hee ecn. aT naco T:: Y HKKOJlaa ecn. 3.TJl8C. S: Y Hero aTJIaC. (y KOJlH H r3.JIH, y fl1060BH, YCTy.QeHTa, Y CeMeHa, y CeMeHOBa, y K031l0Ba H CeMeHOBa, y BJlaD.HMHpa)

ecn.

ecn.

LESSON 8

157

QUEST10NANSWER DRILLS

I. Is Ga/ya at classes? No, she has a meeting now. T: rami Ha 3aHRTH$!X? s: Hh, y llee ceii'lic co6pbHe. T: Haall Ha 3aHRTIUIX? s: Her, y aero ce....ac co6pliHMe. (HHHa, ee cecrpa, HJur:OJlaH, OHH, HpUHa" Jlea, CeMeHoa, CTy.neHT, JlI060ab, KOmi,
Sopite, Maplt$!)

2. Do you have Russian now? No, J hatle singing. T: Y sAc Tenepb pyCCKHH $!JbIK? s: Her, y MeHIi TeuCpb uCHMe. T: Y I1PHHbI renepb pyccKnH $!JbrK? s: Hh, y Bee Teuepb uCHMe. (y Men$!, y Hac, y BnaJUtMltpa, Y HHX)

The genitive case in


MODELS

OeT

constructions
Who isn't here? or Who's missing? Kozlov isn't here. NiJcolay _ Kolya _
Nma _

Koro J.necb HeT? - laecb UCT KOJJlosa. _ _ _ _ _ HHIoJlaJi. _ _ _ _ KoJiH.


_ _ _ _ H .......
_ _ _ _ MapiiH.

Maria Is he here? No, he isn't. Is she here '! No, she isn't.

68 JAe<:b?
- Hth, era uth. Qna J.necb '! - HeT, ee neT.
Sopma 60JlbWe 8CT.

Xn<60

ya.
Kawlt

_
_

There's no more borsch. _ _ _ _ _ bread. _ tea.


_ _ _ _ _ milk.

MOJloxa _ PbJ6w _ _~_ Cene.nKIt _

_ _ _ You don't have ______ ________ ______ _____ ______ ______ _____

fish. kasha. herring. a pencil, do you? an alias ? a dictionary_1 a pen ? milk '? a map of Europe _ _1 a notebook ? a book ?

Y sac luh KapaH,n:awa?


_ _ _ _ fnJlaca '!
_ _ _ _ cJloaapJi?

_ _ _ uepa?
_ _ _ _ MOJlod?

_ _ _ _ KAPTbl EBpOnbl? ____ TeTp:l.n.H? _ _ _ _ KHHrH?

REPETITION DRILL

Repeat the above models after your instructor (or the tape), noting that the subject of sentences using neT is always in the genitive case in Russian.

158

LESSONS

REPETITlONSTRUCTURE REPLACEMENT DRILLS

These drills should first be perfonned as simple repetition drills, then repeated as structure replacement drills.
I. The map is on the table. There isn't any map 011 the table! T: KapTa Ha crone. S: Kapn.l aeT na crone! T: PW6a ua crone. s: PW6w aeT na crone! (HO*, Kama, mtChMO, xop06s:a, '1aH, nepo, nopnt>enb, CO'IHHeHHe, SKJlxa, c.nosapb)

2. Professor Orlol' is here. Professor Or/ol' isn't here. T: npoleccop Opnos 3Jl.ecb. s: npo+ecroPa OpnOaa 3.nea,. aero
T: 6H 3Aea..

s: Ero ~b BeT.
(y6opUJ;lll.Ul, oua, 6paT, MapHJI, au, Mawa, oua, YKpaHoeu., au, KomI, ou,
Hltkonaii)

3. Do you have a mop of China? You don't have a map of China, do you? T: Y sac ecrb KAPTa Kl1n\.H? S: Y sac ReT dpThl KHTaK? T: Y sac ecn. HO;g? S: Y RaC Her Ho....li? (X.1110'l, aTnac, py'tKa, TeTpan.b, kapTa AMepKKI1, uJlca4l, Kop06ka, nepo, c.nosapb)
CUED QUESTION-ANSWER DRILLS

I.

T:

S:
T:

s:

(Kozlov) Who's net here yet? Kozlov. (Ko3JIbs) Korb ewe Hn? Her KO").'1oBa. (HHHa) Korb ewe Her? Her HMHw. (8nazuiMlIp, rUITeJJbHHua, HHKomlli, np<.>leceop Opn6s, I1sau, MY. MapUH, Y'lHTeJJb, y66pwuua, 6paT HHHhI)

2.

(phone)

What's missing here? There's no phone here.

T: (TeJ1ex>H) qer6 3J1ecb Her?

s:
T:

].aea, Hh Te.'u~4KMta.
(Monox6) \.fer6 3J1Ccb Her?

S:

].nec.. ae-r MOJIO"'.


(nonxa, CT}'JI, 3Tnac, c.no8apb, 38000K, IC.JlJO'I, HO*, x.ne6, cyon)

QUESTION-ANSWER DRILL

1. Where's thefish? There isn't any fish left. T: r.ne pbi6a? s: PW6w 66m.we IteT. T: rAt 'tau? S: qill oom.we aer. (Kawa, 60pw., ceneAxa, Monoxo, xne6)

2. Is Koziol' here? No, Koziol' isn't here. T: K03JIOS 3J1eo.? s: Her, KOJJloBa 3lI.kb ner. T: K YPO'IXHH :meeb? s: Her, Kj~ :J,ltea. aer. (HuHa, KOD, pelITOp, saxTtp, npocl)6ccop OpnOB, OlTer, MapHJI, HJuconaH, KHpIlJlJl)

l.fSSON 8

159

3. Do you have a map of Europe? No, I don't have a map of Europe. T; Y Hac eCTh KlipTa EBp6nbl? S; Hb, y Metui lIeT KlipThI EBp6IJh1. T: Y HaC eCTb aTJlac? S: HeT, y Metui Hb linaca. (cnoaapb, KJlJO'l, nepo, nOpTepe.nb, TeJle<pOll, TCTpa.rtb, ceCTpa, 6paT)

4. Is Kozlov here? Kozlov is absel1/ (or missing) today. T: K03JI08 3.nCcb? s: K03JJo8a cerOAH1I HeT. T: HUKOJIau 3.o,Ccb? s: HHKOJIRH cerO)llllil HCT. (KoJIJl, Bna,lI;llMHp, HeaD, Oml, XHrpoB, MapWl:, EOplfC, HHHa, Kypo'lKlfH)

5. Is there a library there? No, there's no library there. T: TaM 6cn, 6lf6J1lfOTeKa? S: HeT, TSM UCT 6116JJHOTeK:H. T; TaM eCTb nO'ITa? S: Hb, riM HCT uO'ITbI. (3a8o.n, yfumepcU'reT, o6w:e)f(IITHe,

3aJl,

UIKona, TeJTeq,OH, Mara3HH, aYAHTOpWl:, KJIy6, KHOCK, Jla6opaToplfR)

DISCUSSION

HCT means both flO (as the opposite of Ali) and there is (or. are) no or there isn'/ (or aren't) any. Historically it comes from a combination of He plus Ccrb. When HeT i~ used in constructions with the genitive it focuses on the lack or absence of the subject. It differs from constructions using the nominative plus He, where the focus is not on the absence but on some other element of the sentcnce.
Compare with

Ero
Oil

3AeCb ner. lie 3Aecb, a

ropo.ne.

He's not here (Le., he's missing or absent). He's not here; he's in town.

The genitive case in past tense He 6b1JJO constructions


MODELS

Koro TaM He 6bLI1o? - TaM He 6blJIO K03nOBa.


_______ HHKomiR.

Who wasn't there (i.e., who was missing)? Kozloy wasn't there. Nikolay _
Kolya _

_ _ _ _ _ _ KOnn.
_ _ _ _ _ _ MapffiJ.

_ _ _ _ _ _ HMnbl.
_ _ _ _ _ 6nH.

Maria Nina Olya

_ _ _

Era T3.M He 6blJlO? - HeT, He 6b1Jto. Ee TaM He 6b11l0?


HeT, He
6b11l0.

Wasn't he there? No, he wasn't. Wasn't she there? No, she wasn't. What was missing? or What wasn't there? There wasn't any borsch. _ _ _ _ _ _ tea. _ _ _ _ _ _ bread. - - - - milk.

\.ferD TaM He 6bl1l0? - T3.M lIe 6hrJlO 6opma.


_ _ _ _ _ _ lfaJ'l.

_ _ _ _ _ _ xlle6a. _______ MoJtod.

160

LESSON

- TaM He 6blJIO pbl6w. _ _ _ _ _ _ KaWH. _______ ceJIe./l.Kll.

There wasn't any fish. _ _ _ _ _ _ kasha. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ herring. I didn't have a pencil.


_ _ _ _ _ an atlas.

Y Meuli lie 6blJIO Kapall.naWa. _______ 3.TJIaca. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ CJlooapli. _ _ _ _ _ _ nopT<peJlJl. _ _ _ _ _ _ neptl. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ cO':IHHeHllil. _ _ _ _ _ _ KapTbl EopOObI. _ _ _ _ _ Tell''''".
_______ IClufnt.

_____ a dictionary.
_ _ _ _ _ a briefcase.
_ _ _ _ a pen.

_ _ _ _ _ a composition. _ _ _ _ _ a map of Europe. _ _ _ _ _ a notebook.

_ _ _ _ .book.

REPETITION DRILL

Repeat the above models after your instructor (or the tape), noting that for the past tense ae 6b1J1O corresponds to tth of the present and that here too the subject is in tbe genitive case. He 6101..'10 is pronounced with a single stress which falls on ae: [Q.ebil~].

REPETITIONSTRUCTURE REPLACEMENT DRILLS

1. There's nofish. There was no fish.


T: Pbl6b1 Her.

s: PW6w

..e 6woo.

T: AaT66yca neT.
S: AJrr66yca He 6WJiO. (MaTepHana. O<fepeAH. nopT<PeJuI, C1IO Rap xapTbi KJtTIUl. ICOp06kH, pa60Tbl. Gopilla, C06paHHJI)

2. We don't ha~'e (any] work. We didn't have [any) work. T: Y uac neT pa66Tb1. s: Y wie ..e 6wno pa66Tb1. T: Y uac Her kJlYGa. S: Y HaC Hi 61.1110 ..-:Jlj6a.
(C06paHIDI, )"lHTemI, KapTbl CCCP. Te1Ie$olla. 6n6nllOTeICH. ayJnITopllH. 3X3aMella, ypm::a. neKWfll)

QUESTION-ANSWER DRILLS

1. Was the custodian there? No. he wasn't. T: BaXTep TaM 6bUl'? s: Her, en) He 6wno. T: Erb iKe",l TAM 6b1J1a '? s: Hh, ee He 6b1no. (KoJIlI II raJIJI, Baw Mj')I(, ee GpaT, oua. ou, Ollll, npoll.aBUUtLl3, !lauJ CTYAeHT)

2. Did you have a meeting? No. we didn't have a meeting. T: Y BaC 6blJlO co6pauHe? S: HeT, y Hlic He 6L1J1o C06paHHJI. T: Y oac 6blJJ yp6K nemU! '? S: Hk, y HaC lie 6wno yp6Ka nCRH1I. (paGon. neKU,WI, HCTOPHJI, 3K3aMeH. kJllO'I, aTJlaC, CO'lHHeHHe)

3. Was there borsch? No, there wasn't. T: D6pl1.l 6w '? s: Her,..e 6WJIo. T: PbtGa 6b1J13.? s: Hn, He 6wJIo.
(3k3aMeH. kawa, 6oplll, ce.n~. xexpe.

06eJl, ypok neHHJI, XJleG, O':lepeJlb, 380110':. co6paHHe)

LESSON 8

161

RESPONSE DRILL

Kozlov wasn't there. Who wasn't there?


T: K03JI6Ba T3.M He 6b1JlO. s: KonS liM He 6blJ1o? T: A.TJlaca T3.M He 6bU10. s: "fenS riM..e 6W11O? (o<tepeJJ.H, KOllH, nOpTlemI, HHKoJlaJI, KM<X%a, BnaJlHMKpa, lCapTbl 1CKraJI, HHHbl)

STRUCTURE REPLACEMENT DRILLS

I. There was fish on the table. There wasn't anyfish on the table. T: Ha CTOne 6b1Jll't pbi6a. S: Ha CTone He 6bUlO pw6b1. T: Ha crone 6buI ooe.ll. S: Ha CTOJIe He 6blJ1o 06ba.
(<taM., Kawa, MonolCo, nO.llapOli;:, COfI1 HeHHe, cene,nxa, xne6, CJlosapb, p)"lICa, aTnac, Man.e)

2. We had a meeting yesterday. We didn't have a meeting yesterday.


T: Y HaC B'Iepa 6bUlO c06pllHHe. s: Y lI1ic .'<tepa He 6bU1o Coop,"HH. T: Y HaC Btfepa 6bl.n 30aMeH. S: Y HaC B'lep8 He 6b1J1o ;)l(lAMeua. (XHMH.lI, MareManlICa, kOltLtepT, !H3Hka, YPOlC neiuul, nexuiUl, HCTOPH.ll)

3. I had a dictionary. I didn't have a dictionary.


T: Y MeHJI 6bl.n CJlOsapb. S: Y Memi He 6wto cnoupti. T: Y MeHJi 6b1.Jl3 kHHra. s: Y Men Hi 6wto 1aIIinl. (ypo1C, nemte, reorpa4)iUI, JleDJ;IDI, 303Men, HCTOpIDI, ypok !H3HJ;U, mnepa Typa)

PROGRESSIVE SUBSTITUTION DRILLS

1. I have a pencil. T: Y MeKJi ecn. KapaHmlw. S: Y Metd ecn. KapaJtJ.t8w. T: (HtT) _ S: Y Me:tni Her ..... paJ:IJJ.awi.
_ _ (ten.) _ _ _ _ (He 6blJlO) _ _"
~.o- (ten.) - (Y T<6') _

---(=pa;u.). _ _ (HtT) _ _ _ (ten.) _ _ _ (He 6blJlO) _ _ _ (ten.) _

162

LESSON 8

2. He has a briefcase.
T: Y Hero ecn. nopTlenb. s: Y Hero ecn. DOPT+em- T: (",!T) _

Y He~ ecTh KapTa. _ _ (HeT)

_ _ (ecn.) _ _
_ _ (lie 6blJIo) _ _

s: Y Hero uer DOpT+en.,


_ _ (ue6"",o) _ . _ _ (UOT) _

_ _ (ecn.) _ _ (TiMl _ ()<uCPb). _


__(HOT)
_ _ (He 6"",0) _

_ _ (ecn.) _ _ _ _ (He 6"",o) _ . _ _ (ecn.) _ _ (YHee) _ _ _ _ _ ("pTa).

_ _ (ecn.) _ _. __(ecn.) _ _

DISCUSSION

Hk of the present tense is replaced in the past tense by ue 61>1110 in constructions focusing on the absence of a thing or person. The noun or pronoun indicating the missing thing or person is in the genitive case. However, the nominative may be used for the subject (together with He plus 6w, 6b1J1a, 6wo, or 6WJH) if the focus is not on the absence itself, but on same other element of the sentence.
Compare with Compare
with
HHHa .a.aslio He 6b1JI3 B KJJj6e. HUHhl Ite 6hlJlO S KJlY6e.

Nina hasn't been at the club in a long time. Nina wasn't at the club. Ivan wasn't at lectures; he was at the meeting. Ivan wasn't at the meeting.

J.1BAH 6bUi He lIa JleKIlHJI)I:, a lIa co6p3.HHH. HBaHa He 6b1J10 Ha co6pimrn.

LESSON 8

163

- f!iUt.
1U-~,
fU-

T P -.1J

?ur- ~ ~ p- 9"a,~, 'HLr


6iM.-

IV

6iM.- ?

Jl-- #Ltm<:e. . .!11M-Jt,

r:f<u-. - JL ~

c4w-

r- .1Ca.- ~.

-~,
f- O'<M.
.,<.Wtf<O"

IJ'

't4. ~ ~ (-

ad~ . ?UT Jt"

<r

-t<i.M.. ~? o-~

~. - ~

~/
'W'fIu

~ ~. -~ J!. ~ ~. - ~ <eaA<> I Jt.. ()'W<I. ~

om,.

164

LESSON 8

KTO Y TeJlCPOUa? 3K33MeH? -

Wean J.1a3HOBH'I Opnoa. -

A, 3,l1;pasCTsyUTe, MeaH WBaHOBWI.


H3llHcaJlH. Pa,o.
:no

Kax npowen

O'lCHb xopawa.

CTy.n.CHTbZ OTJlHlfHO

cm..maTh. jf BH)I(Y, 'ITO HanIH CTyncHTbI MOJlOJJ.UbI.

IWM 81>1 r08opwre, 0

rpaHTe? -

HCT. 0 K03JJooc. 08 ODJITb OTJlH'IHO HanDcaR.

R CJIb(wan.
IfeM'1 -

'iTO DB MOJlOnCQ. -

)la. 3H3eTC 0 '!eM

au HauHcan'l -

He-r, He

3HaJO.

rpy3HHax Ii HX HCTOpHH. -

BOT K3K! 3TO HHTepecHO.

Mary

JIM JI nOCMOT-

peTb? -

KOHC'IHO. BOT

era

pa60T3.

Jleepb OTXphlTa? - HeT. - A f):le TBOH KJn09? - B nopT<fx:JIe. - A nopT<l>e.nb r.a:e? - B y"I-mcpcHTeTc. - Hy xopawa, Tor.na B03bMH MO KJIIO't. - CnacH6o.

- Y

MClUI 33BTpa 3K3aMCH. r.e MOil: CJ100apb? -

Ha

CTonc. -

Era

Tyr ReT. -

Tor.na,

MO)KCT 6bJTb,

au

H3

noJIXc. -

He

BIDKy.

A,

BOT OU, H3 CTyne.

LESSON

165

LESSON9

PREPARATION FOR CONVERSATION

3aMOJlBHTe 38 MeHR CJlOBC..KO!

3a

MeHli (varof CfI0BO)

for me, -in my behalf


word

CfI0Be'lKO

JaMOJ1BKTb CfI0sC'IKO 3aMOJIBHTe 3a

MeHJi CJlOBC'IKO! c or CO (plus gen) cpa66Th1


pa66Th1 HJl.eTe?

Db.!

3.apUcnl:yiiTe, Hw! C pa60Tw MeTe?


Her, Ii
B

to put in a good word Put in a good word for me! from, olT, since from work Are you coming from work? Hello, Nina! Are you coming from work? No, I've been to the gorsovet.
room

ropcoBiTe 6blJ1a.

KOMMan

HiT, Ii ropcoBhe 6b1J1B., HaC*H:IT KOMHaTbi.

No, I've been to the gorsovet about a room. what, which What room? What's the matter?

Ka"oi=i KaKoii KOMHllTbl?

J<HlBneHHe JaRBneHHe Ha KOMHaTy

no,uhb (pfv irreg) no,uhb JaJlBneHlfe

Ii

nOJI.ami JaSlBJIeHHe Ha KOMHaT)'.

:lUlATh (ipfv I)
HMO

Haa.o d.JC .u.onro

JKJt3Tb.
ItO H8JJ.O

It OOllLllB. ~e ua II:OMHaTy, Tl..K A6Jrro :ll(I:Uin..


BOT 'ITo!

application application for a room to give, serve, submit to submit an application I submitted an application for. a room. to wait irs necessary, one bas to You have to wait so long. I submitted an application for a room, but you have to wait so long. so that's it! Oh, so that's it!
friend good friend

Ax, I16T 'ITo!


,upyr (nom pi APYJbli)
XOp6WHH APYr

167

TaM pa66Taer Moii XOpOWH" .npYr


AneKettB.
BMb

My good friend Alexccv works there. after all, the thing is, as a matter of fact, You know, as a matter of fact, my good friend Alexeev works there. You don't say!

[yi~1

(unstressed)

lHaeTe. SeAl. TiM paooTIleT

MOM

xop6uuti

.apjr AAei'ceea.

'ITo aN roSOpHTc!
MBaH I1BflHOBH<f, 3aMOllBHTe CJlOBe"lKO!

3a Memi

Ivan Ivanovich, put in a good word for me! kind, dear, nice My dear Ivan Ivanovich, put in a good word for me! to suggest, propose to you, for you I wanted to suggest that to you. just, the very thing That's the very thing I wanted to suggest to you. thanks very much, thanks a lot Thank yo'! very much! what for! Whatever for! old old friends We're old friends after all.

MHnblii MBaH ltBauOBH't, MMJTbIK. 3llMMaHTe 33 MettH:


CJlOBe"lKO!

npe.D..1l0)((Kn, (pfv II)

.st XOTen BAM no npe.D..1l0xHTb.


KaJC

Ba.,

pb

11 ..~ pA3 XOTen .liM iTO DpeLVIoDn..


601lbw6e cnacH60

1io.'1bmOe BaM coaClii60!


'11'6 TaM!

Hy "ITO TaM!
CTapblii CTaPble .npy.n,li Mba BeLlI> cTlipble APY3bli.

SUPPLEMENT
CJlOBO

(pi

CJloBli)

~TO pyCCKoe cnOBO?

peCTOpaH BbI H.lte-re B peCToptm?


TeaTp

::no

1i01lbw6ii l'eliTp BbI u,nere B lioJlbllJoii Te3TP? KBapTltp3 Y BaC ecrb KBapTHp3? .nOM sallJ .n6M?

napK Ky.na 8b1 HlICTe? -

B napK.

word Is that a Russian word? restaurant Are you going to a restaurant? thealer the Bolshoi Theater Are you going to the Bolshoi Theater? apartment Do you have an apartment? house, building Is that your house? or Is tbat the building where you live? park Where are you going? To the park.

168

LESSON 9

33MOJlBHTe la Memi
11.11. H. -

CJIOBe'IKO!

I1Ball I1BaHoBHlf
Hil.Ha

l1. 11. 1 3.a.paBCTByHTC. HHHa t C pa60nl H.a.eTC?

zddlstujti Q-in~ 1 sraboti i\loti !

H.

2 HOT, .Ii B ropCOBt':TC 6bIJIa.


HaC'feT KOMHaTbJ.

Qet!
ja vgorsaye\i bil:ll nasMt komn~ti ! kakoj komn~ti !

11. 11. J KaKoi1: KOMHaTbJ? B 'feM .a.CJIo?


H.

!Com
ja n6

~eI,

4 jf no.a.a.mi 3aSlBJICHHC Ha KOMHaTy, lIO H3.,nO niK .a.OJIro


)t(,!(ciTb !I

p~dala ~jivlcQj~

nakomn~tu
nad~

tag

dol~

,datI
aX" vot st6 ! znajiti ! yit tam rab6t~jit moj xarosij dnik alik~jif ! sto vi ~variti 1 ivan ivanich ! ljIilij I zamOlyi\i z~qliQa slayccb! ja kak ras xa\cl

11. 11. 5

BOT 'ITo! 3HaCTC, BC.a.b TaM pa60TaCT MO" XOPOWHH .a.pYr AnCKCCCB. rOBOpHTc! HBaR I1BaHoBH'I, MUJlbrn, 3aMOJIBHTC 3a MCHH CJIOBC'fKO!
Dbl

Ax,

H.

6 Y:TO

11. 11. 7 jf KaK pa3 XOTCJ:J B3M :ho npCLl,JIO:lKHTb.

yam

<t, pridlafit I

H.

8 60JIbW6c BaM cnacH-Go!

balsoj~ vam spa~ib~ !

11. 11. 9 Hy 'fTO TaM! M hi SC.a.b cTapblc .a.PY3bH!


NOTES

5to tam! mt yit stariji d ru~ja 1

nu.

In order to obtain a room in a government-owned house, it is necessary to apply to the regional soviet or, in this instance, to the city council ropcose-r. Waiting lists are very long since housing is one of the major problems in the large cities of the U.S.S.R.
I

PREPARATION FOR CONVERSATION

B ropCOBeTe
secretary He's our secretary. She's our secretary. in one's room, in one's office
LESSON 9 169

ceKpeTapb (m) 6H Ham ceKpeTapb. OHa Ham ceKpenipb. y ce6Ji

TOOapHll( ToBApuUl AneKcCeB y ce6Ji:? CaeaUTe, TOBliptUlt AJleK'ceeB y ce6ll?

comrade, friend, colleague Is comrade Alexeev in? Tell [me], is comrade Alexeev in? Moscow No, be's in Moscow at the moment. Well, is Volkov bere? to pass, go by Yes, go on in, please! Hi! I baven't seen you in a long time! how are you? how's it going? Hello, how are you?

Mocna Hh, 08 iNac B Mocm.


A B6.rn.,"OB 31lecb?

(prv npoihH) .Qli., Dpoxororre ooiluinyiicra!

npoXO,QHTb (II)

X,

npa&eT! .QaBHO Te6tI lie BH.nen!

K8.K :lKHOeWb [kag zi'{6~] 3lq1UCTByii, dK *oeuu. ?

H ....

ero.

All right.
request, favor small, little I have a small favor [to ask]. to obtain, receive, get young lady, girl (in late teens) a certain young lady There's a certain young lady who can't get a room. in no way, by no means, not in any way Tbere's a certain young lady who simply can't get a room. Is that so? Who is she? Where does she work? correspondencc:scbool student factory She's a correspondence-school student and works at a factory.

npOcb6a [pro~oo] ManeHbKlUI Y MeHJi M8JJeHbKU np6a..6a.

DOJlY'lHTb (pfv II) neBytUKa OnHa neoywKa Ty-r oll,Hi .neoywKa "oMHaTbl nOJl)"lHTb He
M6iKeY.

Hmate Ttr o.roui lleayWKa HHKaK KOMIUITW DOJI)'on. He MOa:eT.

.Qi? KyO OHa?

r~

paOOT8eT?

cryneHTKa-Ja6.. HHI.ta 3.6pHJ:a OHJi crylleana-:JaO':IIIIIQa, pa60T8eT 4tli6pHKe.

Ha

Ani. Ha 4tli6pHKe. :no XOpoIllO.


c.nenaTb (prv I) 'l.T6-HII6Yllh Mbi 'n'~IUf6Yllb cJlblBeM.

Ahhh, at a factory. That's good.


to do, get done something, anything We'll do something [about it]. Well, thanks.

BOT cnaaf60!

SUPPLEMENT

"'MTb (ipfv I) rne BbI: "'H&eTe? - >1: "'HBy npOT"B napxa. oncYna OnY.na Obi ".neTe? - C pa66Tbl. R3 or 1t30 (plus gen) OTKYlla ObI H.lJ.eTe? - 1-13 r6potta. aT or OTO (plus gen)

to live Where do you live? I live across from the park. from where Where are you coming from? From work. from, out of Where are you coming from? From town. from

170

LESSON 9

R "ony'uUt IUICbMO OT 6paTa.


.a.o
(plus gen)
pa66Tb1. oKono (plus gen) R :lCHBy 6Kono nlipKa. 6e3 or 6e30 (plus gen) R 6e3 6para He noiUty_ ,lLIlH (plus gen) Bbl :ho cnenaeTe J],JI'H Mellll?

6" 3BOHJln .a.o

I received a letter from my brother. up to, until, before He called (or telephoned) before work. near, by, about I live Dear the park.

without
I won't go without my brother.

for Will you do that for me'?

H.H. -

C. -

11B3H l18AHoBH'I CerpeTApb (HpHHa nerp6BHa)

B. - B6m:OB (TIfTp HHKKT1t'1)

11.H.

3JlpbCTByihe, WpHHa neTpOBHa! CKa)l(HTe, TOBapHm AneKceeB y ce6Ji?l

zdrastujti I ipn;} gitrovn;}! skafili ! tavitplt alikiejif Uii~ii 1

C.

2 He.., 6H ceH'IaC B Mocue.

Vel! on ~i~as vmasky ! a volkov zQ~ 1 dii ! pr;}xa4iti pazal;}Sb!

11.11. 3 A BonKoB 3Jlecb?

c.

4 ,llit, npoxoAHTe, nO:llCanYHCTa!

11.11. S

A.
npHBeT, BOJlKOB! ,lI,asHO Te6Ji He B8;:(en.

ii!
pp yet volkof! davno Ii~it viyil!il! zdriisluj! kitg fiyo! ! Qitivo! urpiQit rnitlivkojo pro~bo ! luI adna 4evu!ko I komn;}ti p;}Ju~it qimotit ! dii 1 kt6 ana 1 g4e rabOt;}jit 1
USSON 9

B. 11.11.

6 3"pitBCTllyH. d.K :lICHBCWb?


7 HH'Iero.

Y MeHli ManeHbKaJI npocb6a.

Ty-r o.QHa .o:eByrnKa


KOMHaTbi no.ll)"flITb He MO:JKeT.

B.

8 ,llil? KTO OHa? r.o:e pa66TaeT?

171

11.11.

9 QHa CTYl1eHTKa-3a6'1HHua, pa60raeT Ha a6pmce.

ana stuQentk., zaocQic~ ! rab6tajit nafiibplP j

B.

10 A'll,
H3 a6pHKe.
3TO

xopowo.

MbI: 'IT6-HH6Yl1b Cl1e.naeM. 2


11.11. II BOT cnacu60.

ahlij nafiibplP j et., xQrlcl6 ! mi It6~ibu~ zQeJajim j


vot sp:qiba j

NOTES

I Here ToaapHlll means comrade in the political sense, i.e., a party member. It is very common in official situations. however, for Soviet citizens to use tbe word (especially in the plural) without any necessary implication that persons so addressed are party members. A foreigner should never use TOBapHUI in addressing a Soviet citizen. TosapKlU is also used in the nonpolitical sense, meaning comrade or friend, but it implies a more casual relationship than ~PYr friend. One may have many TOsaplO1lH, but few Jqty3b1i. Both IJ.PYr and TOsapHUIl like npo4tkcop and CCKpe"ripb, are grammatically masculine, but may refer to both men and women:
XOpOllJUH ~pYr. OHa M6H XOpOllJHM ,D,pyr. TOB3pHut neTp6B 6bui J,D,ecb. TosapHw neTp6Ba 6blna 3.o;ecb.
2

Oil M6H

He's my good friend. She's my good friend. Comrade Petrov was here. Comrade Petrov (f) was here.

Students who work at factories and take correspondence courses have a priority in obtaining lodgings. The Soviet cry.a.ewr-13.6'IIUIK or cryAeIlT'K8-u6<nnma differs somewhat from the American correspondence-school student in that the latter does his entire work through correspondence. The Soviet correspondenceschool student must meet at least once or twice a year for laboratory sessions, summary lectures, consultations on future work, and examinations.

Basic sentence patterns


I. BbI H,QeTe c paG6Thl? - H6T, c KOHu.epn. - Her, c o6elJ.a. - HeT, c 3lOaMeHa. - H6T, c ypOKa neHH.lI. - Her, c co6paHJUI. - Her, c no'fT1>l. - Her. c neICl(.HH.
2. BbI: HJJ,ere
KJ

Are No. No, No. No, No, No, No,


Are No, No, No, No,

you coming from work? from a concert. from a dinner. from an exam. from a singing lesson. from a meeting. from the post office. from a lecture. you coming from the club? from the restaurant. from the theater. from the park. from the university.

Her, HJ Her, H3 reaTpa. H6T. "3 napK:a. HCT, HJ }'HHscpcHTeTa.

J(J]yt)a? peCTopAHa.

172

USSQN9

3.

HeT, IU rYMa. HeT, H3 ropcost:"Ta. Ht:"T, H3 o6IJ.lCJKHTHH. Ht:"T, H3 6lt6nHOTeklt. Her, H3 na6opaTopHIJ.

No, No, No, No, No,

from from from from from

GUM. thc gorsovet. the donnitory. the library. the laboratory.

R er6 SH.neJI no yp6u. _ _ _ _ _ _ kOHllepn.


_ _ _ _ _ 06e.o.a.
_ _ _ _ _ _ 'taR.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ 3k3bteHa.

_ _ _ _ _ co6paHHJI.
_ _ _ _ _ _ neJrllHH.

_ _ _ _ _ pa66"".

_ _ _ _ _ cny,.6",.
4. n6CJ1e ypoKa nowen nOMOH. _ _ KOlillepTa _

I saw him before the lesson. _______ the concert. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ dinner (or noon).1 _ _ _ _ _ _ tea.' _______ the exam. _______ the meeting. _______ the lecture. _ _ _ _ _ _ work. _ _ _ _ _ _ work.

a"

_ _ co6paHH'

--'""-----_ _ 3K3<lMeHa _
5. CpaJy n6cne o6ena Mbl nOWlUt nOMoH. _ _ _ _ co6paHHJI _
_ _ _ _ _ nekI(JtH _

After __ __ __ __

the lesson he went home. the concert ~_ the meeting _ the tea _ the exam _ the dinner we went home. the meeting _ the lecture _ wo,k _

_ _ _ _ pa66.,...

_
~

Right after ____ _ _ __

_____ IIlkom"
6. 3TO NUl sac.
_ _ _ re6>i. ____ Rac. _ _ _ Hero.
_ _ _ Ree. _ _ _ HUx.

_ _ _ "'hool
This is for you. _ _ _ you.

_ _ _ us.
_ _ _ him.

_ _ _ he<.
_ _ _ _ them. We'll do it for ______ ______ _____ ______ Ivan. Nina. Professor Orlov. the teacher. the teacher.

7. Mbl 3TO C.lle.naeM .lV1R Msana. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ HHHbl.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ np0<p6ccopa apnoea. _________ y'ulTeml.


_________ YlfHTeJIbHHltbJ.

8. OHM 6e3 sac He noiUtYr.

They won't go without you.

_ _ _ H'C
_ _ _ re6>i
_ _ _ MeaJi _ _ _ Hero

_
_
_ _

_ _ _

us. you. me.

_ _ _ _ _ _ him.

9. Mb"I 6eJ Hee He nOH,n,eM. _ _ I1.....a _ _ _ _ l1pmw_~ _ _ K6m< _

We won't go without ________ _ _______

her. Ivan. Irina. Kolya.

IIlX.<1e

, 06U is frequently used in tbe sense _ . Thus !W o6lJI,a may mean both o6i.M means both after dinn" aDd ofternoon. as well as in 1M afternoon. I 'fii is orten used to refer 10 breakfast or morning tea.

1Nfor~

diNtu and

1Nfor~

noon. Similarly,

LESSON 9

173

10. rJI.e Ubi 6WIH? - Y llpoq,eecopa Opnoua. - Y JI.pyra. - Y I1B3.Ha.

n.-.pa.

Where To see To see To see To see

have you been? Professor Orlov. a friend. Ivan. Pyotr.

II. rJI.e sbi ooeJI.aJ1lf? - Y HHkomiJi. - Y 6pflTa.

Y CCCTpbl.
Y HMHbJ. Y niJIH.

Y MapMH l1uaHOIHlbl.

Where did you eat dinner? At Nikolay's. At my brother's. At my sister's. At Nina's. At Galya's. At Maria Ivanovna's. Where are you from? From Leningrad. From China. From Moscow. From Europe. From America. From the U.S.S.R. Where are you coming from? From GUM. From town. From the store on the comer. From the library. From work. From the post office. From the factory. From tbe plant. Where did you get that? From the club. From the library. From the laboratory. From the factory. From the plant. From From From From From From From From From From From From whom did you get that? Professor Orlov. an American. Vladimir. Pyotr. Evgeny. whom did you hear that" the secretary. the teacher. my sister. Irina. Maria Ivanovna.

12. OncYJI.a Bbr? - H3 lleHHHrp3.na. - 113 KHT!.JI. - 113 Mocuu.:z.


- 113 EspOtlhI. - H3 AMepHltH. -113 CCCP.

13. OTlcY.na Bbi HJI.CTe? -113 rYMa. - 113 r6poJI.a. - ..13 Mar33MHa a3 yrJly. - 113 6H6mto-rekH. - C pa66Th1.

- C nO'lThl. - C l)a6pHK:H.
C 3aBOlla.

14. Orxjlla Ubi :ho nOnY'fHnH? - ..13 XJJY6a. - ..13 6H6JIHO-rekH. - 113 na60paTOpuU. - C cfla6pukH. - C 3an6JI.a.

15. OT Kor6 Sbi :ho nonY'lJinu? - OT npolecropa Opn6sa. - Or aMepHll:3.HIl,3. - Or BnCl,lUiMHpa.

-OT n.-.pa. - Or EsrCIIUJI.


16. OT Koro 8b!: 3TO CJlbUUa.JIH?

- Or cekpeTapJ:i. - OT Y'uhe.JUI.
-

Or cecrpbL OT I1pMllbl.
OT MapliH HBAH08Hbl.
LffiSON

74

17. Cue Balli J1,6M? - 6Kono m\pka. - 6Kono yHHaepcHTe-ra. - 6K01l0 Te3.Tpa. - 6K01l0 pecTOpalla. - 6K01l0 06we:HTHH. - 6IC01l0 no'fTbl. - 6kono <PA6pHICH. - - 6"0110 WKOJJhL - 6"oJJO 6H611HOTekH. 18. rJ1,e 6ItM,HoTC"a? - npOTHB Te3.Tpa. rJ1,e 06ute:lfrlle? - npOnfB napn. Cae xH6cx? - npOTHB peCTOp3..Ha.

Where's your hOUse? Near the park. Near the university. Near the theater. Near the restaurant. Near the dormitory. Near the post office. Near the factory. Near the school. Near the library. Where's the library? Across from the theater. Wherc's the dorm? Across from the park. Wherc's the newsstand? Across from the res taurant. Wbere's the theater? Across from the university. Wherc's the restaurant? Across from GUM. Wherc's the club? Across from the Library. ~ere's your house? Across from the school. Where's the store? Across from the post office. Wherc's the large haU? Across from tbe labor.. .t tory. Where's the school? Across from the factory. Where's the laboratory? Across from the auditorium. Did you ask about ______ _______ _______ ______ ______ _______ _______ dinner? borsch? tea? milk? fish? kasha? herring? vodka?

rJ1,e pecTopaH1- npOTHS rYMa. rJ1,e KnY6? - npOTHS 6H611HOTex.H. rJ1,e saw J1,6M? - npOTHB WICOJIhl. rJ1,e Mara;)HH? - np6THB nO<t:ThI. rne 601lhw6" 3an? - np6THS JJa60paT6pHlt. rne wx611a? - np6THs ~6PKJCH. rne 1Ia60paTOplUl?- npOTHB ay,lJ;ltTOp"H.

19. Dbl cnpiwKBaJIH HaC'Ie-r ooe.Qa? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 6op",.?


________ _________ ________ ________ __________ ________ '13.H? MOJJod? pbl6hl? dum? ce1le)].KH? B6)].KH?

20. A ka.k HaC'leT C06pa.IHUI?


_ _ _ _ _ CO'lHlleHml ? _ _ _ _ _ dpThl? _____ _____ _____ _____ JJHTepaTyphl? reorpa.q,"H? 3.T1Iaca? nopTq,e.nH?

And how about the meeting? _ _ _ _ _ _ the composition? ______ a map? _ _ _ _ _ _ Iiterature? _ _ _ _ _ _ geography? _ _ _ _ _ _ an atlas? _ _ _ _ _ _ a briefcase?

21. Db! Hac<t:e-r ypOKa 1

_ _ _ _ 3X3AMeHa? _ _ _ _ c06pa.uHJI ? _ _ _ _ xoMHaThl ? _ _ _ _ ICBapTltpW?

_ _ _ pa66Th'?

Are you here about ________ _______ ________ ________ _______

the the the the the the

lesson? exam? meeting? room? apanmeDt? work?

LESSON 9

175

Pronunciation practice: hard consonants [k), [g], and [x) and their soft counterparts [~), [g), and ['I].
and
A.

loll

Hard consonants [k), [g), and before vowels [e] and Ii].

[xl

are regularly replaced by their sort counterparts

\:l. [gl.

Hard [k] and sort counterpart ~] Usual Cyrillic spelling K; sometimes r.

Note the pronunciation of hard [k:] in the following: [mash'a) [kuda]


[ur6kJ

Moscow

[skafl]

where (to) lesson tell me and compare il with soft [If]:


[yll~iJ
[fkar6p~i] [ur6~i]

BHnxH

- B Kop66Ke ypOKH

forks in the box

lessons
Nikila Tsarapkin

[Ql~I.J
[can\p~in]

HHxuTa
UapfulJOfH

Russian hard [kJ is made in much the same way as English k except that there is nOI the slight h-like puff of breath typical of the English k. Sound Drill: Practice the Russian examples illustrating hard [k] and soft ~], imitating your instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you can. Notice that bard fkl occurs before [0], (aJ, lu], and [~J, whereas soft [k] occurs before [e] and (i). At the end of a word, only hard [k] occurs-never soft [~J.

B.

Hard [g) and soft counterpart [gJ Usual Cyrillic spelling r; sometimes

K.

Note the pronunciation of hard [g] in the following:


[~varat]

(vgurpi]

rosopliT s rYMe

they say at GUM and compare it with soft [g]: [jivgeQij] [gil] EsreHHii Evgeny guide

rHJt

Russian hard [g) and soft [g] are made with the vocal organs in the same position as for hard [k] and soft [%.], but they are voiced.
176 LESSON 9

Sound Drill: Practice the Russian examples illustrating hard [g] and soft i], imitating your instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you can. Notice that hard [g] occurs before [0], [a], [u], and [~], whereas soft (g] occurs before [e] and [i).

C.

Hard [xl and soft counterpart [~J Usual Cyrillic spelling X; rarely r. Note the pronunciation of bard [x] in the foUowing:
[x:)ra~]

xopowo
3aJtO)llfTe

[,.",,~jlil

good come in

and compare it with soO: ['1): XHTp6. cXCMa Khitrov scheme

The sound [xl does not occur in English (though it does appear in Gennan ach, Bach, and Such, or in Spanish mujer and hijo). It is formed in the same part of the mouth as [k] and [gl; but, instead of completely closing ofT the air stream, tbe back of the tongue merely approaches the back part of the roof of the mouth SO that the air stream vibrates in the constricted passage thus produced. The soft counterpart [~] is produced slightly further forward in the mouth. Sound Drill: Practice the Russian examples illustrating bard [x] and soft ['I], imitating your instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you can. Notice thai hard [xl occurs before [0], [a], [u], and [~], whereas soft ['I] occurs before [e] and [i]. At the end of a word, only hard [x] occurs-never soft ['I].

Intonation practice: emphatic statements with rising-faUing intonation curve


Emphatic statements with rising-falling contours are those in which the major stress is not in the final position, but is shifted forward to a medial position in the sentences. The intonation contour is similar to that of questions without question words which have their major stress in the medial position, except that the entire contour is on a lower level and the drop after tbe major stress is sharper.
EMPHATIC INTONATION QUESTION INTONATION

4 3 2 _I

,,

lIa cnYx6e! Oun 6YJlH 113 3asOAe. QHa JlOCTana MaTeplla..n. Y HaC tcT... '1ail.

6"

..e 6b1J1

6"

He 6bl11 113

cny.6e.,

Omt 6buJ.H ua JaBOAe" Qua AOCTa..na MaTepHa..n" Y HaC ten. 'IaN?

LFSSON 9

177

A. Listen to the tape and practice the intonation in the following emphatic statements.

B. Now practice these same sentences as questions. Remember that the rising.falling contour is neutral for questions and does nOl imply any special emphasis. 4 3

3 2 I
DHa KynHna MaTepuM! omiT.. TjT! H8aH B'iepa 6w.o c06paHlle! e rYMe! MapHJI lie 6LvTli Qner lUlBHO ooneH!

2
I Qua lCynillJa MaTtpHin 1 HBfrn omiTb *1 B'fepa 6btno co6paHHe? B rYMe? MapiUI He 6bU1a Qner ..QUUD 66neu?

C. Using tbe same basic sentences, practice


them as neutral statements DOW. Note that here the intonation curve has a falling contour and that the primary stress is on the last stressed syllable.
4 3

D. Practice the following set of longer state ments with neutral intonation. Again the contour is falling and the primary stress is on the last stressed syllable of the utterance. 4

2
I

3 2
I bOPllC M6:lKeT :ho npHHeCTi'i. HHKOnaH 6WJ B'fCpa B 6H6nlfoTeKc. Qua CM6:lKeT OncPbITb J].II6pH. Qner XOTen npHHCCTH cnOBap... K03J16e 6bvl 8'1epA Ha 3aHJiTH.llX. QHa noii.n.e-r 33BTpa B JCnj6.

Qlla KynillJa M8TepHM. OmiTb TjT. H8aH 8'iepa 6bvlo C06paHHe. MapiUI lie 6bU1a B rYMe. Qner .naBu6 66neu.

E. Practice the same sentences, cbanging them to emphatic statements with a rising-falling contour and with the primary stress shifted to the second element.

F. Now practice the same sentences, chang


ing them to questions. Again the contour is rising-falling and the primary stress is on the second clement. Note the sharper peak and drop that is typical of the question, as con trasted with the emphatic statements.
4

4 3 2 I SOpHC HillWJ1lHi
QlUl.

3
2 I 3TO npHHeCTH! 6L1.11 B'fepa B 6H6nuoTeKe! CMO*eT ~pu! OTkPbrrb xoTin npHHecr:H C1IosaPb! 6W.'1 B"Iepa H8 JaHJiTHJlx! noi,nh 33BTpa B KJIy6 !
MO*eT

Qner K03J16e QHa 178

bOP"C M6lKeT 3TO opHHecTIi: 1 HHKOJIlIH 6bill B'lCpa B 6H6n1tOTel(c? QHa cMDlKeT oncpbrrb ,Q.Bepu? Qner xOTen npuHecrH C1IoBapb? K03J16B 6btn 8'iepa Ha 33.HJITHJlX? Qua noii.n.e-r 33.BTpa B UJY6?

LESSON

STRUCTURE AND DRILLS

The preposition y: further uses with the genitive case


MODELS

QHa CTolina y.nsePH. _ _~_yoKHa. _ _ _ _ y CTOJla. _ _ _ _ y llU'q,a. _ _ _ _ Y TeJlClj)6Ha.

She was standing ______ ______ ______ ______

at at at at at

(or (or (or (or (or

by) by) by) by) by)

the door. the window. the table. the cupboard. the phone.

.s1

6brn y 6paTa.

_ _ yOnera.

I was at my brother's place. _ _ at Olcg's place.


_ _ at PyotT'S _ _ .

_ _ yne-rp'.
_ _ y npo>eccopa Opnooa. _ _ y JI.pyra. _ _ yflboa.
___ __ ___ __ __ y HHKona.i1. y ceCTpbJ. y MapKIt HB:lHOBHhl. yr!UIH. yKonH.

__ __ __ __ _._ _ __ __ __

al al at at at at at at

Professor Orlav's _ _. a friend's _ _. Le... s _ _. Nikolay's _ _. my sister's _ _. Maria Ivanovna's _ _ Galya's _ _. Kolya's _ _

6u :lTO D.0CT3n YK03JJOB3. _ _ _ _ _ Y )"IHTe.1ul.


_ _ _ _ _ Y cel:peTIlpA.

_ _ _ _ _ yHp......
_ _ _ _ _ Y MapK".

He got it ____ ___ ___

from Kollay.
from the teacher. from tbe secretary. from Irina.

_ _ _ from Maria.
_ _ _ from Galya. _ _ _ from Kolya.

_____ yranK.
______ '1
KOJlIl.

Y Koro BbI :ho y3HanH? - Y npo4leccopa Opnooa.

Y 6pa:ra.
Y Y Y Y Y Y M0Ka.

neTJ)a. EoreHIDI. ceKpeTapsi. TOBapm..ua AneKceeBa.


CCCTpw.

-yO"".
Y y66pmHllbl. Y :lKeHhi.

From whom did you find that out? From Professor Orlov. From my brother. From my husband. From Pyotr. From Evgeny. From the secretary. From comrade Alexeev. From my sister. From Olya. From the cleaning woman. From my wife.
Whom did you ask? Or Of whom did you inquire? Kirill. Vladimir. Tsarapkin. Volkov. Semyon Filippovich.
LESSON 9 J79

Y Kor6 Bbi cnpamHBaIlH? Y ICHpliJLna. Y B.rrWMHpa. Y UapankHHa. Y B6m:OBa. Y CeMeHa <IlwuinnoBHlfa.

Y Y Y Y Y Y

y'UfTeJHI.

HmWnaSl. MWbl. Mfrnm. MapHH neTpOBHhI. npo,ltaBlUm{hI.


y !lAc npornen 3K3aMeH? y Onera 1

The teacher. Nikolay.


Mila. Masha.

Mana Pelrovna. The saleslady.


How did ___ ___ ____ ___ ___ ___ your exam go? Oleg's ., his ., Nina's ., her ? their ? Nikolay's _1

KaK

__ Y Hero __ yHHuhl __ yaee


__ YHlh __ y HHKOJ1fu1

? ., ? ? ?

REPETITiON-DRILL

Repeat the above models after your instructor or the tape until you are familiar with the various y constructions illustrated.
CUED SUBSTITUTION DRILLS

1.

(window) There was a girl standing at the window. T: (OKHO) Y OKHa CTOlfna .nCBYWxa.
s:

2.

(brother) Yesterday he visited his brother. T: (6paT) Bqepa OH 6bm y 6pha.


s: B"lepa on 6LIJI y 6p8Ta. " (=Tpa) (B"pa) _ s: B"lepa on 6wJI y CecTphi. (Apyr, HHl<OJlaH, KOJUI, I1pllHa, MlUla, MapHJl l1aaHOaHa, )"IHTeJ1h, Toaapm.n:
BOJlKoa)

Y OKHa CToll./Ja ,lleBylllKa.

T: (Asepb) (Y) _ s: Y ~PH CTOtiJla ,lleBytUKa. (nOJIKa, CTon, IUKa4!, KapTa, TCJTeQJOH, OKHO, JtBepb)

3.
T: s:
T:

s:

(Pyotr) Have you already asked (or inquired of) Pyotr? (fleTp) 8bi)'}ICe cnpaWHBaJIH y neTpa" BN y~ cnpaulilBarlH y Derpa? (6nhra) (Bw) ? BN y~ CnpimHB8JlH YDJlbOl? (aHa, BJ1a,ltHMHP, OHH, HUHa, KOJUI, OH, KYPO'UCHH, llaaH HaaHoaH'I)

4.

(you) He left the briefcase at your place. T: (obi) 6R 3a6bUl Y sac nopT<P6m..

s: s:
(oHa,

Do 3s6WJI y sac IIOpT~.


_

T: (mill) (68)
II, ThI,

Do 3s6WJI y nax nopT4lCJlL.


HsaH, HHHa,

ee M)'JK,

DOpHC, I1pHHa)

SUBJECT REVERSAL DRILLS

1. They're at Professor Orlov's. Professor Orlov is at their place. T: Omi y npexpeecopa Opnoaa. s: npo4lcop OpJloa y mix. T: .sf y 6pfrra.
s: IipST y Memi. Mbl Y JIhRa HHKWrH'I8. 6H y rciJUI.

OIlH Y cecTpbi.
ORa Y )"IHTe.mr.

2. Kozlov was visiting Pyotr. Pyotr was visiting Kozlov. T: K03J16a 6bm Y neTpa. s: niITp 6WJI y K03Jlosa. T: K03JI6a 6bm y JIbBa HHKHTH'Ia. s: J[eB HHK1hH'I 6w y K03JlOBa. K6J1l1 6bm yranH. DpAT 6bm Y cecTpbl. Y':IlfTeJlb 6w Y)"IHTenhHHlI,bI. MapHll 6bU1a Y npoq,eccopa .

..st y ceCTpbi.
180
LESSON

QUESTiON~ANSWE!R DRILLS

I. Did Irina get that?

Yes, and I [got itlfrom Irina. T: 3TO HpliHa .aOCTa.na? S: lit. a j y HpHuw. T: 3TO rWTeJJL nOCTa.n? s: At. a j y }'"IIiTe.u. (6paT, KronOB, Y'!HTeJlLUKQ.a, peKTOp, J1BaH, ee M)'I, nponasl1.lHUa. cel[peTapt>, JICB HmorrH'f)

2. Did Pyotr find that out ? Yes, and I [found DUll from Pyotr. T: ~TO ncTp y:Juan?

s: lU. a
T: s:

j y napa. 3TO HHKonAH )'3Han? Ai, a Ii y HIlxonu.

(MapKJI, B.n3,ltHMBp, ee 0CCTpa, CeMCHOB, era ",eHa, KoJUl, npo<peccop neTpOB, JIeB HHKHTH'f)

CUED QUESTION-ANSWER DRILL

RESPONSE DRILL

(teacher)
T: s:
T:
s:

Whom did you ask? The teacher. (Y'fHTem.) Y Kor6 ObI CnpaWltBaJlH? Y y'tHTeJul. (Y'!HTeJILUHUa) Y lCor6 BM CnpaWHBa.IIJI? Y ruITeJlLIUUtLI. (aMepll..Il:aueu., ee M)'?K, y6oPlliHua. KoJUl, nJ>OlPeccop neTpOB, J1pHHa, r3JUl, JIeB HHIIfTH'I)

Kolya's coming. Wonder how his exam went.


T: K6n.ll HJl,eT. s: I1HTepCcllo, d.te: y nero DpornCn 3KJ1Well?

T: MapH$! "neT.
s: HtrrepC<:llo. K8K y aee npornen 3K:s.8MetI? (HHKonaH, Hpmla II OJUl, r3JUl, MBaH "BanoBlI':!, Mama)

CUED QUESTION~ANSWER DRILLS

1.
T: s: T: s:

(Kolya) Where's the briefcase? On Kolya's desk. (K6JU1) rne nopnp6nL? Y KOnH ua CTOJIe. (omi) rne nOpT<PCnL? Y au tta CTOJIe. (II, TLI, OHa, MLl:, Bbl, OU, rallll, HmconaH.
}"iHTeJlLHnua, }"iHTeJJb)

2.

(window)
T: (OIm6)

Where was Nina standing? Al Ihe window. rne CToin:a HHHa?


Y OKH8.

s:
T: (re.n.eqKm)
s:

rne CTolina HliRa?

Y TeJle4t6na. (,a.Bepb, wlCal, lCapTa, nonka, CYan, OKHO)

DISCUSSION

The preposition y is always followed by the genitive case. Besides its use in to have constructions (e.g., y MetUI ecTL), it has several other functions. I. In a purely spatial sense with inanimate nouns, it indicates close proximity.

6" CTOin: Y01018.


nOAo*lUi y llBkpM.

He was standing at (or by) the window. Wait at (or by) the door.

2. With nouns and pronouns referring to people, it designates a place in tenns of the person located there. Thus it functions like the French chez and may be translated 01 Ihe house (or office or place) of. Forms of the verb 6Wn. plus y often correspond to tbe English concept to visit.

.st OCT3.BHJJ Y de nopT<PCnL. QHa 6Ll:n3 y 6paTa.

I left the briefcase at your place. She was at her brother's or She was visiting her brother.
LESSON

181

3. Used with nouns and pronouns referring to people, and in conjunction with such verbs as ylHin, cnpawH8an., and 1l0C'J'lin., y indicates the source of a thing.
Y Kor6 8b1 3TO 1l0CT3nH? - Y Hpli:tt:.IoI. Y KOrO Tbi 3TO y:JHan?

- Y KO))H. Y Koro Bbl cnpawHBMI1?


Y
CeKpeTBpsi:.

From whom did you get that? From Irina. From whom did you find that out? From Ko/ya. Whom did you ask? or 0/ whom did you inquire? The secretary.

4. The use of y plus the genitive form of a noun or pronoun sometimes substitutes for a possessive modifier, especially if there is no real possession involved.

Kax npowen y Te6ti ypOlI:? KTO y sac j"IKrenb?

How did your lesson go? Wbo's your teacher?

Prepositions meaning/rom:
MODELS
60 H,/lCT H3

83,

c, and OT

napKa.

_ _ _ JotJ TeaTpa.

_ _ _ HJ peCTOpaHa.
_ _ _ _ H3

yliHeepcm-en.

_ _ _ H3 06WC}lCHTHjl.

_ _ _ H3 6H6nHOTekH.
_ _ _ H3

na60paTopKM.

_ _ _ H3 WII:OJlbl.

He's coming _____ _____ _____ _____ ____ ____ ____

from from from from from from from from

the the the the the the the the

park. tbeater. restaurant. university. dormitory. library. laboratory. school.

OHa H,/leT c kOH1{epTa. _ _ _ cyp6Ka.


_ _ _ _ c 3aB6.na.

____ c o6ella. ____ c C06p3.HHJI. _ _ _ C <J>A6pHll:H.


_ _ _ Cpa66Th1.

_ _ _ co cnYx6bt.
_ _ _ _ c JlelCl..lHH.

____ c n6'1Th1.
6H nOJlj"lHn nHCbMO

She's coming from _ _ _ _ _ from _ _ _ _ _ from _ _ _ _ _ from _ _ _ _ _ from _ _ _ _ _ from _ _ _ _ _ from _ _ _ _ _ from _ _ _ _ _ from _ _ _ _ _ from

the concert. a lesson. the plant. dinner. the meeting. the factory. work.. work. the -lecture. the post office.

________ ________ _______ ________ _______ ________

OT 6p3.Ta. aT llPyra. aT HHkoJI3.JI. aT cecTpbi. aT :lKeHbl. OT 6Jm. aT MapHu.

He received a letter from his brother. ________ from a friend. from Nikotay. ________ from his sister. ________ from his wife. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ from Olya. ________ from Maria.

182

LESSON

Ou

llOJlY'i11JI 0'1' HCe llllCbM6 In MOCKBbl. _ _ _ _ _ 0'1' uer6 _

_ _ _ _ _ 0'1' UHX _ _ _ _ _ 0'1' Mellli _ _ _ _ 0'1' lIac _ _ _ _ OT

_ _

.ac

_
_

_ _ _ _ 0'1' Te611
REPETITION DRILL

He got a letter _____ _ _ _ _ _

from from from from from from from

her from Moscow. him _ _ them me _

us
you you _

_
_

Repeat the above models, noting that the preposition tl3 from is the directional opposite of the preposition 8 to, and that the preposition c.from is the directional opposite of the preposition H8 to.
STRUCTURE REPLACEMENT DRILLS

I. He's going to the park.

He's coming from the park.


'1':

Ou
Ott

S:
'1':

MAe... 8 napK. tlAe-.. tl3 u8pKa.


MeT 8 pecTOpAlI.

2. They're going to the concert. They're coming from the concert. '1': OHM H).{jT ua KOuuepT. s: OtUi Ill\Yr c "OHlIipn.
'1':

Ou

S: OK ~ H3 peCTOpiHa.

(8 6H6J1HOTel:y, 8 06wOCHTHe, 8 TeaTP, 8 ropcoBeT, 8 uy6, 8 OIXony. 8 YJlHBepcHTeT. 8 ay.nIfTOplOO, 8 MannHH)


RESPONSE DRILL

OiiH H.AjT ua cnj:a:6y. s: Otui ttJJtr co enj:IC6Y. (aa ypoK, 113 no'fTy, ua co6paHHe, Ha 06e.n, ua la6pHXy, Ha 3JOaMeH, lIa pa60ry, lIa nenvuo)

Vladimir was in Moscow recently. Did you get a letter from Vladimir? '1': BJla.rtHMHP ne.nasuo 6w B MOCKU. s: By uoJl')"Ui.n.. OT Bna..o.iMHpa DHCbMO? '1': HpliHa ue,ll,3Buo 6blJ1a 8 MOCKBe. S: Bw UOJl)"OinH OT HPHIIW DHCbMO? (KUPIUUl, au, oua, OHM, 51, MbI, Carna,
HHua, ana)
.STRUCTURE REPLACEMENT DRILLS

l. She setll a letter to Moscow.

She received a letter from Moscow. T: Olla nacmlila nHCbM6 8 MOCKBy. s: Oua UOJIrufn8 UHCbMO H3 MOCKBY. T: Omi nOCJlana nUCbM6 8 JIeHHHrpAn. s: OHa DOJI}"U4.sIa UHCbMO H3 JIetllllD"pW. OHa nocm'l.JIa llHCbM6 B AMepuKy. O"a nOCJlana mlCbMO B KHTait. Olla nQCJlan3 nHCbM6 B EBpOny. OHa llQCJlana nHCbMO B CCCP.

2. They were at the concert. They're coming from the concert. T: Oil" 6WJlH lIa KOlIuCpTe. S: OHa HJIYr C KOImcpn. '1': OHH 6butH 0 napKe. s: OuJi H.LIYr tl3 naPKa:
(0 6H6J1H<YreKe, lIa 4la6pHKe, Ha nO'lTe, D Mara.:mlle, Ha neKUllH, lIa 3K33MeHe, B peCTopalle, B TeaTpe, lIa C06paHHH, B 06WejKHTHJI)

LESSON 9

183

RESPONSE DRILLS

I. I was at my brother's place. I heard it from my brother.


T:

s: :iTo em.imaJI OT 6pa:n.. T: J1 6w.: Y cecTpbi.


S:

J1

6brn Y 6paTa.

R no e.m:nuan OT cecTpbI.
(y,a,pyra, y HHHbI, Y npotJx:ccopa Qpnoaa, y Cawu, y pcKTOpa, Y Hero, y uee. y uux)

2. The spoons are in the drawer. Take the spoons from tht: drawer. T: l10IDt B Jiw;uJ:e. s: Bo3bMli Jl6.-KH IIJ littuu..-a. T: JlOJKKH Ha CTOne. s: Bo3bMH JlO*KH co crom). (B wKa$y, Ha wKa$y, a Kopo6Ke, Ha c:ryne, Ifa nOJlKe, B nop'npene, B SllllllKe)

CUED QUESTIONANSWER DRILL

Whert: did ht: phone/rom? From Moscow. T: (Mocua) OncY.l.ta OH 3BOHKn? S: "3 MOCKabI. T: (JleuUHrp3.J:O QTXYJJ.a OU 3aOltHn?

(Moscow)

S:
(Mara3HH Ita

Ib JIetUIIII"p8.ll8.
yrny, ryM, ropcoBeT, }'HJfBepcHTeT, 06meJlQITMe, ropoA, UlKQna, 6H6nHOTeka)

STRUCTURe REPLACEMENT DRILL

RESPONSE DRILL

He WlIS at the plant. He phoned/rom the plant, T: 0" 6w.: Ha JaaoAe.


s:

Oil

3BOIlitn C JaBO.ll8.

T:

6bin Ha CJIjx6e. s: Oil 380HIirI 00 CJtYc6w.. (Ra nolfTC, Ha pa60re, aa $a6pHke, Ha c.nyz6e)

On

My friend is in Moscow. I received a leiter from Moscow, T: M6H JJ.pyr B MocKBe. s: H 1l0JlY'llf:JI IlHCJ:.MO H3 MocKBbI. T: Moil: .l.tpyr B JleHHHrpa,ne. s: H noJl)"lliJI mtC1>MO 113 JI~. (a KHTae, B MocKBe, B EBpOne, B AMepHKe, B CCCP)

DISCUSSION

All three prepositions, H3, C, and OT, mean from, but each is limited in its sphere of usage: nOUDS or pronouns referring to people require OT, but for places and things "3 and C are generally is used with inanimate nouns which take the preposition B, whereas C is used with DOunS used. which take H:l.

"3

QHa HlIe-r ropoJt, QHa u,ae-r "3 rOpon. QHa u,acr 118 JleKUHIO. QHa HlIeT C nCKUHH.

She's going to town. She's coming from town. She's going to the lecture. She's coming from the lecture.

Notes I. The preposition c bas a variant fonn co, used before certain consonant clusters:
QHa HlIcr 00 CJt)0K6w.
Bo3bMH KapaHJ1am 00

CTOna!

She's coming from work. Take the pencil from the table!

184

U'SSON9

2. The prepositions "3 and for example:


"30 ,D.llli s .nellb ,nellb 01'0 ,D.mi

01'

also have variants "30 and

OTO,

but these occur far lesS' frcquenlly,

day in, day out from day to day

3. All prepositions are pronounced as a unit with the word that follows. Prepositions OT and "3, like most short prepositions, are normally pronounced withoul a stress: OT Hero [a~ivoJ. H:J ropo,tta [izg6r.x1.~J. When preposition c precedes a word beginning with another C, it is pronounced without a break as a long [s): c co6paHHII [ssabcl.Q.j~].

Other prepositions requiring the genitive case


MODELS

A er6 BH.aeJI n6cne yp6Ka.


_ _ _ _ _ _ _ KOHIICpTa.

I saw him after the lesson. _ _ _ _ _ the concert.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ 3n3Mel:la. _ _ _ _ _ _ ooe.aa. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ C06p3.HIDI.


_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ JleI:I:lHH.

_ _ _ _ _ the exam.
_____ _____ _____ _____ _____ dinner. the meeting. the lecture. work. school. before before before before before the the the the the lesson. concert. exam. meeting. lecture.

_ _ _ _ _ _ paOOThL
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ WX01lbl.

A XO'iY jTO C.lle.naTb .ao yp6Ka.


_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ .no KOUlIepTa.

________ .ao ::no3.Mena.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ no c06pcimul. ________ no JleKU,lill.


)l,ml Koro no? - )l,ml MeHli. - )]..nH ,'e6li. - )l,ml Hcr6. - )l,nH lice. - )l,nJl H"X. - )l,nJl sac. - )l,nJ:l HaC. -)l.Jul npoQ>Cccopa.

I wanl to get il done ________ ________ ________ ________

Jl,nJl

Y'llfTeJlbHIHl,hI.

Who is this for? For mc. For you. For him. For her. For them. For you. For us. For the professor. For the teacher. napiSa. Where does he live? He lives opposite the _ _ _ _ _ _ the _ _ _ _ _ _ _ the _ _ _ _ _ _ the _ _ _ _ _ _ the _ _ _ _ _ _ the _ _ _ _ _ _ the _ _ _ _ _ _ the park. theater. restaurant. dormitory. post office. school. factory. library.
LESSON

rne Oil )KHBCT?


- 6H
)K"Bh np6THB

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ TeATpa.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ pecTOpaua. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ o6me:lInfTHJI. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ nO'iThl.


_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ WKOJlhl.

----

<l>36p",,".

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 6H6JlHoreKH.

185

rJlC OH" :ltCHBy,.? - 0H" :lIO-lBYT 6K0110 napKa. _ _ _ _ _ _ whpa. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ pccrop"<a. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ JaB6Jla.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ 06Ul"""""".
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 06'111>1.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ lllK6mL

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ 4la6pH.lCl1. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 61i611lioreICIi.
KiK HaC'IeT XJ100a? _ _ _ _ 60pma ? _____ '1.i:ll:? _ _ _ _ _ MOJIOxa ? _ _ _ _ pw6b1? _____ K3.lUli? _____ ceneIlIC" ?

Where do they Jive? They live near the park. _ _ _ _ _ the theater. _ _ _ _ _ the restaurant. _ _ _ _ _ the plant. _ _ _ _ _ the dormitory. _ _ _ _ _ the post office. _ _ _ _ _ the school. _ _ _ _ _ the factory. _ _ _ _ _ the library. How about ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ _____ bread? borsch? tea? milk? fish? kasha? herring?

REPETITION DRILL

Repeat the given models, noting that aU six preposillons (n6cJJe, Jl,O, Mil, DpOTIIB, 010:000, and HaC'lfi) require the genitive form of the noun or pronoun following.

QUESTION-ANSWER DRILLS

I. When did you see her, after the concert? No, before the concert. T: Kor,lU\ Bb! ee BMenH, o6cJIe ICoHuepTa? s: HiT,,lJ.o ICOlmepn. T: Kor.na BN ee BH,aeJtH, n6c.n:e neKUIiH? s: HiT, Jl,O Jle.a.u.. (nacne pa60Thl, nacne co6paHJUI, DOCIle lllJ:OJlhl, nacne ypon, nacne 06e,a,a, nOCJle CJlj':*:6b1) 3. Where did you wait, in the restaurant? No, on the corner near the restaurant. T: rAe BM:lK.ltA.mt, B peCTOp3.ne? s: HiT, ua ymy OKMO pecropaua. T: rJl,e Bbl~, B 6u6.nHonl:e? s: Hth, ua yrJrj 61.."000 6H6Ju1oTetcM. (na DO<rTe, BnaplCe, Ha .a6pHIe, Bropco-. BeTe, oa 3aBoJl,e, B UlXone)

2. Where did she wait for him, at the club? No, opposite the club. T: rIle OHa er6 :lK,UaJla, B iClIy6e? s: HiT, DpOTIIB KJlj6a. T: rIle OHa er6 :lKAana, B 6H6nHo-rel:e? s: HiT, npOTHB 6M6.rulonOOl. (Ha .a6pHKe, B 06ute:lDfTHH, Ha 3aBOAe, Ha nO<rre, B pecropaHe, B ayJtHTOpKH, Bna60paTopHH, B Uly6e) 4. Do you Jive near the park? Just opposite the park. T: BbI :lk"&eTe 6ICono napKa? s: Kale pal opOnm "apKa. T: BhI:lkH.BeTe 6Kono 1ll1:6Jlb1? s: Ku pal np6nm UlKMw. (OI:ono JaBo.na, oll:ono' Uly6a, 01:0.110 ropcoBeTa, Ol[ono 6H6JIHOTeDl, oKono pecTopaHa, oKono 06uteJlOITHJl, OKono WiTpa)
T: Kor.nA 6H 3BoIilln,,uo o6e.na? s: HiT, n6cIIe ooeJ],8. (Ao neKlUUf, .no pa6011>l, AO ICoHuepTa, AO ypDl:a, .no l(JIy6a, .ao CJlY:lK6b1, .ao
lIII:OJlbl)

5. When did he Ctl/l, before the meeting? No, after the meeting. T: Kor.aa 6H 3BOHKn,.nO co6p3HJUI? s: HiT, OOcne co6paHIUI.

186

LESSON 9

RESPONSE DRILLS

I. Where is he? We won't go without him. T: fae JlCe ou? s: Mw 6eJ Hero He uoii./leM. T: fae *e MpH-ita? s: Mw 6eJ I1pMHw He uoii~M. (OHH, KHpHJlJ1, OHa, Cawa, Oner)

2. He isn't here yet. I won't go withoul him.


Ero ewe Ul:T. s: st fieJ Hero He ootmY. T: fanK eute Her. s: st 6eJ rinK He ooiiAj. (SOpHca, HHllbI, ee, HX, ceKper3p", ero)
T:

3. Where is he? We bought this for him.


T:
T:

4. You can buy FISh here.

How about fish?


T: 3ACcb MO:iKHO KynHTb pbr6y.

rae OH?
K)'nKnK ll..JJ1I Henl.

s: MY no

fAe HHHa? s: MY no Kymin. ll..JJ1I HJOo.I. (aHa, KHpHJlJ1, ESreHMM, Anex<::ees, OHM, Mapwr I1sauoBua)

pW6w? T: 3ACcb M6:no XynHTb xneG. s: Kite YacYT xJle6a? (cene.IJ.XY, MOJJOkO, 'laM, cnoBapb, aTnac, xapry, pY'!Xy,CTon)
KaK HaC,,"

s:

SUBJECT REVERSAL DRILLS

I. The theater's over there, opposite the post

2. He did it for us.

office. 71te post office is over there, opposite the theater. T: Tearp BOil raM, npantB nO'IThl. S: no'lT1l ItOH "riM, npOTU Teli:Tpa.
T: JIa60paTopHJI BOU TaM, nponfB aYJUITOpHH. S: AY.lUlTOpMlI BON TiM. UpOTHB na60paTopHH. SH6nHoTeka BOlt raM, OpoTHB pecropilHa. 06ute*HTHe BOH TaM, npoTHB llIKOJlhl. lllKona BOH nlM, nponm 33.soaa. napK BOH TaM, npoTHB 4Ja6pHKH. Mara3HII Bon raM, npoTHB reaTpa.

We did it for him.


T: OH
S:

no cnenan M" uac.

MY no cMJl8JlH l11IlI Hero.

r: Oua :)rO CJtenana MJI BaC.

s:

Bw iTo C.rtenL'lH lVIlI Hee.

.sf lTO caenan MJI Te6li.


OUM :)ro c/J.enanH MJI Hero. MbI 3TO caenanH A/UI Hee. Komi 3TO c.a.enan All" fanK. Cecrpa 3TO cnenana ltJUI 6para. SOpltC 3TO cae.nan MJI. J.1BaUa.

3. He won't go without me. I won't go without him.


T: OH 6eJ Mell,) He nOu.a.eT. S: st 6eJ lIero He ooii):{y. T: OU" 6eJ Hee lie noliJJ.yr. S: OHa 6eJ mix He uoiiAh.
DISCUSSION

MbI GeJ re6li lie nou.a.cM. OHa 6eJ HHX lie nOi1,neT. Obi 6eJ lIac lie Iloiiucre. .sf 6e3 nero He 1l0H.uY.

Unlike most of the shorter prepositions, which are ordinarily pronounced with no stress, the prepositions o.-eno, npOTU, n6cne, and Hac..e-r are pronounced with stress. Although weaker than the stress of the word following, they serve to maintain the [0] vowel quality, which in the unstressed prepositions .10 and OT is reduced to [a] or [~]. Note, however, that if the speaker wishes to point up a contrast, even the shorter prepositions may be pronounced with a stress:

BbI: "riM 6b1nH n6cne kou.Qepra? - Her, ,flO xOHuepra.

Were you there after the concert? No, before the concert.
LfS')ON 9 187

Verbs with infinitives ending in --'lb:


MODELS

MO'lb

and

CMO'lb

IMPERFECTIVE PRESENT

R MOry
6n
Mhl

OTKPbITh OKHO.

Tbl MO"'CWh
MOlKeT
MO:lKCM

_
_
_

I can open the window. You can _ He can _


We can ;

Bbl M6Jkcre

Onu M6ryr

You can They can

IMPERFECTIVE PAST

6n fie

Mor OTKpbrrb ,ll,BepH,

OHa HC Moma

OHHHcMornu

He couldn't open the door. She couldn't _ They couldn'1 _

PERFECTI VI! fUTURE

.s'i He eMory nOHTH ua C06paHilC.


Tw HC CMO)t(CWb _ _

6"

He CMCI)ICCT

Mbl He

CM6)KCM

8bI He CM6"'CTe

ORH He cMoryT

I won't be able to go to the meeting. You }Von't be able _ He won't be able _ We won't be able _ You won't be able _ They won't be able _

PERFECTIVE PAST

6" He CMor DOHTlt B IUIj6.


Omi He CMorm't
Qmt He CMOrn"
_

__

He was unable to go to the club. She was unable _ They were unable _

REPETITION DRILL

Repeat the above models, observing particularly the replacement of the stem consonant r by l in the second and third persons singular and in the first and second persons plural. Note also the pattern of stress shift in both past and non-past forms .

SUBSTITUTION DRILLS

I. I can't write without a pencil.


T:

s:

Ji. 9

He MOrY nHeaTb 6e3

KapallJlawa.

He Mory IIHcaTL fiel KspSII,ttama.


Mbl, Bbl, Tbl, OHH, 011)

(Olla,

2. 1 won't be able to get into the.building without a key. T: beJ KJIIO<[a R ue CMOry sOHni. B 3.naHHe. s: DeJ KJUO...a Ii He CMOf)' Bonii B J.Il.8JUle.
(Tbl, MbI, BbI, OH, $I, Olla, OIlU)

3. My husband couldn't get any coffee.


T: MY)K He cM6r JlOCTarb K6e.

4. She couldn't attend classes.


T: OHa He MOrJla 6bITb Ha 3amiTIIHX. s: QHa He MorJl8 6brn. Ha JauilTHQX.
neTp
(aBU, Mbl, BbI, Hlllla, HpHlla. KOJJlOB,

S: Myl lie CMor .Il.OCTan. Ko4e. (jxeaywKH, 011, Cawa, OHa, )Kella,
HDaHOB].f<[, CTy.neHTKH, BbI)

Komi, BJIa;J:HMHp. cTYJl.ellThI)

188

LESSON

QUESTiON-ANSWER DRILL

Were you at the concert, Nina? No, I couldn't go. T: H"Ha, Bbi 6WlH Ha KOIlu,epre? s: Her, Ii He CMorJla DOwn T: CAwa, ThI 6bvi ua x:ollu,epre? s: Ha, Ii He CMOr 110m.
RESPONSE DRILLS

Oml, Tbi 6blJla Ha KOHuepn:?


nerp HaaHORWI 6bvi Ha KOHUepn:? HpKHa neTp6BHa 6blJla Ha ICOHueJYre? OUK 6WlH Ha xmmepre?

I. rm not busy now.

I'll be able to go to the club. T: J1. n:nepb He JanllT.

2. I'm busy now. I can't go to the club. T: J1. renepb 3AaRT.


S:

s: A CMOrj nom B IUIY6. T: Tbt -renepb He JaWlT. s:


Tbi CMO:etJJL nom B KJly6. (OIlH, Bbl, 01111, Mbl, Cawa, JJ.eB}'ll1ICH)

He Morj

nom 8 KJly6.

T: Tw renepb 3aHllT.

s: Tw

He MO'lKetJJL Dom B lUIy6. (OHH, Bbl, Om, MhI, Cawa, JJ.eDywKH)

3. I don't have a pencil. I can't write. T: Y MeHJi Her KapaH.Uawa. s: A lie MOrj IIHc8.Tb. T: Y Rac HeT x:apaH.Uawa. s: Rbi lie MO::eTe 1DIClin.. (y Hee, y HHX, Y Te6S1, Y Hero, y MeIDl,
y HHX)

4. My sister was sick. She couldn't work. T: Moli cecTp3. 6bU1a 6onbHa. S: OHa' He Monui pa60T8Tb. T: Moli MYJK 6bvi 66neR. s: OH ue MOr paOOTaTb. (:llCeHa H c:ecTpa, Mali 6paT, MOlt oCcTpbl, sax-rep, y60pLUKLJ.a)

5. She doesn't have a room. She simply can't get a room. T: Y Hee Her XOMHaTbi. s: QHa HIlKaK He MO..eT IlOJIY"IHn. KOMHaT)'.
T: Y MeHJi H6 KOMHaTbl. s: 9 HIlKax He MOrj llOJJ}"flfn. KOMHaT)'. (y Hac, y BHX, Y re6S1, y Rac, y Hmw:, Y MeIDl)

DISCUSSION

Only a small nwnher of Russian verbs have infinitives ending in -"110. All belong to the first conjugation, and all have basic stems ending in r or K. SO far we have encountered only MOIfh (imperfective) and CMO"llo (perfective) can, to be able. In the present-future of MQoo,. and CMO"IIo, the basic r of the stem is replaced by .. in the second and third pe~ons singular and in the first and second persons plural.
Compare with
Ji Mary
OHM

MOryr

Ii CMOrY ORK CMOryT


(UI

TN MOJKeWI. 00 MO*eT Mba MO:.ll:eM DbI: MOIeTe

ThI cMo*ewb cMo::eT MbI: CM6:.1l:eM DbI: CMO:.ll:ere.

Note tbat the stress is on the ending only in the first person singular: Morj, CMOfj; otherwise it falls on the 0 of the stem: e.g., MO::euIb, CMOllCeon., and so forth.
LESSON

189

In the past tense, the suffix JI does not appear in the masculine form, but does appear elsewhere. Ii li

(Tl:d, 611) (Tbi, OHa) OH6 Mbl: (BbI, oHJi)

M6r MOrna Morn6 MornH

li li

OH) (Tbi, aHa) OHO Mbi (BbI, OHM)

(Tl~,

cM6r CMorna CMorno cMormf

Note that in the past tense the stress is on the ending. where there is an ending vowel.

Further past tense drills


MODELS

Dbi

}'}Ke 311aJUi 06 JTOM? He-r, He 3U31I. He-r, He 3Hana.

Did you already know about it? No, I didn't know. No, _ Have you already sent the letter? Yes, I already sent it. yes, _ Where did you work? I worked in a factory.

Ow )':ike nOCJJ31IH OHCloMO? - ):{a, y*e oOCJJan.

- Aa, y*e
jJ:

nocnana.

r.ne BbI pa60Ta..ll.H?


pa60TaJI Ha <fm6pHICe.
jJ: pa60TaJla Ha lIla6pHKe.

8b1 y.e noo6eJ],31IH? - Her, ~ emc lie o6e.uan. - Her, ~ ew.c He o6e.naJla. Dbl y:e nOCMOTpeJlH ec KOMllaTy? - He-r, ~ cw.e lie CMOTpeJl. - HeT, ~ cwe He CMOTpCJla. DbI CJlyrn31lH nCIUlHH B yaHaepcHTeTe?

1 Have you already had dinner? No, I haven't yet. No, _


Have you already looked at her room? No, I haven't yet. No, _ Did you attend lectures at the university? Yes, I did. Yes, __. Have you already asked him? No, I haven't yet. No, _ Have you already written the letter? No, I haven't yet written it. No, _

Aa,

cnyrn31l.

- ,Ua, cnyrnana. Dw )')Ke cnpocunH ero?

Her, HeT, HeT, HeT,

JI
~ ~

ewe He cnpaWHBaJI. eme He cnpaUJHBaJla. elue He HanHcaJI. ewe lie HanHcana.

DbI )')ICe lIanllcaJtH nHCbMO?

REPETITION DRILL

Repeat the above models, noting that often (but not always) a past imperfective verb is used in a negative answer to a question using a perfective verb.
SUBSTITUTION DRILLS

I. Grant studied Russian at the university_ T: rp3.HT ruin PYCCKHH ~3b1K B }'HHoepCHTeTe. s: rpJiHT Y'f1U PYCCKHH RJblK B YJDIBep-

cKTtTe.
(Bbl, MM,
neHTM, KHplUlJl, .neBywKH,

2. He was asking where this building was. T: 6H cnpArnHBan, me 3TO mauHe. S: OR cnpituHaan, r.ne no 3roimre. (aHa, MY, 8.JJa.nHMHp, OpnoB, Marna, OHII)

Carna, OHa, CTy.nCHTIl:H, cryHHlla)

190

LESSON 9

3. Orlov left your dictionary at my place. T: Opn60 ocn\alln aaw CJI0aapb Y MeHl1. s: Opnoa OC"riOHJI aam CJJOBliPb y Melui. (01111, Y'I"TeJ]b, .neoyrnKIl, OJUl, Carnal 5. I waitedfor you for a long time. T: A .n6nro BAc s: A ,llOnro sac ")lan. (Mbl, 011, Olla, OUII, Cawa, BJIaJUlMHp, .n.eayrnltll)

4. I wrote a letter home yesterday. T: A 8'1epa llanHclJl f11ICbMOllOM6ii. s: A o'lepa IlallHCU IIHCLMO llOMOi. (Mhl, EoreHIlH, Mawa, .n.eaywKH, )leB, SOPHC, 01111) 6. I already 8ubmitted an application for a room. T:.s1 'fA{e no.n.an 33JlBneUHe lIa K6MHaTy.1 s: R )'*f: rtOJlaJI 3aRBJlem.e tUl KOMHary. o;OPIIC, HuHa, OHII, OH, Bbl, MOM .upyr,
M",)

*.na.n.

1. She took the atlas from the library. T: alia 83JUla. ATnac H3 6H6JlHoreKII. s: OKli a3w llTJlac "3 6M6JlHOrit..,.. (MbI, Oil, HHHa, KllpHJIJ1, 01111)

8. I wanted to suggest t/wt to you.

T:

A' xoro 113M 3TO npeAl1oll:Hrt.. s: A XOTen aa.\f :iTo npe,l1JlODn..


(OpnoB, Y'lHTeJlbHlfua, npo)eccopa, MhI, HBaH HBaHOBlf'l, MOM llpyr, MOil .n.PPbJl)

STRUCTURE REPLACEMENT DRILLS

1.- She wanted to write a composition.

She wrote a composition. T: Olla xoroa lIanHcaTh co'UUlel:lHe. S: ONa NaDHcana CO"OlHeuHe. T: Oua xorena Kynrn nnaThe. S: OHli Kymlna ollline. (pllaTb pe3ynbTaThI, on:pbJn. OIrno. .nOCTaTb MaTepllaJI, nocMoTpeTh em pa60Ty, nllTh '1au) 3. They can buy the present. They bought the present. T: Oil" M6ryr KynHTb nO)lapOl's: OHR Kymtmf no,napoK.

2. He forgot to open the window. He opened the window. T: OH 336w on:PbtTb 0~1I0.
S: OK OTKpWn ~H6. T: On 336bui HanHcaTb CO'lMHeHlle. S: OH HaJDIcan CO~HHe. (cnpocHTb y Onera, OCTaBHTb y He(: no.uapoK, nOCJlaTb IlHCLMO, B3J1Tb CJlQBapL, ~ynHTb xnOO, .uOCTaTb Marepll3J1)

T: OIUJ: M6ryr cnpocHTb y BJI3.D.HMltpa. s: Ollii cnpocHJIH y BJla,QHMHpa. (3aMonaHTb CJI00e'lKO, nony'l"Tb KHJ.lTIl 1t3 MOCKllbl, 3TO c,nenaTl" nQCJl3Th mlcbMo)
QUESTION-ANSWER DRILLS

I. DOII't you want to see the room, Nina?

I already did. T: HUHa, ru He X6'1eWb nOCMOTpCn. te6MHaTY?


s:

A y*e IJOCMOTpina.

T: K6JU1, ru He X6'1eWb nocMoTTb K6MHary?

S: R y:e DOCM<rJ1tin.

cawa, n:1 lie XO"lCWb noo6e.uaTh B CTonoBoH? OnLra, He XO'lemb noo6C.naTb B CTonoaOH? CeMeH, Tht lie XO'lCWb KynHTb ICApTy KHTb? OJUl, ru He XO'leWb KynHn. dpry K>mI>o?

rn

I The masculine and plural romu have two possibk st.resses: 116.:uu (or JIO~) and suess on the last syllable only: 8OJlIJIi.

116~ (or

_.ld.u). "The feminine has

LESSON 9

191

2. Nina, have you already had dinner? No, I haven't yet had dinner. T: HltHa, ,,;, YJKe noo6e.o.aIla? s: HiT, eme He o6eAaJla. T: Komi, ThI: yx.:c noo6tnan? s: HeT, ewe He 06eaa1l.

"pUHa, ThJ }')ICC CnpOCltlla 06 :hOM? CeMeR, Tbt }')ICe cnpocl-in 06 3TOM? 6ml, ThI: }')ICe nOCMorpe.na en) paoory? 60pHC, Tbi }')ICt nOCMOrptn ern paoory? MKJ1a, n.i }')Kt nOJtYMana 06 :hOM? Blla.ztHMHP, n.i yx.:e nOJtYMaIl 06 iTOM?

4TEHl1E 11 nl1ChM6

~~~od~.~~17
~

c c C:r.

~,~, ~.J&
40WuY

ta,

~ ~ ~,

~~." ()::d

~.- ~ ~," - ~ ~w;ur- ~ ~~.


~
/f} ~
1'-

1N~.;/Uv-nqMU ~ ~;;;~ ~.~

~ ~ ~.1k= ~ ~.:f{q .e--wu" ~ C C C!P


1UV

~,

ott-

f. <JU,f{k

~, '1W"

"" fU-

4W

~
(}f/-

+fA-

~ ~.m.cr~ .'!iiM- ~ ~, .

uU:
192

i' -

~ ~ ~? 31'h<r

Y fU'I.(r

fUiit-

~.

- 81~, ~
LESSON 9

~. -~ ~ ~.

-.r~,~/+~r~~?-.$ ~ 1UV r--'1' -~ -...:. ,IJl JV ~ ~~- 1<L~.-:4~F u#v".-Jl ~f-~


~

>liU..

HeT, O)KHJt3eM H3 c!]e.ll,ytOmcH uencne. - A KaK H3C'iCT "J.1CTOpKH KwraSl"? "J..fCTOPWI KHTa.JI" Y Hac ecTb. BoT OH3. - A CKaJlCHTe. Kapra Espollbl y sac TOJKC eCTh? - )la, ceHlf3C npHHecy.
Y Bae CCTb'" -

-~ MHe Jt)'JICH3 "HCTOPIDI

eccp."

rAe

nell'

MsanOSH.. ? Tbi HC 3HaClllb? -

Ka;KeTC5I. cpaJY DOCile 06e.n;3 ou

nowen

AOMOH. -

PaJBe

OH

Ja6b1n, 'fTO y

Hac

ceH'I3C 3K3aMcn? -

HaBcpHO

336b1J].

Mawa, oOOn

rOTOS? -

Eme

HCT. -

.sI

)'Xc
f13

rOJlo.o.CH. -

nO.ll,O)l(AH, nO:lK3JlyHcra,
It pbl6a.

MKHYTJCY.

Kama eute

He rOTOS3. -

'ITO

eme

o6c.ll? -

Bopm

OnSl, Sf BH)KY, TbI 6bJn3 B

py'lKy? -

rYMe? ~ Aa, Tom.KO 'ITO 6b1J13. - Tbl He 3a6blJ13 KymiTh BOT, .o.0C3,a3! 3a6w1I3. ~ A 'ITO :no B Kopo6KC? - nO.o.apoK WISt Tc6S1. BHAHWb,

06 3TOM 11 HC 3a6bJJ13.

BOT ceneAKa. Itt Xllc6 eeTb,

It

orypUbl. -

Ho r.ue y reG$! 110)1(11

It BHJIKH? -

Ka)KCTCJl,
J1a,

B SlLUHKe. BOT OHH.

B lHlJ,HKC

nCT.

B IllKaepy

TO)l(C He BH)Ky. -

Tor.ua

nOCMOTp" Ha nOJIKe. -

J.1

xJle6 TO)Ke 3.a.eCb.

~N9

193

LESSON

10

PREPARATION FOR CONVERSATION

B Cy666Ty 6j JlYT T8HI{bI


Saturday on Saturday will be dance, dancing, dances There'll be a dance on Saturday. at home to be sitting, to sit I sit, they sit time all You sit at home all the time. Zina, you sit at home aU the time. let's go! Let's go to the club! Let's go to the club on Saturday! It's always so boring there! No, thanks. It's always so boring there! occasion, time this time, on this occasion Yes, but this time there'll be dancing. Dancing? That's a different story! to dance I dance, they dance to love, like 1 love, I like; they love, they like I love to dance. Dancing? That's different! I love to dance.

cy666Ta [sub6t~] B cy600ry [fsub6tu] 6yAYT (fut of 6wTb) niHllbI (sg nHeu) 8 cy666ry 6yAYT niHUbi.
.nOMa cu,nen. (II) li CH:y, ouH Cil.wrr BpeMJI (n) Becb (m), Bcli (I), B<::e (0) Tw Bee ep(:MJI Cu,n"Wh .nOMa. 31itta, Bee BpeMII CKJUtwb AOMa.

n:.

no!tneM (imperative) noi'tn.eM B KJIy6!


noii;J,eM B Cy660Ty B KJJj6! TaM BcerA3. TaK CK)I'IIIO! Hh, cnacH60. TaM BCer.lla TaK CKj"llIO!

ph

Ha :lTOT p:b

.a.a, HO Ha nOT pb 6yAYT TiHuw,


TanUbl? 3To .Ilpyr6e .neno! Ta~eBaTb (I)
Ii TalluYlO. all" TaH~lOT m06rn (II)

Ji JIlO6mo, OHiI mo6n

.sf m06mo

TaHlleBaTh.

Tuuw?:)ro.lQlyrOe Aeoo! TaHQeB8.Th Ii m06mO.

195

BMecre Bct BMecre noii.D,eM oce BMecre! noii.AeM" Bee 8M"ene:

a. TW, BJlII,/lHMKp K

Oller. Tw OMra 3Haeun.?

together all together Let's all go together! Let's all go together: you and I, Vladimir and Oleg! Do you know Oleg1 Slightly (/it. a little).

HeMH6ro,

>1 ero

HeMHoro 3HIDo. KyPc Ha OJJ,HOM KYpc:e Mbi: Ha O,ll,HOM KyPce. 3HaKoM Miulo Mbi: Mana 3HaKOMhl. Mw Ha 0J:ul0M" Kypce, HO M8JJO 3HaKOMbI.

J know him slightly.


class (year), course in the same class We're in the same class. acquainted, familiar little, too little, very little, few We're barely acquainted. We're in the same class, but we're barely acquainted. lad, boy, fellow Volodya says he's a nice boy. roommate They're roommates. to see. catch sight of I'll see, they'll see We'll see. it means; so, then so then, well then So, on Saturday, then 1 We'll see. So, on Saturday, then 1 how much, how many at what time At what time? At nine.

napeHb (m) (pI napH") 8oJ10,!l,lll roBOpH'r, 'fT0 OH XOpOUlHH mipetlL, TOBapHlU no KOMHaTe Omi TOBaplllUH no Ko."IHaTe,

yeMen. (pfv II)


Ji yBIDIey, OH" YBWT YBK.nHM.
3H3.'IHT
TalC 3Ha'UlT TalC 311a'lIIT, B Cy666TY? YBIi..aMM, TaK 3Ha'lM'T, B cy666-ry?

(plus gen) CKOJ1bKO So CKOllbKO?


CKOJ1LKO
DO

'-ITo

BC'tep (pi Be'{epa) Bc'{epoM cerOJJ.Hj/ BC'IepoM TbI llllnaeUib cerolUtll Be..epoM?

evening(s) in the evening this evening What are you doing this evening? film, picture, mQvie

!PHnhM
BO"Ha

w"'
peace; world I'm going to the movie War and Peace. They say it's good.

M"P A H.!ti" Ha

c1tMJlbM" 8oiH' H MHP).

rOBOpfl, xopOlUHii.

196

LESSON 10

SUPPLEMENT
C HHM

8b1 C1IJ1M 31l3KOMbl?

c IItH~
8b1 8b1
C

Heil 3I1aKOMLoI?

C HHMll

HRM" 3H3K6Mbl? n03HaK6MHTb (pfv II) JI n03HaKOMJIIO, OllR n03HaKOMJlT .sf BaC n03HaK6MJ11O c neH. clO.na
C

6H

ItJle-r

CIO.na.

Ha3aaTb (pfv I) Ha30By, Ha30BYT Ha30BRTe MH He.ntnH! nOHe.ne.nbIiHICBTOpHHK

with him Are you acquainted with him? with her Are you acquainted with her? with them Are you acquainted with them? to introduce, acquaint I'll introduce, they'll introduce I'U introduce you to her. here, over [here}, this way, in this direction He's coming over (here]. to name I'll name, they'll name Name the days of the week! Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday

ope"a
'leTBepr miTliHLl<l
cy666Ta
(sub6t~J

BOCKpecCHbC

B cy600ry OYJIYT T81U\L1


Kau
3HHa,

TbI
3HHa

oee OptM$I CHJJ.:HllIb JJ.6Ma.

~in~

nOH.nCM 0 cy666Ty 0 KJ1Y6.

Ii fj6 vreljl' ji<liS d6m, j paj<l6m fsub6tu lldup j Vel j spajibo j lam fjigda lak sku!n, j
dii j n6 naet;)t

2 Her, cnacH60.
TaM BCer.na
TflK CKy"lHO!

KaTH 3 Aa,
H6 Ha :hOT pa3

cas (

6YJJ.yr
3HHa

TaHUbI. I

budut Hinci 1 tanci i el, drug6j, <lei, j I,neival ja lublu j paj<l6m f vljlej\i j
jii

4 TaHubI? 3TO JJ.pyr6e ,a,eno! TaHueoaTb Ji JlJo6mO.

.,

---

TW, Bna.u.HMHp H Oner. 2 TLi Onera 3Haewb?

Ii vlaQirpir i ajek j
ti

I I

alcg,l znaji~ i

Note llult Russians consider Monday tbe Iirst day of the week and Sunday tbe last. Thi$ i$ rdIcctod in (be names: n6ptUU< (from nop6i ~rond), ~ (from 'leT1lipn.li./ouT/h). and ~ (from .Jrrwifi!'").

LESSON 10

197

3UHa

6 HeMuOro.

Qimnog::l !

Mw Ha OAHOM KyPce,
HO ManO 3HUOMbl.) KaTX

mi nOJadnom

ktir~i !

no rnal:J znakonll !
va1~::1 g::lvarit

7 BonoJVI r080pHT,
'iTO OH XOPOWHH napeHb. j OH" TOBapHIUH no kOMHaTe.

I
L

st::l 00 xarosij papQ ! aQi tavarisci pak6mn::lti

3uHa

8 YBH.o.HM.
Tax 3Ha't.HT, B Cy600Ty? Bo CKOJlbKO?

uyi 4im I
tagzoa~it fsubOtu !

vask61k. I v4eyi\1 a Ito ti 4eJ.jil

KaTX

9 B

AeB~Tb.

A 'ITO Tb! ACJ1aeWb cerOAJUI Be'iepoM? 3HHa 10

I !

~ivodQ::I yetir::lm!

J1

HAy aa HnbM ((SoAHa H MHP. rOBopkr, XOpOWHH.

ja id1i nafJ.lm vajna i rpir ~varat xarosij !

NOTES

Tam.... is ordinarily used in the plural unless a specific type of dance is referred

to:
Compare with
2

noiUl.eM Ha TIlHUbI. Her. iTo ne pyCCKHH T8Heu..

Let's go to the dance. No, that's not a Russian dance.

In Russian it is correct and not at all impolite to start with oneself in referring to a group:
nOiiJJ,CM Bee BMecre: Ii, N, BnamfMKp H OJIl~;'-.

Russians do not put a comma aner the next to the last item in a series if the conjunction H precedes the last item. If the H is omitted, then the comma must be used: Ii, ThI, BmV1I6f1IP. Oner. In the expression Ha onum. KYpce. the noun Kjpc is used to mean class year (comparable to such terms as freshman or S()phomore). Kjpc can also mean course, as in KyPC HcrOPHH history course.
J

Bo.rrOLUI is a nickname for BJlaMMHp. Similarly, KaT'll is short for EK8repma. and 3ICHa for 3MH8.MAa.

, The word mipeub boy, lad, or fellow was formerly restricted to a country or working-class boy. Since World War 11 its usage has been extepded to refer to any young man.

PREPARATION FOR CONVERSATION

Oner

.aYMDeT

noiiTH

B KHHO

KHHO (n indeclinable) ~in6] [f\:in6) Oller AYMaeT !lonTii B lCHIlO.


B KHIIO

movies, cinema to the movies, at the movies Oleg is thinking of going to the movies.

198

LESSON 10

'Hl1'inb (I)

Ii

'1111'8.10, OIlH '1"1'3101'

41'0 1'bl

'I1lTllcwb?

lfTO ThI "IMTaem.... HCTOplllO?


EereHIIM Oilerllll) )1: 'lttTSIO _EerCttHIl OHtntH8 t.

to read I read, they read Whal are you reading? What are you reading, history?
Eugene Onegin I'm reading Eugene Onegin.

CTllxH BOT d ... CTlIxH!

verses, poetry You don't say! Poetry! I'm reading War and Peace. Well, I'm reading War and Peace now. novel that novel, this novel I love that novel. it, him many times I've read it many times. a film is playing (or showing) There's an American film showing at the movies. Incidentally, there's an American film showing at the movies. Incidentally, you know, tbere's an American film showing at the movies. Incidentally, you know the American film War and Peace is showing at the movies.
I want very much to see it. Yes, I know. I want very much to see it.

Boilu)' II MHp. A Ii cei"lac 'OI'riJo <dJoiiHy II ronip.


'1111'3010

.st

poMan
31'01'

poMaU
POM,".

A mo6.'nO 31'01'
MII6rQ plb

ero (ace or Oil, OHO)

)1: MH6ro

paJ .......an erO.

lI.neT iPlinbM B KIIHO H.neT aMepllXaucKHH iPlinbM. KcT3.TII, e KHIlO lflJ.eT 3MepHK3.IlCKIIM iPlinbM. KCTaTH, JHaeWb, e lomo lflJ.eT 3MepHK3HCKH"iPKnbM" KcTiiTIl, Jltaam., B ..1100 ltlI,eT
8r.tepHKauCKHii Cllim.M

.Bowa II MMp

.st O'iCUb )to'ly ero nocMoTpe-rb.


)Iii, JUSIO.

A O"letn. xo'Jf er6

IIOCMOTpe-rb.

Kor.n3.

Tw KOfJl;& Jl;YM8emb nOKTM?


nOCJleJallTpa [poslizart 1'; J
liml 39.B"rpa MJTH nocJJeJ8BTpa.

when Whcn is it you'rc thinking or going? the day aftcr tomorrow


or

Tomorrow or the day arter.


why Why do you ask?

nO'leMy A no'leroty n:. cnpswHBaewb?


Jalnpa
3"H3 Be'lCpOM

1i:

HlleT 3aBTp<l Be'lepoM. "fTO 3MHa N,lteT 39.BTpa Bi<tepoM.


CJJWwllJl,

tomorrow evening, tomorrow night Zina's going tomorrow evening. I heard Zina was going tomorrow evening. ['11 go tomorrow. too. Really? Tben I'll go tomorrow, too.

A To",e
lla?

noM.nY 3aBTpa. Tor.nii ti TO*e now 3iBTpa.

LESSON 10

199

SUPPLEMENT
C~HTaTh (I) ~itat]
~itaju, C~'IT3.IO, C~'ITaIOT

Ritlijut)

OT O,LUIoro .nO .necliTH C'IllTaihe OT o!l.J1oro .nO Aecnll!

OWl"
ADa

to count, consider I count. they count from one to ten Count from one to tcn! one
two

Tpli
~eTbipe

three
fOUT

min

five

wccn
ceMb saceMb

'" seven
eight mne ten
Sbi noe.neTe?

.neSlITb .necRTb

"'c
Bo
CK6111>KO

B 'lac. B JlB3..

B TpM. B ~eTl~pe. B mlTb. B weerb.


B CeMI>.
B D6ceMb.

B .nessrn". B .necATb.

hour, o'clock, one o'clock At what time will you go? At one [o'clock]. At two. At three. At four. At five. At six. At seven. At eight. At nine. At ten.

QJler )ljMaeT ooiini


B. 811allH;\Hlp

"RHO

O. -

Ollcr

B.

3n,p3BCT8yit:, OJler!

4TO Tbr ~HTaeWb" J.1CTOPHfO .,

zdriistuj alek 1 sto li citiijis ! istopju 1 Qed jivgeQijo aQegino 1

O. 2 Her,
EBreHHJI OuenlHa. I

B.

3 BOT K3.K, CTMxM! A li ceii'fac 'H1TafO


Bairn)' H MHp.

vot kilk
Sli~i 1

I I

a ja ~ic.as ~itAju vajou i rpir!

o.

4.st mo6mo

:hOT pOMaH.

Muoro pa3 '{HTan ero.


200
LESSON

jil lublii etot ramilo 1 omoga ras ~itAI jiv6!

10

B.

KcraTH, 3HaellJb, B KHHO HAeT aMepHK3.HCKHi:t $HJlbM Boi:tHa H MHp.

kShl\i zDajis!

f\inc ilia' I
arpirikans~ij

film

.vajna i Jllir

O.

6 ,llA,
3l1alo. >1 O'leHb xO'ly ero nocMoTpeTb.

diU zDaju! ja otiQ xacu jivo JY.lsmatre\!


ti kagda dumajis pajp !

B.

7 Tbl KorAa nyMaellJb nOHTH?

O.

8 3aBTpa

RrIH
B.

nOClle33BTpa.

A nO'leMj TbI cnpallJHBaellJb?

zaftra! iii posliziiftra ! a p;)(;imu ti sprasivajis ! ja sUs:,)1

9.st CJlbIllJan,
'ITO 3H:Ha H,neT 3aBTpa Be'lepOM.

I st. pn. ili6' I


uftra yeciram !

O. 10,llA?
Torna si TO}l(e noi:t,ny 3aBTpa.

dii T tagda ja toii pajdu uftra!

NOTES

1 (<.EBnlmlii OllerHHH is Alexander Push kin's (1799-1837) famous novel in verse, written during the 1820's. Note that titles of books, movies, plays, and so forth are declined in Russian unless preceded by the nouns book, movie, play, and so forth.
Compare with

Ji Ji

'1J.l"r3.10 (,BoilHy J.I MHP}), 'HiTalO poMaH Boilml H MHp.

I'm reading War and Peace. I'm reading the novel War and Peace.

Basic sentence patterns


I. Tbl 3HaeWb OJlera? _ _ _ _ EBremuI? _ _ _ _ KHpHJlJla? _ _ _ _ L1.apanKlIHa? _____ A.n.eKceeBa? _ _ _ _ llbBa? _____ ceKpeTapli?

Do you know _____ _____ ______ ______ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ Do you know _____ _____ _____ _____

Oleg? Evgeny? Kirill? Tsarapkin? Alexeev? Lev? the secretary? Kotya? Volodya? Galya? Nina? Maria? Irina Petrovna?

_ _ _ _ CArny?
_ _ _ _ Kamo? _____ BOJlO)lIO?
_ _ _ _ rinlO? _ _ _ _ HHHy? _ _ _ _ MapHlO?

- - - - c - Sasha? ,

_ _ _ _ HpHHy neTpolmy? 2. Bbl era JH<lcre?


.. _ee 'I .

_HX ? . _MeH'I _ _ ? . _HaC ?

bim? her? lhem? me? us?

LESSON 10

20J

3. nonpocHTe I1BaHa H,IfKOJlaCBH'fa K


TeJ1e$6Hy. _ _ _ _ 60puca MKXMiJJoBH'fa
_ _ _ _ BJla.nHMHpa - - - - - -

Ask Ivan Nikolaevich to come to the phone.

_ _ _ _ upo4J<coopa Opn6sa
_ _ _ _ EBreulUl

_
_

- - - - ""'p.""p' - - - - - _ _ _ _ )"Uhe1Ul CMupHoea _~_


_ _ _ K6mo _ _ _ _ Bo.n6mo _ _ _ Camy _

_
_

_ _ _ _ Mapmo
_ _ _ Hm.y _ _ _ ramo

_
_ _

_ _ _ _ I1p>iHy nOTJ)6'Hy
4. YT6 Dbl 'fUT3.eTe?

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

Boris Mikhailovich Vladimir _ _~ Professor Orlov Evgeny the secretary Teacher Smirnov Kolya Volodya Sasha Maria Nina Galya Irina Petrovna

_ _ _ _
~

_
_

_ _ _ _ _

What are you reading?


A novel.

POM8..H.
CTHxH.
tEBreHIUI OHt~nlHa t. c60puca fOJJ.YH6Ba . cA6KTOpa )KHB3.ro . eBoHHj Ii Mlip .

5.

.AHOy KapeHHHy t. HCTOplUO. reorp.anno.

Poetry. Eugene Onegin. Boris Godunov. Doctor Zhivago. War and Peace. Anna Karenina. History. Geography. I'm very fond of tea. _ _ _ _ _ bo=h. _ _ _ _~ bread. _ _ _ _ _ nUlk. _ _ _ _ _ _ cucumbers. _ _ _ _ _ ",hi. _ _ _ _ _ kasha.
_ _ _ _ _ fish.

Jt mo6mO 'Iau. _ _ _ oopw.


_ _ _ xne6.
_ _ _ _ MOJlOK6.

. ____ orypu w
_ _ _ mHo
_ _ _ Kamy. _ _ _ pbl6y.

____ ceJlC,llKy.

_ _ _ _ _ _ berring. Next week I'll be in Moscow. _ _ _ you'll be _ _ _ _ ho'll be _ _ _ _ wo'll be _ _ _ _ you'lI be _ _ _ _ thoy'll be _ _
I'll be reading Eugene Onegin. You'll be _ Ho'll be _ Wo'li be _ Vou'll be _ Thoy'li be _

6. Ha CJleA)'IOllleH He,lle.ne R 6yAY B MOCKBe. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Thl: 6YAewb _ .

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ 6H

6y~OT

__

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Mbi 6YAeM _ _. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Bbi 6yAere _ _. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ OHM 6yAYT _ _

7.

Jt 6yAY 'IlfT3.Th cEBreHIUI OHernua . Tbi 6YAewb _ 61:1 6YAeT _ 6YACM _

Mw

Bw

6y~=_~

_
_

OUM 6YAyr

202

LESSON

10

8.

.s1 111061110 TaHUeaaTb. Tbi JII06HWb _ _~ QHa m06HT _ MhI 1II06HM _ Bbi: 1II06H"re _ Omi JlJ06lIT _ .s1 see
Tbi 6H MbI BbI Qmi
apeMjI CmKY.noMa.
CH.ltHlllh_.

I love to dance. You love _ _. She loves _ _ . Welove _ _ . You love _ _. They love __ .
I sit (or stay) home all the time. You sit (or stay) _ He sits (or stays) _ We sit (or stay) _ _ You sit (or stay) They sit (or stay) _ I'll see him this evening. You'll see _ She'll see _ _ We'll see You'll see _ _ They'll see I aJways see her at the theater. Vou _ """ _

9.

CuMT __. CHllUM __. CH,lOfTe _ . CIt,lVlT _ _.

10. .s1 ero )'Buy cerOJJ;HJI Be..epoM. Tbi: _ )'BH.n.HWb __


QHa _ YBH.wtT Mbi: _ yBH.wtM Bbi: _ YBH.n.HTe OHJi _YBWT II.

_ _ _ _

.1t

Bcer,n3. TbI:

ee BU:lKY B -rea-rpe.
BH.n.mub _ _. BH..rtm_ Bm.HM _

6H
Mhl Bbl Onu

BHJurre
ali.wrr

_
_

He __ """s We_""" Vou _ """ They _ see


I'll buy milk tomorrow. You'll buy _ She'll buy _ We'll buy _ You'll buy _ They'll buy _

_ _
_ _

12.

.st 3aBTpa KyruuO M0110"O.


Ty _ _ KYnKUlb _ 0lI. _ KYmrr _ My __ iCYnHM _ _ By _ _ Kj"nHTe _
Qm; _

Kj"n.llT

13. .s1 OCTaBnlO nOpnpeJ1b B KJ1Y6e.


TbI: OCTaBHwb 6R ocraB"T Mbl ocraO"M
_

_ _

BbiOCTMHTe
Omi OCTaBlIT
14.

_
_

I'll leave the briefcase at the club. You'll leave _ He'll leave _ We'll leave _ You'll leave _ They'll leave _ I'll ask Lev about it. You'll ask _ _ He'll ask _ We'll ask You'U askL-_ _ They'll ask _ What day is today? Today is Sunday. _ _ _ Monday. _ _ _ Tuesday. _ _ _ Wednesday.

.st cnpowy 06 .:hOM y nbBa. TbI: cnp6cHwb _ OR cnp6cm_ Mbi: cnp6cHM _ Bbi cnp6c1tTe _ Qmi cnp6c1lT _
.a,eHb?

15. KaKoii cerOAJUI


-

Cero).{H1I: BOC"peceHbC.

_ _ _ _ _ nOHc).{el1bIUlK.

_____ STOPH"".
_ _ _ _ cpe).{a.

LESSON 10

203

_ _ _ _ mrnUUla.

CerOAHSI "leToepr.

_ _ _ _ cy666Ta.
16. nOH.aCM
B BOClCpeceHbC B

Today is Thursday_ _ _ _ Friday. _ _ _ Saturday. IC./IY6. Let's go to thc club on _ _ _ _ _ _ _ on on _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ on _ _ _ _ _ _ _ on _ on on _ She stayed home all _______ all _ all _ all _ all _ all _ _ _ _ _ _ all Sunday. Monday. Tuesday. Wednesday. Thursday. Friday. Saturday.

_ _ _ B nOHC.llenbHllX _ _"

BTOPHHK _ _ _ _ " CpeAY - -_ _" _ _ _ B "lcnepr _ _ _ _ 0 miTHHl.\y _ _ _ _ B Cy666Ty _


_ _ _ 00

17. QHa Oecb llellb cHltena .nOMa. __ Becb oe"lep _

__ see ne-ro
_ _ BCK>

Bee YrPo
3RMy
HClltJlIO

_
_ _
"

__ octO

__ Bee OpeMSI

day. evening. morning. summer. winter. week. the time.

Pronunciation practice: unpaired consonants [C], [~C], and [j]

[~],

[z], [C],

Some consonants occur without soft or hard counterparts. Three consonants are aJways pronounced hard: ~], [il, and [c]. Three are always pronounced soft: [~], ~], and (j]. A. Hard consonant (SJ Usual Cyrillic spelling

tu;

also

jk,

tub,

or )Ie".
[~]

Note the pronunciation of hard (vi


sRi~iti]

in the following: you're hurrying I heard good

Ua ,IBoII
[maW]

Obi cnewliTe Ji CJIwwan xopow6

The Russian consonant (S] is always hard. It differs from the corresponding English sound (usually spelled sh in words like shop, crwh, and bush) in that the tip of the tongue is curled slightly up and back, and the sound is made farther back in the mouth.

Sound Drill: Practice the Russian examples illustrating (S], imitating your instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you can. Remember that even when Cyrillic e, M, and .. are written after ru, they ace still pronounced hard.
204 LESSON 10

B.

Hard consonant [fl Usual Cyrillic spelling *; sometimes *lo. Note the pronunciation of hard [ll in the following:

[final
[naslut~;]

lKeua
Ha CJTYc6e

wife at work

Russian [ll is a hard consonant formed with the tongue in the same position as for ~], but it is pronounced voiced. It is similar to the English .r in leisure and pleasure, except that the Russian sound is made with the tip of the tongue curled up and baek and is produced farther back in the mouth. (Russian [ll is articulated in approximately the same position in the mouth as American Engljsh r.) Sound Drill: Practice the Russian examples illustrating [i], imitating your instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you can. Remember that even when Cyrillic e, e, and" are written after )1\, they arc still pronounced hard.

C.

Hard consonant Ie] Usual Cyrillic spelling

It.

Note the pronunciation of hard [c] in the following: [kancert] [agurci]


KOIlLtePT

['Ioc]

arypubl aTilt

concert cucumbers father

The Russian sound [c] is like the Is in English cats. and in the foreign-derived words tsetse and lsar. The tip of the tongue touches the gum ridge behind the upper teeth. It is always pronounced hard. Sound Drill: Practice the Russian examples illustrating eel, imitating your instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you can. Remember that even when Cyrillic e and H are written after It, they are still pronounced hard.
D.

Soft consonant [~l Usual Cyrillic spelling .. ; sometimes

'lb.

Note the pronunciation of soft


[~j)

[~l

in the following:

[napOttu]

(Ie;..] [6CiQ]

...iii ua nO"Ty o..epa O'feHl,

tea to the post office yesterday very

Russian [l:] is formed much like English ch in cheap or chin, but without the puff of breath which occur.; with English ch in the above words. Sound Drill: Practice the Russian examples illustrating [l:], as well as Ihe paired sets contrasting (l:) and soft (tJ, imitating your instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you can. Remember that even when Cyrillic a, 0, and yare written after It. they are still pronounced soft.
LESSON 10 205

E.

Sort consonant [5C] Usual Cyrillic spelling


Ill;

sometimes

Il.lL

or

C'I

(rarely

iK)],L).

Note the pronunciation of soft


[W]
LUll.

[~]

in the following:

[bMt]
[nascot] Uascik] (Ri!Co]

oopw lIaC'leT
Jiu.r.J.l'K

nJiUla

schi borsch with regard to drawer, box food, fare

The Russian sound represented by [scI is pronounced either as a long soft lS] or as a soft {~] followed by a [el, also soft. It ~ounds something like the sch in English mischief, pronounced rapidly with sh instead of s. The sound [sc] is considered soft in the Russian sound system and has no hard counterpart. Sound Drill: Practice the Russian examples illustrating long soft [~cJ, imitating your instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you can. Remember that even when Cyrillic a and yare written after Ill, they are still pronounced soft. F. Soft consonant U]1 Note the pronunciation of soft U] in the following:

UaJ
[mojl [d';lsyida(lj';l] [angin';ljJ

MOi1

I my

.0:0 CBHJl:aHH.II

al-lI'lIHoi1

good-bye with a sore throat

Russian UJ is pronounced much like the English y in you and boy, except that the Russian sound is made with the tongue much tenser and more elevated, particularly after a vowel. Russian U] is considered a soft consonant and has no hard counterpart. Sound Drill: Practice the Russian examples illustrating instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you can.

OJ,

imitating your

Intonation practice: review of falling intonation contonrs


Reread the discussion on intonation contours in Lesson 6. A.- Review of statements with falling contours.

6H 3,o:ecb.
ArtCKceeB y ce6}j.

Qlla lIa coGpaHHIf.

BJla.o:m.mp y TeJIe$oHa.

He's here. Alexeev's in. She's at a meeting. Vladimir's on the phone.

, In the Cyrillic writing system, the consonant sound is ordinarily expressed by the separate letter ii after a vowel only when there is no vowel immediately following. i.e., at the end of a word or just before another consonant: r.toii fm6jJ. "Tp6iiKa [tr6jk:l]. It is most often tJl:pn:ssed through usc of the soft-series vowel letters, particularly at the beginning of a word or between vowels: Ii [j<i). 111010 [maju].

206

LI.'SSON I 0

all B

B,imm B WKa~lY. Olll) 8 Mara3HlIC. A.TJlaC Jloporoli. MOCK&e. nOH.n.Y nOCMoTpIO. B6T pecTOpaH. B'lcpa 6bui: KOm.-CpT.

The forks are in the cupboard. She's al Ihe slore. T'hc atlas is expensive. He's in Moscow. I'll go take a look. Here's the restaurant. Yesterday therc was a concert. We have borscb. She's sick now. Tbe custodian stood at the door. We've already had dinner. He's in Moscow now. I have a small favor to ask. She works at a factory. Pm coming from work. Put in a good word for me. Thanks very much. We're old friends, after all. I haven't seen you in a long time. She has bought a dress again. He's completely well now. We drank tea awhile ago. Nina stood in line a long time. One has to wail so long. Alexeev works there, after all.

Y HaC ecn, 6Opw.


Tencpb oua 6oJJbHa. BaXTep CTOM y.nBCpH. Mbi }')ICC o6e.aarlH. ceH"ac 0 MocKoc. Y MeH,j Ma.neHbKlUI npOcb6a. Oua pa60TaeT lIa <pa6PIIKe. R IIAY c pa60TbI. 3aM6JJBltTe 3a MeH,j CJTOOC'iKO. 60JJbWOe BaM cnacH60. MbJ BellI> CTapbJe llPY:U,,j. R naBH6 BaC He BH:JteJJ. OHa olllin. KynMa MaTbe. BnOJlne TenCpb 3nopOB. Mbi Hell3.BHO OMII 'l3.H. HHHa nOJlro CToJina B O'iepellii. Haao T3.I .uoJlro ;t()l,aTb. Benb -raM pa60TaeT AneKcCeB.

all

all

B. Review of questions with falling contours (question-word questions). KTO TAM? KTO cnpaWIlSaeT? f.ae B3XTep? rIJ.C KHOcK? \.ITO :lTo? KYlla H,lJ,eWb? 3a'lCM cneWHTh? KaK HHHa? Who's there? Who's calling? Where's the custodian? Where's a newsstand? What's that? Where arc you going? What's the hurry? How's Nina? Where was she? Who was standing there" What's that in the cupboard" Whom did you go to see? What were you doing? Who's that talking? Where are they hurrying to? Where are you coming from? What's your burry? Who was he asking about? What's for dioner today? What did Kozlov write about? Where are you going in such a hurry? What are you doing now?

r.uC owi 6bJJJa? KTO TaM CTO,jJl? 4TO 3TO B WKa<py? Y Koro Rbi 6b1J1H? 4TO Bbi .ae.na..rlH? KTO 3TO rORopJiT? Ky.aa omi CneWaT? Orkj.aa abl: H,llere? ]a "eM Te6C cnewHn. ? KOM OH cnp<lluHBa.Jl? 4TO cerO.a1lJl: ua 06e.a? 'IeM HaDHcan K03Jloa?

Ky.aa Rbi: TalC cnewJiTe? 4TO Rbi TCncpb lle.naere?

LESSON 10

2fY7

l{TO :ho TaM B yr11Y?


rile Th. :ho JJ.OCTana? Kax Tenepb naC'leT ooeJJ.a? OTiCYil3 Rbi :ho n011)"1K1I11? Y oro Bbi :ho y:manH? Ja'leM Te6e 3TH TeTJlA,D.H? rJJ.e CTOUT flaw peKTOp? Ka.: npowe.n TBO" yp6K? Kh TorAa f13C'1CT ftTnaca?

What's that in the corner there? Where did you get that? How about dinner now? Wbere did you get that? From whom did you learn that? What do you need these notebooks for? Where's OUf chancellor slanding? How did your lesson go? How about an atlas then?

STRUCTURE AND DRILLS

The accusative of KTO, 'ITO, and the personal pronouns


MODELS

tho Bbl TaM BHJJ.elut? Koro Bbl TaM BH.o.CJUl?

What did you see there? Whom did you see there?

_ _ _ _ _ ",60 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ .r6 _ _

Bee npo$eccopa Mellli 3HaIOT.

_ _ _ _ ee
_ _ _ _ _ HX

_
_
R

All the professors know _ _ ________

me. you. him. her.

_____ 8a. _ _
__
CnpocJhe em, ttftlt npoHTH
~ee

_____ Ha.--

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ us.
_ you. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ them.

filM.

lix
He CMOTpH
H3

_
nero!

Ask him bow to get to GUM. _h.r _ _ them _ Don't look at him (or it)! _~ ber (or it)! _ _ _ _ _ tbem! Put in a good word for me! _ _ _ _ _ _ _ for him! _ _ _ _ _ _ _ for her! _ for us! _ for them!

_ _ _ _ lIa llee! _ _ _ _ lIa mix!


3aMOJlBitTC

____ ____ ____ ____

3a MCHJI 33 Hcro 33 lice 33 1Il1C 33 IlHX

CJ10BelfXo!

_
_ _

REPETITION DRILL

Repeat the above models, noting that the accusative is like the genitive for all personal pronouns and KYO, but that 'ITO has an accusative like the nominative. Note also that afier prepositions the third person pronouns are Hen>, Hee, and mix; otherwise they are erG, ee, and Hx.
STRUCTURE REPLACEMENT DRILL

Ask Ivan NikoJoellich [to cornel to the phone. Ask him [to come] to ,he phone. T: nonpocJhe MBalia HH.K011aCBH'la k TeJlel6uy. s: nOnpocMTe en> " TeJle4l6trY.
208 LESSON 10

T: nonpociITe rwJO IC TenecP6Hy. s: noopoaiTe ee II: Tene+6tY. (saXTcpa, BonoJUO, HHHy, Mapmo nCTPORHy, EBreHWI, Kano, 3HHy, neTpa, HHko11ajl)

QUESTiON-ANSWER DRILL

Where's YOllr dictionary? I left it at home. T: rile B3W clIooapl> '!


s:
T:

{Bawe nepo, Baw 110)4(, Barna kHHT'3, BaWH TeTpa.nKH, BaUJH CJJOBapH, Bama pa60Ta, Barn aTnac, Baw nopTlj)e.nb, Bame co'(HHe"He, BautH KlIK>'II1)

A en~ :Ja6blJT AOMa.

r.ue Barna K3.pTa 1

s:

H: ee 3a6blJ1 ,nOMa,

RESPONSE DRILLS

1. Ah, there you are! We've been expecting you for a long time. T: A, BOT BY! s: MY DC AaBHO otllJ.Uie.'K. T: A, BOT ThI! s: MW n6li lUl8HO O*Kl1aeM,
(OHa, OHM, KoJUl, y60pll(HU3., }"IHTeJIh CeMeHoB, HHHa, 01lbra nellJOBua, neB HHXHTH'I)

2. Here's the dress material. Where did )'ou get it?


T: BOT MaTepHan Ha

nnaThe.

S:

r.at BhI ero LtOCT8nH?


(aTnac AMepHKIl, KapTbi EBponhl, tcapaH-

T: BOT K3.pTa KHT3.R.

s: r.ne RW ee JlocriJOt ?
.naw,
orypl..(bl, Pbl6a, KlUtfM, nOPTlj)e.nb,
TeTpa.AH, C1IoBapb)

3. Kozlov was there. I saw him.


T: K03J!68 T3.M 6blJ1. s: g en~ BH.aeJI, T: OEla T3.M 6bU1a.

4. Zina isn't ready yet. Wait for her. T: 3Hua ewe He rOTOBa.
S: no,ll,O:JU4 ee,

s: g ee BKAeJI.
(TbI, 011, BbI, OHH, HmonaH, TBO" cCcTpbl,

T: R Cute He rOTOB. s: no,/l,O:llC)Ut Memi. (MbI, Oner H 3HHa, 6paT, OHa, cecTpa, OHI1, TBOR *ella, on, TBOR M)')K)

KaTR, npoc:J>eccop OpnOB, TeO" 6paThR)

5. He's here. Do you know him?


T:

6. He's nOl here yet.

Oil TYr.

We're expecting him. T: Ero elll,c lib.

s: TbI: ero :JlI1iernL?


T: OHa

s:

Mw ero o~eM.

TYr.

s: TbI: ee :J1I8etUb ?
(l1plllla, KOJ1Jl, K03110B, MOll 6paT, MOll cecTpa, MOil 6paTLR, MOll ceCTpb.l)

T: Y'{llTeJlbHHLU>J ewe IICT. s: Mbi ee o*HAAeM. (IIX, Komi, HHKOJla.sr, nponaSWHll,hl, ero, npoq,eccopa, CeMcHoa3 Hero )Kenbl)
8. We saw the factory.

7. There's Zilla over there. Ask her.


T: 86H TaM 311.113.

Whal did yOIl see?


T:

Mw 8H.D.eJIli 3aB6J.1,.
qTO BbI: BJiAeJlH?

S: CnpocMTe eC. T: BOH TaM BOllO,l]}l. S: CnpocM-re erO.


(l1plllla ne1ll0BIJa, y60PlltHD;bI, MOit 6paT, MOR cecrpa, Y"HTeJUI, Y'UtTeJlbHHUB., 01ler, CTYJleHTbI)

s:

T: Mbl OH.D.CJlH 3ulIy.

s: KorO BbI: OHJJ.CJlH?


(aTlIac, KapTbI, BOllO,lJ;K>, cecTpy, HaTy)
ifJlUlhM,

Barny

ee

6pa:ra, 6H6nHOTeKY,

Y'llITeJISI,

pe3YllbTaThI 3k3aMena, Mapmo, KOM-

DISCUSSION

The accusative of personal pronouns and ICTO has tbe same fonn as tbe genitive. Tbe accusative of 'ITO, however, is like the nominative.
LfSSON

10

209

NOM

MelUi

Tbl

OH,

OliO

OHa

M';'

Dbl

ami

H6

'iTO

ACC

-..6.

era
(Hero)

ee (Hee)

lIac

. .0

OX
(nux)

Kor6

.w

The alternate fonns. Hero, Hee, and HHX, are used only with prepositions: nOCMOT'pIi Ha Hero! Look at him! Ja.\fOllBNTe 3a Nee ClJO&e'IKO! Put in a good word for her!

The accusative singular of nouns


MODELS

Koro Bb! TaM BH.nellll? - DOpUca.

Whom did you see there?

Boris.
Vladimir. Professor Orlov. Evgcoy. Nikolay. Kolya. Volodya. Sasba. Irina. Maria. Lyubov.

Bna.n.HMHpa. npocPcccopa Opn6aa.


EBreHIUI.
HHKOnalt.

K6mo. BonO.lUo. Cluny. HpUHy. Maputo. lhoOOBb. Xne6. 4aH.

'-iTo Bba KynHnH?

What did you buy?


Bread.

Tea.
Milk.. A map of China. Fish. Herring. A notebook.
Where did he go? To class. To a concert. To the club. To the park.

- MOJlOlc6. - KaPTY KHTb.


Pbl:6y. Cene.llKY TeTpaltb.

KY.lla 611 nowen? - Ha yp6K. - Ha KOHU,CpT.

B Kny6.
B napl(. Ha co6paHue.
B 06lUe)lOtTllc.

Ha cPA6pHKy. B wKony.
B 6H6JlHOrelCy.

To To To To

a meeting. the dormitory. the factory. school.

B na60paT6pHIO. Ha neICllHJO.

To the library. To the laboratory. To the lecture (or class).

Kor.ua Bbi 6Y.ueTe .u6Ma. - B BOCKpeceHbC. - B nOHe.uenbHHK.

When will you be home?


On Sunday. On Monday.

210

LESSON 10

Bo BTOpHHK. B cpCA)'. B 'leTBepr. B ruhHHUY. B cy666Ty. oeCb ll,eHb. BeCb se'lep. Bee YTPo. Bee JIeTO. BCJO 3HMY. BCJO seeny. BCJO Ocelli... BCJO He.t\e.mo.

On On On On On

Tuesday. Wednesday. Thursday. Friday. Saturday. all all all all all all all all day. evening. morning. summer. winter. spring. autumn. week.

.si 6y.o:y y uHX ______ _____ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______
REPETITION DRILL

I'll be at their place ________ _______ ________ ________ _______ ________ _______

Repeat the given models, noting that the accusative singular is like the nominative singular except for: I. Animate cyon-nouns, which use the genitive singular endings. 2. )Kwa-nouns. which have the endings -y and -10 in ~he accusative singular.

CUED SUBSTITUTION DRILL

(Oleg) T: (Oner)

Do you know Oleg? Bb"13HaeTe OJlera? s: By 3UaeTC OJlera? T: (np.ccop OpJlOB) (Bbi) ?
S: Bb"I 3l1ac..-e npocflCc-

(HUKOJlall. Y'lHTeJIb, CeMeHos, ero ceCTpa, aMcpmcaHeu rpaHT, CallIa, CTY,lI.CHT K03J10B, EBrcllHH, ero TOBapHlU, ccKperapb)

oopa
RESPONSE DRILLS

Opm~oa?

1. We have no bread. I bought bread today. T: Y ",ic BeT XJIe6a. s: cero.ll:JUI KymiJI XJlOO. T: Y Hac HeT 'laR. S: cerONul KymiJI "laM. (neT pbl6bI, neT MOJIOK3, HeT K<><Pe, HeT ceJ1e)J)(H, nCT aTJlaca, HeT CJlOBapR, HeT KapTh! EBpOIIhI)

a a

2. There's Professor OrJov over there. I know Professor Or/ov. T: BOH TaM upcxpeccop OpnOB. s: lH1bo npocflCccopa OpmlB8. T: BOH TaM JII060Bb neTpOBlla. s: a llflbo Jbo668b neTp08ny. (BoJlO)])l, KypO'lIOtH, DOPUC MHxaiirIoBH'l, I1pmla J1BaHosna, Komi, ero ccKpeTapb)

QUESTION-ANSWER DRILLS

I. Where's the key?

I left the key on the table.


T: rne KJlJO'l?
s: Kiuo'l Ii OCT8BHJI lI8 CYOJle. T: r,lI.e KHHra? s: K'H1try Ii ocraOMJI ua CYOJIe. (MOJlOKO, TeTPanb, p)"lKa. CJl0Bapb, llHCbMO. Kopo6Ka, MaTepHan)

2. Was the exam on Monday? No, on Tuesday. T: 3JOaMeH 6bu1 8 lIOHeJl:e.nbHHK? S: HliT, 80 BTOpUHK. T: 3K3aMeH 6bIJI ao BT6plillK? s: HeT, B cpeJJ.Y. (s cpeJt.y, II 'leTBepr, a nRTHHUY)

LESSON

10

211

RESPONSE DRILLS

I. Where's the park? I want to go to the park. T: rjJ,e mipx? 5: A xo'fj IIOiiTH mlpK. T: rjJ,e 06me"'HTHe? s: A XO'fY nom B06ll.le:t(H-rKC. (rYM, 111Kona, <pa6pHKa, Kny6, 60IlhWOH 3an, 6H6J1HOTeKa)

2. Maybe Kalya heard about that. Ask Katya. T: M6lKeT 6hm. Kan ClIbnuana 06 nOM. s: CopoctiTe KaTlO. T: Mo",eT 6b.lTb ]JeD ClIbiwan 06 nOM. s: CnpocH-rc JIbB8.. (1110608b nCTpoBHa, EBrellllH, npo<Peccop KYPO'lKIIH, ITeTP Hoanoolf'l, ero TOOaplDlt no "OMHaTe, OJUl, }"urreJlb CeMeHoo)
4. Over there is the unil'ersity.

3. Nina and Katya were there. I saw only Katya. T: TaM 6WlH HUlIa If KaTR. s: A BN.a.eJJ TOnbKO KaTlO. T: TaM 6bIJlH Opnoo H KYPO'lKIUI. 5: A BHJJ.eJJ TOJlbKO KYpo'IKHlIa. (Bonon)! " OJler, 6paT " cecTpa, Onjl II HIIKOJlaii, CTy,D,CH1' If CTy,D,ellTxa, y60ptUIILta If Daxrep, M}'JIC If ",eRa)
DISCUSSION

rye already seen the university. T: BOil T3.M ymmepcmtt. S: y:e BliJJ.eJJ )'HHBcpclITer. T: BOil TllM 06tUooITlte. s: y*e BH.ueJJ 06ute*H-rKe. (nO'lTa, na60paTopltjl, ,ll,Bepb, 3jJ,3HHe 6116J1l1ore,,". ee "OMlla1"4, KX aymfTOpIDI, Mara3HH)

a a

Only ito:eHa-nouns and animate CTM-nouns have accusatives which differ from the nominative. Animate CToJl-nouns have accusatives exactly like their genitives. )Kella-nouns have accusatives ending in -y (for nominatives ending in -a) and -10 (for nominatives ending in -H).
NOUN ENDINGS IN TIIB ACCUSATIVE SINGULAR

cron-nouns Inanimate (same as nominative) CTOJI nopTcj>Cnb KapaHnaw Animate (same as genitive) K03J100ft Mf,oKa YKpaUHUft jlxYra
n~pa

Oh.,.o..nouns (same as nominative)

*eHa-DOUns

,!lBCpbnouDS (same as nominative)

-y and -10

OKIIO ,D,eJlo

rYM
TaneU <pKtlbM KHTaH yroJi

Mo
nepO
co6pilHile CO'lHHeHHe ru"hbC neHRe

hnac

cryneHTft 6"'", JIboa Kilplinna Enremul miplUl

)KellY ceCTpY 3URY y66putllltY K6.ntO rantO nejJ,e.ntO Kano Bon6,/l,1O I1CTOPiltO

,!:tBepb O'lCpe,!:tb J1JOOOOb OceUb ,.",aab

A few It(eua-nouns with the stress on the ending in tbe nominative singular shift the stress back to the stem in the accusative singular. Compare 3tl\ta with 3N.\f)' winter, cpeLtli with cpeJJ.Y Wednesday. and llOCKa with lJ.OcKy board.

212

LESSON 10

Summary remarks. The accusative functions primarily to indicate thc goal of a verbal action, i.e., the direct object of a transitive verb. Used in conjunction with such prepositions as a and tla, it indicates the goal to which the action is directed. . The accusative is also frequently used in expressions of timc, where it may occur either with or without a preposition, for example, B Cy660Ty, Ila hOT pa3, acw 3H:My. When used without a preposition, it indicates the complete span of time encompassed by the activity.

Second conjugation verbs with a stem consonant change in the first person singular present-future
Obi
~aBH6 3~CCb

)la,

Bee

cUlniTe? yTpO CH)f(y 3.ltCCh.

Have you been sitting here long? Yes, I've been silting here all morning. Will you see Nina tomorrow? Yes, I will. Ask him lO the phone. O.K., I'll do it right away. Ask Kurochkin about that. I'll ask him tomorrow. What are you going to buy at GUM? I'll buy a present for Nina. Do you Ii ke tea? Yes, I'm very fond of it. Where will you leave the key? I'll leave it in the drawcr. Will you introduce me? Yes, I will.

Obi 3aBll'a YBH,ullTe HMHy?


.nil, yBIDKy. nonpocHTe er6 K Tene$OHy. - Xopow6, cei.flac IIonpowy.

- st
- >1
-

CnpocHTe KYPO'lKHHa 06 3TOM. 3aBTpa era cnpowy.


0 rYMe? KynJllo no.uapoK HHl.Ie.

t.1T6 Ohl KYnHTe

Obi JlI0611TC 'Iail?


.na, O'lCHb JlI06Jno.
Dbl

r.uc

- st

ocTaBHTe KmO'l? oC"nlBJlIO ero B MLUHKe. 1l03HaKOMJIIO.

Obi MeHM llmHaKoMHTe?

- .nil,

REPETITION DRILL

Repeat the above models, noting that there arc two types of change which may take place in the first person singular of second conjugation verbs: 1. Replacement of the final stem consonant by an automatic alternatc (compare Thl BH.nHIUh, Oil BH~RT with Ii B"IKY). 2. The addition of a soft if (compare ThJ Jll00llmb, Oil JJ1001lT with Ii JII06nw). SUBSTITUTION DRILLS

l. You sir home all the time. T: Thl BCe Bp(:MH CH.uJ.lWh nOMa. s: Tw ace apeMSI CH.uH1Uh .uOMa. (oHa, MW, BW, OIIH, KaTH, R, MOR )l(eHa, oalilll 6paThR)

2. Zina loves

to

dance.

T: 3lfHa JII0611T TaHlI,eB3.Th. s: lAlla mooHT T3I11tellliTl>. (MhI ace, Ham" CTYAeHTKlI, H, BbI, 1bI, 3Ta JJ,csylllKa, nell' II MlUIa, g)

3. f'lIleal'e rhe key with Pyotr.


T: ocniBmo KlllO'I y nell'a. s: 5i ocniBJIIO KJIW'f y ne-I'pa. (oHa, ThI, MhI, BW, H, OHI1)

4. I sometimes see Zina at the movies.


T: s:

>1

51 "HOrlla BIf)Ky 31flly B 10f"0. A Hllorlla BH*Y 3M:uY B KHIIO.


(Oller, TbI, Olin, ShE, g, MOR .n:PY3bSl, MhI, Moil TOBapHll\ no KOMllaTC)

LESSON 10

213

5. When shall! see you again? T: Kor.m\ 1i onlin BaC yufuKy?


s: Kor.n,R Ii omin..ae YSD.-y?
(OH, MbI, BonoJVI, 51, 3TII aMepHKalIQbl, OHIl)

6. I'll ask him for the key. T:.st nonpowy y lIero KJ110'l.
s:

it

ooopomj' y Hero K.'UO"I.

(TbI,

OHU,

MbI, BbI,

1'1,

HBaIl,

OHa, Hawll

CTy.neHThI)

7. rll ask them about that. T: R cnpowy HX 06 :hOM.


s: j]: enpotuj HX 06 :hOM. (MbI, BbI, KaTM, .neo)'lUKIl, CTY.neIlTICH )
TbI, Oil,

8. We'll buy bread tomorrolV. T: Mbr 3liBTPa KyUHM xne6.


s:

Mw :J8BTpa

KrUMM XJlOO.

JI,

(1'1, ThI, BbI, Olla, :liI, OIlH, on, 1I, MbI, BbI, TbI, :liI)

9. FII introduce him to her.


T:

R ero n031laxOMJlK> C HeH. s: A en) nOJllaKOMJlIO elicit.


(Olllt, MbI,

KaTJI, JI,

TbI, 8M,

Oncr,

ACO)'lUKH, Bono.nJl)

STRUCTURE REPLACEMENT DRILLS

I. Whom did you ask about this? Whom will you ask about this ? T: Koro Tha cnpocJ.in 06 :hOM? s: KorO tW cnp6cJuu.. 06 :JTOM? T: Koro Bbi cnpocJ.inH 06 :}TOM? s: Koro sw cnpOcJrre 06 nOM? (Mbf, OHIl, Sf, Olla, OH)

2. [left the dictionary on his desk. I'll/eave the dictiOffOry on his desk.
T:

.st OCTaBItJI cnOoaPb

y lIero lIa CTone.

s: it OCT8B./UO CJlOsaPb y Hero H8 crone. T: DHa OCT<lBuna CJlOBapb y Hero lIa CTOJIe. s: OHa ocniBHT CJlodp.. y Hero fill CTOJIi. (MbI, ORlI, KaT5I, BbI, EBreHHH, ThI, SI,
CTy.neHT, aMepHXaHeu)

3. She bought suit material. She'll buy suit material.


T: OHa Kymina MaTeplUln: Ha KOCnOM.

s: Od
T:

KylDlT

MaTepttU

H8 KocnbM.

.st

xynHn MarepH8.n lIa "ocnOM.

4. ZinG used to ~;it home all (he lime. Zina sits at home all the time. T: 31illa Bee BpCMJI cltQena ll,OMa. s: lNHa Bee BpeMlf CHJ(Ify aOMa. T: Bbi see BpeMSI CltQenH .nOMa.
s: BbI ace Bpe~UI eH.whe .nOMa. (SI, OHa, 3TII CTy.nellTh.l, l'bl, OHM,
Mbl, 011)

s: A K)'wno MaTepHU H8 IrottIOM.


(BonoJVI, OHlI, Bbf, ceCTpa, Sf, K03JIOB)

5. She loved you. She 101'es you.


T: DHa Bae JU06Hna. s: OHa de mOOHT. T: 6H oac m06Hn. s: Oil de mOOHT.

(MOH 6paT,

Sf, Olm,

MbI, 3TOT aMepHcalleu)

6. They often used to see Oleg. They often see Oleg. T: Oil" '1aCTo 8H.neJIll Onera. s: Omi 'uino 1IN.1.urT Onera. T: Jt '13.cro BH..neJT Onemo . s: it 'facro luhky OJlera. (011, CTy,ll,eIlTlCa, 3HlIa, MbI, HallIH ,lI,eByrnKH, 8bl, Tbl, }I)

DISCUSSION

Second conjugation verbs undergo a stem change in the first person singular present-future if their stem ends in .n, T, e, 1, 6, n, B, 4t, or M. J. Denlals.n, T, e, and J are automatically replaced by tbeir palatal alternates lie, "I, W, and '" respectively, and the first person singular ending is spelled -yo 2. Labials 6, n, B, l), and M add a sort n before the first person singular ending -10.

214

LE'iSON

10

GROUP I
INFINITIVE BHae...., CllpocHTb JII06Wrb KynWrb

GROUP 2
OCT8BHTb 1I03t1RKOMHTh

fO see

to ask

10 love
(ipfv) JIIo6mo m061tlUb m0611T m06HM JII06"Te JIIo6JIT

10 buy

to leave

(0 introduce

(;pry)

(pry)
cnpowy
cnp6cltlUb cnp6cuT cnp6cHM cnp6cwre cnpocJIT

(pry)
"ywuo KynltlUb Ky""T KymlM Ky""Te IylUlT

(pry)
ocraMIO OCT:umWb OCd.BlIT OCT<umM OCTaaHTe

(pry)
1I0311a"OMJIIO II03I1aKOM"Wb n03HaKoMHT n03l1axO/lotHM 003HaxOMJITe n03HaKOMJIT

so

2 3
PC
I

Slt....y SliD.IIWh BH.nHT


B"A1IM BH.u.Hre

2 3

BIUtMT

ocnIBn

Note thaf fhe change in Sfem OCClirs only in fhe firsf person singular.

If the stress is on the last syllable of the infinitive, it will fall on the ending of the first person singular, but win often shift back ODe syllable in all other forms of the present-future. Compare c:npoam., cnpowj with copOaunb, copOarr. mpOca.\t. cupOarre, cop6cwT. If the stress of the infinitive falls on a syllable other than the last, it will remain on Jhat same syllable in all forms, for example,
OC"T1iBHTb, OCTlhtJllO, OCTUIIIllb, ocniSMT, ocnisH.\t, ocriBMTe, OCTisaT.

In the past tense, the stress is consistently on the same syllable as in the infinitive, for el(ample, men., SHD.e.rr, BK.rte.rra, ali.ne.oo, ltIi.ae.mt; mo6Hn., mo6H.rr, nlO6Ma, m06K.rto, nI06MM.

The future of 6bITb and the formation of the imperfective future


MODELS

.sl GYAY TaM B cy660Ty. TbJ 6Y.l.tCWb _ 611 6Y.l.teT _ Mbl GY.uCM _ Bbl 6YJleTe _ Oil" 6yayr _
YTO Dbl 6Y.l.tere Aena..-h?

I'll be there on Saturday. You'll be _ He'll be _ We'll be _ You'll be _ They'll be _

- Mw

6YAeM pa6oT3Tb.

What will you be doing? We'll be working, What will you be doing? I'll be reading or I'll read. What will Oleg be doing? He'll be writing letters. Wbat will they be doing? They'lI be dancing. What shall we do? We'll drink tea.
LESSON to 215

Iho Thl 6YAewb Jl,enaTh? - .sl 6yay 'f.HTaTh.


YTO Oncr 6YACT n;cnaTh?

- 611
-

6yn;cT

n"can. ""CbMa.

YTO Oil"

GY.l.tyr AenaTb? 01111 6yn;yr TaHlteeaTb.

YTO MhI 6Y.l.teM .l.tenaTh? M.bi: 6Y,lleM miTb 'iaR.

REPETITION DRILL

Repeal the given models, noting that the future of 6Wb may be used alone (in Ihe sense of will or shal/ be) or in combination with imperfective infinitives to form the imperfective future. Remember that the future forms of 6Lrn. can never be combined with perfective infinitives.

QUESTIONANSWER DRILLS

1. Will you be home this evening? No, I won't. T: Bbi 6Yll,eu: JIOMa cerOll,lIJi BeLjepoM? s: Hh, lie 6yll,y.
T: Oller 6Yll,eT ll,OMa cerOll,lISl BC'lCpOM?

2. Will you be working tomorrow? Yes, I will.


T:

Tw

6Y.aeWb pa66TaTb JaoTpa?

s: .D.a. 6YJJ.Y
T: CeKpenlpb 6Y/teT paooT3Tb JaUTpa?

S: Hh, He 6Y,uer. (Olll1, Tbl, TBOH 6paT, B3llJa cecrpa)

s: )la, 6Y,uer.
(Jl"3

CTyJJ.ellTKa,

Bbl, Mbl, BaWII

TOOapHl1tll, aaXTep)

3. What are you going to do, drink tea? Yes, we're going to drink tea. T: 4TO Bw 6YHere HenaTb, min. 'faii? s: .D.a, MW 6y,ueM min. 'tliii. T: 4T1J aM 6Y.aeTe .aenaTb, TaHUea3TL?

s: .D.a, MW 6y,ueM Tauuesan..


(nHean. CO'fHHeHHe, 'tHTaTb CTUX",

roaopHTL

HUMH, )KJtaTb CCKpeT3pJl,

CJIywaTh nCKlVut, 06e.aaTb B peCTopallc)

STRUCTURE REPLACEMENT DRILLS

1. I didn't ask aboutthat.

I wOIf't ask about that.


06 :lTOM He cnpaWHOaJI. S: Jl 06 nOM He 6y,uy cnpallltman.. T: Qua 06 iTOM lie cnpawHaana. s: OHli 06 ::rOM He 6Y.aer cnpaWHUn.. (TbI, Mbl, Oll, Bbl, OHH, y'tHTeJlhlUlLta, npo<fleccopa, yKpaHlleu, CTy.aCHTbl) T:

Jt

2. I didn't think about that. I won't think about that. T: Jt 06 jTOM ue .nYMaJI. s: It 06 :hOM He 6YJJ.Y JJ.YMan. T: Bw 06 nOM lie JIyManH.

s;

BbI 06:hOM He 6YlleTe AYMaTb.


(OHH, Mbl, Tbl, Jl, )f(ella, MOll TOaapllutH)

3. We drank tea. We'l/ drink tea. T: Mw mimi 'taii. s: Mw 6Y.aeM min 'faM. T: Tw min '1aii. s: Tw 6Y,ueun. min. 'Iii.
(OHM, abl, alia, OIl, JI, M)')K H ",ella. MOil cecTp3, Moii TOOapHllt, CTyHclITbI, 3TOT nape"b)

216

~N

10

QUESTIONANSWER IJRILLS

I. Who'll be there? Volodya?

Yes, Volodya will be there.


T: KTO TaM 6rAeT? Bono.lUl? S: )la, TaM 6YACT BomJ,!JJI. T: KTO TaM 6YAef? CTy.o.CHTbI? S: .lla, T8M 6yAYT CTYACHTbI. (MapHJI, saw 6p3T, )"iHTeJUI, TROll TosapUUVI, npo.n3BlUHI.(hI, 3H1Ja)

2. What will you be doing? rll be reading.


T: 4TO Bb! GYJIeTe JIclIan.? s: st 6YAY oomin.. T: 4T6 all 6YAeT JJ,enaTb? s: On 6yJJ,eT "lHTlin.. (OHH. Mhi. TW, olla. TBOH TOBapHlU.
CTy.nCIITbI. TOOR cecTp3)

3. Will you drink tea? No, / won't.


T: Tbi 6Y.lleWb miTh 'faH?

4. Will you be dancing? Yes. / will. T: Bbl 6Y.nCTC TaHUCOaTh?

S: Hh, tie 6YJ1.Y.


T: QHa 6Y.neT miTb 'fa""

s: .lla, 6j.ny,
T: Olla GY.neT TaH1l,eaaTb? s: 6y,a,eT.

s:

HCT, He 6Y.lleT, (10.11.1, OHH, on, 81.1, TROH T08apHllt, napUH,)"UJTeJU:,HHllbI)

,l(a.

3TH

(Tltl, MhI, CTyACIITbI, TOOM

YXpaHHlUtI,
napeHlt)

TBO~

TOBapHlU. cecTp3, rpYlHHhl, 3TOT

STRUCTURE REPLACEMENT DRILLS

I. rm reading War and Peace.

rll be reading War and Peace.


T: s: T:

R IJIfT3.IO .BOHuY

/l.Utpt.

st 6yAY "lmn. ccBoiiuy R Mifp,.,


Ou
'fHT3.er .BOHHj II MHpt.
CTy.ll.CIITbl,

s: Ou 6yJJ,eT "lKT8.n. ccBoiiuj U M"pn,


(ol-m, Mbl, Tbl, Olla,
TOUapl-ll.U)

Bbl,

MOH

2. Whol were you doing? Whol will you be doing? T: 4T6 BbI .nenanH? S: lfT6 .bI 6j.nen Ae.nan.? T: 4TO SbI IlHcA.nH? s: 'ho Rbi 6jAeTe utlc8n., ('lHTan". rIOKynanH. mum. cnpaWHSaJIH)

3. We're silting by Ihe window. We'll be sitting by Ihe window.


T: MW CHJJ.HM Y

4. 2ina's al Ihe dance. 2ina will be at Ihe dance.


T: 3uHa lIa T3H@X.

OKua. s: Mw 6YlleM CII,lI,en. y Otma, T: A CHJKy Y OKHa. s: st 6y AY cttJ],en. Y OKlta.


(01111, K03110B, KaTH, Tbl,

Bbl, c-rYJICH*

s: 3Htta 6j.neT Ha l'iHQax. T: Olll' lIa T3Hl\ax. s: 011" 6Yl.yr Iia TIlHltQX. (Hawil napmt, ~, MhJ., BOITO./VI Hero

TKII, OH)

Toaapmu)

5. He was at the library. He'll be at the library.


T: On 6bui B 6H6JlHOTtKC. s: 6n 6y,a,eT 6H6nHOTCKe.

T: Bbl

Gbl1H1

GHGlIHOTeKC.
~,

s: Bw 6j.nen B

6H6JIHOTCKe. (aee np<$eccopa, 3Ta CTy.nCHTlCa, CTy.nCIIT, 10.11.1. OHn)

3TOT

LPSSON 10

217

DISCUSSION

As in the past tense, the imperfective and perfective aspects are sharply contrasted in the future. The imperfective future is used to describe future activity not specifieally marked off in time, or activity expected to occur more than once in the future. Thus the focus is on the activity as a process or recurring phenomenon. Th.is type of future is formed by means of the future of 6brrb plus the imperfective infinitive. The perfective future, on the other hand, describes future activity of a more concrete, realizable nature. It focuses on the completion or accomplishment of the activity, and it concerns itself more with the result than the process. It is a simple form, structurally like the present tense and employing the sa":le personal endings as the present tense.
EXAMPLES

tPFY l-1JT
PFV FUT

R 6y~y .o:jMaTh 06 :hOM.

R nO.IIYMatO 06 :hOM.
Mbl 'lTO-HH6ym, 6Y.o:eM .o:enaTh. Mbl '1TO-HH6y.o:b cllenaeM. QRK 6Yll)'T Mooro cnpaUlltaaTb. QIlIf cnpocslT 06 :hOM.

I'll be thinking about it. I'll think about it or I'll think it over.

IPFY FlIT
PFV l--UT

We'll [be] doling] something. We'll do something or We'll get someth.ing done. They'll ask a lot of questions. They'll ask about that.

IPFY FUT
PFV FUT

In short, the imperfective aspect emphasizes the "doing," whereas the perfective emphasizes "gctting the thing done."

KYlla and rile: directional versus locational concepts


Ky)];3. Dbl cnernine? - ,lI,oMoii. r.o:e Dbl 6bUlH etcb lleHb? - ,lI,OMS. Ky.o:3. Olla H,1J;eT? - Qm\ H,l],eT liS no1fT)'. r)];C OHa? - Qua Ha nO<tTc. nofuJ,eM B KJlY6. B KJly6e 6YJI)'T TaHll,bl. R He XO'lY li,lJ,TK TY.o:3.. KTO riM 6YJICT? Where are you hurrying to? Home. Where have you been all day? At home. Where's she going? She's on her way to the post office. Where is she? She's at the post office now. Let's go to the club. There'll be dancing at the cJub. I don't want to go there. Who'll be there? Come here. He's here.

'HlUt CfOAA.

6" 3Jl,Ccb.

REPETITION DRILL

Repeat the given models, noting that the distinction between "directional" and "Ioeational" concepts in Russian is observed both in the adverbs and in the ease system.
218 LESSON JO

CUED QUESTION-ANSWER DRIll

Where's she going? To the park.

T: (miplC) T: (miplC)

Ky.nA OHa HJJ,er?

"
s:

8 uapK.

Cae OHa 6b1J1a?


8 napKe. Kyna 8b1 Hltcre?
rJJ.e BLI DocTanH KQCT.oM? KYJJ.a

(MaraJI1Il)

(M3ra3l1u) (Jla60paTopWl) (na60paTOplUI) (Ja80.a) (,..60)


(no'ITa) (no'lTa)
(6H6JlHOTiICa) (6H6JlHOTeKa)
RESPONSE DRILL

BM cncwiITe?

rDe OHa pa66TaCT?

KYDa OH nowful?

r.ut saw

MY.?

Ky.nA nowen J.1eaH? rDe OH renepb?


KYDa OHa cnewHna?

Cae

QHa

Tcnepb?

He was at the club. Where? T: 0H 6blJl B KJlj6e.


S: r.~?
T:

A nou.rtY B Manl.3lt.tI.
Mhi cneWHnH lIa pa66Ty. A ocni.SJ.IJI ceO" nopT<pt:nb nOMa.
nOHAeM B 6H6nMoRICY.

On

cneWHn ua o6en.

S: Ky,a,a?
KHIIO. OIl" 6Y.nyr T3nUeBan, B KnY6e.

0K Ja6hln

R .nYM3K> nOHTi'f B

R 3a6hui CJJoaapb 8 CTonOaou. OK" KJIYr DOMOH.


STRUCTURE REPLACEMENT DRILLS

Obi cnpocHTe B Mara3HHe tla yrny. KJlto'lH tla JaBOne. .s1 cncwliJI lIa no'ny. MLI lVJ,eM Ila TaKUbI. CTy,nCHTbl cculfac tla 3K3aMeUaX.

I. He's here.

2. I'm at tlork.
l'm on my way to work. T: A tla pa66re.
s: A

He"s coming this way (or here).


T: 0H 3ll;ecb. s: On ~e-r CIOAA. T: OU ua pa66-re. S: OH M,.lJ.CT Ha pa6OTy. (ou B 6H6nHOTeKC, ua KOHuep-re, 311ecb,
TaM,110Ma)

HJJ.Y

Ha pa61hy.

T: .s1: Ha ypOKe.

s: A HJJY"8 yp6K.
(Ha JaBODe, lIa nOlfTe, ua nCXLtHH, tla co6paHHH, Ha cnyx6e, Ha JIOaMCtlC, tla 06eDe)

3. He's going to town. He's been in town. T: 0" H.O.CT B rOpoA. s: 0" 6biJi B ,'6poJl,e.
T: Oli H.O.eT B Mara3"H.

s:

0" 6hui
JHTHe)

Mara3Hue.

(8 rYM, B wKony, 8 6H6J1HOTeICY, 8 ytmBcpclfTeT, B KHIIO, B Kny6, B 06we-

L.ESSON

10

219

RESPONSE DRILLS

I. He's already been downtown. Fm going downtown flOW. T: 6n YJKC 6bJJl B ropo,Lte. s: TeuepL Ii H~ B ropo,D;. T: 611 YJKc 6hW Ha pa66Te. s: TeuepL Ii HJti' ua pa60T)'. (a 6H6mfOTeKe, Ha 3aBO,lJ,C, H3 ypOKe, B llIXOJle, n3 3K33MCHC, B 06me:lKHTHI1, B rYMe, n3 co6paHHH)

2. / forgot my briefcase at the library.

I'm going to the library. T: R 3a6bJJI nop-repeJlh B 6H6JlHOTCKe. s: H HAY 8 6H6J1HOTeKY. T: R 3a6hlJl nOpnfK:Jlb B ymmepcHTbe. S: H HAY 8 ymmepcHTeT. (B UlKOJIe, B rYMe, BMara3HHe, B o6me:lKHTHI1, Jl,OMa, 8 ropcOBeTe)
T:

3. Its time to go to school. Well, here we are at school already. T: nopa HJtTlI B lllXOJlY. s: Hy sOT, MY p>e B UlKOJte.

S:

nopa H.ilTIl H3 pa66Ty. MbI y'lKe U3 pa66-re. (B 6H6J1HOTeKY, B )'lIHBepcHTeT, B Ma raJHII, Ha CllYJK6y, Ha no'lTY)

Hy BOT,

QUESTION-ANSWER DRILL

Was he at home? Yes, but where were you? T: 6R 6bJJl ,D;6M3 ? s: )],8, a r JJ,e Rbi 6W1IH? T: 6R cnewH.f1 Ha o6e.ll? s: )],8, a KYAli w.i coemliJIH? 611 6w.n B KHRD?

611 cncuntJl B KHH61


6R 3T<) CnhllllaJI BmKOJlC? nowen B lllIC6JlY? 6R no 'JHT*," B 6H6JlHOTCKe? 611 CDelllH.rl B 6H6J1HOTeKY'? 6n 6bJ1J B napKe '? 6n nOUIell 8 mlplC?

611

DISCUSSION

The distinction between where to and where at is observed both in the adverbs (KyJJ,a versus r.ue; .uoMoii versus .uoMa) and in the case system. For example, prepositions Band Ha musl be followed by the accusative if destination is involved and by the prepositional if only location is involved.
I. Ky.u8 question with destinational (where to) adverb or accusative case in the answer:

KYAIi BW Hltere? - nOMOH. -B ""l'6. - Ha nO<ITY. - B lllKOJlY. - Ha c.rr)'JK6y.

Where are you going [toJ1 Home[wardJ. To the club. To the post office. To school. To work.

2. ritC question with locationaJ (where at) adverb or prepositional case in the answer:
rAe BW 6WM? - nOMa. - B K,rry6e. ~ Ha no'JTC. - B lllKOJle. - Ha CJI)IJK6e.

Where were you? At home. At the club. At the post office. At school. At work.

220

LESSON

10

KEY QUESTION

TYPE! OF VERB

TYPE! OF ADVERB

CASE REQUIRED AFTER


BAND Ha

WORD

KYJl8

destinational e.g. It.lrnf, nouTH, cnewHn. locatwnal rirb, CHllCn., paOOTaTh


e.g. 6brTh,

deslinational
nOMoD, TY.Q3,

accusative
Ita no'tTy, 8 UlIony

CJOAA

rue

locational
JJ.oMa, T3M, JJJ.6cJ,. Ha

prepositional nO'fTe, 8 WKone

4TEHI1E H nl1ChM0

- tT~

.fiu.I- fa

HA--

~ (' -~ ~ ~ ..flu ~

~~?_(/~"~ lk~:'.%N~ ~ ~?- ~ ~. a:Il ~ 'f fVM-

rJirm- .mr-

.w.I{. ('

-.1t--

~ ~.

LESSON

10

221

~ .9fhOift- ~ ~ ~-51~ J<- ~ -e


f<k

r4

r.vur ~? -~, t-

-~ ~ ~ t ~ ?aftun- ~.-no-CM-

~ ~

.e 1Ci<d. - ;ih 1.fL


<-<-

Cfuw! Xa--

'1diur

m.a-.u.-~?
4CQA(.

~ ~ ,,~
+nM<M-t.

~:' -

.j)om.

~2_~. y~

~1"F~.

- 3wut-, ~ ~ l ::ffiur ..<W<i: ~ ct..u..-~ ~. A ffA-- ~..u..~. -~ ~! ~ +<J.~_ -0<>-, ~ -.. ~ -t.<UUiu.. t -1CM.I<D:

t.urr=

Bbl He 3HaCTe. CTonoe3S1 Y)i(C OTKpbIT3? -

Aa,

H SI Y)l(C noo6en3Jl. -

'HO 6b1JlO

ccrO,lUUI Ha

o6e.a:? Haocpuo,

K3K Bcer.o,a, lUH? -

,ll,a, UHl 11, KQUC'IHO, Kawa. bblJIa pbl6a,

HO 60JlbWe neT. -

BOT nOC3}.l;a! J,:{a:lKc ",O,TH lie XO'ICTCJl.

3HHa, nO"lCMy 1'bl Bee BpCMSI CHllHWb .llOMa? -

Ky.o.a 3,lleCb MOjKlIO nOAHt? -

Kny6, B Inmo. -

npyr6e .ne.no. TaHUC83Tb SI


KHpHJIJl,

B KJly6e CKy'lHO. - HeT, He Bcer.aa, B nSlTHHu,y GYAyT T31J1lbi. moGmo.


31'01 31'0

A 31'0

no

<l>wumn, CTYllCUT 113

AMCpHKH. -

Tbl JllalWM C HI1M?

.ll.a,

Mbi '13CTO

o6eAacM BMccre B CTOnOOO". -

011 XOpoWH" napeUb? -

Lla.

O'fCHb.

XO<tCWb, SI Te6x n03U3KOMlllO C HHM? -

KOHC'fHO. SYll.Y O'lCHb pan.

Ha30BHTe JlHH McneIlH. -

)lHH HCJJ.eJ1H: nOHC,ltCnbHHK,

BTOP"MK, cpeJla, '1eTBepr, CerOJlH$I cpena. KaxoH JaBTpa

TUITHItll.a, cy660Ta, BOCKpeceHbe. ~ KaKoH cerOJl"" AeHb? -

nellb 6blJ1 B'l'epa? B'Iepa 6blJ1 BTOP"HK. - A KaKoH neHb 6yneT 3aBTpa? 6yneT 'l'eTBepr. - A nOCJleJ3BTpa? - nOCJIe3aBTpa 6YAeT n$lTHHll.a.

222

LESSON 10

R XO'fy noiint a KIlHO. R cnpOCll1l3, 'ITO 1111eT a KI1110 11 y3llan3, 'fTO H,O,eT (,BOHH3 H
MHp)). 51 Y)f(e IHllIeJIa 3TOT <pHnbM. MO)f(eT 6hITb nOH'nt 0 Kny6? TaM, HaoepHo, 6ynYT TaHUbl. B'Iepa 113 neKlllt11 npoepeccop Opnoa O'feHb mlTepecliO rooopl1n 0 Ilaponax CCCP: o }IKyTaX H rpyJI1Hax. Ha cnenYlOweH Henene OH 6yneT rOaOpl1Tb 06 YKpaI1H1l3X. Oner YJKe CJlbIWa.n ero MHoro paJ, a ~ TonbKO OAHH paJ.

Y K03J1ooa u ero Toaapuwa B '1eTSepr 3K3aMeHbl. OHI1 aee YTPO CI1Ael1l1 B 6u6Jl110TeKe. Ceii'lac OHI1 I1AYT B pecTOpaH. nOCJle o6eAa OHH omlTb noii.a.yr a 6H6JlI10TeKy. R cnpocHJI TOBaplfwa. rAe MO)f(HO .QOCTaTb aMepuKanCKIfH CJl0Bapb Be6cTepa. Oil He
31fan. Mbi cnpoClflll1 8 611611HOTeKe, HO TaM TaKoro CJl08ap~ He 6b1110. Tor.Qa Mbi cnpocH11H 8 M31-a3HHe Ha yrny, HO TaM TO>Ke He 6blno. Ii npoAaBUlHu.a He JllaJla, rJ:l,e ero MO:;KHO KynHTb. HHKonaii H raJI}l secb AeHb CHJJ,enH 8 6H6J1HOTeKe. OHH 6blJ1H O'lellb rOnOAlfbL OIiH XOTeJlH noo6eAaTb B CT011080ii, HO TaM 6WI1 T011bKO 60PUl " Kawa. TorAa HIiKonaij H raJlJ1 nownH B pecTopaH.

I..ESSON I0

223

LESSON

11

PREPARATION FOR CONVERSATION

B KHHO
kind, good Good evening. . Good evening, Zina. Wbat are you doing here? Oleg! Wbat are you doing here? picture tbjs (or that or the) picture I want to see this picture. I, too, want to see the picture. well, why Why, I want to see the picture, too.

.aOOPblH 1100PblH se'fep. ,llOOpwH ee..ep, 3M"a.


Dbi 'fTO

One,.! Bw 'fT6 TjT lIenaen:?


KapnfHa (gen pi npnfH) na Kapnrna A XO'fy nOCMo-rpeTb :hy KapTiluy, A TO)l(e XO'fy nOCMOTpC:Th :hy KapnlllY .ua SOT [d~vot] ,lla BOT To*e XO'iy nOCMOrpen. :7ry KapTHIIY

ll,enaeTe?

Is that so!
xo.ultTb (11) XO)Ky, XOlVlT Dw miKor.aa He xo.uHTe 8 KI1HO. A II .ayMaJI3, 'fTO 8b1 II11Kor.ll.3 lie x01UlTe
8 KIIIIO.

to go, attcnd I go, they go You ncver go to the movies. BUI I thought you never went to the movies. As you see, I do.

BCTpCnlTb (prv II) UCype'fy, BCTptrHT

A BaC SCTpeTHJI.
y.na'f3 BOT y.na'fa J.1 sOT yaha -

eac BC'I"piTIIJl.
.aeHb.
Obi Me.lli aliLJ,KTe KlhtcJ:u,Ui

to meet, encounter I'll meet, thcy'll meet I met you. luck, good luck what luck, what a lucky break And what a lucky break-I've met you. each, every You see me every day. Why is it a lucky brC'dk? You see me every day. Yes, but in class.

KfuKJJ.b1H Dbi Mewi BH.!lHTe KfuKD.blH

nO'IeMy ywi'la?
)leMb.

11a,

110 H3

)allJITUJlX.

225

1l0rOBOpIITb (pfv II) 1l0roBopfb, noroBopkr He 1l0rOBOpHWb


TaM fie noroBopHWb. D.li, HO ua 3auliTMflX, Ti.... He noroeopMun..

to talk (a bit), have a talk I'll have a talk, they'll have a talk one can't talk, you can't talk (lit, you won', talk) You can't talk there, Yes, but [only] in class, You can't [reallyJ talk there. And what is it you want to talk about? many things, lots of things About a lot of things. oneself (ren pron) about oneself about you, about myself for example For example, about you, about myself. to succeed, manage, make it I'll manage, they'll manage We won't succeed or We won't be able to. there's no time We won't be able to [because] there isn't time. to open I'm opening, they're opening They're opening the doors already. We won't be able to [because] there isn't time. They're opening the doors already.

'!el\ol

*e Rbi xontTe noroBOpiiTb?

Muoroe

o MHOroM.
ce6.li o ce6e

o sac,

ce6e HallpllMep
0

HanpHMep 0 Rae, 0 ce6e.

ycnhb (prv I) ycnc.o, ycneloT He ycneeM. BpeMCHH HeT He ycneeM, BpeMeHH HiT.
OTKPblB3Tb (I) oTKpblBafO, OTKpblRalOT

YJKe D.Rep" oupbloalOT.

He ycneeM,

OpeMCHM .reT.

Y*e ll8kptr

on:pW8HJOT.

SUPPLEMENT

onbnblBaTJ. (I) onhllblBaIO, OnaJllbIBaIOT

Bh.i BcerD.a on8.JllblBaCTe. OnOJAaTb (pfv I)


on03AalO, OnOJAalOT

Ii on03Aa.n(a) HJBIUlIITe, 'fTO R On03D.:l.u(a).


1l0'fb

(0

1I0<tb1O

cnOKOHfUol" CnOKOHHOH HO'!H! I

IlrpaTb Bh.i Hrpae-re Bh.illrpaeTe Bbi IIrpaere Bbl IIrpaeTe Bbl IIrpaeTC
BeCHa

B (plus ace) B dpTbl?


[ftelJis] B lYTooJl? (fTudbolJ B 6dic60JI? [vbejzb61]
B

TenIlHC?

XOKKeii?

[fxa~ejl

Bh.i 6YACTe TaM BCtO DecHy?


BC(;HO"

to come late, to be late I come late, they come late You always come late. to be late I'll be late, they'll be late f'm late, I was late Excuse me for being late. night at night quiet, calm, serene Good night! to play (a game) Do you play cards? Do you play tennis? Do you play soccer? Do you play baseball? Do you play hockey? spring Will you be there all spring? in spring

, C_Oiaoi - - . like --0 xopOmcro, is in the ptive case. This is usual wilh fareo.vells and wishes for bapplncss..

226

LESSON

II

BeCIIOH Mbl 'laCTO I1rpaeM B TCHHHC, nCTO Bbl 6Y.aeTC nlM BCe mho? JICTOM )1CTOM Mbl 'Iac-ro HrpaeM B 6eHc66ll. JIlM6H 31lMOii Mbl '1aCTO .lrpaeM B XOKKCH.
6ceHblO 6ceHblO MW '1aCTO IlrpaeM B 4JyroOll.

ClCOpo B M3raJHlle clC6po 6ynYT K<i.pTl>l.

In spring we often play tennis. summer Will you be there all summer? in summer In summer we often play baseball. in winter In winter we often play hockey. in autumn In autumn we often play soccer. soon They'll soon have maps in the store.

B KHHO
Oner 3MH3 Oner 3HH3 Oner 3MHa Oller 3uHa Oner )l;06PbtH se'l.ep. 3m.3!

2 Oncr! Bbi 'ITO

.ll.e.naeTe?

3)l;a BOT TO)ICe xO'ly nOCMOTpeTb :hy KapTMHy.


4 BOT K3x! A R .ll.yMana, 'ITO BLI HHKOr.ll.3 He XOAHTe B XHH6. 1 1

5 KftK BMAJlTe, XOlKY. H BOT y,ltaqa -

sac

BCTpeTHJI.

6 nO'ieMy Y.ll.3<ta? BbI MeHR BH,nHTe K3)IC,ltbtH ACUb.

7 ,Ua, no H3 JaHRTHu. TaM

He

norOBopUWb.

8 A

lfCM :lKe BbI: xoTkre norOBOpHTb ?


0

9 0 MHO rOM. Hanpl1MCp

sac,

eeoc. J

NOTES

Note that in a subordinate clause, Russians usc the present tense if the present tense is really meant. Compare the English, / thought you neyer weill to the mOYies, where a past tense verb went is required because it is preceded by a past tense verb rhought in the main clause. The Russian past tense is only used to describe events in the past that no longer occur in the present. sI .aYM8J18, 'ITO Rbi HHKorJUi lie XO,AHJIH B KHUll would mean / thought you Neyer used to go (or had gone) to the movie.!>'. Activities begun in the past and continuing in the present require the present tense in Russian. For example:
I

Bw ,ttaBHo J,ttCCb )KHBeTe?


A. J.neCb pa66T3.JO C 6ceHH.
~

Have you been living here long? I've been working here since fall.

XO.ruh'b differs from IIl(lli in that it describes the activity of going in general terms, to go or to at/end, whereas H,LtTIi is more specific and means to be going or to be on one"s way
Compare with
~ XO)Ky

ua c06pil.nHg,

.H

It,nJ Ha c06paHHe.

I go to the meetings (I attend meetings). I'm going to a meeting (I'm on my way to a meeting).
LESSON II 227

With such adverbs as "aCTO, peAKO, HHKorna, and NHOrJIJi, the verb XO,rofn. is normally used: BY ..aCTO xO./DfTe B napK? Do you often go to the park? ) Note that the reflexive personal pronoun ce6e (rather than ~) must be used here since the subject of the sentence and the object of the preposition 0 are the same:
..sf He XO'ly roaopkTl,
0

ce6e.

I don't want to talk about myself.

The single form ce6e can refer to any of the personal pronouns:

ce6e. OHM ,DjMaJOT TOm.KO 0 ceW. Bbi .QjMaere TOIlbKO 0 ce6e.


TonhKO 0

Om1 AYMaeT

She thinks only of herself. They think onJy of themselves. You think only of yourseJf{or yourselves).

Ce6i has no nominative form. It is usually cited. in the accusative-genitive form 6li.
4 U one is late to a motion-picture performance, be win not be allowed to enter while the picture is being shown; nor is it customary to leave before the picture is over. If this were done at a play, it would be considered uncultured HeKyJlbTYPHO.

PREPARATION FOR CONVERSATION

, nOcne

KHHO

Hi

Hy dK? noupaaHThCSI (pfv 11)1 K8K? nOHpUK.IIOCb?


Ta~OH

well, how about it? to like (iii. to appeal to) Well, how about it? Did you like it? such, so, like that I haven't seen any pictures like that before. Very much. I haven't seen any pictures like that before. Neither have I or Same here.

>1 TaKMX kapTHH Cute He BHnena. OtteHb. A nlllaD. t.-apnlH eme He BH.neJ1a.

TOJlCTO" (gen sg TOJlCToro) nOHHMlUtHe .sf ue o:ll7Knan nur::oro nOHHM:iHH. ToncrOro. )t He O~ OT aMepMriHues TaK6ro

00flJt\t&an TOJICTOro.
HrpATb (I) KTO Hrpan HaT3.wy? HM$l (gen and prep sg HMeHH, nom and ace pI HMella, gen pi HMeH) ..sf 336buta HMJI. A ... ,6 KJ1nin Harimy? A 386W.'1a liM. ,

Tolstoy understanding I didn't expect such understanding of Tolstoy. I didn't expect such understanding of Tolstoy from the Americans. to play Who played. Natasha? name, first name I forgot the name or I've forgotten the name. But who played. Natasha? I forgot the name.

, The verb ~ is a rdkxive verb which is typically U5ICd in constructions requirin, lbc dative case. The form ..pUa.'JOQ, is neu!cr put. lense, and it may be literally traMlatq;:l as if ap~/td Of if moth Q !a'ltN'obk impression.

228

LESSON II

nbMIIHTb (II)

n6MIUO, nOMH}lT B TOjKe HMetuI He UOMIIIO.


BbiTOBOpHTb (prv II) BbiToBOPJO, BbiTOBOP}lT

to remember I remember, they remember I don't remember her name either. to pronounce, say I'll pronounce, they'll pronounce one can't pronounce, you can't pronounce (lit. you won't pronounce) They have Dames you can't pronounce.
pyCCKHX

lie BblTOBOPHWb
y tuIx H.\teH3 He SblroBopHllth.

AMepKK8.lUD>I He MOryr sbiToBOPHTb

Americans can't pronounce Russian names. Americans probably can't pronounce Russian names either. Probably.

HMeH.

A llMepllriHuw, Ha:sepao, pycc,,"1IX "-\tea He lUOryr shiroaopMTb.

HaSepHO.

BbI '1aCTO xo,zU:lTe B KHHO KnK 8 Kny6 '1 C"a"'IiTe, SLI lIaCTO X6~HTe 8 KHlfO HnH B
8
KHlIO .. aCTO,

Knj6?

Do you often go to the movies or to tbe club? Tell me, do you often go to the movies or to the club?
To the movies, often; but to the club, no. to dances, to a dance unless maybe Unless maybe to a dance. Then you like to dance?

B KJly6 -

HeT.

Ha T3.HUbl

PliJBe

p,'1JBe 'fTO [razyi~t:;)J 'fTO Ha riHQw.

Xol"liTe uorn

cy666ry?

Do you want to go Saturday'! I'd be glad to or I'd love to.

JlOTOaopHn.cR (pfv II) JJ.OTOBOpHnHCb

lHli'fMT,

~orosoptimtc ...

to agree, come to an understanding we've agreed. it's agreed, it's a date Then irs a date.

SUPPLEMENT

laMHnKSI KfIK BaWa $aMHnHSI ? - MoA laMHlIHSI neTpon. Kb Bawe HMSI? - Moe HM1l neTp. HMlI H 6T'fecTBO Kb Barne H:WI H OT'IecTBO 71 -Moe HM}I H OT'lecTBO nihp l1BaHOBH'I.

JUno (I) 30By. JOBYr Kh BaC 30BYr?


MeHM 30BYr IiopHC neTp6BH'f OpnOB.

last name, family name What's your last name? My last name is Petrov. What's your first name? My first name is Pyotr. first name and patronymic What are your first name and patronymic? My first name and patronymic are Pyotr Ivanovich. to call I call, they call What's your name? (Lil. What do they call you?) My name is Boris Petrovich Orlov.

Russians u$U3..l1y omit tbe conjunction _ in speech.

LESSON 11

229

nOCJIe 1<""0
OJlt~r

I Hi dK?
2 OlfeHb.

OOHpaeKJIOCb 1 1

3uHa

.st TaKHX KapTlf:u eme He BHne.n3.


He
O:llCHJJ.a.n OT aMepHK3HlteS

Oner 3
3HH3

Jt TO:llCe.

TaKOra

nOHHMaHHx

TOJlCTOro. 2

4 Ali. A no HrpAn HaTftwy?


TOlKe "MeHH He

.st 3a6W3 "MX. 3,.


BHx HMeHa He BwrOBopHWb. 5

Oner 5 >t
3HHa
Ollef
3HIla

n6MIDO_ Y

6 A

aMepUK3HUbi.

Hasepuo,

pyCCKHX

HMeR

He

MOryT

Bb.J.fOBOPHTb.'

7 HaaepHo. CKaJKHTe, BhI


8 B KUUO 'faCTO,

..a.CTO

XOAHTe 8 KKHO UJIH B K.JIj6?


Pa30e 'fTO H3 T3.HUbl.

KJly6 -

RCT.

Oller

9 Tax DbI JUo61ne TaHueBlln.? XOTihe noiiT" B cy666Ty?


YAOOOJlhCTBHeM.

3uHa 10 C

Qner 11 3H3.'1HT, .llOrOBopHJUtCb.

NOTES

I The verb HpaSJITbCJI (perfective nOHpaBMTt.C1iI) is the usual word for to like and expresses a milder apprecialion Ihan mo6MT... which means both to like and to fOlie. In connection with something experienced for the first lime, upaBKT1>CJI, noupaBHTbeJI must be used: Hr, OOapSBHJlOCl.? Well, did you /ike it? JIJo6Hn. describes a stronger, more deep-seated emotion or attitude: A mo6.'UO nuuesan. rm lJery fond of dancing. In the sense of 10 love, only JD06Iin, can be used.
1JIeB TOJJC'I"6H (1828-1910) is one of the major figures in Russian literature. His long novel 8oiiHa H MHP~) Wor and Peace was wriuen in the early 1860's. Notice that TOJ]CTOM is adjectival in its declension, e.g., TOJlcrOl"O (gen sg).

The noun HMJI, like BpeMiI and a handful of other Russian nouns with the nominative cnding in --Mil, is neuter. H~IH usually applies to the first name, but is sometimes used in reference to both first and last names, especially when speaking of prominent personalities. In asking a person's name, the adverb KaK is used:
J

KaK BaWe HMJI? KaK Ballle HMJI H OT'fecTBO? KaK BaWa $aMHJnuI? KaK er6 30BYT?
4

What's your first name? What are your first name and patronymic? What's your last name? What's his name?

Note that Russians use the perfective past of certain verbs when, in corresponding situations, tbe present tense is more common in English:

.st 33.6blJl eC 1iMJI. .st On03,1:ta.'l, 113B}lHHre.


Jl yeTM.

I forget her name or I've forgouen.... I'm late (fit. I came late). Excuse me. I'm tired or I've become tired.

'The second person singular perfective future without the pronoun TbI IS often used in negative constroctions in Russian to make a general or impersonal statement. In English this is normally expressed by you can', or one can't:

230

LESSON

11

Ha nCICu,HRX He norOBopHWh. Y HHx HMeHa - He BblroBopHWh.

You can't talk at lectures. They have names you can't pronounce.

, PyCCKKM is the only name for a nationality that can serve as both adjective and noun in Russian:

6"
6H

PYCCICHH, a He aMeplu:aHeu.. xopow6 3HaeT PYCCllHH 1I3blI.

He's a Russian, not an American. He knows the Russian language well.

Compare L\lepHKa..eu an American with L\lepKk-aaCKHii American in the following sentences:


6H aMepHKAHeu.

611 aMepHK3.DCKHH CTYACKT.

He's an American. He's an American student.

Remember that none of the words referring to nationalities is capitalized in Russian: PYCCI\HM, aMepHKiuCKHi, aMcpHKaHeu, aurmfliCI\HH. Only the names of countries are capitalized: COBeTCI\HH Colin Soviet Union, AMepHKa, AurnHJll, POCCHli.

Basic sentence patterns


I. TiM MH6ro UJ>04x::ccop6s.

_____ CTonos.
_ _ _ _ aBT66yCOB.

There are a lot of professors Ihere. _ _ _ _ _ _ tables _ _ _ _ _ _ buses _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ newsstands __ _ _ _ _ _ _ stores _

_ _ _ _ _ u6cJ.:OB. _____ Mara:UtHoB.

_ _ _ KJIYOOB.
_____ 3aBOAOB.
_ _ _ _ _ aTnacoB.

_ _ _ _ _ c1ubs
_ _ _ _ _ plants _ _ _ _ _ _ atlases
We don't have any _______ _______ ______ ________ _______

_
_ _

2. Y HaC ue-r KapaHJJ,aWeH.


_ _ _ _ HOJKCH.
_ _ _ _ iUUO'lCH.

_ _ _ melt
_ _ _ _ cnoBapeH.

_ _ _ _ TeTpfuJ.Ci'i.

pencils. knives. keys. schi. dictionaries. notebooks.

J. 3ACch He-r Kapnrn.


_ _ _ KlUtr.

There are no pictures here. _ _ _ _ booh _ _ ____ _____ _____ _____ _____ maps _ _ Schools ~ libraries __ teachers __ faetories_.

_ _ _ ..apT. _ _ _ _ ll1KOn.
_ _ _ _ 6U6.rntoTeK. _ _ _ _ yqHrem.BUu..

_ _ _ <j>36pHI.
4. TAM He 6hUIO lCOp660x:.
_ _ _ _ _ 001101'.

_ _ _ _ _ A0c6I:.

_ _ _ _ _ BKnOK.

_ _ _ _ _ nO:lKeiC. _ _ _ _ _ 'laweK.

There weren't any boxes there. _ _ _ _ _ _ shelves _ _ _ _ _ _ _ blackboards _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ forks _ _ _ _ _ _ _ spoons _ _ _ _ _ _ _ cups _

LESSON II

231

TaM He 6blno pY<reK. _ _ _ _ _ OKOII. _ _ _ _ _ miceM. 5. Y "Ult lie 6blno neKI.l.ItH. ______ ay-aHTopltii. ________ na60paTOpKfi. _ _ _ _ _ 33HliTHH. _______ co6paHIlH.
______ o6l.UC)l(HTHii.

There weren't any pens there. _ _ _ _ _ _ windows _ _ _ _ _ _ leiters

_ _

______ CO<rHHeHHii. ______ 3ajl8JleHItH.


6. 8b1 a:ymi.nlt KocnOM'1

They didn't have any lectures. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ auditoriums. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ laboratories. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ classes. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ meetings. _________ dormitories. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ compositions. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ applications. Did No, Did No, Did No, Did No, Did No, Did No, Did No, Did No, Did No, Did No. Did No, Did No, Did No, Did No, Did No, you buy a suit? I dido't buy a suit. you buy a present? I didn't buy a present. you buy tea ? I didn't buy tea. yo.u buy herring? I didn't buy herring. you buy a map? I didn't buy a map. you buy a notebook '1 I didn't buy a notebook. you buy milk? I didn't buy milk. you get I didn't you get I didn't you get I didn't you get I didn't you get I didn't you get I didn't you gct r didn't you get I didn't the get the get the get the get the get the get the gct the get cupboards? the cupboards. atlases? the atlases. books '1 the books. pictures? the pictures. boxes? thc boxes. briefcases '1 the brief~ases. dictionaries? the dictionaries. notebooks? the notebooks.

-- Her, li He a:yrni.n Jt::ocnOMa. 8b1 Kymi.nlt no-aapox'1 - Htr, li He a:ymi.n nOJlapn. 8b1 a:yrni.nH 'faH'1 - Htr, li He lCynHJI 'fb. 8b1 XynKnH cene.a.a:y'1 - Htr, Ii He KynHn ce.ne,llm. 8b1 a:ynKnH dpry'1 - Her, Ii He 1CynH.n xaPThl. 8bi Kynlinlt Te"r'p3.J.u. '1 -- Htr, Ii lie 1CynH.n TeTp:\.AH. 8b1 KynHnH MonoKo'1 - Htr, Ii He Kynlin Monad.

7. 8b1 -aoeTinH wKa41bi? - HeT, Ii lie Jlocn\..n wKa$>B. 8w JlOCn\JlH hnacbl? - Her, Ji lie .aocT3..n aTnaCOB. 8w JlOCTMH KHHrH'1 - HeT, li lie .aOCTM KHHr. Bbl .aOCT{um KapniubI? - HeT, Ii He JlOCTan Kapnf:H. Bbl .aOCTanJI Kop06KH? - Htr, R He JlOCTM Iwp66oK. Dbl LlOCTanli nopT4Jemt'1 - Htr, li lie .nOCTM nopTtPCneH. Dbl -aOCTMH cnOBapU? - Htr, Ii He .nocn\..n cnoBapeH. 8bi .nOCTfUlH TeTp3..aH'1 - Htr, li He .aocn\..n TC"T'p3.neH.

8. R He BH:lkY UO:lka.
_ _ _ noP"1l>6>K.
_ _ _ _ cnosapli:. _ _ _ _ iTnaca.
______ nJfCbMa.

I don't see any _____ ________ _____ _____

knife. briefcase. dictionary. atlas. Iener.

232

U!SSON 11

9. .sf He noKynin xne6a. _ _~ Monod.


_ _ _ _ _ pW6bl. _ _ _ _ _ 6YMant. ______ MaTepHana.

---_
10.

....

I didn't buy any _____ _____ _____ ______

bread. milk. fish. paper. material.

_ _ _ _ _ 100.

Jt *n:i npo<p6ccopa Opn6sa. Tw J,lIeWb _ O. "",er _

Mw XlteM Ow )l[J],eR

0 .... lKJlYr -

I'm waiting for Professor OrlOY. You're waiting focr _ He's waiting for _ We're waiting for _ You're waiting for _ They're waiting for _

II.

To:. __ nOJ],O)KJl.eWb.
Olla __ nOJJ,O)f()leT. Mbl __ nOJ],O)KJl.eM.

.st er6 noJJ,oJlC..llj.

Do:. __ nOJ],olK,ll,ere.
OIlH __ noJJ,oJK,AYr.
12.

I'll wait for him. You'll wait __. She'll wait _ _. We'll wait _ _. You'll wait __. They'll waiL...-.
_
. _

Jt npHuecY 06'11)'. Tw npHHecewb Ou npHHeeeT


Mhi npHHeeeM npHHecCTe

Ow

_
_

OIiH npHHecYr

J'II bring [in] the mail. I You'll bring [in] __. He'll bring (in] _ _ . We'll bring [in] _ _. You'll bring [in] __. They'll bring (in] __
I won'l ha ye time to write letters. You won't have lime _ He won't have time _ We won'l bave lime _ You won't have time _ They won't have time _ I open the windows every day. Youo~n __ She o~ns _ We open _ You o~n _ They open _

13.

Jt He ycnbo Ham{(:aTb nHCbMa. Tw He ycneeWb _


He ycn6eT He yCDeeM He ycm~.ere Omt He ycnelOT

OH

Mw Ow

_ _
_

14.

Jt

OncPblBaJo 6lCHa K<l)kJlblH

.neHb.
_
_

TbJ: OncPblOaeWh OHa OTKpbleaeT MbJ OncpblOaeM Dbl oTKpbloaere OUH OnpblB3.lOT
15. KaK oAme m.u..?

_ _ _

- Moe 8:MJI Hm.:oJJaH. _ _ _ _ ram\Ha. _ _ _ _ MaplUr.

What's your firsl name? My first name is Nikolay.

_ _ _ _ _ Galioa. _ _ _ _ _ Maria.
What's your last name? My lasl name is Petrov. _ _ _ _ _ _ Petrova.
_ _ _ _ _ _ Orlov.

16. Kax sAma laMH.nlUl? - Moli tfmMKnHJI neTp6s. _ _ _ _ _ _ neT'p6sa.


_ _ _ _ _ _ Opn6B.

Notice that IJ600rnl means mail as wdl as posl offiCI'.

LESSON II

233

- Mo.li <paMHJIlHI OpnOBa. _ _~ KYpo'fKHH. _ _ _ _ _ _ KYPO'lKHua.

My last name is Orlova. _ _ _ _ _ _ Kurochkin. _ _ _ _ _ _ Kurochk.ina. What are your first name and patronymic? My first name and patronymic are Pyotr Nikiticb. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Vladimir Ivanovich. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Zinaida Pctravna. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ irina Mikhailovna. Good Good Good Good _ morning, Zina! afternoon, Zioa 1 evening, Zina! night, Zina!

17. KaK BaWe HMJI. H OT'feCTBo?


Moe HMH H OT'feCTBO nell> Hmnhwl.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ BnaJJliMHp H.BaHOBIf'f. _ _ _ _ _ _~_ 3HHaH..a.a neTpOBHa. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ I1pHna MHXaHnOBHa.

18. LI;o6poe

trPo, 3liHa! Jl,06PhIH Jl,eHh. 3HHa! Jl,06PhlH Be'fep, 3HHa! CnOKOHHOH nO'!H, 3Hlla!
BecHOH

19. 3WMOH MbJ 'faCTO HrpaeM B K3.pThI.


6ceHbfO MbI pe.r:tKo IfrpaeM JIeToM
B

In winter we often play cards. Inspring~ _ In autumn we rarely play cards. _ In summer

K<iPTbJ. _

Pronunciation practice: double consonants


Tn English double consonants are heard only~at a boundary between two words. Written double consonant letters within tbe word (as in Bill. hammer) are pronounced as single consonants.
Compare Will Lee go? Ann names. Kiss Sal. with Will 'e go? Ann Ames. Kiss AI.

In Russian, however. double consonants are heard not only across word boundaries, but also within words. Compare [a-tt<i1JjJ aT TanH from Tanya [ann:}] Anna Anna with [atAlJ.i] OT AnH from Anya [ivan:}]I1Bana of Ivan

Double consonants occur in Russian mainly at tbe point where a prefix or preposition joins the rest of the word. but they may also occur at other places within a word (e.g., [anna]). Note, bowever. that not every written sequence of two identical letters necessarily indicates a double consonant in pronunciation. Russians tend to pronounce many double letter sequences with a single consonant, especially in foreign-derived words. Thus, Ilpo4JecCOP and cy660l"a contain only single consonants in pronunciation. Usage varies in this respect. Many Russians pronounce rp,Yrma with a single [p], tbough orthographic handbooks prescribe [pp]. In rapid speech double consonants often tend to be replaced by single consonants. Sound Drill: Practice the Russian examples illustrating the contrast between double and single consonants, imitating your instructor (or the tape) as accurately as you can. Be sure to pronounce the double consonants as long consonants, without a break in the middle.

234

LESSON II

Intonation practice: review of rising and rising-faUing contours


Reread the discussion on rising and rising-falling intonation contours in Lessons 7, 8. and 9.
A. Review of questions with rising conlours (questions without a question word).

Oil :mecb"
B6m:OB y ce6li.,
QHa 8 r6po.ne?

Is he here? Is Valkov in?

BJl:a.a.HMHp D8 pa66n:? flo"'KH B RlJ.(J1Ke?

A.TJl8C .aopor6H?
OHl1 H8 co6paHHH?

0mi

CTy)];eIITK8?

ObI ):l;p,Y3bli?
ABT66yc y;Ke ".neT?
Ta.M 6blllO HHTepeeHO"

Is she in town" Is Vladimir at work., Are the spoons in the drawer? Is the atlas expensive? Are they at a meeting? Is she a student? Are you friends?
Is the bus coming already? Was it interesting there? Are you going home? Did he go to the store '! Were you sick? Do you work at the gorsovet? Do you have history now'! Is the borsch ready yet? Are the spoons already on the table? Have you already eaten dinner? Do you know him? Are you hurrying to tbe bus '! Is comrade Alexeev in? Is he in Moscow now'! Do they know him? Have you heard about her? Is she working now?

Tbl H,ll,eWb .nOMO"? OH nowen B Mara3HH?


Rbi 6buIH 60JIbtW?

Rbi paoomere B ropcooe-re? Y Te6Ji TenepI. HCTOPIUI '"1 1?6pUl, )"ICe rOTo8?
nOXICH }?KC H8

CTOne"

Db!: Y?KC noOOe}.la.nH"

Tw era 3HacUIb?
DbI cnenurre II8 aBro6yc? TOBapHlJ.( A.n.cKceee y ce6li?

011 ceH'IaC B MocKBe?


OHif era 30aK>T? 8bi 0 Heli CnI:dWMH" Omi ceH'IaC pa66-rae-r?

B. Review of questions with rising-falling contours (questions without question words).


OHa Kynll:na MaTeplUi.n., HpHHa omiTb 60nhHa? Y Hlix ecn, KOMHaTa ? OHti 6butH "a 3aHlITJUlX? OHa .nocnina CnOBapb? CTy.neHTbl y:manll 06 .:hOM?

Oner ,IIaBHO roneH? Y sac cerollHR 3",J3MCHb.I? Cawa 6bln B wKone?

Did she buy the material? Is Irina sick again? Do they have a room? Did tbey attend classes? Did she get hold of the dictionary? Did the students find out about it '] Has Oleg been ill long? Are your exams today? Was Sasha in school?

LESSON II

235

Omi )'lKe Kymi.na CJI0oaPb? 6nbnl neTpaOHa Omf1-b 6onbHa? MapHR HBaHOOHa 6b1na B rYMe? Y J.1BaHa H'o.:UIOOWla ecTh KaMHan? Bbi o'lepa CJIYwaIIH KOHllePT 1 Reo y.Ke nonY'lHn filICbM61 Oner y*e .naOHa ooneH? CT)'.neHThI }')Ke y:manH 06 nOM? OHa y>i<e no.nana Jannelme?

Has she already bought the dictionary? Is Olga Petrovna sick again? Was Maria Ivano\'na at GUM? Does Ivan Ivanovich have a room? Did you lislen to the concert yesterday? Has Lev already received the letter? Has Oleg been ill a long time now? Did tbe students already find out about it? Has she already submitted an application?

C. Review of emphatic statements with rising-falling contours.


Oner .n&BHO 3.!l0p60! MiU:ta omin. 3Jlecb! Y He<: ecn. KaMHan! )KeHa OCerJl.8 .!lOMa! ORH He xo"riT 06c.!laTh! OHa )'JKC .!lOCT8J1a MaTepHan! HHHa YJKC nO,lUlJla JaJIBneHHe! Oner )')Ke DOJl)"flin nHCbMO! Bbi a HeH omin. Ja6buJH! Y lIJix yxc ecn. KOMHara! ToaapHllt AneKoCeB omm. He 06C.aaII!' IiH6JlHoreka .naBOO JaIlepri! Mbi 'jI.e cnpallllllUIJIH y Hero! A. YJKc IWDICa.!1 nHCbM6! Oleg has long since recovered! MBa is here again! She does have a room! My wife's always home! They don't want to eat dinner! She already got the material! Nina already has submitted her application! Oleg's already receilled the letter! You forgot about her again! They already halle a room. Comrade Alexeev didn't have his dinner again! The library has long since been closed! We already asked him! I already wrote the letter!

TRANSFORMATION DRILLS

Change the following emphatic statements (with rising-falling contours) to questions (with risingfalling contours on a higher pitch level). MflJTa ollliTb 3.!leCb! OHit 6btmt 0 MOCKoe! Y lice eCTb KaMHaTa! Kanl KynIi.na MaTcpllaJl! 311Ha acerJJ.a .nOMa! HHHa}')kC nOD,a.rta Ja$lB.tleUlle! SpaT Y'l'e nOCJ1M nHCbMO! TODapKl.U. B6.tlKOB omiTb OOJJeH! 6KHa y HHX ocer.aa JanepThl! Cecrpa pee nOJJY'lHna nHCbMO! Tbi BOJbMemb 3TH KHJl:rH! M iUIa omiTb Jtlecb?
OIUJ 6b"11l11 D MOCKBC? Y nee CcTI> K6MHaTa?

Karl'! Kymina MareplJa.tl? 3ltlla Bcema .uoMa? HHHa Y'l'e nOtlana JaJlBneHlle? Iipar )')tie nOCJ1an ~"CbMO? TOBapllw B6nKOD omiTb GOneH? 6Kua y H(IX acer.na 3anepTbl? CecTpa )')tie nOJIY'lHna nHcbM6? Tbi B03bMemb 3nl: KHHrH?

236

LESSON

II

STRUCTURE AND DRILLS

The present-future of first conjugation verbs patterned like pa60T8Tb


and HJlTli
FIRST OONJUGATION PRESeNT-FUTURE ENDINGS

EXAMPLES

Mltl'li (ipfv)
to

be going

pa6clTaTb (ipfv) to work

SINGULAR

1
2

-y or-K) --em.. (-ewb)


-eT

Kill'
HJJ,ernb
""",
HJ{eM

pa66Ta1O
pa66TaCUIb

3
PLURAL

(-"'J

paOOTaCT
pa66racM

I 2 3

-eM (-eM)

-en: (-CTe)
-YT

UJlCTe
u.ajT

or -lOT

pa66TaeTe pa60TaJOT

Note that the second person singular ending is conventionally spelled with a final-I. even though w is always pronounced hard.
MODElS

I. First conjugation verbs which pal/ern like paooTaTb in the present-fulure:

LJTO Bha llenaeTf:?

- J1 HH'icro He JJ.MlUO.
Bbi er6 31UieTe? -)la, ]Hi><>. o 'JeM Bbr aiMaeTc?

- .s1 J(jMalO 06 3lOaMcuax.


Bbi
lIOHHMaeTe, 0 'feM ou He nOllHMlbo.

rOBopth?

Hch,

Kor.na Bbl 3TQ

c!U~J1aeTe?

- >t :ho cniJJatO 3aaTpa.


YTO Bbi ROKynlleTt?

- ..st

OOiCyoiJo MaTepUan ua lCocnOM.


y3HalO nOCJIe33.Bl"pa.

Kor,l{3. 8bl ylWieTe 06 :hOM?

- .st
- .st

4TO Db!: "DI'T1ie..-e?

'fJIT'liJO CTKXH.

rAe 8M cer6.a1Uf 06emurre?

- .sf ooe.aalO 8 CTOn080H:.


Obi He ycnieTe lIa allT66yc. - Her, ycm?:IO. Kor6 BM mkWeTe? - .st O;QJl.8Jo APyra H3 MOCKBbl.

What are you doing? I'm not doing anything. Do you know him? Yes, I do. What are you thinking about? I'm thinking about the exams. Do you understand what he's talking about? No, I don't. When will you do this? I'll get it done tomorrow. What are you buying? I'm buying ma.terial for a suit. When will you find out about it? I'll find out the day after tomorrow. What are you reading? I'm reading poetry. Where are you eating dinner today? I'm eating dinner in the dining hall. You won't make the bus on time.
Yes, I will.

Whom are you expecting? I'm expecting a friend from Moscow.


LESSON I I 137

Bbl KI'paere B -reHHHC? - .Ll.a, Krp3.IO. Bbl He ouol.n;3.ere Ha KOHUepT? - Hb, He OUOl.n;alO. Bbi 'faCTO OU3.lJU>lB3ere Ha paooTy? - Her, HIHlKor.n;a He OmbJn,lBlUO.

Do you play tennis? Yes, I do. Won't you be late for the concert? No, I won't be late. Are you often late to work? No, I'm never late.

2. First conjugation verbs which pattern like HlJ;'rii in the present..j'uture:


Bbi nOM.1leTe 3aBTpa B rea-rp? - Her, H uoiiJ.tY nOCJleJaBTpa. Rbi :laM.1leTe B 6H6111ioTeKy? - )la, H 3a~ Ty.n;a nOCJle 3aBHndi. Kor6 Bbi ,...n;ere? - .sf. ,..Aj OlIcra. Bw BOH.n.C're B .n;OM? - HeT, He BOii,nj. Bbi MellH 3~ecb no.n;OiK.n;eTe? - )la, no.n;oJKJJ:Y. Rbi upHlleceTe CBO" CJlOBapb? - )la, UPHllecy. Bbl BOJbMC're 3HI KUHnl? - ):la, BOlbMy. rAe Bbl iKHBC're? - .R "'HBy npOTHB mipKa. REPETiTiON
DRILL

Will you be going to the theater tomorrow? No, I'll go the day after. Will you drop in at the library? Yes, I'll drop by there after classes. Whom are you waiting for? I'm waiting for Dleg. Are you going to go into the house? No, I'm not. Will you wait for me here? Yes, I will. Will you bring your dictionary? Yes, I will. Will you take these books? Yes, I will. Where do you live? I live across from the park .

Repeat the given models, noting the two types of verb patterns.

SUBSTITUTION DRILLS I

I. I don', know.

Ji He 3HalO.
Bbi He 3HaCTC.
(Mbl, Tbl, MHlIa, CTYACHTbl, BbI,
$I,

aaxTCp)

2. She's rarely late to work. Omi pe,llKO Ona3/lblsaeT Ha pa66Ty. Bhi pe.aKo Ona3;:u.J.OaCre na pa66ry. (Tbl, Mbl, OUH, H. MItJla, BbI, TbI) 4. You won't make it to the bus on time. Bhi ue ycneere lIa aBT66yc. 00 He ycn6eT ua aBT66yc. (H, 01lH, TbI, oua, Mbl, rami, ahl, De'll)

3. Won't you be late to the concert? Tbi He on03.n:aellIb Ha KOHUepT? 8LI ue on03Af!.ere Ha Koun:epT? Mbl, aHa, OUH, Tbl, l'I, Barn 6paT, BallIli .n;PyJbH) 5. In the afternoon we play cards. n6cJJe oGe.na MW HrpaeM B KaPTbI. IToCJle o6eAa oilli HrpalOl' B dpTbl. (H, BbI, ee .n;PY3bH, Thl, CTy.ll:CHTbI, MOH CCCTpa, MbI)

I Henceforth the drills will appear without the labels T (for teacher) and S (for student). In SubslilUtion Drills, the word 10 be replaced will be indicated by boldface type in the models; in all other drills, the student"s response appears in boldface.

238

LESSON 11

QUESTION-ANSWER DRILLS

1. What's Oleg doing? He's reading a letter. l.Iro Oller JJ.e.naCT?

2. When will you go home? I'm already on my way. Kor.na ThI: nOKn.CWb JJ.oMoii?

0"

'DmieT

IDICLMO.

JI )'>Ke ..,yo
)"IHTemi,

l.ITO ThI: ne.naellIb? $I 'Dmito IIHCbMO. (CTy.neHTlJ, )"IIITe.RbHUua, CTyneHTKu)

nponaBWJlua, Tbl, 01111, Bbl, ccKpeTapb,

Korn! 00 nOH.aeT nOM6ii? 6" )')ICe ll,11,h. (OHH. Bbl. aHa, CTyneuTbi. npoJlaBWHua, :rrn .neByuIDI. y60PUUfUa)

3. Where is your application? rll bring it right away. rt~e TBce 3aJIBJleHHe? $I ceii-tac uptrnecy.

r.ue ee 3<U1BIleHue?
Omi ceiNac Dpnuech. (Barne, ox. era. ee, HX,
TBoe)

STRUCTURE REPLACEMENT DRILLS

I. I waited a little. rll wait a little. R ueMHoro no.no"'Jl.an. $I HeMJiOro DOJJ.~. Om} ueMuoro nOJloC,nan3. OHa aeMBOro OOJlO*JliT. (Ml.l. au. 11>1. OHU, BbI, npoclJeccop, CTy.neHTbl. cecrpa. )"IIITeJUi) 3. I'm on my way to a lecture. rll go to a lecture. . R H.LtY Ha neJ(Q.HlO. $I noiiAj ua llel\l.lHlO. 011 lJ,JJ.eT Ha nenuuo.
00 DOHner Ha neKIIHfO.
(Mhl. aHa, Thl,

2. What were you buying? What are you buying? liTO ThI nOKymin?
'fro DOKyIIliewL? 'fTO oua DO"YIIana?

n:.

lITo oua DOKy08eT? (Bbl. OU. OHII, MbI. Y'fHTeJlb. npo4)eccopa. Y'fHTe.RbHHua)

OHJI,

Bbl, H it

Moli

TOBapHllt,

y'UITCJTb)

SUBSTITUTION DRILLS

L I'll bring coffee right away. Jl ceM..3C nplfHecY le6cpc:. )KeH8 ceii..ac npHHe<:eT Ie (6paT. OHU. MbI. HHHa H Kan-)
RESPONSE DRILLS

2. I'll wail/or him on the corner. Jl noJJ.o~ ero ua yrJrj. M.:i nOJJ.OJKACM era Ha yrnY. (MOM 6paT, pe6'1T3. TLI, 51, aHa, BJla,llHMHP, BbI, MbI)

I. I have to buy a couple 0/ things. I'll drop in this store. R nOJDKeH KOe-'fTO KynHTb. Jl :Jaw B :nOT Mara3Ku.

QHa ,lIOmma KOe-'no lCyml:Th. QHa :Jai.lteT B nOT ManuliH.


(Mbi nOJDCUhI, OHH JlOJDCHbI, 011

.nOJDKeH,

51 nOJDI:Ha)
LESSON II 239

2. J live near Ihe park. Da you /i}'e near Ihe park loo?

.sf lKHBy 6K01JO

o<lpKa.

Tw T6a'e.K6&J.a. OKOJlO oapKa?


jf noxynaJO MaTepuan. Tw To-.:e DOK)'D8enu. ManptlliJl? jf .a.e.naJO yp6KU. .sf .QjMaJO 0 :samITWf)C jf )I(,[Ij .lJ.pYra. .sf 'urrfuo .BOHllY H MHp . .sf lfrp{l.J() B ,.eIlHHC. .sf pa66TalO lIa $a6plfKe.

3. We'/I11link about it. Will you think about it loo? MbJ no.a.jMaeM 06 3TOM. Bw TOOKe ooJJ;YMaen 06 )YOM? MbI DO,QO)l(J],eM Ha yrnY. Bw Thee DOoollr:JliITe Ha ymy? MbI npuuecCM nO.a8pKu. MbI noli.a.eM It KHH6. Mhl B03bMeM TeTpaD.H. MhJ: BOli.a.CM B K6MHaTy. Mhl 3ali.a.cM B 6~16JJJIOTeKY.

DISCUSSION

According to the pattern of their presentfuture endings, most first conjugation verbs drilled and discussed SO far fall into two groups: I. Those like 1t..Itlli, with the written presentfuture stem ending in a consonant, to which the stressed endings -y, -eon., -n-, -eM, -he, -tr are added: JICll-y, )lC.lJ.-euu., I.A-er, Q-eM, JIC.D.-e-re, JKll-:fr. The stem consonant is hard before the endings of the first person singular and the third person plural, but is soft before the other endings. Compare [fdij I, [Mutl with [f~6SJ, [tc16tl, [fQom], [fQ6ti]. Other verbs which pattern similarly are nOHTH, BOHTH, no.noHTH, nOAOJlCllaTb, npHuecTH, B3ATb, )lCHTb. Note that in contrast with thc prcsent-future, the infinitive-past tense stem of the verbs in this group may be considerably differcnt. Compare )KHTb, )KHJJ with )KIlBy, JKlfBeUlb; and B3An., B3AJI with B03bMY, B03bMeWb. 2. Those likc pa6OTaTh, with the written present-future stcm ending in a vowel, to which the unstressed endings -JO, -eun., -eT, -eM, -eTe, -JOT are added: 'IHrl-tO, 'UtT3.-eun., 'Iuti-CT, '!uti-eM, '!uT3.-eTe, '!un-toT'! Other verbs which pattern similarly are .aYMan., no.ajMan., 3HaTb, y.JHaTb, .ne.nan., c.nenaTb, nOlcynaTb, 06e.aan., noo!5enan., nOIIHMaTb, CJIjrnaTb, CDpalllHBan., mr:u..a:aTb.

The genitive plural of nouns


The cndings of the gcnitivc plural present more complications than those of any other case. For this reason only the most basic ones will be trcated in this lesson.
MODELS

TaM 6h'mo MHoro cry.a.eIlTOB.

_ _ _ _ _ _ npocj>e<:copOB.
_ _ _ _ _ _ CTon6B. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ XUQcKOB.

There were lots of students there. _ _ _ _ _ _ professors _ .

_ _ _ _ _ tables _ _
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ newsstands_. _ _ _ _ _ _ atlases _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ presents _ _.

___--==:------ nO.a8pKoB.

_______ 3.TnaCOB.

'In struCluralterms. the prescnt-future stern ofsueh verbs aClually ends in the consonant sowuJ lil, which, as we know, is not written wilh an independenl symbol when it occurs between vowels. The soft-series vowel letters of the endings thus oonlain not only the ending, but also the final consonanl of the present-future stem, e.g., (~itflj-. ~it:l.j_u, ~iu'lj-utl. The imperative of verbs of this type is the one form in which the [jJ of the stem is represented by a separate IClIer in Cyrillic (-I), e.g., 'IHTiI! 'IHT{UiTe! cn~wHaaii! cnpAtuHBdTc!

240

LESSON

II

Y HaC HeT HOJKeH.

____ ____ ____ ___ ____

KapalutaWeH. 1U1IO'feH. TOBapHlUeH. nopnPen eH . enOBapeH.

We don't have any _______ ______ _______ ______ _______

knives. pencils. keys. friends. briefcases. dictionaries.

Tbt Mano asepeH. _ _ _ _ O'fepe:.aeH. _ _ _ _ Te'Tp8.a,eH. Tax MHoro .aen! _ _ _ _ enos! _ _ _ _ KUHr! _ _ _ _ KapnfH! _ _ _ _ KOMHaT! TaM MHoro OkOH. _ _ _ _ nHceM.
Y Meml HeT ____ ____ ____

There are few doors there. _ _ _ _ lines _ _ _ _ _ _ _ notebooks __.

So many ____ ___ ____ ____

things to do! words! books! pictures! rooms!

There are lots of windows there. letters _


I don't have any ______ ______ ______ ______

SMOK. nOJIOK. no*eK. py'lelC.

_ _ _ oecrep.
Y HaC Be 6bV1o JIelCLl,HH. _ _ _ _ _ _ JIa60paTopHH. _ _ _ _ _ _ aYJJ.HropHii.

forks. shelves. spoons. pens. sisters. lectures. laboratories. auditoriums. meetings. donnitories. classes.

_ _ _ _ _ co6pAHJril.

_ _ _ _ _ 06mCJKHTHH.
______ 3aHkrHH.

We didn't have any _______ ________ _______ ________ _______

TYPICAL ENDINGS FOR NOUNS IN TKB GENITIVE PLURAL (Endings are based on the plural stem) crOJInouns HARD STEMS -oB
SOFT STEMS

OIQtO-nouns (zero)

*ett8-nouns

.aaepbnouns

-eM

-M
AM

-.

(zero)

or -b

-eii

CTOJIOB cry.aeHTOB aTJIaCOB ypOlCOB npo<j>eccopOo lUUO'Iei TosapHIDeii HOJKei npan.namei uopnp6lei enoBapeii

ee"
K"lfT . JJ.cByweK cecrep Kop660K
neKtJ.Hi HCTOpKi na6opaTopHi ay.auTopKi lIe.ae.m.
ttl'pAAoi

cn6.
OiC08 miceM

co6p3.mii CO'fHHeHHi 06meIlITHi 3aJI8JleHHi 3aHJfrHi 3llaHHi

o'fepeJJ.ei .asepei HO'lei

U!SSON II

241

Notes I. Most crOn-nouns ending in a hard consonant take the ending -OB in the genitive plural. Those ending in :.10:. lU, Of a sort consonant other than ii. take the ending -cii. 2. All J:tBkpb-nouns take the ending -eM in the genitive plural. 3. Most 0 ....0- and loKetlli-nouns have a zero ending in the genitive plural. In structural tcnns this usually makes their genitive plural fonn idcntical with their plural stem: loKCH, 1aUiJ', h.-apniH, .lle.'f, 1I.',1CH. The stem may be slightly modified, however, in two ways: a. A vowel may be inserted between the last two consonants of the stem as in OKOH (stem Oh:B-), CT)'.llem-OK (stem CT)'.llttrrK-), .lleBywet>: (stem ne8YWX-), and ~P (stern cecTp-). b. If the stem ends in the sound lJ], orthographic conventions require that it be written i: cOOpAuHii (stem [sabraqij-J), .rteKluDi (stern nekcij-J). If the stem ends in a soft consonant other than OJ, '4, or UI, the symbol L must be written to indicate the basic softness of the stem final consonant: HC.lI.em. (stem [Qic;lel-l).
CUED SUBSTITUTION DRILLS

1. (atlases) And how about the atlases? (hnacbl) A K3.K UaC'ICT 3.TJI3COB? (CfonbI) AKaI' lIaC"le-r CTon6B?
(poMaHhI, 3K33MeUbI, CTl-IXW, lUll.llKH, ypoKH, lj>IDIbMbl, lUKalj>bl, KOCTJOMbI)

2. (pencils) The students have 110 pencils. (KapaHnawH) Y CTYJleHT08 HeT KapaunawM. (HO)l(H) y CTY.1I.CHTOB NeT IID:lKCii. (KJIlOlfH, CJI08apH, DOpnPenW, TCTpa,ttH, Kapau,llawil, 1I0:lKH)

CUED QUESTION-ANSWER DRILL

(teachers)

From whom did she hear it? From the teachers. (Y'lHTeJUi) Or KOro OHa no c.ru:rwana? Or Y'fIITenei. (npoJlaslQ.liIn.l) Or KOro OHa no c.sudwaJIa? Or OPOJlll8untn.

(HX

:lKCHLl, ero ceCTpLl, y60PUtilUbI, 336'1npolj>eccopa, CTyncuTLI, Y'lHTeJlbHHUbI, Y'lHTeJIJi, CTYJleHTlClI, aMepHKaHJ;H)
HIIULI,

QUESTION-ANSWER DRILLS

I. Where are the keys? There are no keys here.

rAe KJlIO'lH?
lJticL "h IUlIO'Ieii.

rAe HO)l(~?
3.nea, oCT HO_eN. (KapalIJllUUH, CO'lHUCIIIUI, KHIITH, CJI0napH, TeTpaJlH, IIHCbMa, 8ID1KII, no:acm)

2. Were there any maps there? No, there weren't any maps there. TaM 6blJUI KapTbl? HCT, TaM ..aPT He 6L1J1o. TaM 6b1JUt TeTp3.J:J;u? MeT. T8M Tlrrpa.a.eN HC 6L1J10. (noJllm, KOp06KH, Jle8yuJnt. KHHrH, KapTHHLI, 8HI1KH, nQ)l(kH, OKHa, IlIlCLMa)

3. Do you have any pencils? Ne, we don't have any pencils. KapaIlJlall.llf y sac ten.? Hh. K8paHJlame:ii Y HaC un. ATnaChi y sac ten.? anaCOB y dc nf:r. (Terpa.LlU, non.kH, poMaHbI, CTHXH,

"h.

enD-

BapH, nopTIIx:.rm, lliKalj>b1, KOCTIOMhI)

242

LFS'iON

II

SUBJECT REVERSAL DRILL

STRUCTURE REPLACEMENT DRILLS

Tile teachers were at our house. We were at the teachers'. Y':IlfTeJlJi 6burn Y mlc. My 6WIM Y Y':IHTeJICii. CTy.aeHTbl 6btnlf Y Hac. M";' 6LvtH YCTYACtrroB. (npo4leccopa, ero cicTpbl, y60pll.lHUbl, HX *eHbI, npoJJ.3BlUHULl, cryJJ.eHTl:H,}"UITC1IbIIHl.lbI, aMepKI8.lUCII, ceXpeTapH)
INTEGRATION DRILL

We don't ha.'C a dnrmitory. We dnn't have any dnrmitories. Y HaC lIer 06UlexHnu!.
Y Hac IteT 06w;eDnDi. Y HaC Her co6p8.HIDI. Y Hac tth co6piuHii. (nekUHM, ypoxa, 3.8T06yca, JattJlTHH, CTO 113., Y'uheJIJI, xapTbl, CO'l.HHeHJUI, J:OMHaTbl, IUUO'la, UIKa~, PY'lxu)
STRUCTURE REPLACEMENT DRILL

These are dresses. These are sisters. These are the sisters' dresses. 3TO nminH. :no Cecrpbl. :).'0 IUUiTbll cecrep. 3TO nopTeJ>C.nl-f. 3TO opO<Pcccopa. :)TO noPT~" nP04leccopOa. 3TO TCTJXi,o.H. 3TO CTy,neUTbI. 3TO KHHrlf. 3TO Y':!HTeJJJi. 3TO K6MHaTl>l. 3TO npOJ1aawHUbI. 3TO IUlIO'l". 3TO y66pUlHUbI. 3TO KapaHA3uui:. 3TO Y':!H.Te.n:bHHUbI.

Here are the bookcases. There are a lot of bookcases here. B6T 06nxl1.
lAceb MlIOro DonoK.

B6T MaraJHHhI.
3ACeb Mlloro Mara3HHoB.
(1I0)fC11,

OKHa,

xapau.nawlf, pecTopaUhJ, Tene$Ollbl,


3aBOJ1hl,

3nalllUl,

llBepH,

06ut~HTJUI,

XOMHaTbl)

The accusative plural of nouns


MODElS

Mbl J10Jnl(Hbi Kynm _______ ______ ________

ATnaCbl. nopnpe.rm. Tel"pAnH. KapaHJJ.auut.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ n6)fCKH.

_________ 8HnJm. ~ nepbR.

________ crynbR. ________ onanR:.


BbI BHn.enll ltX CTYJI.eHToB? _ _ _ _ _ nfXXl>eccopOB?
_~

We have to buy atlases. _ _ _ _ _ _ briefcases. _ _ _ _ _ _ notebooks. _ _ _ _ _ _ pencils. _ _ _ _ _ _ spoons. _ _ _ _ _ _ forks. _ _ _ _ _ _ pen points. _ _ _ _ _ _ chairs. _ _ _ _ _ _ dresses. Did you see lheir students? _______ professors? _ _ _ _ _ _ friends? _______ teacbers? _ _ _ _ _ _ girl students? _ _ _ _ _ _ sisters?

TOaapHllteH? ______ Y':!HTencii? ______ CTYJ1ellTox? _ _ _ _ _ ceCTep?

REPETITION DRILL

Repeat the given models, noting that where the direct object is inanimate, the accusative form is like the nominative, but where the direct object is animate, the accusative form is like the genjtive.

LESSON II

243

.QUESTION-ANSWER DRILLS

1. Where are your keys? We forgot the keys.


r.a.e B3.wu KJJIO'ui? MY Ja6butH 1UIIO'Oi. r.a.e 83mH KHJ:irH? MY u6WJIH Jauf",. (Upat:IJ1aIllH, TeTpaJlH. cnoBapH, npThl, aTnacw, nopTenH)

2. Where are the students? We saw the students at the club.


rne CTynellThl1 MY Bli.ne.rnr cry~ Knj6e. r.a.e cry.neHTIH1 M" BjJl.eJDI cryJJ.etryoK tt.rrj''6e. (Y'fKTeJIA. npo4leccopa, ee cecrpbl, .a.eByuIDt, ern TOB8pHIUH, aMepHXaUXH. ceKpeTapH. SIIfTbI)

RESPONSE DRILLS

J. Here are cucumbers for you.


Where did you get such cucumbers? 8M, nmKMyHCTa, orypubl:.
r,ll;e Bbi .nocranH TaKile orYPllbi? 8M, nmd..JIyHCTa, nepbSl. r.ne Bbi .nocniJJH T8KJfe nepba? (PY'fKH, K8p8HJl:aIUH, CTynbSl, IfaIllKH, nO:JKKH, BMK", HO)l(")

2. Look, there go the students! I see students every day. nOCMOrpH, TaM HJtjT CT)',[lCHTb.l,

a BH*Y cryJl.etrTOB K8*JU>1H Jl.CHb. nOCMOrpH, TaM HJ.tYT np01J,aBlltHUbl. BM:*Y npoJta8ll.u1Q ..a*Jl.bIH ,lleHb. (Y'l.HTeJISI, ee cecrpbl, HX )I(CUbI, Y'fH"TeJJbllHD;b.l, ,neByrnKH, ceKpeT8pH, CTy.a.eHTKH)

3. Here are his compositions. I've already reLld his compositions.


B6T er6 CO<HHeHHSl.

4. The shelves are ready. Want to take a look at the sheh'es?


n6JlKH rOTOB.bI. XOT'IiTe ~ nOJlKw? 6ma rOT6BbI. XoniTe ~ OKHJl? (.cuIepH, CTOJIhI., CTyJlbSI. j[1J.J;HDt, o6lltCIHTMJl. ,[lOMa, KOMHaThl, K.8apnrpbl)

a y*e 'lNTan en) CO'OlHemul.


B6T ero cnroi. y-.i 'Of11i.II er6 CTIIXH. (pa60Tbl. rnKrlf, POMaHbI, JaJlBneHHSl, IlHCbMa)

STRUCTURE REPLACEMENT DRILL

I. Ask the teacher.

Ask the teachers.


Cnpockre YlfHTeJ1S1. CnpocHTe YlfHTeJleii. CnpocHTe ceCTpy. CnpocH-re en) cecTep. (npon,aslltHuy, npo4)eccopa, CTy.ueHTKy, }"lHTeJIbHHl.{}', oaxTfpa. aMepuxaHKy)

2. Where did you see the factory? Where did you see the factories?
r.ne Bbl BH.u;eJlH rpa6puKy1 r.a.e BbI BHJJ.eJIH iPa6pHKH? r.ne Bbl BH.u;eJlH CTYACHrcl.1 rAe Bbi BHJJ.eJIH cry.a:euTOB? (asTo6yc, olfepeJIb, Kapnmy, CTyAeHTXY, .a.eB}'IllKy, n~pa, ero cecTpy, ero TOBapHIU8, Jla60paTopHlO. P}"fKy,
oaxT~pa)

ero

3. I just met my sister. I just met my sisters.


~ cecrpy. TomKO "ITO BC'l'pbwn cec'J'ip_ 11: TomKO 'ITO BC'J"nt.n TOaapHW.a. T6Ju."O "ITO IlCTp(h'JlJI ToUpllll.lei. (Y'fItTeJlbHHllY, Y"KTeJISI, npo4leccopa, CTYAeHTXy, ceKpeTapSI)

11: T6J1bKO 'ITO

a a

244

l..ESSON

II

SUMMARY OF NOUN ENDINGS IN THE ACCUSATIVE CASE

I, Singular a. Inanimate C1'OJl-[Iouns and all OICHo- and ,1I;BCpb-nOuns have accusative singular fonns exactly likc the nominative singular: CTon, 'tail, OKItO, nmlTbe, nSepb, Jho66ob, MaTb mother. b. Animate croll-nouns borrow the genitive singular endings (-8, -II) for the accusative singular: TOSapHIl..{8, Bna,uHMI:fp8, CTYneHTa, Hmon3.ll, )"lHTeJUI, napllJl, c. Only )lieHa-nouns have endings in the accusative singular distinct from tbose of the nominative or genitive singular (-y, -to); these are used for both animate and inanimate nouns: )Kelty, ICllliry, ceCTpj, ramo, HC1'6pl:fJO, Komo, neKUI:fJO.

2. Plural a. All inanimate

noun~ have accusative plural fonns exactly like tbe nominative plural: CTOnhI:, cnooapH, KltJim, neKuKH. 6Klta. CO'fHHeHIDl, .nsepl:f. b. All animate nouns have accusative plural fonns exactly like the genitive plural: cryneHTOo, Y'fHTeJleH, *elt, npo<peocopOo, cecrep, TOB3.pllli.{eH, MaTepeH mothers.

The genitive case with He 6YAeT constructions


MOOELS

JaaTpa

He 6yneT ______ ______ ______ ______ ______

yp6Ka,

ypOKOO. neKUHH. nCKUHii. C06paHJUI. C06p3HHH.

There won't be a lesson tomorrow. _ _ _ _ _ _ any lessons _ _ _ _ _ _ a lecture _ _ _ _ _ _ any lectures _ _ _ _ _ _ a meeting _ _ _ _ _ _ any meetings

_ _ _ _ _

REPETITION DRilL

Repeat the given models, noting that the genitive is requjrcd in future He 6Y,ll;eT constructions.
STRUCTURE REPLACEMENT DRILLS

We had no classes yesterday. We won't have any classes tomorrow.


B'fCpa y mic He 6lolll0 yp6KOB. 3aBTpa y lIac lie 6j,l1;eT ypOKOB.
QUESTION-ANSWER DRILLS

B'tepa Y HaC He 6b1no neKu,HH. 3aB'rp8 y !lac He 6y;:urr JleKWUI. (co6paH.JHI, 3aHJ1THI1, ypoKa, 3K3aMCHa, 3K3aMeH08, co6panIDi)

1. Will there be bread in the store? No, there won't be any bread.
a MarC13li"c 6Y.aCT XJIe6? He 6Y,ll;eT. a Mara:U1ue 6YAeT MonOKO? HCT, Monod He 6jneT. (cene.aKa, 'fait, pbl6a, HO*H, Te"I"pa.ll;H)

HCT, xJle6a

2. But will Zina be there? No, Zina won't be there. A 3i1Ha riM 6Y.aeT? HeT, 3HHw riM He 6Y,ll;eT.
A Oner T3.M 6Y.aCT? HeT, OJler. riM He 6jneT. (HX x:eHbl, ee 6paT, npo4)eccopa, K03JIOO, AnCKceeO, )"HTeJUI, BaXTep, .aCOywt;:H, ce~TaPb, ero TooapHUlH, CTYneHTnl)

LESSON 11

245

DISCUSSION

Just as neT and ue 6I.J1IO are accompanied by the genitive in the present and past, so, too, He 6Y,ll,eT is accompanied by the genitive in tbe future to indicate a missing thing or person. Compare tbe affirmative and negative sentences below, noting that the nominative subject in the affirmative examples is replaced by the genitive in the corresponding negative examples and that the negative He 6yneT (like He 6w.oo of the past tense) is a fixed form.
AFFIRMAnON
NEGATIVE

Y HaC 338Tpa 6yneT Y

JleKUIDI_

Y HaC l3.BTpa He 6YJl.CY neKUHH.

We'll have 0 leclure lomorrow.

We won't

ha~'e

a lecture tQmorrow.

Hm: JaeTpa

6YJl.yr ypOKH.

Y HHX JaBTpa He 6Y.ueT yp6KOB.

They'll have classes tomorrow.

They won', have classes tomorrow.

The genitive case for the direct object of negated verbs


MODELS

.s1 He xO'l:y MOnOKa. --_


_ _ _ 60pma . _ _ _ phl6b1.
_-,-_ _ ce.n:eJ],IM.

.....

I don't want any milk. ____ _ _ _ _ _ bo.-sch. _ _ _ _ _ fish. _ _ _ _ _ _ herring.


~_tea.

Mbi: TaKlfX xapniH eute _ _ _ _ 4>H1Il>MOB _ _ _ _ nop-rleneH _ _ _ _ Jl.OMOS


_ _ _ =lTJ'O"
____ ____ ____ ____ ____ KsapTlip aYJl.HTOpHH 6H6nHoTeK 06Ul,C)KHTHH JJl.aHHH

lie

BKaeJIH.

_ _ _

We haven't seen pictures like thai before. _ _ _ _ _ fiIms _


_ briefcases _ houses _ theaters apartments _ _ _ _ _~__ auditoriums _ libraries dormitories _ _ buildings _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

_
_ _ _ _ _

Mbl: eme He JHaeM BceX CTYJl.eIlTOs. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Jl.e8yweK. _ _- - - - - - - BaXTepo8. _ _ _ _ _ _~ _ Y'l:HTeJleii.


_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ CTYJl.eIITOK.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ cel:peTapeH.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ enos.

We don't know all the students yet. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ girls _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _~ custodians _ _ _ _ _~ ~ ~ _ teachers _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ coeds _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ secretaries _

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ wo,ds _ _

REPETITION DRILL

Repeat the given models, noting that after negated verbs the direct object is in the genitive case.

246

LESSON

II

STRUCTURE REPLACEMENT DRILL

I. I like novels. I do,,', like novels. .sf JIIo6mO poMailW. A He 1I106mb poMiHo8. .sf JIIo6mb XHMHIQ. g He 1II061uo XHMKM. (CTHXJt, oceHb, oeCHY, 3HMY, reorpa41lllO,
cPH31tKy, lIHTepaTypy)

2. Why is she opening the door? Why doesn't she open the door?
nOl(eMY oua OncpblBaeT .lUJCpb? nO'feMy OHII He OTI\PbJ:B8eT ).lBipH? nOl(eMY OHa OTXpblOaeT OKH6? no'leMj oua He 0'TKpbJ8aeT oKHJi? (611:Ha, jlU-lHK, KOp06KH, xlIHry, aTJJaC,
.ltBepH, TeTpa.tlb. TeTpa.o.H)

QUESTlONANSWER DRILLS

I. Did he get the books ? No, he didn't get the books. 61t .oocri.n JrHJirH? HiT, OH He /.lOC1"iJJ KHiir. 6H .oocri.n VIIQ'IIf:? HiT, ON He ./I;OC"fiJJ KJDO-reii. (TeTpaJ.:tb, CJlOOapH, XOCTJOM, TeTp3J(lt, OH.n1rn, HOXH, nO:llCXH, XOpo6XH,
xapaHJlaum)

2. Did you buy the suit? No, I didn't buy the suit.

Tw K:yrnina lI:ocnOM?
He ICynHn.S l'ocnOMS. Tbi xynHna MaTepHan? HlIT, j He ICymina MSTep.uina. (aTnac, nopTlenb, lUIan.e. P)"lXY. l(ali,
j

HiT,

Kapau.naUJ, KaPT}')
Bbi BH.neJUt er6 TeTp3.n.h? HiT, j en) Terpi.nH He aMJJ.eJI. (nlHnt, ICoMlIaT)'. poMaa. novrle.nb.
KBapTHpy, xapTHHy, XapTHHbl)

3. Did you see his dictionary? No, I didn't see his dictionary.

Bw BKnenH era CJJOsaPb?


Hh, ,
en) cJJOupii He

BMJJ.eJI.

RESPONSE DRILL

She probably forgot his name. No, she didn't forge' his name.
OHa, HaBeplJO, 3a6bUla er6 "M~. HCT, Olla He 3aOWJJa ero HMetIJI, OHa, t1aOCpHO, 336bUla JCJJIQni. HCT, Ollli lie 3aGbtJJa KJJIO'feii. (nepo, py'IKy, no.oapoK, KJlJOl(, ero .oeHb pO:lKJI,CIlIIII, ero lj)aMHJJHIQ, ero OTl(ecTaO)

DISCUSSION

Although, according to strict grammatical rules, the direct object of negated verbs should be in the genitive case, there are some exceptions. The most common of these are: I. In informal spoken Russian tbe accusative singular of "'ella-nouns is often used instead of the expected genitive:

Ne "HTliJt i11' ICHHr)' (or A He........an :hoii KIIHne) I haven't read this book.

2. If (he negated verb is followed by an infinitive, the accusative is often used instead of the expected genitive:

A Ne Morj 0TKpbm. OKHO (or A He Morj OTKpLtn. OKHa) I can't open the window.
LESSON II 247

Demonstrative :hOT in the nominative, accusative, genitive, and prepositional cases


SINGULAR

PLURAL

Masculilie
NOM

Neuter

Feminine ;,..
;Ty
:hoii

:lTOT
inanimtlte :IToT animate noro

;TO

3TU
inanimate 3TH
animate
3THX

ACC

[e~Y;)l

3TO
[et~Y;)

GIlN

:horo
(06)

3THX

PREP

3TOM

:hOH

;TUX

MODElS
3TOT CJIOaapb fie

MOH.

3TO rlHChMO He Moe.

This dictionary isn't mine. This letter _


This book _

3m lOlura He Moli. 3-1'3 rerpA,ttb He MOH. 3TH TeTp3,QH He MoH.


Ow eJi.D;HTe :horo CTy.nCHTa'1
_ _ _~:iTy CTYJleHTICY?

This notebook _ These notebooks aren'l mine. Do you see ____ _____ ____ Take __ __ __ __ that student? that coed '1 lhose students '1 those coeds?

_ _ _ _ nux CTyJl.eRTOB?
_ _ _ _ _ 3THlt CTYJleIiTOK?

_~_

B03bMH :hOT poM3.H! :hy ICHHry! _ _ _ :ho nHCbMo!

___ ny TeTpA,m.!
_ _ _ nH CTHxH!

this novel! this book ! this Jeller! this notebook! these verses!
this noveL this book. this letter. this notebook. these verses.

.sf He BH.n:eJI :horo pOMaHa. _____ :hail ImHrH.


_____ noro
mtCbM8.

_ _ _ :ITo. TeTp<i.Q>I.

_ _ _ _ 3TKx CTHx6e.

I haven't seen _____ _____ _____ _____

.st ue c:.rrhnnan 06 nOM poMaue. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 3TOH IGlifre. _ _ _ _ _ _ 3TOM .nene. _ _ _ _ _ _ 3TOH np6cb6e. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 3THX CTHXax.
REPETITION DRILL

I haven't heard about this novel. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ this book. _________ this affair. _ _ _ _ _ _ _~_ this request. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ these verses.

Repeat the given models, noting particularly that genitive endings are used for the animate masculine accusative in the singular and for all animate accusatives in the plural.

248

LESSON

II

RESPONSE ORILLS

I. Whose key is this? This one here?


lIeH iTO luno'i?

2. Here's our room. No, Ihis room isn't

OUTS.

BOT H:ima KOMHan.

BOT nOT? lIbif no CYHxH? BOT m?


(OICHO, CJI00apb, .D.Bepb, KHltrH, KOMHaTa, pa6o-ra, poMaH, nopT4>eJtI>, CO'UlHeHlle,

Her, iTa k-6MHaTa He Hawa. 86T Harna .n.oePb. Hk, iTa He Haw.

_pi>

(K.IUO'i, OKRO, aaT06yc, KapaH.l.tawH, HOllUl, CJlOBapb)

umK)
3. FIt see you on Friday. This Friday? }l BaC )'BIDtcy B minrnny. o iTy oKntH1O'?
STRUCTURE REPL .... CEMENT DRILLS

>1
B

sac )'BIDtcY B 'leTBcpr.

nOT 'Ie'TBipr?
(0 Cy660Ty, B nOlle,ll,em.HHX, 0

cpeJJ.Y,

BOCKpe<:eHbC, 00 OTOpllHK)

J. This is my table. This lable is mine. 3T0 MO" cyon. :nOT mil M6H.
3T0 Mali KOM.laTa. 3Ta h.-oMHaTa M(Hi. (MOR IIOpT<PeJU.., MaR KUHnt, MOJI KapTa, Moe nepo, MOH KJUO'iH, Moe CO'iHUeUHC, MOJI .D.BePb)

2. This is my table. My table is Ihis one here. 3TO rotO" crOn. MOR crOJI BOT nOT.
3TO Mali KOMuaTa. Moli KOMHaTa BOT na. (MOH nopTepe.nb, MOH KHlfrlf, MOJI KapTa, MOlt KJIIO'ilf, Moe OKHO, MOIl ,UBCpb)

TR .... NSFORM .... TlON DRILLS

I. These dictionaries are [available) ;n the library. This diclionary is [available] in the library. 3Tu CJI0BapH ten. B 6lt6J1uOTcKe. 3TOT CJlOB8pb kn. B 6H6!1HOTeKe.
3TH poMaUbl 3TOT poMall

2. What did you find out from Ihese students? What did }"Ou find out from this student ? 4T6 ThI: y:man OT 3THX CTY,ll,eHToB?

lho

n:. YlHan OT noro cry.aeHT8?

ecn. B 6lt6J1HOreKC. ecn. B 6H6JIHOTe..-e.

LITO TbI y:man OT nux nIXXPeccOpOB? L(TO n.i pliU OT noro npo+kcopa?
(y'lHTene", y6oPLUHQ, napueH, Y'iIlTeJlhHHll, ncayweK, CTY,ll,eIlTOK)

(KHHrH, KapTbl, aTJlaCbl, nllCI>Ma, CJlOBapU, CO'ilutCUHR, poMaHbI)

3. Have you already seen these pictllres? Have you already seen this piclure?
BbI Y"A<C BHneJIU 3TH Kapnrnbl?

Bbi }'JKe OHneJIll 3THX arotepltKllHlI,ea?

Ow y*e BH.aeml iTOro


3TUX CTyneHTOK)

aMepHlo.-&uua?

(:nlf rnxa$bl, 3TH CO'UtHeHHJI, 3THX


,ll,esyweK, 3TH pa60Tbl, 3THX CTY,ll,eHTOO,

Bt:I

)"I'e ali,lleJlH 3Ty l'aPriHy?

EXP .... NSION DRILL

We were lalking about Ihe lecture. We were talking about this (or Ihal) lecture.
Mbi rOBop,iJlll 0 JleKQHlf.

MbI rOBOpHmt 063Tnace. MY rOBOpKnM 06 :JTOM aT!lace. (06 ypoKax, 0 KapTC, 0 KlIY6c, 0 c06paHlfH, o KOlIl..\epTe, 0 kypcax, 0 lPHJlbMaX, 0 KapTilnax)

Mw

rOBopliJJH 06

:hOH

JleKU"H.

LESSON I J

249

DISCUSSION

It is important to note the difference between the unchanging introductory iTo (see Lesson 5) and the declinable demonstrative iTOT, iTa, iTO, :h.... Note the following, which are complete sentences; the voice drops at the end of each:
~TO KOMUaTa. ~TO nepO.

This is a room. This is a pen.

Compare them with the following, which are not sentences; in speech the voice level is sustained:
in KOMHaTa :lTO nepO

this room this pen

Whereas unchanging iTo is independent of the other elements in the sentence, the demonstrative

trOT must agree in number, gender, and case with its noun referent. Note tbe following:
::ITo 6buT He M61i cnoBapb. 3TOT CJlOBapb own tie Mon.

It wasn't my dictionary.

That dictionary wasn't mine.

In the first case:iTO is independent; 6bv1 and M6H are masculine to agree with CJlOBapb. In the second case :iTOT, 6':".11, and M6ii are all masculine to agree with c.'10Bapb.
4TEHl1E 11 nl1CbM6

~.

~
250

~U-~HAZ~~.~
rz.o.c.d.

~ ~ ~ ~

~.~~~~~
LfSSON

II

rami Bee BpeM.R CH.llHT .nOMa. B lUly6e Bcer.na TOJlbKO T3RUbi. 3 TaHu.eaaTb oua He JII06HT. B KHHO OHa TO)l(e lie XOJJ,HT. Om\ .naaHO all.nCJl3 aee 3TH 4lKJlbMbl. roaoplh, .,TO CKOPO 6Y.neT Jt)lTH aMcpHKaHCKKH lPHJlbM. 3-r0 .npyr6c .ne.no. Torna raJlH He 6yneT CHJJ,erb .nOMa. OHa noit.rleT nOCMOTpeTb :iTOT lPKJ1bM. OJ1er 'IHTaeT (EareHH}! OHerHHa)), a BJ13lUI~mp (BOHHy H MKp~~. OJler TO)l(e <{HTan ((BoHHy H MllP~). H .a.a)l(c MHoro pi3. 80J10,0)1 H OJ1er -

6" rOBopH-r .,TO O<{CHb JlJ06HT 3TOT poMaH.

TooapmUH no KOMH3Te. Kan H 3UHa TOiKe )l(HDYr aMecre. 3H:n3

H OJ1er H3 O,lI,nOM KypCC, HO MaJ10 3H3KOMbl: TOJIbKO (3npaaCTByHTe}~ u .ao CBHnaHH}!. Ho a cy660Ty omi nYMalOT Bee BMeCTe nouni H8 TaHUbl. Ky.ua Dbl cnelllHTc, raJ1}!?

B 6H6nHoTeKy. }1 Bcerna XO:lKY Ty.na nOCJle JlCKU,HU. nO'lcMy :lKC Ii BaC HHKor.na TaM He BH.a.CJI? He 3HaJO. ..st .,HTaJO 0 3TOH 6H6mtOTCKC d)l(nblH .a.CHb. J.1 Ii TO)l(C. r.a.c Obi JII06HTC cH,QeTb ?
CIVKY Bcer.a.a y OKHa. Tcnepb 6yny 3HaTh.

- ..st

- ..st

KyJJ,a Obi HneTe T3.K n03llllo? cncmY B 06Il.tCJKHTHC. TaM 6ynYT Bee HaWH pe6lha. A 'ITO BbI 6YJlcre TaM nenaTb ? J.1rpaTb B KilpTbi. HO'lblO? !la, TaM MO)l(HO HrpaTb TOJlbKO HO'lbJO.
LESSON II

251

LESSON

12

PREPARATION FOR O)NVERSATION

My

DOnYrtHKH

nonjnHk (papu~ikJ Mbl nonjPtHICH.

npoBoJUuhc, -3.; -Ii,


Barn 61U1er.

-OBI

traveling companion, fellow traveler We're traveling companions. conductor, guide


ticket

6""""

rpaJKD.aHMH. -a; rp3)k.naue,


rp8.*JlaH I

Your ticket. citizen


Your ticket, sir. place, seat, berth; position, job, space,
<oom

8itu 611MT, rpa*.aaHWH.


MeerO t -3; MecTa, Mecr Meno 8O<:eMb 3.necb.
Bt1.r6H

Berth eight is here. railroad car

MRncHH MArXH" Baron MarKH" aaron, Meao BOceMb 3JtecL.

sort
soft car, first-class car First-class car, berth eight is here.

'60..... CoSCM v,

. fI SlnKY '.II ICOTu t . . .

Thank you. Oh. who's that I see?


to be going (by vehicle) Are you going, too? Galya! Are you going, too?

exaTb (unidirectionalt), e.ny, C.nyT 11 Dbl c.ll.eTe?


riJlA! " 8b1 ben?

,n;a. )JlpaBCTByii're.
HcdTh (I), HmY, ~ BOT HU(j caM! MtcTO. npoBOwoIK!
BepXH"H.-~R.-ee

Yes. Hello. to look fo'r, seek I'm just looking for my seat. Conductor!

Dime MOCTO eepxuee.

upper Your berth is the upper. lower to request, ask for

HHJKIIHH.

-~~,

-ee

npocHTb (Il), npowy, np6c.IIT

, Nouns wilh shifting stress or other unpredictable features in lbe dedension an: JiYell in foUl" fonns: nomimauYe singular puYe $ingular, nominauYe piunJ, and gcuitiYe pinnal.

253

.st npoc(lJta Hii)Kllee.


Iiacca A tl B "acce IlpocM.'1a luiamee.
cmiTL (u), crtJuo, cnsiT

I asked for a lower.

tickct window, box office, cash register But I asked for a lower at the ticket window. to sleep [it's] uncomfortable, [it's] inconvenient upstairs, on top, in the upper It's uncomfortable sleeping in an upper. mistake, error It's probably a mistake. compartment, sleeping compartment I also have a berth in this compartment. Wait a minute! It's probably a mistake. I have a berth in this compartment, too. to be surprised Don't be surprised! to go (by vehicle), ride, travel in one compartment They travel in the same compartment. woman
man

HcynooHo HaBepxy HaBepxy cniTL uey.nooHo. ouni6Ka ~o. HaBcpHo, owH6lia. "yne (indeclinable n) [kupe] Y Me",i Tt)Jke Mec-rO 8 :iTOM kyne. nOllO_.nNTe!:fl-O. Ha8eplIO. OllUf6Ka. Y Metttl TOle MCcTO 8 nOM t..-yne.
Y):{HBmtTbCJI (I)

He YJlKBJItlMTecb!
C3JlHTb

(multidirectional Il), eJIKY, e3II)IT


B

B OllHOM Kyne

OHii lhAltT

OllnoM

kyne.

",cHuUfHa MYJK<tHHa
Kyne.

ImuWn~]

)I(eliulIlHbl " MYJK<tlillbl C)AltT B OIUlOM

y HaC
Y

Hlic

;e;:eullUUIbI

H M}'*'lltHW

t:UlIlT B OllHOM

"roe
noexan. (pfv I), nDe.ny, noe.nyr Mb.l 8 onHOM "yue nOelleM.
C 8cUlII

Women and men travel in the same sleeping compartment. in our country, in our society (/il. by us) In our country women and men travel in the same sleeping compartment. You don't say! to go (by vehicle), ride, travel We'll travel in the same compartment. with you you and I Will you and I travel in the same compartment? Then you mean you and I will travel in the same compartment? Yes. And wherc is it you're going? To Moscow. And you?
So am I.

MbJ:

Ba.\.1U

Mbl
Tali:

c BaM" B OIlHOM
3Ha<tKT.

"yne noeneM?
O)I,IIOM Kyne

MhI c

8aMH B

1I0c.neM?
,lI,li, A Bbi Kywi e.nne?
B MOCK8r,.a 8b1?

Well, so we're traveling companions.

SUPPLEMENT
CTOHTb (II), CT()IIT, CTOwr

CKOJlbkO

CTOUT

6HJ1CT

MockBy?

)KeenUM

B )KecTKOM

aaron aarone

to cost, be (in price) How much is a ticket to Moscow? hard car, second-class car in (or on) the second-class car

254

LESSON 12

Y MCHli Y

MCcTO B *eCTKOM BarOuc. R MsirKOM BarQUe MCllsi Meen, B MsirKOM Barouc.

n6e3J],. -a; noe3J],a. -OB 113 n0e3J],e Dbi e.rteTe lIa n0e3J],e? BHH3y rJ],e saUJa KOMMan. nasepxy nJlantTe B Kacce!

HJIII

B1l1l3Y?

llJIaniTh (U), llJIa<ty, llJIanIT

3annaTirn. (pfv n) Dbi )')Ke 3annaniml? lUIaTHTb (or 3anJlaTHTb) 33 (plus ace) C,,{)JlbKO Bb.! 3afUlaTium 3a 6IlJlCTf.ol?
CTaHI.l.HJI

Ila

CTalll.l.Hll

fla CTanl.lIllO

nOe3J],

CTOUT

lIa CTaHl.lIlIt.

I have a seat in tbe second-class car. in (or on) tbe first-class car I have a seal in tbe first-class car. train on the train, by train Are you going on the train? downstairs, below Where's your room, upstairs or downstairs? to pay Pay at the ticket window! to pay Did you already pay? to pay for How much did you pay for the tickets? station at the station to the station The train is in the station.

MLI:

DOnjPfHKH

rp. - 4>Hminn rpaHT, aMepHKaaeu

r. - roo
n. _ npoSO.ltHHK: l

n.
rp.

Balli 6HJ1th, rpa:llCllaHHu. 2 MJirxHU BarOH,) MtcTO


2 Cnacli60.

BOceMb

3,llecb.

6, Kor6

Ji BH:lKy?! rw! M Bhz elleTe?

r.
n.

3 Jl:a. 3llpaBCTByHTe. BOT HmY CBoe MecTO. np080llHHK!


4 Ballle MeCTo Bepmee.

r.
fp.
r.

5 A Ji B IGlcce npoclina UH:lKHee. HaBepx:y cn3Tb Hey.o.o6Ho.

6 nOJ],Q)K.o.I1:Te! 3TO, HaBcpHo. OlllH6Ka! Y Mens T6:lKe MCCTO B .:hOM Kyne.


7 He YllHBJlSHTeCb. Y HaC :lKeHl.UHHbJ
H

M}')K'IHHbl C3J1)1T

O,ItH6M KynC.

rp. 8 4T6 8hz rOBOpHTe! TaK 3Ha'lHT, MI:d C BaM" 8 OJUl0tv! Kyoe noelleM?

r.
r.

.[la. A Jt

KYll3. 8hz eAeTe?

rp. 10 B MOCKBy. a B.bJ:?

II

T6:l1Ce. B6T MbI H nonjT'IHKH.


I The pQeol(HliK on Russian trains is the man in charge of an individual car. He differs from an American conductor in that the latler is responsible for several cars or the whole train. Thus job is something between that of a conductor and a porter. npoBO,ntlKIi' also means guide.

NOTES

LESSON 12

255

2 Like all nouns ending in -auKK, ....pncllanH:H loses -HH in the plural, and has the special nominative plural ending -c: . . pS*D,aHc. The stcm thus ends in sort [Q.] in the nominative plural, but in hard [nJ elsewhere in the plural: MHo....o rpa*Jf.aH, 0 rp3.*Jt auax . Although the American student or tourist in the Soviet Union may hear the word rpa*JI.aHHH used by train and streetcar conductors, bus drivers, and policemen, he should not u.se it himself in addressing Soviet citizens. Under no circumstances should he use roCDO.rom or rocnO)K3.. The best way to get the attention of a stranger is by saying K3SHHlITe, upocniTe, or cKa)Klfic, nO)K8J1yikra. Altbough the student probably will not use the terms himself, he may hear himself addressed as MOJloll,oii qeJIOIU~K or, in the case of a girl, lI,eSytDK3. J The so-called soft car MJD-KHii aarOn consists of fIrst-dass compartments with soft seats; each compartment accommodating four persons. Compartments in the hard car ...ecnnrii aaron have hard scats; each compartment seats six persons and sleeps four. In selling tickets, no attempt is made to separate men from women in sleeping cars, and the American tourist may be surprised to find he is sharing a sleeping car on a Russian train with one or more persons of the opposite sex. The verbs e3l1,HTh and exan. describe going by vehicle or some means other than on foot. t3lnITb is used for the generaJ (multidirectional) activity and exan. for the specific (unidirectional) activity. In this respect tbey parallel XO.lUTI. and H,!01I exactly.
Compare

MhJ 'ul.cro
MbI
'IaCTO

e3;:J;HM

B KHeB. X6AHM B napK.

We often go to Kiev. We often go to the park. We're on our way to Kiev. We're on our way to the park.

with

MbI e,neM B KueB. MhI ImeM B m\.pK.

PREPARATION FOR CONVERSATION

MOCKBe

molj>ep
a)J:MHHHCTj>hop HOCHJIhU,J:HK HOCHJ1hWHK!

Gan'nK
nOJIy'lHTh (pfv n), nOJI)"I)\, nOJ1fqaT flOJIy'lHTC M6H 6anbK, noxMyitc'ra.
KBHTllnuu.ll 86T KBHT{UU{H.ll.

HOCHJIblUHK! noJl}"Dhe Moii 6ani...,

lIo...aJlyiCTa. BOT

KBMT3J1IlHII.

driver (of car) clerk, administrator porter Porter! luggage, baggage to receive, get, Get my luggage, please. receipt, claim check Here's the claim check. Porter! Get my luggage, please. Here's the claim check. Right away. Where will you wait? waiting, wait, expectation waiting room In the waiting room. thing Here are your things. kopeck thirty Thirty kopecks, please.

Ceiillic. A r,l],c sW 6YACTe *J\3.Th?


OXH.!laHJle

Jiul OIKJlltallH.ll

3ane O'kH,I],aHHJI.

BeWh (I) (gen pi BeWeR) BOT milllH BemH. KoneRKa (gen pi KoneeK) Tj>H.lI.n:an. [trit~\l TpH.JutaTh KoneeK, nOlKiulyHCTa.

256

LESSON

12

BOT BarnH RCIllH. TpHJJ,uaTb KOueeK.

Here arc your things. Thirty kopecks, please.


taxi Taxi! baggage compartment, luggage carrier, trunk to put I'll put your things in the baggage compartment. to permit, allow I'll put your things in the baggage compartment, O.K. ?

no...:aJJYHcn. TaKe" (indccl n) TaKC"!


6arbCHHK

.sf

nOnO)f(HTb (PfV.II), nono)f(Y, nonO)f(aT nonoJICY BaWII BeU{ll B 6araJKHHl(.

p;UpeWHTb (pfv II), p;upewy, pa.3pewlh H lIono:j dID. &eu..l. II 6ani~


pll3pew.....e?

BAM J(y.a.a?
Ba.o,( Ky,lla?
rocnhtH1l3 B f"OCTJftrllllY Y KpalIna

where do you want to go? Where to? hotel To the Hotel Ukraine. to arrive (by vehicle) [we've] arrived, here we are from you; you owe ruble Here we are. That'll be one ruble. My name is Grant. hotel room, number, issue small to order, make a reservation I ordered a small room. deluxe class I ordered a small room, deluxe class. a single, for one I ordered a small single room, deluxe class. story, floor on the fifth lloor Your room is on the fifth floor. convenience, comfort [It has] all the conveniences. bathroom toilet, lavatory water hot water All the conveniences: bath, lavatory, hot water. on the right, to the right elevator The elevator is to the right. excellent, tine Fine.

nplleXaTb (pfv I), npHe,lly, nplfcJlYT npHexa..nH

csac
n~XaJlH.

pj6Jlb, py6mi; --ii. --eM: (m) C BaC pjlirJb.

Mmi

4t..'W.Iin.R rpm.
HOMep, -a; HOMepa, - 00

.sf .sf

lIe6onbw6it 3aKa3aTb (prv I), 3aKa:lKY, 3aKIDKYT )3Ka33..n He60Jlbw6it 116Mep. molCc 3aKa3An ne60Jlbw6n H6Mep mOKC.

st

NUl oD,Horo :laKaJar. He60nbUJoii HOMep mbKC NUl


O,!l,floro. :naJIC, -a; -"Ii, --en Ita nATOM 31'3.)f(C

Baw UOMep lIa m'TOM 3Ta*e.


y.a.66cToo

Bee YJl66CToa.
oaHHaS!

y66pllaS!
oOJJ,a rOpJl'laSl oo.na

Bee yaOOcrBa: oaHlIa.. y6DPHaA, I"opjlfa.


BOJui. Hanpaoo JlH<pT HanpiBo. npeKpaCllo

Jl.+T

npeKpaCHO.

LESSON 12

257

SUPPLEMENT

neWKOM .sf nOHAY neun,6M. HaneBO rAe micjlT? - HaneBO. npJiMo

11.whe "piMO.
BOo3.n

[vagzal] I

na BOI03.n Ha Bonine Mbllt6mo CHltCnH Ha BOK3A..ne. noe3:lKaH! nOe3:lKaHTe!


noe3,dHTe B rocniHHuy (YKpaHHa! .sf CAY B KHeB. .sf CAY B TaWKeIlT. .sf elJ,Y B XaphKOB. .sf eAY BO BnalJ,HBOCTOK. .sf eAY B JtJITY.

on foot I'll go on foot. on the left, to the left Where's the elevator? To the left. straight, straight ahead, directly Go straight ahead. station, terminal to the station in (or at) the station We sat in the station a long time. drive! go (by vehicle)! Drive to the Hotel Ukraine! going to Kiev . going to Tashkent. going to Kharkov. going to Vladivostok . going to Yalta. "I'm going to Odessa. convenient, comfortable They have a comfortable apartment. I'm I'm I'm I'm I'm

.sf CAY B OAeccy.


YA66HhlH (adv YA66llo) Y nux y.n66Hall: KBapnipa.

B
rp. Hoc. -

MOCKBe
rpaUT HocHJIhuVUC

ill""'. MM. -

illoq,ep MMHIUIC'rpaTop
KBMT.hll.lH~.

rp.
Hoc.

HOCWtbWMK! nOJIY'uiTe MOM 6ara:lK, no"'l'u1yikra. BOT


2 CeH'I3.C. A rAe Dbi 6Y.lleTe JK,lJ,3Tb ?

ri>.
Hoc. lDo4>.

3 B 3fUTe o"'H.a.aHH~.
4 BOT D3wn seWH. TpH.nU3Tb KoneeK. nOJIC3JIyHCTa. TaKcn! I
5 Jt nono:llCY eawH oeWH B 6ara)I(HHK. pa3pewHTe" BaM Ky.u.3"

rp.

6 B rocnt:HHI.1Y YKpaHH<\.
7 TIpHCXaJIH.

llJo4l.

C MC

py6nb.

, Compare 1t01Oi., with 8oK:Wl is a railway terminal or station buikfing. whereas ""-_ can refer to any station. Notioe that both require the prelX'Sition u; 011 BCTpCTIUl .eHy Ha a1lT(6)'CHoH crAHUHIl. He mel his wife at the bus sllcion. OH llCTpeTlUl .eHy HI Booille. He met his wife at the railway station.

m--.

258

LESSON 12

B rocnumu,e rp. MM.

Mo~ epaMUJ1HSI rpaUT. }l 3aKa3an He6oJ1bW6ii H6Mep mOKc JJ,J1S1 o~Hor6.2


y~o6cTBa: 83.HHaSl, y66pHllJl, ropJi'laJI

9 .la, BaW HOMep ua mlTOM :na)Ke. Bce


BO.Afl. lluepT Hanpaao.

rp.

IO npeKpacHo.
Russians seldom check tbeir luggage or use the help of porters. Tipping is officially forbidden in tbe Soviet Union, but most foreigners are expected to tip hotel servants, waiters, and check-room attendants.
I

NOTES

Only mbKC guarantees hot water. At most hotels one gets only cold water, has no private bath, and has to share toilel facilities with otber guests on tbe same noor. This is typical not only in the Soviel Union, but common in European countries as weD.
2

Basic sentence patterns


1. Kynil Bbl e.a.CTe? - B MocKBy.

- .sf e.a.y B MOCKBy


-

B JIeHlmrpaa. Mbl c.a.eM B JIelflmrpan..


3Ha'fItT Mbl nony,.'fIlKIt.

- .st
-

To:::e CJl.y B JIeHtturpan,. Mw noe.a.eM B O.nHOM KYOe.

Where are you going? To Moscow. I'm going to Moscow. To Leningrad. We're going to Leningrad. Then we're traveling companions. I'm on my way to Leningrad, too. We'll ride in the same compartment. Do you have an upper or a lower? An upper. A lower. The lower is better than the upper. It's uncomfortable sleeping in an upper. I asked for a lower at Ihe licket window. Where will you be waiting? In the waiting room. On the corner. Ncar the newsstand. At the hotel. AI Ihe slation. At the station (or railway terminal). I'll put your things on the table. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ on this chair. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ on the bookcase. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ in the room.
LESSON 12 259

2. Bame MecTO sepxllee Hnlt mi'llmce?

BepxHee. HH)Kllee. H H;.I(Hee nY'twe. '{eM sepxlIee. Hey.no6Ho cnarb nasepxy. - .sf s Kacce npocHn mbKHee.

3. r.ne Bbi 6Y.a.eTe *.aaTb? - B Jane O)KHJJ;aHHSI.


4.

Ha yrnY. 6Kono m6cKa. B rOCTHBHue. Ha CT3.HUlIH. Ha SOK3ane.

.sf nono)Kj BaW" seu.llt "a CTOn:. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ua :hOT Cljn. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ua nonKY.


_______ B

KOMHUy.

nOJIOiKY l:\awJ.1 BelllJ.1 B Kop66Ky. WKa$. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ B nopT<PeJlb. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ B limilK.


________ B

.s1

I'll put your things _______ _______ _______

in in in in

the the the the

box. dresser. briefcase. drawer.

5. HOCHJJbmllK

nonOiKIIT MWU Bell.lll B 6ara?KHHK.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ B TaKC!'!.

_____________ BaBT<l6yc.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ B Yr0J(.

The porter will put your things in the luggage compartment. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ in the taxi. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ in the bus. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ in the comer. Here's your receipt (or claim check). _ _ your ticket. _ _ your bathroom. _ _ your luggage. _ _ your seat (or ben h). _ _ your compartment. Here are your things. This is our _ _ our ___ our _ _ our ___ our train. botel. station. [hotel] room. room. my seat (or ben h). my [hotel) room. my compartment. a taxi.

6. BOT Bflwa KBItTIlHLUUI. _ MW 6u.nb". __ BaWa B3.HHaJI.

_BAw 6am.
__ Bflwe Kyoe.
_

__ eawe MecrO.
MWH BCll.lIl.

7. ~TO HaW n6e:m. __ HaWa rOCT'HultU3.


__ HaWa cT3.IILtJ.1Ji1.

__ HaW HOMep. __ llama KOMlfaT3.


8.

>1

Hilty ceoe MOcTO. ___ ceOM nOMep.

_ _ ceoC Kyne. _ _ T3XCH.

I'm looking for ______ ______ ______

9. Mbi "WeM KJ.1OCK. _ _ _ _ npoeo.nHJ.1K8.. _ _ _ wO<jJepa.


_ _ _ _ a.tl.MJ.1HliCTpaTopa.
_ _- - IIOCllJlbiltHlCa.

We're looking for _______ _______ _______

_ _ _ _ B3xTepa.

a newsstand. the conductor. a taxi driver. the clerk in charge. _ _ _ _ _ _ 3 porter. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ the custodian. Where's tbe elevator? To the right. Go to the right. To the left. Go to the left. Go straight ahead. Where are you going'1 To Leningrad. To Moscow. To Kiev. To Odessa. To America. To the U.S.S.R. Where t01 To the Hotel Ukraine. To the station.

10.

r.ae mlqn 1
~

Hanpano. H.tvhe Hanpano. Ha.nceo.


H,wlTe nanceo.

H;:l,IlTe npAMo.

II. Ky.na eb! e.oere1 - B JIeltHBrpa.o.


B MOCICBy.

- B Kitee. - B OACccy. - B AMcpHKY. - BCCCP. 12. BaM KY.aa? - B roenl fUlLly Y "palma:_ ~
Ha CT311Ll,1tIO.

260

LESSON 12

Ha

BOIOan.

B ylllfDepcUTCT. Ha nO'ITY.

B bonbwoii Tea:rp.

-8 rYM.
13. C.,onhKo CTOll",,: 611ne-r 8 MOCK8y1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 8 JleHHHrpAtt1 _________ 8 KiteD? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 80.l1eccy?
14.

To To To To To

the railway tenninal. the university. the poSI office. the Bolshoi Theater. GUM.

How much is a ticket to Moscow? Leningrad? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ to Kiev1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ to Odessa?


_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 10

Jt el1Y TonbKo 110 MOCK8bJ. _ _ _ _ _ AO JleHHHrp3.u.a.


_ _ _ _ _ .110 KHeBa.

_ _ _ _ _ AO XapbXOBa. ______ 110 TaWKeffTa. ______ .110 Bml.l1HBOCToU. _ _ _ _ _ JJ.O RnTbl. _ _ _ _ _ AO OJIeccw.
15. Rbi 'iaCTO C3JI,HTe
B Mocxay1 _ _ _ _ _ _ 8 JleHHHrpAtt1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ B Kueo 1

I'm only going ______ _____ _____ ______ ______ _____ _____

as as as as as as as as

far far far far far far far far

as as as as as as as as

Moscow. Leningrad. Kiev. Kbarkov. Tashkent. Vladivostok. Yalta. Odessa.

_____ B
______ B

ilJlT}'?

OAb.x;y? _______ BO Bn3,ltHBOCToK?


16. CKonbKo :ho CTOltT? - OJJ.Hll py6nb. - J),oa py6mi. - TPH py6ml. - 4eThIpe py6J1J:L - nRTb py6nci1. - 1IIecn. py6nMi. - <:eMh py6ncH. - BOceMb py6JJHi.
.nCD,:jTh py6ncH.

Do you orten go to Moscow1 _ _ _ _ _ _ to Leningrad 1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 10 Kiev1 _ _ _ _ _ _ 10 Yalta 1 _ _ _ _ _ _ 10 Odessa? _______ to Vladivostok? How much does this cost 1 One ruble. Two rubles. Three rubles. Four rubles. Five rubles. Six rubles. Seven rubles. Eight rubles. Nine rubles. Ten rubles. How much do lowe? One kopeck. Two kopecks. Three kopecks. Four kopecks. Five kopecks. You owe six kopecks. ____ seven kopecks. _ _ _ eight kopecks. _ _ _ nine kopecks. _ _ _ ten kopecks.

- .nkBTb py6J1Cii. 17. 0,6J1bKO c Memj? - Ollila Konefu:a.


.nBC KonCHKlf.

- Tplt Koneibm. - '-IeTl:dpe KonCHKH. - nRTh KoneeK.

18. C sac ween. KonecK. _ _ <:eMb xoneeK. _ _ OOceMb xoneeK. _ _ .I1eORTb KonCeK. _ _ AbT!> "onCex.

LESSON 12

261

Pronunciation practice: special consonant clusters


A. Hard
[c~]

(spelled

'IIII,,lUll.

or nu).

[Iuc~ij]

JIY'iurnif
MJI<l,ll.lI.HlH

better
[mlac~ij]

younger
[xuc~ijJ

xYlUlItfil
mi..LtUJIi~

worse
(pac~jj]

fallen B. Long soft [et] (spel1ed


[papuccik]
[~6ccik
1"'1

[prasecsij] npOWC.LtUJHH gone [zablucsij] 3a611Y,!J;umH gone astray [za yatsij] 3aBJimuHiI wilted [cyecsij] UBCTundi bloomed
or ,l:('t).

nOfly-r'lI1K
C'lh'lHK

[gaCtik 1 ra3C'f'utK
newsboy [ral}eccik] paKeTtl:HK rocket technician [baleRik I 6aner'lHX ballet dancer [razyeccik] pa.3Be.ll'lHK scout

traveling companion

meter

[zdaccik] lessor
[~iccikl

c.allTlfHX
C",f'UIK

kind of cotton [ace6t] OT'Ih account, report [6Ccij] OT'iI.fii father's [bu[ecCik I 6yepeT'lHK lunch counter attendant

[zav6CCik]

3aB6.n;'1HK

factory owner {kabaccik] Ka6aT'lHK innkeeper [yiccina] BCT'IHHa ham

C. Hard Cd!]. This combination occurs when a prefix ending in 1I or T combines with a root which begins with tbe voiced consonant *. It also occurs in foreign-derived words. widiaIC] nlW.lKaK jacket [d:his] JllKa3 jazz [dzut] lllKYr jute [dzemJ WKeM [padzarij] nOlllK3phill thin, haggard [adiili~l OT:lKJUIKw: from the dwellings [Odzil] OTIKHJl his time has passed [adiecJ oTIKe'lh anneal; glass, metal [Odiik] OTIKHr annealing Ia;prbajdianJ A3ep6aHJlidH Azerbaidzhan (S.S.R.)

jam
[padzecl nOlllKe'lh to set fire to ~zigalilJ nOWKltTaTeJlb inciter

D. Hard [tel This combination occurs very frequently, especially in the infinitive and third person singular and plural of verbs with the reflexive particle -CR. It is spelled TC, TIlC, Jlc, Tl.l, or .1m. [dvatC;)tl lIBa.u...an. twenty [tritC;)lJ TpHD....an. thirty [kanatci] KaH3,QUbI Canadians [liJ;letciJ TH6eT"'bl Tibetans

262

LESSON 12

[mitC:JJ to wash
[m6jit~]

MblThCJI

M6eTClt
MOK>TCl!

[.,ca)

he washes [m6jutC:J] they wash of father

finar6tciJ J.1Hop6.nUhJ foreigners [liQingr3otciJ neHHHrpa.nUbI people of Leningrad (bratci] 6p:iTubl brothers

oTUA

STRUCTURE AND DRILLS

Two-stem first conjugation verbs


Many verbs of the first conjugation show a marked difference between the stem used to form the infinitive and past tense and that used to form the present-future. Verbs such as thcse we caB "two~stem" verbs.
STEM

B:llt-

STEM

B03bM-

.
INFlNlTIVE
PAST

B3m B:lJin, B311113o, B3W


FIJTUIU!

B03I.MY, 603bMeWb, e03btoteT

In order to manipulate the various forms of the Russian verb, it is essential to recognize certain broad rules of compatibility vis-a.-vis stcms and endings. I. Infinjtive and past tense endings begin with consonants (T and 11) and, in almost all verbs, are added to a form of the stem ending in a vowel: :lI'iJ-Th, ""-11. 2. Present-future endings begin with vowels and are added to a form of the stem cnding in a consonant: *,",,-y, *ltB-eun., :HB-jT.1
MODElS

Other

two~s{em

verbs already encountered by the student in some of their forms.


1I0lllJJ.o, DOUlJlCIUb. nOlllJJ.oT

nOCJlan. (pfv) to send sl: )')ICe nocna..n ""CbM6. I already sent the letter. cKuan. (prv) to say, tell q T6 Db. CrU13iuHl? What did you say? :1JlI'83an. (prv) to order OHa 3aKa3a.na 6HJ1en". She ordered the tickets. HeriTh (ipfv) 10 look for Bw MeHJi: HcdJlH? Were you looking for me? Hapban. (prv) slice Oner y*e Hap6an XJle6. Oleg already sliced Ihe bread.

.sf JMTpa uawmO

nHcbM6.

'0

I'll send the letter tomorrow. cKa*y. cKa*eun.. CK8.>YT Oil IIH':Ier6 lie CK8.)I(CT. He won', say anything. :laKa*y! 3aKa",eulh, 3aKa*YT Olla 3axa:JKeT 6HJ1eTbI. She'll order the lickets. MIQj. 1iuJeuu., IitqyT Dw "lUere paOOTy 7 Are you looking for work?
Ha~Y.Ha~.Ha~YT

Oner HapelKcT xne6. Oleg will slice the bread.


S(}Ulld

In lil-stem verbs, the prescnt-future stem ends in tbe consonant

[jJ.

LESSON 12

263

(ipfv) to write Mbl mlcl.Jm micbMa. We were writing letters. lIallHcaTh (pfv) to write Bbluanllca;H1 110MOn 7 Have you written home? ....liTh (ipfv) (0 Ii"e Bbi l1onro TAM. )l(KJUf? Did you live there long? Jlocran. (pry) to get Bbl11OCT3.Jrn 61lJleTbJ 7 Did you get the tickets? o,",pWn. (pfy) to apen BaXTep on::Pbm .lIlJCPh. The custodian opened the door. JaKpbm. (Pfy) to close Bw }'JKe JaKpbmH OKRa? Did you already close the wintkJws? 6brn. to be r11e Dbi 6brnll '! Where Mwe yau? Ja6brn (pry) to forget OHa 3a6buIa 0 co6paHHlt. She forgot aboUlthe meeting. miTh (ipfv) to drink BM }?K~ mum <tfiji? Ha~'e you had tea already? Taillteaan. (iprv) 10 dance Bbi' Mlloro Tau.u.eoaJm? Did you dance much? eXaTh (iprv) to be going
IlHca:n.

IIHmy, lIIimemb. mimYT Mbl mtWeM nHCbMa. We're writing letters. HauMmy, lIalllUlIernb. 11:ln..H:utYT Her, Ii 33,DllJa lIamllilY. No, I'll write tomorrow, ....HBy. ~8elllb. Jt:H8Yr Bbl ,aaBHo lAtcb )l(IlDere? Hal'e you lived here long? ,aocri.uy. AOC'riHetllb. ,aocrlillYT Oil l1OCT311eT 6I1JleTbl. He'll get the tickets. on...pc)Jo. Qn:pOewb, OTKpOlOT . Ba.nep OTKp6eT Deepb. The custodian will open the door.
Jaf\pOlO. JUpOewt.., Jaf\pOIOT

Her. Ii ceH't3C 33KpOlO. No, I'll do it now. 6yAY, 6Y.a.etllb, 6yAYT r,ae Dbi 6Y.a.ere nocne o6ella? Where will you be this afternoon?
Ja6yAY, u6yLlel.llb, u6Y.ayr Dbi: He 336Y..llere HaC?

You won't forget us, will you? IlbtO. n~1J.II>., UbtOT Obi n..ere K6tI>e? Do you drink coffee?
TalllcYlO, TaHQjeun., TaHLlYIOT

Bw TauuYere?

Do you dance?
elQ'. bern.., e.ayr

Mw eXMH B TawKenT.

Mw e11eM B TaWKeHT.
We're on Ollr way 10 Tashkent.

We were on our way to Tashkent. IIPMCxan. (pfv) to arrive OIlH y>Ke npHCXaJm. They've already arrived,

npHClQ', npMC~CU]b, npHeArT OUH npw!,ay-r B '1eTBepr.

They'll arrive

Oil

Thursday.

SUIlSTITUTlQN DRILLS

J. I'm writing a letter

s1 nllwy nllCbMo.
OIlH nHwyr nllchMo.
(Mbl, BbI, TbI, Oil, olla. R.

01111)

2. I'll wrile the leller. s1 "anuwy nJICbMO. OHli HanHweT nHchMo. (Mbl. OI:lH, Tbl. EerellllH. S1, Bbl. 01111) 4. I'm looking for a hOlel.

3. The custodian will open the doors. BaXTep OTKp6eT ,I1Bepll.

s1

s1

OncpOlO ,D.BCpll.
(npoeolUIIIK, Mbl,
ROCHJlhUlIIKII.

01111. TbI, ebl.

muj roCTliUIIUY. OHli HweT rOCTHIlIlUY. (Mbl, Tbl, 311Ha. DUll, BbI, <1>1IJ1Hnn)

wO<flCp)

264

LESSON

12

5. I don', drink coffee. A lie OhiO x6<pe.


Mbl He
rlhCM K6tI~.

6. They'll order rhe tickets. Olll' 3aXa>KYT GIlJlCTbl. st 3aKa>Ky 611J1CTbL


(J1pIlHa, Thl, Bbl, K03IlOB, Ollll, JI)

(01111, Bbl, Haruwa, TW, M)'JK, ::KCHa)

STRUCTURB REPLACEMENT DRILLS

1. Do you dance much? Did you dance much?


B.bl MH6ro TaHujCTe?

Dbi Mlioro TalmeaanH?

Oil

MHoro TaHLtYeT?

OM 1\tIlcko T1Ulueau?
(oHa, 01111, 011, ranK)

2. He forgot the keys. He'll forget the keys. Oil 336blJl KJlIQ'lH. 011 336YJJ.eT KJIIO'lIl. Tbt 336bl1l JUlIQ'lH. Tbi 3a6Y.iJ.ClUb KIUO'l",
(II, MbI, BbI,

alia)

3. We lil'ed in Kiev. We lil'e in Kiev. Mhl :lICHnU B KHcee.


MW ...KBiM KMeae .sf JKHn: B KHCse. :lICHBj B KMeee.

4. He was looking for you. He's been looking for you.

Oil

sac HCX3.n.

a.

(BbI, 01111, 3HHa,

$I,

MloI)

011 Bic ......eT. .sf MC Hcxan. Bic HlQj. (01111, MbI, alia,

a.

AnCKCCCB,

H)

5. Oleg ",if( get the tickets. Oleg got the tickets.


OIler llOCTflllCT 6HJleTbJ.

.sf

st

,Il,ocr.l.Hy 6H.11hbl. JJ.ocnl.n 6KJ1eTW. (MloI, Oint, Bbl, HaTawa,

'fbi,

BomCOB)

O.fJer .nocri.'l 6u.'leTbi.


QUESTION-ANSWER DRILLS

I. Have you already sent the letter? No, 1'1/ send it tomorrow. Rbi )'JKC oOCllfuIH OHCbMO?

2. Have they already arrived? No, they'll arrive today. OH" )')Ke npHexanH?
HeT, OUR npHe.ayr cerO)lHSI. Baw Jlpyr)'JKc llpHexan?

Hb, II 38BTpa 1I000JIIO. OmI )'JKC 1I00003.na nJtCbM6?


HCT,
Olla lJiBTpa nOlWltIT. OUH, MM, 3Hlla, Bbl)

HeT, 611 npHCJleT CCI"Omui.


(BaWJ.l Jlpy3MI, TIIOH cccTpa, yKpaIIHUM)

(Oner, Tbl,

MIXED STRUCTURE REPLACEMENT DRILL

Past tense to prcscntfuturc and vice versa.


'1. He didn't say a thing.

He wo,,'t say a thing.

2. I' /I slice the bread. I've sliced the bread.


Hape:llCy xnc6. lIapthaJJ XJJC6. Tw lIape3a.JJ xne6. Tw Hape*eun. XJlC6. Mbl Hape:lKCM xne6. Oncr Hape3aJ1 xnoo. OHH lIape*YT xnC5. 8blllap6an1l xne6. OJlbfa napbceT xne6. .sf HapClan xnro.

OJ{

Hll'icr6 lie cxa33.n.

.sf

OK UH'Iero lie CK8...CT. Bbl HII'lCr6 lie cd.:lICCTe. 8bi IIH'IerO lie cKalJi.'1H. OHa HH'lera IIC CK3.3a..na. MblIIH'lCr6 lie CKtt"'CM. Omi IIH'lcr6 UC Ck3.33n:H. .sf IIH'ICrO HC CXWKy. Tw JlH'lcr6 IIC cJC3.3a..n.

a.

LESSON 12

265

3. They closed the windows. They'lf close the windows. Qmi 3aKPblJIH 6Klla. OHM JaKpOJOT olma. My 3aKpOeM OKHa. MW 38KphmH OKII8.

11

3aKpMJI OKlla. Kh.ll' 3alCpblJIa OKHa. np060ltHJfKH 3aKpLlJUt OKHa. Bhl 3aKp6eTe OKHa.

Genitive plural noun endings: special problems


I. CTOil-Douns with stems ending in the always-hard consonant 1.\ take the ending -06 only if the stress falls on the ending: orypltOB. If the stress falls on the stem, the ending is spelled -eB:

llMepHKallu:eB, yKpaHuu:e6, TaHQeB. Remember that this is merely a spelling convention and thal is always pronowlced hard: [arpipkancif. ukrajincif, agurc6f].

II

2. Particular problems arise in forming the genitive plural of certain CTOn-- and oK1lo-nouns with stems ending in the consonant sound (j].

a. CTOJI-nouns ending in ii in the nominative singular take the genitive plural ending --es
(stressed: -CB).
NOM SG NOM PL

GEN PL

rep6" hero
"Ia" tea

repolt "Iau

repOCB "IaeB

b. Most CTOn- and oKRa-nouns which teoninate in unslressed -bH in the nominative plural take the ending -CB (retaining the preceding -b). Most are nouns with only their plural stems ending in U].
NOM PL

GEN PL

6parMI CryJIh.ll neph.ll' nJIaTh.ll

brothers chairs pen points dresses

6parhea crYJIhea nephea TIJ1aThea

c. Those CTOJl~nOUns whose nominative plural terminates in stressed -bli: have a zero-ending genitive plural with e inserted before the final -ii. Here -ii is not an ending. strictly speaking. but the Cyrillic way of representing the stem consonant (j] after the inserted vowel.
NOM PL

GEN PL

M)'JKMi: AP)'3Mi:
CblHOBh~

[muzja] husbands [dru~a] friends [sina'da] sons

[mufej] ,py3eii [drujJ ChlHOBe" [sinayej)

M)'JKell

3. A few cron-nouns have zero-ending genitive plural foons which are identical with their nominative singular foons.
NOM SG
GEN PL

OltllIl pa3 OltIDI COJl,rUtT OltUH rpYJu"

one time one soldier one Georgian

Muoro p<b Muoro COJllt3.T Mllora rpy3HH

many times many soldiers many Georgians

266

LESSON 12

4. A few other nouns, such as pe6th3 and rocno,Qa (plural of l'ocnO,lUttl), have a zero ending in the genitive plural. NOM PL
pc6liTa

GEN PL
pc6liT

guys, fellows, kids rocno,Q3 gentlemen, ladies and gentlemen

rocn6,Q
~KH

5. (;ToJl-nouns ending in -tlHHH or -AHHII in the nominative singular lose the suffix plural and have a zero ending in the genitive plural.

in the

NOM SO rpaJK,WlHUH aHrJTH'13HHH enmniuHJI

citizen Englishman Egyptian

NOM PL rpaJK,ll,alle aHrJlH'l3He enmTRlle

GEN PL rp3"""'" aHrJlH'l3H erHnTRH

RESPONSE DRILL

CUED QUESTION-ANSWER DRILL

I don't see any chaiTS. Where are the chairs? J1 He Blb"y CTjJlbCB. r.me crYJlloA ? J1 He Blbtcy aMepudlll.teB. r.me llMeptlKlimu.J? (yxpaHHUeB, rpy:HlH, pe6srr, nnaTheB, ncpbCB, ee 6paTbeB, HX M}')Keii, ero ,aPYJeii, OrypUOB)

(Georgians) Whom did you ask? The Georgians. (rpYJUHhI) Y Kor6 Bbr cnpaWHBaJIH? y rpptUt, (M}')KhJi) Y Kor6 Bbr cnpaWH.8anH? Y My.eii. (,QPYlbJt, 6panSl, pe6S1Ta, .ae8ywKH, yxpanHUb.I, aMcpHK3HUbl, naplfH, Y'llITCJUi)

QUESTION-ANSWER DRILLS
I. Don't you have any dresses?

We do. The dresses are over there.


Hb 1m y BaC lUIaThCB? en, UJianK BOH TlIM. H\h JlH Y BaC eTYJlbCB? {:e1'l" CrjJlbA BOil TaM, (orypUOB, nepbCB, IIO)l(eii, CJloBapeii, KapaH.uaweii, Cl'yJThCB, aT1IaCOB, CTOJlOB)

2. Where are the dresses? I don't see any dresses. r.ae nmiThJt? A He 8111)1(y lIJIanea. r.ue aMepHdHubI? A He 8111)1(y aMepHKlIIlu:eB. (CTyJTbJt, nepbSl, HX M}')I(bSl, ero .uPYJbR, rpY:IHHbI, pe6J1T3, orypUbI, ee 6paThR, yKpaHHUbl) 4. Do they have dictionaries? No, they don't have any dictionaries. Y HID: CcTh CllOBapu? HtITl y uHX uer CJloaapeii. Y nux OCTh ncpMI? UtIT, y HNx Db I.ePbe8. (crynbSl, nnaTb~, 6paTbR, nopTenH, 80)1(11, Kapau.aaWH, APYJMI, orypllbl)

.3. Can one get chairs there? No, there are no chairs there. n.M M6)1(lIo ,D,OCTan crYJlhJl? HtIT, T8.1\4 HtIT crym.eB. TaM M6)1(HO ,QOCTaTh nePl.Jl? HtIT, y mix "tIT nepbC8. (nJlaTbJt, orypUbI, CTyJlbJt, nCpbJl)

LESSON 121ft?

SUBJECT REVERSAL DRILL

Their brothers were at our place. We were at their brothers' place.

Hx 6p3.TbJl 6wIH y HaC. M":': 6LmH y H:x 6pan.eB. fix M}')lCbli 6b1nH Y HaC. M":': 6bLrni Y Kx My*eii. (HX HP}'3bJl, rpy:mHbI, pe6J1Ta,

aMCpllKaH-

tU>I, YKpalOll.{bI, "X ",ellbl, IIX cicTpbl)

TRANSLATION DRILL

I. There are no pens here. 2. There are no chairs in the dormitory. 3. There are no Americans in the dormitory. 4. There are no Ukrainians in the dormitory. 5. There are no Georgians in the dormitory. 6. There are no dresses at GUM. 7. He has no brothers. 8. He has no friends. 9. The fellows have lots of time. 10. The husbands have no time. 11. I've read War alld Peace many times. 12. We were at [our] friends'. 13. We were at our brothers' (places).

The use of the genitive after numbers


MODELS

sac HOll py6mi.

You owe two rubles.

_ _ '1'H _ _.

___ 'h= __

_ _ 'leThlJ'e-.
3TO CTOHT

_ _ _ four _ _ This costs two kopecks. _ _ _ lhrce _ _ _ _ _ four _ _ A ticket costs five rubles.

)].BC KoncHIa-I. _ _ _ TpH . _ _ _ _ 'lCTblpe __.

lillJle-r CTOHT miTb py6J1CH. _ _ _ _ _ WCCTb _ _.

_ _ _ _ s;x _ _.
_ seven __. _ _ _ _ _ cight __. ______ nine _ _.
_ _ _ _ _ ten _ _.

_ _ _ _ ceMo _ _ _ _ _ _ _ u6ceMb _ _. _ _ _ _ _ HCORTb _ _.


_ _ _ _ _ JICCSlTh _ _

>1: 3amJanrn nliTb KoneCK. _ _ _ _ lliCcTh _ _. _ _ _ _ etMb _ _


_
~

I paid five kopecks.


_ _ SV<

B6ceMb _ _.

_ _ _ _ HeBRTb _ _ _ _ _ necRTb __

__seven _ _. _ _ eigbt _ __mne _ _ _ len _

REPETITION DRILL

Repeat the given models, noting that tbe genitive singular is required aficr .llB8, .;me, ..-pH, and '1eTh1pe; and the genitive plural for min, on up. Note also that ABe replaces HJUi with all feminine nouns. Compare .;me cecTpL71, ABC TeTpallH with Hoi py6mi, Hoi CJi008.
268 LESSON 12

QUESTION-ANSWER DRILLS

Response with consecutive numbers (one to ten).


I. How much does this cost?

One ruble. CKOJThKO 31'0 CTOHT? OltKu py6J1L. CKonbKo :ho n08T? )(Ba py6J1H.
3. How many notebooks do you have? I have one notebook. CKOJThKO y BaC TeTpaneii? Y MellH O./Uill. TeTp8,D.L. C"onbKo y BaC KHHr? Y MettH JlBe KJlHnt. (6paThea, CJloaapeit, py'leK, KOMllaT, KapaunaUleij, nepbea, aIUlOK, nO:lKeK)
5. How many days
wj//

2. How much do lowe? One kopeck. CKOJILKO c Memi? O./Ula KOlleiiKa. CKOJlbKO C Memi?
)(Be KoneiD.'"H.

4. How much did you pay for it? One ruble, two kopecks. I CKOJJbKO 8bI 3alUiaTiUTH 3a :ho? OllKn py6Jlb ):tHe KoneKKH. CKOJ1bKO ahl 3annaT"J18 3a 3TO? ,lI,Ba py6J1H TPH KOuCHKH.

you be in Moscow?

Only two days. CKOJIbKO .nile" Bb"r 6Y.ne-re a MocKBe? TOJILKO JtB9. ./Um. CKonbKo .uneu ahl 6Y.ne-re a MocKBe? TOJlbKO TpH JUtH.

6. How many weeks wj//you be in the U.S.S.R.? Two weeks. CKOJ1bIW HeaeJlL 8M 6Y.nc-re a CCCP?
)(Be HCaeJlH.

CKOJ1bIW Hc.neJlb ahl 6Y.nCTC a CCCP '! TPH lIe,ll;MH.

DISCUSSION

The number one differs from the other numbers in that it is treated as a modifier with separate forms for each gender: O)];HII py6JTb, oAIIl'i Koue.iKa, O./UIO CJroao. The other numbers when used in nominative and accusative constructions are accompanied by thc genitive case: genitive singular for 2, 3, 4; and genitive plural for 5 and up. There is a special fer.ninine form for two: ABe; masculine and neuter nouns require.a.sa. It is important to remember that compounds such as 21, 22, 31, 32, 101, and 102 require the noun form to agree with the last element of the compound only: TpH.llUaTh OnHIl py6.'lb 3/ rubles, TpH.llUaTh ~ KOUeHKII 32 kopecks, TpKJ:J;u:aTb TpH CTyltelITa 33 students.

Unidirectional versus multidirectional verbs of motion


MODEL~

UNIDIRECTIONAL

51 H.nY a wlpK. R elty n MOCKBy. R wen a napK.


.sf eXaJJ a MocKBy.
, Continue up to nine rubles. ten
kopeck~.

I'm going to l'm going to I was on my I was on my

the park. Moscow. way to the park . way to Moscow.

(all foot) (by vehicle)

(on foot) (by vehicle)

LESSON

12

269

MULTIDIREC1'lONAL

A 'iacTO xO)l(Y IJ napK. A 'lac1'O e3)1(y a Moclmy. R 'iaCTO XOD.Hll B napK. R 'iac1'O lb,nllll a MocKaY.

I often I often I often I often

go to the park. go to Moscow. went to the park. went to Moscow.

(on Joot) (by ~e"icle) (on JOOI) (by I'ehicle)

UNIDlRECTIONAL

INFlNInVE PRESENT

II}.(Tli 10 be going (on foot)

eX8Tb to be going (by vehicle)

ltlIy, ltlIernb. ItlIh, ltlIeM,


1tlIt=Te,

HJ1YT

e.ny, e.newb. e.neT, e.neM, e.nere, eD,YT exan, -a,


-0, -ll

PAST

we.n, rnmi. rnllO, UIJDf:

MULTIDlRECTJONAL

JNFlNInVE

xoJUi"n, to go (on foot)

eJJlHTlo

to go (by vehicle)

PRESENT

xo.y, XO.nHlllb, XOJ]}IT, XOllHM, XO,nHTe, XOJVIT xo.min, -a,


-0, ~H

CJ:lKy, O.nHllJb, On.HT, CJ.nKM, CJllHTe, C::3JV1T C::3.n1UJ, -a,


-0, -H

PAST

REPETITION

DRILL

Repeat the given models, noting that H,D,TIi and exaTb describe motion in process or intended motion. Contrast them with XOtufft, and e:uum., which describe repeated motion, Le., motion in more than one direction. In addition, remember that HlITIi and XO)lHn. ordinarily indicate going on foot, while exan. and e3JU[l'1> indjcate going by means of some vehicle.
SUBSTITUTION DRILLS

I. She oJten goes to cOl/certs. Qua 'itiCTO X6.lUIT Ha KOHUCpThI. C'Ty.LtCHThI 'iaCTO X6.nRT Ha KOHUepThI. (Mbl, sr, TbJ, Bbl, 01U1, HaTaIUa, CTy.neIlTlm) 3. I oJten go 10 Kiev.

2. She's on her

~ay

to a concert.

OHll HJ1e1' Ifa KOiluepT. Tbr II.ltCWb Ha KOHuepT.


(MY,
.II,

Ollll, KllplIJJn, abl)

s1: 'i8.CTO C3:lKy

Kl-iea.
Bbl,

4. Zina and Philip (Ire on their way 10 Moscow. 3HHa H l1tHJlHlm e,ll,yr B MOCKBy.

OHN '{aCTO tJ,WIT a KHea.


)KCHlJUtlla,

Db! e.ne1'e
31'a

(aJI.MIUlIlCTpa1'op, MbI, 1'bI, sr, Olfll)

MocKoy. (sr, M'hl, TW, oua, Haw II BomCOB, Bbl, 01111)


B

CTY.l1CIlTKII,

STRUCTURE REPL.ACEMENT DRIL.L.S

I.

rm on my way to school.
I go to school. A ~ a wxony.

2. I'm on my way to Leningrad. I oJten go to Leningrad.

.s1 en.y B lleIlIlHrpA..n.


s1: ..aero b*y a JleulUD'"pti.n. OIlH CJIYT a lleHHHrpa.n. OHli. ..aCTO bJUIT a JIetfH~. (MLl, Thl, TOaapHlll. BoJIKoa, npoBOlUlHK, aLl, Jr, OHK)

s1: xO:Y WKOJJY.


(Ha1'awa,
B<%)

Mw ltlIeM 8 wKony. Mw x6AKM WKOJI)'.


01111, TbI, Jr, Bbl, MOll 6paT, MbI

270

LESSON 12

3. Were you on your way to the park? Did you go to the park? BbI' W1II1 B napK?
Obi Tbi
XOARJlM B

4. Were you on your way Did you go to Kiell? ObI exam1 B K{lce?
Ow
e3J];HJlH B

10

Kiell?

mipK?

KHes?

Tw WM B napK?
XOARJI B wi~?

(oHa WJTa, OIiH WJm, Thf WJTa, OJTer men)


RESPONSE DRILLS

QHa eXaJla B KHcB? OHa bANna 8 Kllcs? (lbi cxan, OHH CXaJlH, DommB exan, crynCuTlm exanH, Tbl exana)

I. We saw you on the bus.

Were you on your way downtown?

Mbi re61i

BH..ue.n1l B

a8T06yce.

Tw exan B ropo,a?
Mw sac BH..ue.rnt B aBTo6yce. Ow eXaJDI ropo,a! (ee, ero, mlil, BaC, HX)
QUESTION-ANSWER DRILLS

2. I saw you yesterday near the park. Were you on your way to the park! B'Iepa Ii BaC BH.a.CJ1 OKOJTO napKa. Bw UIJIii 8 oipK?

B'IepA Ii ero BK.aeJJ okono napKa. Oil wen 8 wipK! (IIX, ee, Te61i1, Bac, ero)

I. Where were you on Saturday morning? I went to the library.

2. Where were you last week? I went to KharkOIl.

fll,e rn 6bm 8 cy666ry YrPoM? A xoJl.lin 6M6JUKrreK)'. r,ae OHa 6bU1a 8 cy666ry YrPoM? OHa xoroilla 6M6mIOTeKy. rne Bbl, Kan, 6blJUt B cy666T)' YrPoM? rne Bbl, Oner, 6bl/lH B cy666Ty YrPoM? rne lbl, HpHHa, 6wJTa B cy666Ty YrPoM? file OU" 6bIJUt B cy666Ty YrPoM? fll,e 6H 6bln B cy666Ty :iTpoM? fll,e BbI' 6bulH B cy666Ty YTPOM?
3. Do you walk to work? No, I go by bus. Ow xOJufTe Ita paooTy neWKOM? HeT, Ii h*y 118 8ST66ycc.

fne ru 6bm Ha np6wnoH "enene? st b,1UlJJ 8 XapbK08. file rn6blna Ha np6wJToii Hell,enc? A lh,lUlJla 8 XapblCOB. fne BbI, Oner, 6.bLnH Ha np6WJTOH uenene? fne BbI, 3HHa, 6wnH ua np6WJTOH HCll,ene? fne OHH 6wIH Ha np6WJTOH ue.nene? f.ne Ou 6bLn ua np6wnoH UCll,ene? fAe OHa 6bU1a Ha np6mnoH HeAene?
4. Are you going to the theater by cab? No, we're going on/oat.

Omi x6nR"r lIa pa66Ty newKOM? Her, 0118 e:t./I.KT "8 8BT66yce. (Olla, TItI, 8aw 6paT, 8awa ceCTpa, OHH,

....

Bw elleTC 8 TcaTp 113 TaKCH? HeT, MY lI.l1.eM netuKOM. Thl e,neUJb 8 Tea'rp ua TaKcli? Her, , HJJ;Y netuKOM. (aHa, 011.11, EBremdf, MbI, Tbl, KaTjI)

DISCUSSION

Mostnonprefixed, motion verbs have an added feature not found in other verbs: a double set of imperfectives used to distinguish between unidirectional motion and multidirectional motion. The unidirectional imperfectives describe a single, one-way trip to a specific destination. It may refer to an action that is (or was) in process or to one intended in the near future.

51 ceH'IaC HJtY B napK. 3flBTpa Ii HJti B KHHO. 51 eD.Y B MOCKBy.


3asrpa. Ii eJJ.Y 8 MOCKBy.

I'm I'm I'm rm

on my way to the park now. going to the movies tomorrow. on my way to Moscow. going to Moscow lomorrow.
LESSON 12 271

The multidirectional imperfectives describe movement in marc than onc direction or unspecified as to destination. This may include one or more round trips, or movement in several directions.

>1 He JIIo6mo xO,l],liTb. A xO,l],liJl R napK. A C3AIUI R KlieR. A 'faCTO eJ:lKY R KlieR.

I don't likc to walk. I went to the park (and returned). I went to Kiev (and returned). I onen go to Kiev.

In addition to the distinction between unidirectional and multidirectional movement, Russian also distinguishes between movement under one's own power (1IJtfli, xoroino) and movement by means of somc conveyance (ban., bavn.). While the verbs exan. and b,!IHTb are limited 10 the description of a person's travel by conveyance, the movement of the conveyance itself is usually described by means of IUfni or xoJUin,.
Compare 86T HJJ.eT aBTo6yc. 3TOT nOeJ,ll "l!eT B KlieB. noe3,lla cerOJllul lie XOJUlT.

Here comes the bus. This lrain goes to Kiev. Trains aren't running today. I'm going to Kiev. We went on the tram.

wilh

A ClJ.Y B Kliee.
Mw
eJl~IUlI1

lIa nOe311e.

The verb IIJI.TM is also used in many idioms.


B KUIIO lIlleT xop6wlIii $HnbM. l1neT ,llOJKAb. (llien ,l],OJlC)lb.) l1neT CHer. (llien CHeLl 3roT KOCnOM saM lI,llh.

There's a good picture showing at the movies. It's raining. (It was raining.) It's snowing. (It was snowing.) That suit becomes you.

The verbs XO.n.Hn. and elJl.HTl> have perfectives which are very rarely used: noxoroin. to do a bit of walking and ooe:JAMTh to do a bit of riding. The most frequently used perfectives are fanned from IUIl"Ii and exaTb: nom and noexan.. These perfectives describe the accomplishment of setting out for one's destination with nothing said about the return.

611

6H noexan

nowen R Mara:ufH. R MocKBy.

He went to the store or He set off for the store. He went to Moscow or He set off for Moscow.

Now note the use of the imperfective past of xOAKn. and elltKTb. which in similar situations, tell us that the person went and returned.

6H xoJJitn B Mara3lill. 6H C3,llHll B MocKay.

He went lo the store (and is already back). He went to Moscow (and is already back).

Long-form adjectives: nominative singular and plural


MOOELS

3TO KpacliBbI" KocnOM.

c - - - - - roPO,ll
3TO KpacliBoe OKH6.

That's a lovely suit. _ _ _ _ _ city. That's a lovely _____ That's a lovely _____ window. donnitory. picture. room.

_ _ _ _ _ 0611.1exH-rne.
3ro ICpacliBaJI Kapniua. -;ICOMHau. 3,-0 KpacHBLIe sewH. _ _ _ _ _ ,llOMa.
272
LESSON

Those are lovely things. _ _ _ _ _ _ houses.

12

31"OT aTJI3C CTapW~.

____ .,.-3TO

)],oporo~.

This atlas is old. _____ expensive .


_ _ _ _ good.

XOp6WH~.

nJlaTbe CTapoe.

_ _ _ _ )],opor6e. .,.-xopOwee.

3m KHu.ra crl.p:ul. _ _ _ _ )],oporaSi.


-,--XOP6W:UI. KIIHrH cr.ipble. _ _ _ _ )],oporne. _ _ _ _ xop6wHe.

3TH

This dress is old. _____ expensivc . _ _ _ good. This book is old. _____ expensive. _ _ _ _ good. These books are old. _ _ _ _ _ _ expensive. _ _ _ _ _ good. What a large house! ___ RIce ! What a large building! ___ nice ! Wbat a large apartment! ___ nice ! Wbat large pictures! _ _ nice ! Where's the large hall? _ _ the large auditorium? _ _ the large dormitory? Where are the large restaurants? This is the second lesson. ___ the second lecture. ___ the second meeting.
I have an old dictionary.

KaxOH 6onbwoH JlOM! _ _ XOpOWHH

KaK6e 6onbw6e 3113HHC! _ _ xop6wee !

Kadll 60Jlbwall KBapnipa! _ _ xop6W:ul !


Kaxue 60JIbwHe KapTHHbl! _ _ xop6wHe ! rJle 6onbwoH 3An? __ 60nbwaSi aYJlHTopIUl? _ 60nbw6e 06We-'HTHC? __ 60JlbwHe peCTOp3.Hbl? :no BTOp6H yp6K. __ BTOpaX neKLUUI.
_ _ BTOp6e

c06paHHe.

Y MeUM CTapwH CJ10eapb.

_ _ _ CTap:ul TeTp3..nb. _ _ _ CTapoe nnaTbe. Mbl CTaphle llPY3bR.


6opl.lJ, rOpR'IHi:f. _ _ XOpOWKH.

_ _ an old nOlebook. _ _ an old dress. We're old friends. The borsch is hot. _ _ _ _ good.

Bona rOpR'Ia$l. _ _ xopowa$l. MonoIC6 rOpR'Iee.


_ _ _ xop6wee.

The water is hol.


_ _ _ _ good.

TIle milk is hot.


_ _ _ _ good.

lUH ropJi'lllc.
_ XOp6WIlC.

The schi is hot.


_ _ _ good.

HH:lKHUH 3T{l:l1C 3amlT. HIDtcllu KBapTlfpa 3aJU1T3..

HlhKllee MecTO J3W1TO. HWKHlle 3TaJKH JaHJITbi.

The lower floor is occupied. The lower apartment is occupied. The lower berth is occupied. The lower Doors are occupied.

LfSSON

12

273

REPETITION DRILL

Repeat the given models, noting the pattern of adjective endings. Observe that the stress may be consistently on the endings (as in 6<mbUlOii, ....(je, -aH, -He) or on the stem (as in XOpOUlHii, -ee, -aK, -He), but that there is no shifting of stress within the various forms of a particular adjective. Soft-stem adjectives always have their stress on the stem.
EXPANSION DRILLS

I. Where are the factories? Where are the large factories? rne $3.5pmm? Cae 60JIbwHe ~a6pHKM? r.ne ManmfH? 6oJlbUloii Mar83HH? (reaTp, cnoBap.., JIa60paToplUl, 05me)f{lfflie, OlCHO, O'lepeJl.h, CTaHlJ)Uf, IIOlK, wxa4>, lCHHO, napK, 4>a6pHK8, llJ.J.J;HK, pecTopan, 6H6JUfoTeKa)

2. Here are the boys. Here are the Russian boys. B6T mipHH.
86T pyCCKHC mipllH.

n.e

BOT JteayuIKa. BOT pYCCKav .a.eBymKa. (yqlITCJUi, CJIOBapb, KapTa, 4>illTbM, pOMaH, lCH.HrH, 4>a6pHKa)

QUESTION-ANSWER DRILL

Is the room large or small? Small.


KOMH8Ta 60nbuJast tUm ManeHblClUI? MaJletlhKaJI. Bame MecTO BepxHee ibm Hlf:lfmee?

Baw B-arOH :lKecTKHH H.rrH wirKHii? KBapnipa M8.JJeHbKa~ 601lbWaH? <I:lH1IbM ItHTepeCHhlii "1IH CKy'lHblH? KOMllaTbI M3.JIeHbKlte Wilt 60JlbWHC? CTUH.I.(IfR 60JlbWU~ Hm'! M3.JICHbKaH?

wm

HlhKuee.
OryPuhl xOpOllme HJIH Moxlie?
STRUCTURE REPLACEMENT DRILLS

l. Here's ihe large auditorium.

Here's the small auditorium.


BOT 60JIblllall ayJtHTOpWI. BOT MaJIetlbKaH aY.lI.HTOpuH. BOT cKy'lllbie lCnHfH. BOT HHTepeCHble KHHnI. BOT eepXHee MecTO. BOT nno.u"ie CTYlleUThI. BOT M3.JIeHbKaR CT3.HulUl. BOT X?p6WHH ClYJteHT. BOT MgnmH earoH. BOT H"lKHee MecTo. BOT lKCCTlCHii BaroH.

2. The atlases are expensive. The atlas is expensive.


ATJIaCbI Jtoporne. ATnac lloporoii. KHHru HHTCpeCUhIC. Kuiira HHTCpCcH8H. OopT$emt XOpOWHC. 06we)f{HTIDI 60JlbWHe. nnaTbSl KpacHBbIe. CnoeapH lloporHe. nepbSl [lJIoxHe. KOMHaTbl M3.JIenbKHe. CTyJIbR Yllo6l1hle. BOT M.lIrKl1ii BaroH. BOT )f{ecnmii Baron. Y Hac 60JlbW3.R aYllHTOplUl. Y Hllc XOpOWlUI ayJtItTOpS1. Pe3Y1lbTaT HennOXO". KapTa He6oJIbWaSi. .nOM He6oJlbWOH.

3. You're a good friend. You're good friends.


Bhi XOp6WHH JtpYr. BLi XOpOUDlC Jl.PY3bH. Bbl CTaPblii APYr. Rbi cnipble llPPbH. 3TO M3.JICHblClUI KOMHaTa. 3TO M3.JIeHbKOe OKHO.

274

LESSON 12

DISCUSSION

Russian adjectives follow a fairly simple pattern of endings in the spoken language. Because of the peculiarities of the spelling system, however, they appear complicated in writing. For con venience we group them according to their last stem consonant as hard stems, sofl stems, and mixed stems. 1. Hard stems are those with stems ending in any hard consonant except ut, ~, ", r, or x: 6oJlbllOii, "pacNBblii, CTapblii. 2. Soft stems are those with stems ending in soft II: IlH~IIKii. BCpXHKii. 3. Mixed stems are those with stems ending in ", r, x, ut, ~, 't, and m: ~ecr"Kii, npyl"OH. 6oJJbwOii. l-opli'IHii.

ADIECIlVE ENDINGS IN THE NOMINATIVE SINGULAR AND PLURAL

SINGULAR

PLURAL

Masculine
(-wi) . BTOpOii ICpacHBwi
~ii

Neuter

Feminine

-oe
BTOpOe ICpaCHBoe

-aa
BTopia ICpaCHB8SI

-"e
BTO~C

HARD
STEMS

ICpaCHBblC
-He

SOFT
STEMS

-Hit

-ee
"H)Kllce

-a.
HH:lICHaSi

HH:lICIlKH

IIIhkllHC

I. Stems ending

inK,I',x
MIXED

(-HH) JlPyroH MarreflbKHii -oil (-KM) 6011bw6ii ropH'lHii

~ii

-oe
Jlpyr6e ManeHbKoe

Jlpynia Muneubkaa

-"

-He

STEMS

------ ----2; Stems ending m ut, iK, 't, III

----- ----- - - - - -He -OC (-ee) 60JlbWOe ropsi'lee 60nblll8H mpsi'l311 60JlbWHe ropH'lHe

..

.lJ.pyni:c MalleHhkKC

Mixed stems ending in ,,) r, and x follow the same basic patlern of endings as hard stems, except that, instead of -Wi (m) and -ble (PI), the endings are -HH and -He respectively; the preceding K, r, or x is automatically softened. Compare KpacHBloIii, KpacHBblc with M8.rJCHbKHii, ManeHbKHc. Hard stems have the masculine ending -Oii if stressed, but -lolii if unstressed. Compare BTopOii, MOJJOJlOH with crapblii, KpacMBblii. Mixed stems ending in lU and )I( have the masculine and neuter endings -oii and -Oe if stressed, but -ttii and -ee if unstressed. Compare 6oJJblllOii, OOnbutOe with xOpOlllHii, xop6wee. Note that some adjectives function as nouns and that some surnames are adjectival in form; CTOJJOeall (for CToJloeasi .. 6MHan), aiuHu (for eaHHasI KO~HaTa), TOJJCToii, j(OCToeBCKHii. The sur name for Miss or Mrs. Tolstoy is TOJJCTaa and for Miss or Mrs. Dostoevsky, j(OCToeBCKlUiI. In the plural the Tolstoys are To.IICTWe and the Dostoevskys j(OCToeBCJ,."MC.

LESSON 12

Z75

4TEHHE H nHCbMO

, ~/~~2

-~, ~.

-:Jnw kaa

-~. ~ ~ I<:a:-~~,

-$h

~~,2_~j/~ec?7U-

~~IU/~"~~
(L.~~ $k=~.2-~,

r=~' fAa-~~~
.M?U-Z_~ ~,-:bw~~~
IU/

-~, ~/~--k~~
~
~.2 -

,2-.0z,..a- C~ ~

~.-.fZ~~~,

::no
-

evJ

2a,

eve kn- U-CH<-~,

~
Moli lPaMHnHR
}l3 AMepHKH.

Z-c0a,~.

rpaEIT.
pall.

A Ka.K 83W3 aMRnHSI?

6cHlI08. jf H3 fleHHl:lrpa.a.a. A DbI OTKY.n:a?

- .st
~

T6nbKo npHt~xaJl cer6D.IDI.


c aaMi1 n03H3KOMl1TbCSl.

BOT dK! 6'feHb

Cue

aawa KOMHan?

BOT 3Aecb, Hanp{mo. TaK MbI: TooapuU{H no KOMHaTe! BOT yn3.'1a: Ji KaK paJ y'ty aurmiitcKHH Sl3bIK.

0, Obi rooopHn no-aHrnHi'icKH?


HeMHoro.

~ CK3)1(HTe, Obi

nou.ne-re cer6.nIDI B 6H6J1HOTeKy?

276

)lll., n6c.rle 066,aa.


LessoN

12

llo>KaJlyficTa, B03bMIfTe )))HI MeHli BoHuy H MHpll. Xopow6. Ho Bbl, Kf!.:+::eTC.sI, HeJl<lBHO <UtT3JlI1 :hOT pOMaH? j],a, 1'10 TaKHe Demit uaao 'iIofTaTb MHcro pa3.
HOCHJ1bUlHK. B03bM~fTe. nO:lK3.JTyHcT3,

Moli 6ara)l(,

- CeH'lac. Bbl xonrre noexaTb H3 TaKe"? J1.a, Ji 6'ieHb enemy.


BOH T.3.M TaKe". TaKe"! nOJlO:)I0ITb BeW" 86ara)KHHK?

)l.a, nOlK3nyHCTa. BOT, CnacH60.

B03bMHTe

10 KoneeK.

Obi: 'laCTO XOJ1HTe B KHHO?

XO:lKY, tlO He '13CTO. HHor.n:a B cy666ry. XOTitTe nOHTH J3BTpa BC'fepoM?


A 'ITO H,l.leT?

DaHill'!

Mlip}). 3TO. IGlJKeTCJl. 3MepHdHclmij lj>HnI.M?


Ii

D.fl, ".

rOBop~, XOp6WHH.

nOH,a,eM. HHTepecHo nOcMoTpITb.

- >1
-

e.ny 80 Bna.nlIBOCTOK. KalKeTCSI, MhI nOIlYr't.HKH? .[la, 1'10 TOJ1bKO ltO MOCKBb.. >1 eAY B MOCKOy. CKOJlbKO apeMeH" exaTb .no MOCK8bJ?
Wec-rb '"IaCoD. A CKOJlbKO OT MOCKBbI lt~ Bn3AHBOCTOKa?

CCMb AIltHi,

KCl)KeTCJl.

- TciK 116nro? Kor,Q3.:t<e 8W npHeAe-re?


CerO.o.HJI nOHeAenhHHK. 3HaqHT li npueJIY 80 Bna.o.IIBocrOK Ha cncAyK)ll.[eH HeAene, BO 8TOpHHK nH 8 CPCAY -TaKC! - BAM Ky.o.a? _ B rOCTHHHuy (YKpaltHa). TOJIbKO li O"leHb cnewy. - ~TO miTb MnHYr, He 60Jlbwe. - Hy aOT, Mbl y)l(C cAeM nll:Tb MHHy-r. Ell.[c ,uaJIeKo? - Hth) cejjqac. BOH, BHll:HTe, Haneeo 60J1hUlOjj .nOM? ~TO ((YKpaHlla). - npeKpaCIIO. CKOJ1bKO C MeHli? - Aaa.aU3Tb KoneeK. - nO)l(3JIyHCTa. Bbl r08opiITe, 'ITO 33K333nH 3ll:eCb HOMep? A3, Ji 33K33a.n He6oIlbWOH HOMep ,lV1S1 O,l{Boro. K:\K 83W3 3MHnHl'!? rp3HT. <l>Hmfnn rp3HT. Bbi 3MepHK3..fleu? A3. A CTYl{CHT MOCKOBCKoro YllHaepcHTe-r3. A. 3Ha'fHT 8br He .n:OJ1ro y HaC 6YJleTe. He-r, T611bKO llB3 JVlJl:.
LESSON 12 1:"17

Ii

eCTb rOCTlhml.l;a

LESSON

13

PREPARATJON FOR CONVERSATION

Be'lepHHH, -lUI; -ee, -He l{HT,Urre Be'lepHJOJO MOCkBY'. ra3C'ra nocoBCTosan. (prv I), nOCOBeT}'lO, -eWb, -JOT KaKyJO ralhy BbI MHe nocoseryeTe 'lHTan. ? H3BCcTHe t&boocnul (pi) npaB.n.a HMHa, KaKylO raJiTy Bhr Mae nocoBiTyc-re
"lHTan. fIpu.n.Y, dh~?

evening Read the Evening Moscow. newspaper to advise What paper would you advise me to read? news, news report Izvestia (name of newspaper) Pravda (name of newspaper) Nina, which newspaper would you advise me to read, Pravda (orJ Izvestia? No, rcad the Evening Moscow. notice, announcement, declaration theater, theatrical It has theater notices. happening, occurrence, accident, event, incident It has theater notices and [local] events. the same everywhere news, novelty The news is the same in all of them (iiI. everywhere). It has theater notices and local events, and the news is the same in all of them. private, personal wanl ads, private ads You don't have want ads. to sell

Her,

"lHTaiiTe \(Be'fiptllOtO MOCKBy)l.

06bllBJlCHHe TeaTpaJlbHblA TaM TeaTpanbllbiC 06bHsncHHH. npoHClllCCTBHC TaM TeaTpanbllble 06bllSJlCHH}I, npoHcwCCTBH}I. T6T )KC, Ta JKe, T6 JKe, Te JKe Be3J.J.C 11680CTb (f) H6socnl se3.nC TC )Ke.
TlliM Te8rpa.'1hIfhlC 061>llBJJeulUl, npoHCUJttTllltK,

HOBOCTH

BeJJ.J.e n .e.

'1aCTllblH [~asnij] 'laCTHWe 06bHBJlCHH}I Y sac lib '1aCTHblX 06bHBJleHHH. npo.nasan. (I), npoJ.J.a.o, -eWb, -lin

mOll. JlIOJl.eii KaK :t::e .mOll npo,naK)T CDOH acm"


A CKajKHTe, sOT y aac OCT ttaCTllblX 061>HBJICHHN, KaK :e moll,M npoAa,Hn CRoff UtitH?

people Just how do people sell their things? Tell me, since you don't have wanl ads, bow do people sell their things?

nOllep;KaHHblH
nonepa>aHHble BtIltH?

[pac;lerf:mij]

secondhand Secondhand things? commission stores (statemanaged secondhand stores) In commission stores. flea market, secondhand market In commission stores or at the flea market. acquaintances, friends through, across, by way of, in Through friends. simple, simply In commission stores, at the fica market, 'or simply through friends. Oh, so that's it! advertisement, advertising You have so few advertisements. to notice I've noticed you have very few advertisements. by the way, while we're on the subject By the way, I've noticed you have very few ads. magazine, journal You have very few ads, even in magazines. Dgof/yok (name or Soviet magazine-lit. small light) You have so few ads, even in magazines, for example, in Ogonyok. sketch, essay, feature story Ihe U.S.A. Did you read the feature story on the U.S.A? last, latest in the last issue In the last issue there was a feature story on the U.S.A. Did you read it?

KOMHCCHOHHble Mara3HUbl B KOMHceOHHhJX Mara3Hllax. TOJlKYttKa B KOMHCCHOHHblX lum Ha TOJlKy'lKax. 3HaKOMhFe (acc, gen, and prep pi 3l1aKoMhlx) 'Jepe3 (plus ace)1 4epe3 311aKoMLlx. npocToii (adv np6cm) 8 KOMHceItOlfflblX, nil TOJJKy'IKC, HJlH
npOcTO "Icpe3 JHllK'OMhlX.

Ax,

BOT

OuO -no!

pelUl3Ma Y .mc M3.JJO pelUlaM. JaMenrn. (pfv II), JaMe'ly, :laMeTlfWh, -'IT .st :laMe-run, 'ITO y sac Mana pelUlaM. M6K.ny npO"IHM MC*Jl.Y npO'OL\t, Ii laMent!I, ...ro y aac Ma.TJO peKnaM.

;KypHan Y Hac M3.JJo peKnAM, lla>KC B >KypH3.JJax. OrOReK (gen sg ,(OrOllbKa,,)

Y aac MallO peKJlliM, Jl,aiKe B *ypH8113X,


1I11llpllMep B OrOllhKe.

O'lepK

COCJl.IlHCHllbJe WT3.TbI AMepHK) [e&Al or [Ha} Bbi '1HT3..Jrn O'lepK 0 CruA" nocnellHHii!-J1.,-ee,-He B nOCJ1eJI.ReM nOMepe 8 nOCne/lllCM. HOMepe 6bL'I OoiepK
o cmA. Bbi 'fII"rinH?

'CllIA (jill! form

1 The: preposition 'Iepn is pronounced eitbcr with a ~al: stress on the: firsl syllable or without stlU$ allOgetoor. It has too meaning in only in time upressi.ons: ~ "i<: in an hour.

280

LESSON

13

l(MTllJI. A our 0':'- 113m :.KYPIl3.Jl .Al\.tcplII\a. JII3.eTe? TPYllllO (adj TpYllHbIH)

I did. But do you know our magazine America? hard, difficult Yes, but it's hard to get hold of it. not (negative particle), no maHer no matter at which newsstand you ask answer sold out No matter al what newsstand you ask, it's always the same answer: 'They're sold out." strange That's strange. embassy to get, get hold of I can get them at our embassy. Listen, I can get them at our embassy.

.ali, 110 en) TpY.tl.IIO llOCT8TL.


H"
o K3KOM KHocKe 1111 cnp6cllwb OTOe,p3cnp6llaH,-a,-o,-~

R t\a,,6~t "MOc"e 11M Cnp6cMlUt., BCer.wi


OD.Ku OTBiT: ..PacrtpO.llaHLI

crp3.HIIO (adj crp3.HHblii) CrpaHIIO. nocOnbCTOo llOCTaB3.Tb (I), llOCTafO, --ern\>, -fOT R MOry .aocraB3.Tb HX 8 H3.WCM noconbCTBe. OrYlUaiiTe, Ii MOt-y D.0CT3aan. Kx B
HalUeM

nocOJ1bCTBe.

ROT xop0ut6!

Good!
~Yr

s1 Tormi 6ylU' 6pliTb


SUPPLEMENT

6paTb (.), 6epy, -ernb, y sac.

(pfv B311Tb)

to take, get, borrow Then I'll get them from you.

COse-rOB3Tb (I), COBthyt<'>, -eWb, -H>T

'lTo Bbl Mile COOe,-yCTC? npo'lllTaTl> (pfv) RW)')ICe npo'lIlTaml raJe-ry? nerKII" nox~ijl nen,o [lixk6] He T3.K nerKO JJOCT3.Tb )f(ypml.n 'lenOBCK (pi mOllll)

(~epHKa}).

611

XOp6WHH 'lCnOUeK.

Qlla XOPOWIIH 'ICnOUeK.

pa.nIlO (indccl n) nOCJIYlIJaeM pa.nIlO. HOObl" 4TO HOBoro'1


MonOllO"

Rbi 3HaeTe :iTOro Mono,n6ro 'lenOoeKa'1 ynlfLt8 ~ BOT nO'lTa 'lepe3 YnllLty.

to advise What would you advise me '1 to read (through), to finish reading Have you finished reading the newspaper? easy, light easy, easily It's not so easy to get hold of the magazine America. person, human being, man He's a nice person. She's a nice person. radio Let's listen to the radio. new What's new? young Do you know this young man'1 street There's the post office across the street.

LESSON 13

281

J. -

JH1IHnn

H. -

HIlHa
npaB,lly, 113Becnub,1 1

<1>.
H.

HMHa, KaKylO f83eTY 8b1: MHe nocoBhye-re 'IHTchb -

2 HeT, '1HTaihc Be'lepHlOIO MOCKBy>': TaM -rearpanbHble o6hSlsneHHR,


npoHcrnOCTBHR, a HOBOCTH Be3JJ.e Te :lKc. 2

<1>.
H.

3 Xopomo. A CKa:lKHTe, BOT Y sac Hh 'IaCTHblX 06'hRBneHHH, KaK :lKe mO,llH npO,ll8KH CBOH BemH 1
4 nOJJ.ep:lKaHHblc? B KOMHCCHOHBblX, Ha TonKy'lKe,

wm

npocTo 'Iepe3 3HaKoMblx. 1

<1>.

Ax, eOT OHO 'ITO! Me:lKJJ.Y np6'1HM, if 3aMeTJUl, 'ITO y Bac Mano peKnaM. 4 ,[J;<bKc B :lKypHanax, HanpHMep B OroHbKe. S

H.
<1>.

6 JI,a. TaK BW )'IKe 3HaKOMbJ c OroHbKoMll 1 KCTchH, B nOCJIettHeM H6Mepe 6hln O'lepK 0 CIlIA, 8';1 LJHTMH?'

7 l.J:HTM. A BOT Bbl


PacnpOttaHbll'.

Ualli :lKypHM AMepHKall 3HaeTe?1

H.
<1>.

8 JI,a, HO cro TpyttHO JJ.oc-rnTb. B KaKoM KH6cKe HH cnp6cHlllb, BcerJJ.a OMH oTBer:
9 Crp:iHHO. CnyrnaATe, if
MOry

ttOCTaB3.Tb HX 8 HallJeM nocOnbCTBe. y Bac.

H. 10 BOT xoporno! NOTES

.st TOfJJ.a 6ytty 6paTb

I1pb/.la>1 Prawla (Truth) and J'(3aecrn Izvestia (News) are the two largest Soviet newspapers; the first is the official party newspaper and the second is the official government newspaper. Each issue is usually made up of four pages, limited to national and international items of political significance. Note that J.hlSic'rsm is plural: >t no 'IJI'Ti;r d138kTJurx.
I

2 llBeotepKIUI MOCKluh used to be the only paper in the Soviet Union that published local news items, including accidents. There is also a comparable newspaper in Leningrad called (<Be'lepIIHH JleHHHrp8;:v>.

TOJlJI:Y'lKM are establishments where practically any secondhand item can be bought or sold. They are frowned on by the government and are frequently closed down or moved to the outskirts of town- to discourage people from patronizing them. KOMHCCM6ton.Ie MBnl3NuY are government-supported secondhand stores where people may buy and scU used things. A seller m~t wait to receive his money until the item bas actually been sold.
3

The Soviet government is now doing a little more advertising of commodities than it did before World War II, using radio, posters. and occasionally even neon signs. Announcements on radio and television tell what goods have come into the slate stores. In addition, bulletin boards have been installed in display windows; on these boards, individuals can post announcements of things for sale.
, (0r0HeK is a popular weekly illustrated magazine whose contents range

from articles on national and international themes to fiction, verse, art reproductions, and crossword puzzles.

282

LESSON

13

cwA (Coe.lUfJleHHWe

WTliTw

Al\tt~PHKH) is pronounced [e~ea] by some

people and [~a] by others. Some speakers say 06 cwA [abdka] and others o cwA [a.u3.]. Like CCCP this abbreviation is not declined: B cwA, B CCCP. The basic rule for abbreviations is that they are not declined unless they contain a medial vowel: compare 06 CCCP with 0 cYMe.
1 AMepKKb is an illustrated magazine with articles on life in the U.S.; it is printed in Russian and distributed in the Soviet Union by the U.S. Department of State. Soviet officials allow only a limited number to be sold, often returning large quantities to the American embassy, supposedly unsold. A very limited number of newsstands in the large cities are allowed to sell AMepllKs, and, when the word gets around that a new issue has arrived, friends of the clerks who distribute and sell it usually buy up the few available copies. Secondhand copies sell readily in used-book stores.

PREPARATION FOR CONVERSATION

nOC.,JJjwaeM

nJlBcTliHKH

nnacnlHKa nocnyrnaTb (prv I) (/ike cnyrnaTb) nOCJfyrnaeM nnacnllfJCH.

no.npYra
BW eme He B..me.'lH MoHX OO.IIPyr.

phonograph record to listen [toJ leI's listen to records. girl friend (of a girl) You haven't seen my girl friends yet. to drop in, stop by, call on Let's drop in at the donnitory. Want to drop in at the dormitory and I'll introduce you '! With great pleasure or I'd like to very mucb.

33.ii'ni (pfv I), :saHnY, -crnb, -y-r (past 33.wCn, 33.w.na, -0, -If) 3aH..iJ.eM B 06meJKUTHe. XOTIn-e, JJtiiJJ.eM B 06ute-.... Mnte, IIOJH8KOMJIJO ?

nponycK (pI -a, -60) nan (pfv irreg) (past Aan, -3, -6, -H; fut
,ll}lM, ,!J;arnh, nitCT, .ua,ruIM, .na,ll,HTe,

pass, entry permit to give, let

Mile

OllJ1YT) .nanjT IlpOoyeK?

But will they give me a pass" Of course. music [some] tea to drink, to finisb drinking We'll drink some tea and listen to music. record player We have a record player. comer
red

KOHC<uto.
MY3b1Ka

(special gen) 8bmHTh (pfv I), BbUIbIO, BblfJbeWb, BWnbe.\t 'taJQ, Mj:J.WKy DOCJJjwaCM.
'13010

-lOT

npoHrpWBaTeJlb (m)

HaC

ecn, npoHrpblBaTeJlb.

yronol( (vaT of )irOJl) Kp3.CHhlH


KpaCHbI" yrOJJOK

recreation room

LESSON 13

283

Y mic

KpaCIIOM yrOJfKe eCTb

Jlpofil'pblBaTCJfb. fipeK'pacuo.

In our recreation room therc's a record player. Fine. song folk, popular There probably are Russian folk songs there? singer (m) singer (f) performance performed by Yes, lots, and performed by the best men and women singers, I'm fond of your folk songs. black, dark eyes I'm so fond of your folk songs, for example, "Dark Eyes." love song (semi classical) Why, that's an old love song. to sing no longer which, what, that Why, that's an old love song that's no longer sung. really? you don't say? Really? to hear melody, tune In America that tune may often be heard. No kidding? jazz, popular music We love your jazz. By the way, we love your jazz. but it's hard to get records. I'll bring some; I have a lot of them.

nCeIlS! (gcn pi nCCCH) HapO.!J.1IbJH


TaM, llaBepllo, CcrL PYCCK~C napO}.I;Hble necaH?

DeBeU (gen and acc sg nCHua; nom pi neBubl, gen and acc pi neaUDa) neallua HCnOJIHCHHe B I1cnOJlHeHrm
1I.a, MHoro, II B IICnO}lIIellllll JlY<fIlIHX nCBuOB II neBK",

R mo6mo BawH
'lePHhtH

H3po.nHbJe necHH.

O'm (poetic for rJl33a) A T3K m06mo alliull llapO,!UIl>Je nIIK,


lIanplIMep

.0'111

'Iepllwe to

pOM{mc

.D.a :ho

CTClPblH pOMaHC. neTb (I), nOlO, nOemb, DOKn

lla

y)l{e lie KOTOpblH iTO cTapbJii poMallc, KOTOPbJii y",e He

nOKn,

IleY)l{emi? Hey",eJfH?

(pfv II) (like CJThJW3Tb) MeJlO,l{HS! Y Hac B AMepHKe .try MCJJO,il.JtJO "IaCTO
YCJTbJW3Th

MO:lKlIO ycJTbImaTb.

1I.a IIY?
ill,,"'
MbJ mo6HM BaW

,ll)K,b. J"OOHM Bli.tu .a;",h. T6J1LKO nJlacrHlIKII TPY.a;1I0 JI.OCTaB3TL.


~bi

Jt nplfllecY. y MeHli HX Muoro.

SUPPLEMENT

nplfHOClITb (II), npHHorny, nplfHOCffilJb,


-",

to bring He often brings records. white dark blue

611 'faCTO npl1110CUT nn3CTHHKu.

6eJlhtH
cHlUfH
284 LESSON 13

rOJly66J1

3e.nCHbtH
)l{eJlTblH

usb, -3 (nom pi uoeTa) KaKoro UBCT3

light blue green yellow color what color, of what color What color is your suit? Dark blue. tasty, good (tasting), delicious Want a cup of good coffee?
eye

KaKoro uBtha BaW KOCTtOM?


CHHero (or clfHHH).
BKyCHhlH (adv BKYCHO) XOTIfTe "awxy aKjcuoro x~? rna3, -a; rna3A, rna3 y llee cHHHe rna3a.

She has dark blue eyes.

JIOCnYUJaCM nnaCTHHKH
H. H.
HlfH3

<1>. -

Cl>HlIftnn

<I>nmmn, Bbi Cute He BK.aeJlH MOHX no.npyr. XOTHTe, 33MeM B 06ute>KHTHc,


n03HaXOMJIJO .,

<1>.
H.

2 C 60JlbUJHM y.nOBon.bCTBHeM. A MHe )la.nYr npbnycx?1


3 KOHe'fHo. BbiDbCM "3fO, M;I3b1XY nOCJljwaeM. Y HaC B KpaCHOM yrOJlxe teTb
npoHrpbIBaTCJIb. 2

<1>.

4 OpeXpaCHO. TaM, HaBepHO,

ecn. pyCCX"C Hap6.nHblC necHH?


.nY<fIllHX nCBuoB H nCBJfU.
6,,"
'fCPHblC>. poMaHC, KOTOpWH y)l(e He nOK>T. l
Men6JJ.HIO

H.
<1>.
H.

5 J].a, MHoro, H B HCnOnReRHH


6

J1:

T3K mo6mo BawH HapOJJ:HLJC n6cHH, HanpHMep

7 6"H "CpHblc>.?,l],a .:ho CTapblii


8 Hey)KeJll'l? A y HaC 9)],a Hy? A Mhl
B AMepHKe

<1>.
H.

:hy

",\eTO

M6)KHO

YCJIhIWaTb.

JUOGHM Balli

)l)l(h, TonbKO nnaCTl1HKH -rpY.nHO .nOCTasaTb.

<1>. 10
NOTES

J1:

npuRecy, y MefiR HX Mlioro. lOne's pass or entry permit np6nyCK must be shown to the custodian on entering or moving out of a dormitory. Another pass is needed to enter a university library. Also, foreign students must request a special permit for traveling outside the city; this pennit must be shown when checking into a hotel.
2 Kpacuwii )TOJ.OK little red corner refers to the recreation room in dormitories, factories, schools, universities, and clubs throughout the U.S.S.R. Each recreation room has a portrait of Lenin and sometimes one of Marx, Khrushchev, and others, and the rooms are frequently painted red. KpJictu.rii originally meant beautiful, and in Orthodox tradition the KpacHwM )'ro.'l was the right-hand comer of the room where icons or holy pictures were hung.
LESSON I 3 285

J The term poMliHc is derived from French; in Russian it describes a certain type of love lyric, set to music. Such well-known poets and composers as nYrnKHH and lfaHKOSCKHH have helped to create them. POMliHc also refers to popular gypsy songs lIbIJ'UCKHe poMliHcw., but is not used in the English sense of romance. The word for romance is poMliH (which also means novel [book]).

Russians are inclined to call any Western popular music ,roa.:b. Foreign music has a special appeal to Russians, especially to those of the younger generation, and they are willing to pay high black market prices for foreign records.
J

Basic sentence patterns


I. KaJCoro It8e-ra Mwe IlJlaTbe? - 3e.rtCHoro. - )KCJlToro. - SbIoro. - 4cplloro. - KpacHoro. - rOJly6oro. - CHHero.
2. KaxyfO ra3CTy 8Ll 'lHTaeTe? _ _ _ kHHry ?

What color is your dress? Green. Yellow. White. Black.

Red.
Light blue. Dark blue. What newspaper are you reading? _ _ book ? What magazine _ _ novel What letter _ _ notice What verses _ _ lessons What are you talking about? About our club. _ _ _ _ department. _ _ _ _ essay. _ _ _ _ embassy. What did she find out about? Aboul your room. _____ aparlment. _ _ _ _ success (or good luck). _ _ _ _ mistake.. _ _ _ _ group. Don't forget about our ________ ________ ________ ________ _______ _______ ________ exams. lectures. records. record players. radios. passes. lhings. receipts. ? ?

? _ _ poM" 7 KuOe rntChMO ? 06'MI8JleHHe _ _ 7 KaKHe CTHxH ? yp6JCII 7

Ku6ii Xypll:l.n

7
? ?

3. 0 'lCM Obi rOOOpHTe?


- 0 RaweM KJJj6e.
_ _ _ _ $aKYJJbTCTe.

_ _ _ _ _ OttepKe.
_ _ _ _ _ IlOCOJJbCToe.

4. 0 IfCM alia y:maJIa?


- 0 TBee" _;____ _____ ____
JCoMHaTt. JCBapn1pe. y.a;alfe. owH6JCe. Tp9noe.

5. He 3a6j,lJ;b 0 El3U1HX :1I03MeHax. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ JlexU,Hjfx. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ W1aCnftIXax. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ npoHTpblsaremrx.

_ _ _ _ _ _ p3JxHO.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ nponyclCax. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Bewax. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ KBHT'3.HU,HJIX.
286
LESSON 13

6. B"n paone" Her TCaTpa1lbUbiX 06MIB1IeUHH.


_ _ _ _ _ _ '1acTIlblX _

There aren't any theater ads in Pravda. _ _ _ _ _ _ private _ There aren't any intcresting ads in Izvestia. _ _ _ _ _ such _ They'll arrive next Friday. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Saturday. _ _ _ _ _ _ Wednesday.
I'll arrive next Tuesday. _ _ _ _ _ Thursday. _ _ _ _ _ Monday. We'll arrive next Sunday.

B "H3BecTHRX" HCT HHTepeCUhlX 061.S1anelUtH. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ TaxHX _


7. Qmi npHellyr BcnellytOw,ytO ru1THHu.y.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ cy666ry.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ cpeny. .sf npHellY Bcnell)'lOwHii 8TOptuU.:.


_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 'Ienepr. __________ nOllellCnhHHK. MbI: npHellCM BCJIell)'lOwee BocKpeceHhe.

8. .sf Tamx KapnfH ewe lie SH,neJI.


_ _ _ moneH _ _ _ pe""'M _ _ _ <j>'6pUK _ _ _ KHOcKOB _ _ _ Tfl.HUcO _ _ _ _ _

I've never seen pictures like that before. _ people . ______ advertisements . _ factorics _ _ _ _ _ _ newsstands _ _ dances _
I'm looking for a small box. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ cupboard. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ table. _ _ _ _ _ _ a small shelf. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ room. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ hotel. _____ some small boxes. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ glasses. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ spoons.

9. .sf HmY He601lbWOH RW,HK. - - - - - - ",.'<j>. ________ CTOJ1. _ _ He6oJlhwylO ________ ________ ___ uc60JIhwHe nOJlkY. kOMuaTY rocniHHuy. Kop66KH.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ CTaKiHbI.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ J10jKKH.

10. MbI: 6bvTH B 601lhwoii aYllHropHH.


________ _________ ____ S 601lbwOM _________ _______ ________ _________ KBapTHpe. x6MH3re. r6polle. o6mel'C1ITHH. 3ane. pccTopane. 3naHIHL

We were in a large lecture hall. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ apartment. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ room. ____ in a large lown. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ dormitory. _ _ _ _ _ _ hall. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ restaurant. _ _ _ _ _ _ building. Isn't there another _ _ _ _ _~ ______ -conductor here? porter ? saleslady _ _ ? teacher (f)-?

11. 3ll6ch lIeT APyroro _______ _ _ _ _ llpyroii _______

nposOlllIHKl'I.? HOCHJlbutHKa? npollaBWHI..l,hI? Y'!HTeJlbU"UbI?

12. BbI: CKOPO eC'J""rHTe llPyrHx npoleccopOs. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1IlO.I1eii. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ceKpeTapeii.


_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ WO<j>epoB.

___________ aMCpHK3.HQCS. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ YKpaHHQco. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ pyCCKHX.

You'll soon meet other professors. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ people. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ secretaries. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ drivers. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Americans. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Ukrainians. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Russians.
LESSON 13

11r7

13. MO>lnlo 'UnaTb'? - XOpOlllO, '1HTil.lhe! _ _ _ mtc..1Tb? __ IHtWHTC! _ _ _ rODOp"Tb? __ rosopine 1 _ _ _ cnpocHTb? __ cnpocine!
-, ? _ _ _ lIr!JTb.
~,, _ _ lI'vuHTe.

_ _ _ paooTaTb? _ _ _ CJlYwaTb'1 _ _ _ miTb?


___ neTb ? _

__ pa66TaHTe!

__ cnjrnaHTc! _ _ nem!
__ "miTe.I

_ _ _ OTKPblTb QKHO? _ _ OTKpOihe! _ _ _ JaKpbiTb Jlaepb? _ _ JaKpOiITe!


14. BMlle BHAe.nH Moero 6pATa? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ .ltpYr"a?

Is it all right to read? O.K. go abead! ____ I ______ wrile? _ _ _ _ _ talk? _ _ _ _ _ ask? _ _ _ _ _ play? _ _ _ _ _ work? ______ Iisten" _ _ _ _ _ drink? _ _ _ _ _ sing? _ _ _ _ _ open tbe window? _ _ _ _ _ _ close the door? You didn't see my brother? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ friend? ______ our driver? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ guide (or conductor)? _ _ _ _ _ my brothers? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ friends? ______ our professors? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ friends (or comrades)? He was at my sister's place. _ _ _ _ _ girJ friend's _ ____ our teacher's _ _ ______ American woman's You were standing near your coach. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ house. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ baggage. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ dormitory. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ your door. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ hotel. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ laboratory. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ your pictures. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ maps. I'm not asleep. He's not asleep. We're not asleep. They're not asleep. You're nol asleep. You're nOI asleep.

_____ lUiwero w<:KPepa?


_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ npoBo.QHHKa?

6pan.ea? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ npy.Jiii?
_ _ _ _ _ MOH:x

_ _ _ _ _ lIliwH.X npo4leccopOB? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ToB<ipllmcH?


15.

0n 6bul

y MOeK cecTpbl. _ _ _ _ _ _ nOll,pyTH.


Haweli Y'IlITe.nbHHUbl.

_______ aMcpllkCl.HKH.
16. Obi CTOJimt OKano cooero BarOHa. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ,u,6Ma.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 6arIDKa.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 06WC)l(ltTlt.ll.

________ CBoeH

,llBepH.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ roCTliHHUbl.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ JJa60pan)pIlH.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ CBO"X KapT"H.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ KapT.
17. .s1liC enmb.

611 lie COl-I'r.


Mbl lie cnHM.

OlUi lIe emiT. Tw He cmiWb.

8w

He cmiTe.
3aMeTHT.

18. 611 HU'icr6 lie


OWl _ _

lie

JaMeTHT.

Obi
Mbl _ _

IIC JaMeTHTc.
lie JaMeTHM.

.sf
Tbi
6H

lie JaMe'ly.
He 3aMCTHlUb.

He won't notice a Ihing. She won'l notice _ You won'l notice _ We won't notice _ I won't notice _ You won'l notice _ I'll introduce you 10 her. He'll introduce _ They'll introduce _ We'll introduce _

19. .sf Me C Heii n03HaK6MJuo.


n03HaJ(OMHT. n03HaJCOMJn. n03HaJ(OMHM.

OH"

Mbi 288
LESSON

I3

Bbl MeHli C Hcii n03HaKOMliTC? Tbi n03HakOMUWb?


20. Bbi YCJIwwlfTe o,lUloro Tbi' YCJIWllIHllIb
Ii)

Will you introduce

Will you introduce me to her? ?

Jly'lumx neouOo. _
.

6H

ycJIbuuHT

Mbi' yCJIbunHM

You'll hear one of the best singers. You'll hear _ He'll hear _ We'll hear _

>1 ycm;,wy
QHn yc.nhlwaT _

I'll he.,.
They'll hear I'll get your things right away. He'll get _ They'll get _ _ We'll get You'll get _ You'll get _

_
_

21. A ceii'lac nonY"Y aiWH sCu.ut.

Oil __

T" __

noJl)i"lHT Qlln _ nOJly'laT M.. __ nOJly'lHM B" __ nony'llue nonj'lHllIb

_ _ _ _ _
S

22. OH nOJlO:lKHT saw 6ani:lK .s1 nonoxY Mbl 110nOJKHM Omi nOJlO:lKaT lUo4>ep nOJlO:lKHT
23.

Taxcn. _ _ _ _

He'll put your baggage in the taxi I'll put _ We'll pul _ They'll put _ The driver wiU put _

B" __ T" __
A

DOCMOTpIO :hy KapTIilly. _ 3nHa _ nOCMOTpHT _ nOCM6TpHTe _ QRn __ nOCMOTpJIT _ flOCMOTpHWb _

A J3STpa

M" __ nOCMOTpHM

,'II see the picture tomorrow. We'll see _ Zina will see _
You'll see They'll see You'll see

_ _
_

24. Mbi' C lIeit noroBopnM 06 :iTOM.


noroBop.o _ _ T.:. _ _ noroBopHwb _ _ Oil _ _ norosopHT _ OHn _ _ noroBopJiT _

B" __ noroeopliTe

We'll have a talk with her about it. I'll have _ You'll have _ You'll have _ _ He'll have They'll have .

Pronunciation practice: initial clusters with [r] or


A. Clusters with [r] or

[rl
[tp] TJ'H three ("'Iii) TpCTuH
third

(rl

in second position in the cluster. [srok] cpOK date, term

[brak] [brat]

6paK 6paT npluula


np6cb6a

marnage brother

[gran
count

rpaq,

[pravdo] truth
[pr6~]

(gnls)
load

'Pi>

[Zi'Qijo]
sight

3ptHHe

request

[mn]
liar

oPYH

[kraj] x:pAii ooge [bre t ] 6ptll


delirium lbpvno] 6peSHO

[spda)

cpe";

Wednesday [rs[Cdu] .cptllY on Wednesday

[vrae]

epa'l physician

log

[8ftK) sin

rpCK

LESSON 13

2119

[francus] !ppaHl,Y3 Frenchman ldrukJ JI.pyr friend [dram:.) JI.p3.Ma drnma [trildn<l) TPYJI.HO difficult [trojb) ..-p6iiKa troika [uaook] 3pa<foJ: pupil of eye [srazu] cplny immediately

[p[iyet] npHBCT greetings [pram.) npRMo straight [V{eql:'J Bpf:MjI time [vral ) sPAA into line [f[igal] <j>penlT frigate [drevQij) ,D,pf:BlUtH ancient [d[imall ,D,peMaTb to doze

{gral) rpR3b dirt [kr ts].] Kpee.nO armchair [kril6J KPbUIO wmg (xr.im) XpaM temple [k[ik) kPiU: shout [xre n ) xpt" horseradish

8. Clusters with [r) in first position in the cluster.

[rtull

pry-rh quicksilver

[rvanij] lorn

psaHblH

[rva\] poaTb to tear

(rta] pTa of a mouth

STRUCTURE AND DRILLS

The formation of the second person imperative


MODELS

nO;tC3.JJyHCTa, 3aX0.uH. n O;K3.JJyHCTa,. 3axome. CMOTPH, SOT MeT HHHa. CMOTpHTe, SOT 'tlleT HHua. nO,LlO)K,D,H! nO.llOiK,D,HTe! nO" rp6M'Ie! n6H're rp6M'Ie! HapeiKb orYPUbl! Hape)KbTe orypUbl! HamtWH :ho! HanmWfTe 3TO 1 He nHwlt! He mnUHTe! OncpOH OkHO! OncpOHTe OKHO! He OncpblB<1H OkHa! He oncphlBaHTe OkHa! Ta.H.UyH!
TaH~j:jTe!

He neil! He OeHre! H.IDi: .llOMO"! H.aliTe .llOMO"!

Come in, please. Come in, please. Look, there goes (or here comes) Nina. Look, there goes (or here comes) Nina. Wait a bit! Wait 3 bit! Sing louder! Sing louder! Cut the cucumbers! Cut the cucumbers! Write it! Write it! Don't write! Don't write! Open the window! Open the window! Don't open the window! Don't open the window! Dance! Dance! Don't drink! Don't drink! Go home! Go home!

290

LfSSON

13

Second person imperatives are based on the present-future stem, which can best be found by dropping the endings -YT, -toT, -aT, and -fIT from the third person plural. The familiar-singular imperative ends in -II, -i, or -b; the plural-polite imperative is fonned by adding unstressed -Te to the basic familiar-singular fonn. Of the three variants, only -N is a true ending; -ii and -b are properly part of the stem itself: -ii is written to show that the stem ends in the consonant sound .Lil, and -b is written to show that the finaJ stem consonant is soft.

I. Imperatives in -ii. Most verbs with an imperative in -it have a vowel preceding the written ending of the present-future. Their true stems, however, end in (j), spelled i in the imperative.

THIRD PERSON PLURAL

IMPERATIVE

[dumaj-ut] llyMa-JOT [~itaj-ut] 'lHTa-JOT [tancuj-ut] Tanuj-loT [staj-at] Cl'O-slT no-fbT [paj-utl YllHBnJi-fOTCSI (u4i vlaj-utC")l lmperatives based on the stem

llyMaii 'U1TaH TaHuj" cT6ii n6ii YllUBnJiiiclt

ttYMaiiTe 'lllTaiiTe TallujiiTe cT6ihe n6ihe YJIHBJuiiiTecb

lW-j drink have an inserted

vowel: nei! Bbmei!

The position of stress in the first person singular prescnt-future plays a key role in determining whether the imperative wil be in -H or -b.
-N.

2. Imperatives in -b and

a. If the first person singular ending is slressed, a stressed -H is added to the third plural stem.
THIltD PERSON

FIRST PERSON
SINGuu.R

IMPERATIVE m06li noii,nli cnpOCN DUIliN m06liTe nOiillNTe cnpocHTe IlHIlIHTe

PLUllAL

nfb6-SIT noiill-Y'r cnp6c-S1T nHw-yr

mo6mo noii.A)i cnpowy nHIlIY

b. If the first person singular ending is unstressed, the impera~ve is spelled with - .., which is a sign that the preceding consonant is pronounced soft (if possible).
THIRD PERSON PLURAL

FDtST PERSON
SINGULAR

IMPERATIVE

ltOCTaH-yf 3a6Y.n-yr OCT3B-ltT ScrpC:T-)IT Hape)l(-yr

ltOCTl'I.IIY 3a6YllY 0=1.",,,, scrpe'ly Hap6Ky

l10cnlUb 3a6yltb OentSb

o="e-rb
HapC)l(1o

.nOCTat/bYe 3a6Y.nbTe OcntsloTe BCTpeTbTe Hap6KbTe

LESSON 13

291

However, if the stem ends in a cluster of consonants, an unstressed -. is added: 86MB-lIT, oOMHIO; the imperative is uOMHB, An unstressed -" may also occur in imperatives from perfective verbs which have the stressed prefix BY-: aWrollOpIIT, aWroaoPIO; the imperative is BWroaopil (like rollOpM except for the stress).

NOle on aspect: Although imperatives from both aspects may be used in affirmative commands, oaly imperfective imperatives are ordinarily used in negative commands.
CnpocH ero! KynH :iTnac! Ask him! Buy the atlas! Write to me! Open the window! He He He He cnpalllHe&H ero! nOICynU hnaca! nHlllH MHe! Don't Don't Don'l Don't ask him! buy an atlas! write to me! open the window!

HanmnH MOe!
OTKpOH"re OICHO!

onpblsaihe OKHa!

STRUCTURE REPLACEMENT DRILL

Read verses I

CTHxH! LfKTaiiTe CTNXH! n6i{ rp6M'Ie! noiiTe I']t6wre! KYOH hnac! liy,ll;b JJ:6Ma!

l.( HTaH

CnpOCH er6! QcTasb KmO'l!

nOJJ:O)l(JI,H Memi!
~OCTaHb

Kapry! HanHlllH nHCbMo! Y3Hall 06 :hOM!

STRUCTURE REPLACEMENT DRILLS

I. /'/1 do it. Do it! A ClienafO .no. ClI.enai no! Jt CTOK> ua ymY. CrOii U3 yrnj! Jt y:mafO 06 :hOM. Jt Hrp<\fO B reHHHC. Jt oo,nyMafO 06 :nOM, .sf 'iHT:llo CTHxH.

2. /'11 open the door. Open the door!

A OTXp6fO .!tBipb.
OTxpOii ,rmepb!

.sf OblO '1au. neM luiii!


.sf .sf
Bcer.na nOKyoafO B :hOM Mar8.3Hlle.
TaHuYJO,

.st .nenaJO yp6KH. .st


ItrpaJO
B

XOKKeH.

3, I'll bring the tea.


'Bring the lea!

.st DpHHecj 'laM.


n ptDIeaI ..aii!

.st .st .st


Jt
.sf

Jt cnpoUIj ~poJeccopa Opn6ea. Cnpoai npo+ecooPa OpllOB8!


KynmO 3Tnac. nOCMOTpK> B 01m6 nOll0:a:..nY Ha yrny. HallHlDj CO<fHHeHHe. BOJbMj 3Ty nniry. nOJOOm<> B vrY6. noH.llj Ha n6uy.
LESSON 13

Jt

.st
292

RESPONSE DRILLS

1. I'm drinking tea. You drink too! Jt "btO '1a". 11 n:. 08i! Jt onpOlO OICHO. 11 n:. OTKpC.lii! Jt nrT3.1O CTHXH. Jt 1l0~aJO 06 3TOM. Jt He J\YMatO 06 30aMeHe. Jt He nOKyniuo TaXHx BeLUe". Jt CTOtO B O'lepe.nH. Jl CDp3.wKBaJO, KorA! He JHaro.

2. Why don't you lislen? Listen! nO'leMj DbI: He c.rrYwaen:'1


.. - , ......~ ...8JlTe. nO'leMj TbI He 'IHrlelUb'1 tUrri.! nO'teMj Rbi He JaXOJ1ltTe'1 nO'leMj TbI He mhuelUb'1 nO'leMj Obi He cnpAWHBaeTe'1 nO'IeMy TbI He m.eWb'1 nO'leMj Dbi He rORoplhe'1 nO'leMj TbI ue lUlelDh'1 TlO'teMy Rbi ue ~aeTe '1 nO'leMj TId He noelUb'1 nO'leMj BbI He Doere?
r~

3. You walk so much. Don't walk so much! Tbi Tal' MHoro XOAHWb. He xorot riK MH6ro! Ow TAl: MIIoro xo.wrre. He xoroi'n riK MHCko! Tw n\K MHOro mhueWb. Obi nil, MHOro mhueTe. Tw rl.x MIIoro rOBopHwb. Bbi rl.x MHoro rOBopiiTe.

4. Are you dnncing again? Don't do any more dnncillg! Tw omiTb TaHItyellll> ? He TaHllYi 6Om.we! BbI orniTb nHQjeTe'1 He TlUl1.lYiTe 6OJu.me! TbI oruiTb n..eWb'1 Ow orum. m.CTe'1 Tw orum. cnpAnnmaemb? Dw orum. CDpanmsaeTe'1 Tbi orniTb nDeWb? Obi omiTE. noCTe'1

STRUCTURE REPLACEMENT DRILLS

I. Are you going to leave the dictionary at home? Leave the dictionary at home! Thl ocn'lBHwb CJIOBapb .a;6Ma '! Ocrbb CJlOaapb .aoMa! Tw Hap6Kewb orypubl'!
Ha~ orypttbf! TbI .nOCTaHelIIb a.TJlac'! Tbi ~nntlh MeHJi: Ha ymy? Thi Ja6YAeIDb ee? Tbi 6Y.n:eUIh roTOB?

2. Are you going to open the window? Open the window! Ohl oTKp6ere altHO '1 OncpOiiTe OImO! Tbi KymUlIb nmlTbe'1 Kymi MiThe! Tw noitnernb ':S Mara:um? Bw HanHmHTe nHCbMo? Tbi n0nYMaewb 06 :hOM'1 Bw npHHedTe bJlac? Tbi no.n:o:x.:.aeun. 6pATa" Bbi noA.n:eTe Ha IOunepT?
" ...... TBOe IIMJI.
"._ ....':. _.

3. Are you going to meet us on the comer? Meel tIS on the corner! Bbi BC'TpCnrre HaC Ha yrJlY? 8cTpen.Te Hic a8 yrJJji ! Tbi CKa:lKeWb TRoe HMJI'1

Ow .llocT8.Hen: VUOouI?
TbI nOCMOTplllilb iTOT <pH:.m.M" Obi l:yrnlTe MOJlOKO'1 Obi Ja6Y.neTe 06 nOM?
LESSON

13

293

QUESTlONANSWER DRILL

May / bring the lea? Fine, bring it!


MOJKHO npHHecTH '1aH? Xop0w6. IJPHHeaiTe! MO:lKHO HartHc3n. 06 :)TOM?
XO~.H~e!

M6:lKHO M6:lKHO M6:lKIIO M6:lKHO

no,ao)f(.l(aTb sac? HapClan. orypubl? DOAYMan. HeMHoro? DOCMOTJ*rb :hOT lIlnbM?

STRUCTURE REPLACEMENT DRILLS

I. Open the window!

2. Buy a dictionary!
Don'l buy a diclionary!
Kynll: CJTOBapb! He ooKyniii cnoBapli!

Don'l open lhe window!


Orkp6ihe OIm6! He oTKpws8iiTe oKHa! Kymhe'laM!

He nOKymiiiTe "till!
OOCMOTPH:re B OKHO! C,aena"Te ;ho! CnpocHTe 06 :hOM! OOAyMaihe 06 3TOM!

KHHry! He CMcrrpH B KIlIiry! . Ham-fUll! CO'lHHeHlfe! OTKp6" ,aacph! Cnpocl! era! 110AjMait 03HMC!
B

OOCMOTPH

RESPONSE DRILLS

I. We're playing cards.

You play, too! M.hz urpaeM B dpTbl. H aW .....,iiiTe! MbI: He .uYMaeM 06 :hOM.
J.1 a... He njMaiTe! Mbi '1HT3.eM poMaubi. Mba: 6y,aeM T3.M. Mba: TaHuyeM K3.:lKJ).b.l" Be'lep. MbI He nheM. Mba: He "oeM.

2. We're reading Tolstoy. You read Tolstoy, too!


Mba: 'UttieM TonCTOro. BW To.e 'llltiiTe T OJICTOro ! Mba: nOkynAeM B 3TOM Mara:ufue. BW TO.e IIOK)'IliiTe IS 3ToM MaraJHue! Mba: mt.UleM CO'fHHeHHe. Mbi OoeM. Mbi,a,jMaeM 06 nOM. Mba: 6j,a,eM TAM. Mbi 3a6Y.aeM 063TOM.

SUMMARY OF RULES FOR FORMING THE BASIC"":' IMPERATIVE

1. If the present-future stem ends in the sound UJ, or (in spelling tenus) if the endings of the presentfuture are immediately preceded by a vowcl letler or b, the imperative is spelled with ii; lIohcynaii! (stem [p:lkupaj-]. first person singular DOKymito). Note that the stress occasionally shifts back to the stem (compare CT6ii! CToiiTe! with CTOW). Verbs like mfn.., with h directly before their present-future endings, have an inserted vowel in their stem; nei, Bhmeti (stem [gj-I, first person singular OhiO).

2. If the presentfuture stem ends in any otber consonant (but not a cluster), and if the stem is stressed in the first person singular, the imperative is spelled with -h, as in u6y.flh! (first person singular :sa6YAY). The -b must be written, even though the consonant is one that cannot be soft, as in nape-ACh!
3. If the presentfuture stem ends in a consonant cluster, even though the stress is on the stem in the first person singular present-future, the ending -It is added for the imperative, as in n6Mm1! (first person singular nOMHlo).

294

LESSON 13

4. If the present-future stem ends in a consonant and the first person singular ending is stressed, the imperative ending is -H, as in rOBOpH! (first person singular rOBopiO) and w! (first person singular HlIY).
5. Perfective verbs with tbe stressed prefix aW- form tbeir imperative in the same way as the imperative of tbe vcrb thcy derive from, for example, BWueii! (compare ueti!), BbaTOBOpR! (compare rOBOpli I). Bblpe;llCb! (compare pe:l>! cut! Hape:tl.! slicel).

The declension of adjectives: nominative, accusative, genitive, and prepositional cases


MOOELS

jf KynH:n: ___ ___ ___

H08blH l(ocnQM. HOBOe pA,ruto. H(8)'1O nnacniHKy. Hoeble nnaCTliHKH.

I bought ___ ___ ___

a new suit.
a new radio. a new record. some neW records. a good briefcase. a good radio. a good room. some good records.

HWY __ __ ___

Jt

XOp6WHH nopT(j:lenb. xop6wee p3.a.HO. xop6w)'IO xOMHaT)'. xop6wHe nnacniHXH.

I'm looking for ______ ______ ______

Rbi 3H3CTe 3Toro MOJlO,llOro 'lCJIoun? _ _ _ _ 311' MOJlO.o;yro .a.CBywXy? _ _ _ _ 3THX MOJlO..a.WX JlIO.a.eH? Rbi moGHTe )].OCToeBCI:Oro? _ _ _ _ TonCl"6ro? _ _ _ _ pyccxHe poMiHY? _____ TaxHe CTHxH? _ _ _ _ cri.pble poM3HCbl?

Do you know this young man? _ _ _ _ _ this young lady? _ _ _ _ _ these young people?

Are you fond of Dostoevsky? _ _ _ _ _ _ Tolstoy? _ _ _ _ _ _ Russian novels? _ _ _ _ _ _ such verses? _ _ _ _ _ _ old love songs? I don't like ____ ____ ____ ____ Dostoevsky. Tolstoy. Russian novels. such verses. old love songs.

Jt ue JIIOGJlIO _____ _____ _____ _____

)].OCT<>i:ecKoro. TOJiCToro. PYCCkHX poM3Hoe. TaKHX CTHx6e. CTilpblX poM9.ncoe.

Xonhe '{awKy 8KycHoro K04>e? ______ xop6wero __ 1 ______ ropR'{ero _ _ 1

Want a cup of delicious coffee? _ _ _ _ _ gooo ? _ _ _ _ _ hot ? They don't have a good club. _ _ _ _ _--'dormitory. _ _ _ _ _ _ a good library. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Iaboratory. _ _ _ _ _ _ any good theaters. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ parks. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ restaurants. We were talking about that ________ _ _ _ _ _ _ about that _ new building. b;g _ new dormitory. I"'ge _
L.fSSON

Y HI.fx HeT xop6wero KJlyGa. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 06We::KTH}I. _ _ _ _ xop6weA 6H6J1HOTeXH. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Jla60paT6pHH. _ _ _ _ XOp6WHX Tea:rpo8. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ napxo8. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ pecTopAHoe.
Mbi r080pKnH 06 nOM HoeoM JAMHH. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 6oJlbwOM_. _ _ _ _ _ 06 3TOM R080M 06we::HTJiH. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 60JlbwoM _

13

295

Mhi roBoplum 06 :hOH ________ ______ 06 3THX ________

HOHOH rocnflrnLl,e. 6onbWOH HaBbix Mara3Huax. 6onbwHx' _

We were talking about that new hotel. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ large __ _ _ _ _ _ _ about these new storts. _ _ Iarge _ _
~

Mhi rOBOpHM 0 nocne.nueM u6Mepe npas.ltbl. ___________ 31O:lMeHe. ~ c06p3HHH_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ypOKe.

We're speaking of the last __________ _________ _________

issue of Pravda. exam. meeting. Iesson. book. work. news. news reports.

Mbl rOBopHM 0 ero nocne,nHeH KHHre. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ pa66Te. ______ 0 nOCJIeJIHI1X HOBOCTlix. ___________ HJBeCHHlX.

We're talking about his latest ___________ _ _ _ _ _ about the latest _____________

SINGULAR PLlIlW.

Masculine inanimate Mono,n6H CTapbfH CHIIHH .llpyr6" PYCCKH" 6onbwo" XOpOUlH" animate Mono,naro criporo cHHero ,npyr6ro pyccKoro 6onbworo xop6wero

Neuter

Feminine inanimate MonoJJ.bie cripble cHHHe ,npyrue pyccKHe 60nbUlHe xOpOwlle animate MOJlO.lIblx CTapblx CHHI1X .n:pyntx PYCCKHX 60nbUlHx xop6umx

Mono,n6e
CTapoc

MOJlO.llYJO

crap>""
CHHIOIO .n:PyrYJO PYCCKyJO 60JlbWyJO xop6wyJO

ACC

cHHce .n:pyr6e pyCCKOC 6oJlbw6e xop6wee

GEN

Mono,n6ro criporo cKHero llPyroro pyccKoro 6onbworo xop6wero o o o o o o o MOJlOJJ.OM cn'ipoM cHHcM JIpyr6M PYccKOM 6onbw6M xop6weM

MOJtOllOH cripo" cHHeH .n:pyro" PYCCKOH 6onbUloij xop6weH

MOJlOJJ.biX rnpblx CHHHX JJ.pyrHx pyCCKHX 60nbWHx XOp6WHlt

PREP

GENERAL OeSER V .... nONS

I. The endings of adjectives modifying masculine and neuter nouns are distinct from each other only in the nominative and accusative singular; in all the otber cases, they sbare tbe same endings. 2. Only adjectives modifying feminine nouns have endings in the accusative singular which are always distinct from those used in the nominative singular: -ytO and -1010 (1I0Byto, JIPyryto, 6o.1lblUYJo.
nOCJTeAHIOIO, BepxlUOlO).

296

LESSON 13

3. Adjectives modifying neuter and inanimate masculine nouns have the same endings in the accusative singular as in the nominative singular. Those adjectives modifying animate masculine nouDS in the accusative singuJar have the same endings as in tbe genitive singular. Note that r in the endings -oro and -ern is pronounced [v]. 4. In the plural, adjectives modifying inanimate nouns use nominative plural endings; those modifying animate nouns use genitive plural endings.

RESPONSE DRILLS

1. This room is a small one. I asked for (l large one.


3TOT H6Mep ManeHbKHD. A opoelin 6oJILlUoii. 3TH HO"'H ManeHbKHc.

2. You didn't happen to see the new record? I'm looking for the new record. Obi He BUneJlH H6aOH lVIaCTUHICJi?
g

HIllY UOBytO nnacnflllcy.


roJl}'6Oe onane. (CHHero kOC'nOMa. PYCCI[OH ra3CTbI, aMe PUXaHCK:oro :lIl:ypHana, Xem-OH Te'TpArot, CTaporo noplltM:mf)

Db!: He BH.nenJt rony66ro RJlllTbR?

" npoain 6om.unie. ~ &70p66xa ManeHhx:u!. 3TOT aTnac ManeobKHH. 3Ta n6IJ.:a ManeHbJ:aJI. 3TOT ul.lc:al ManeHbKHH. ~ n6nxa ManCHbkaJI. 3Ta kapTa ManeHbKax.

g HJJ.Q'

EXPANSION DRILL

CUED QUESTION-ANSWER DRILL

Do you know that girl? Do you know that lovely girl? Db!: 3HaeTe 3Ty ,D,eaywxy?
BY :mien :iTy KpacJiBytO ,D,esywKy? Db!: 3uaen: noro DapHJI? By wen troro Kp8cHBoro rniptUI? (ny necHlO, 3Ty :lKeHlLVtHy, noro CT)'.neHTa, 3TO MCCTO. 3TY aMepHxaHKy, ny MeJIO,QHfD, 3TOT ropo.n)

What color is this book? Green. (3eneHblH) Kax6ro uatra :ITa KHHra? 3eJtbtoro. (6em..J:ii) KuMo 3Ta kHHra ? Iienoro. (kpaCm.Uf, xe.nn..ii. cHll.Hii. rony60K,

(green)

u.ae-ra

'1epHNif)

QUESTION-ANSWER DRILLS

I. Where's the American singer? The American singer isn't here yet. Cne aMepHX3HCKHH DeBen? AMepNriucKoro oeBna aue lib. rae aMCPHk3HCI[:u! DeBKU,a?
AMepRmCKOiii DeBKnw Cllle Ilk. r,Qe H6BblH )"I1ITe.m.? r,D,e H6aaJI )"flfreJIbHHua? r.ne CTApblH wc:xIX=p? r,Qe ae'ieplUlJl. ra3eTa? CO,e nocne.QmlH n6Mcp :lKypHa..na?

2. Are the new students here? I don't see the new students.
H6Bble CTy,D,eUTbi 3.necb? Jt ue BrDKy uOBWX cry.r.etrroB. nO,D,ep)f(aHllble aeLUJt 3.a.ecb? 11 He BUy uo.nep:8JlHbIX semeii. Be'lepHHe ra.Jen.i 3,Q0Cb ? MonoJ:Ibl:e mO,D,H 3,D,ecb? )KenTble 'iamkH 3neCb? H61lhle :lKypHa..n.bl 3,D,CCb? CTapLIC rrnacruHKH 3,ll,Cch? 60nbWUC CTllK{U1.bl 3.l1ech? USSON 13 297

STRUCTURE REPLACEMENT DRILL

There was a lovely picture there. There were many lovely pictures there.
TaM 6hU1a KpaCHBaJI Kapnina.

TaM 6b'm0 npocT6e 1IJ13Tbe. TAM 6buJ '{epHhlii KocnOM. TaM 6bu10 8000e 06meJICHTlle. TaM 6bu10 HIITepeenoe 06"bJlBJIeHHe. TaM 6bu1a HOB<UI peKJIAMa.

TiM fiWio MIIOrO KpacUwx KapnUt.


TaM 6w HOBblH nOM.
TaM

6Woo MDOrO aOBWX IIOMOs.

TaM

6w

ue60IIbrnoH rndl.

RESPONSE DRI LLS

I. You're a good student.

For a good student it isn't difficult.


8bl xOpOrnHH C1)'1l,enT.

2. These things are expensive. Don't buy expensive things.


3TIl oemlt 1l0porHe.

,lJ,.rui xOpOmcro crYll.ellTa iTO He rpYllHO.

He 1l00':YlIaii Jloponix BeIUeii.


3TOT nopT~nb DJlOX6H. He lIoKynaii DJIox6ro nopT~JUIL. 3T11 IIJlaCnfttKH CTapble. 3TO p8.1l,HO 1l,opor6e. 3_TOT MaTepHan "'CCTK"ii. 3TOT poMaH CKy'llIbU1.

8w ltopOrnHe CTY,lJ,eU'n>l.
,lJ,Jlli XOpOUIHX Cl'Y,lJ,CHTOB iTo lie TPYJJ;HO.
Obi xOpOrnaSl CTy.L{eHTK3.

Dbr xOpOrnHH npoooJJ.lIllK.

8w ltopOrnH" a).1.MIUIHCTp<lTOp.
8bi ltopOrn<UI )"fHTenbHHua.

Db!: ltopOrnHH )"fHTe.1Tb. 8hz ltopOu.lHe }"lJITC1Ili.


QUESTION-ANSWER DRILLS

I. Did he ask about old magazines? No, about new ones.


6H cnp:UuKBaJ] 0 CTaPblX JlCYPH3JlilX 1

HeT, 0 HOBbIX.
611 cnparnHBaII 0 crlpoH lUIaCTHHJCe 1

2. Are you talking about the small lecture hall? No, about the large one. Db! rOBopm 0 M3JleUbl:OH aYAHTOpHH? Hh, o6oJn,wOi.
8b1: rOBopihe 0 ManenbKOH 6"6J1Hon:Ke 1

HeT, 0 BOBOH.
(0 crapoM poMaHce, 0 CTaphlX necHj/X, o crapo" pa60Te, 0 CTapoM CO'{HHeIIHH, o CTapoM 3aJ1Sne1lHH, 0 CTaphlX TaflU3x)

Hh,

6oJI1.w6i.

(0 ManeHbKOM wKa<!>e, 0 ManeHbl(OM 06mC)l(HTHH, 0 ManeHbKOH na60paTOp"H, o ManenbKOM llOMe, 0 MaJleHbKOH oWll6xe, 0 ManeHbKQM JaJlC, 0 ManellbKOM Mara3HHe)

RE,SPONSE DRILLS

I. Here's the recreation room. They're waiting for us in the recreation room.
BOT KpaCHhIH.yronOK.

2. Have you seen the new building? Everyone's been talking about the new building.
8hz BH,neJUl HOSoe 3.uallHe 1

0 .... uac
Qu.
HaC

~ B Kp8CHOM

yrOJl..e.

BOT JlCecncHH sarOH.

Bee roaopn 0 aOBOM 3.Q8HMM.


8hz BH,QenH aMepHXaucKHx C1)'1l,euToB?

"IJIir B ..recncOM IUlrOue.

(HOBoe 06mexHTHe, crap3JI ay,llHTOplUl, bom.woH TeaTp, aMepHnHcKoe nocoJlb CTOO, HOB3JI oapTllpa)

Bee roBOpn 06 aMepHK8HCIIOIX cry ttCtn'ax.


(HOB)'lO rOCTJtH"uY, Be'lepHIOIO ra.JeTy, nocne.uIUtH HOMep 113oecntH, HOBOe 061>J1BneHlte, Hooae noconbCTBO, HOBoro aJl.MHHHCTp3TOpa, aMepHKancKIlH IIUlhM)

298

LESSON 13

LONG-FORM ADJECTIVE ENDINGS IN NOMINATIVE, ACCUSATIVE, GENITIVE, AND PREPOSITIONAL CASES

SINGULAR PLURAL

. Masculine
NOM

Neuter

Feminine
-<Ul,

-OM, -bfil, -Hil

-oe, -ee

-xx

-ble. -He

ACC
GEN

(inanimate - nom) (animate - gen)


-oro, -era

-YIO,

-fOfO

(inanimate - nom) (animate - gen)

-oil,-eH
PREP
-OM, -eM

-bfX. -HX

Note: The letter r in the endings -oro and -era is pronounced [v).
REMARKS ON mE DISTRIBUTION OF ENDINGS IN
~

GENmVE AND pREPQSmQNAL CASES

I. Masculine and neuter endings in the genitiye and prepositional singular.


a. Hard-stem adjectives and mixed stems ending in __, r, and x lake -oro in the genitive and -OM in the prepositionaL nOBoro, 1I0BOM; JQJyroro, J.l.pyroM. b. Soft-stem adjectives take -el'O in the genitive and -eM in the prepositional: DOeJll~.lI;Hero, lIOCJICJ.I.IleM. c. Mixed siems ending in III and * lake --Oro in the genitive and --OM in the prepositional if the ending is stressed; if il is unstressed they take -ern and ~. Compare OOJIblUOrO. 6om.llIoM with xop6mero, xop6weM.

2. Feminine endings in the genitive-prepositional singular (genitive identical with prepositionaf).


a. Hard stems and mixed siems ending in .., r, and x take -oii: HOBOii, ,lQ)yrOii. b. Soft siems take -eN: ~JJ.tIeii. c. Mixed stems ending in III and lit lake --oii if the ending is stressed; if it is unstressed they take ~ii. Compare 6oJJbwoii with xop6weii.

3. Plural endings in the genitiYe-preposilional (genitiYe identical with prepo.fitional).


a. Hard stems take the ending -blX in the genitive-prepositional: 1I0BblX, MOJIOttLiX. b. Soft stems and all mixed stems take the ending -HX in the genitive-prepositional: nOCJJe)lHHX, JJ.Pyrilx, 6om.wKx.

The declension of 'leu and the possessive modifiers: nominative, accusative, genitive, and prepositional cases
MODELS

4eii poMall 8bl '1HTaeTe? 4be CO'lllHeHHe Bbl .nnaere?


4blO KHl1ry UbI 'lHTaere?
41011 CTI1XH 6bl '1IITaere?

Whose Whose Whose Whose

novel are you reading? composition are you reading? book are you reading? verses are you reading?

LESSON 13

299

Rw 3l1ae-re Mocro 6p<ha? ? _____ uawero _


Rbi: 3H3.e-re MOIO ceCTpy? _ _ _ _ uawy _ _ '

Do you know my brother? _ _ _ _ _ our '!

_____ 0"' __'


He left __ _ __ _ __ his his his his

Do you know my sisler?

Rbi 311aeTe MOHX eecrep?


_ _ _ _ HaWItX _ _ '

_____ 0"' __'

Do you know my sisters?


dictionary home. book _ composition letters _ your your your your yOUf yOUf

011 OCTaaHJI CBOH CJI0Bapb Jt6Ma. _ _ _ _ _ CROIO KinIry _ _ _ _ _ _ CBOC CO'lltHeHI1C _ _ _ _ _ _ CBOH nHCbMa _
MbI B'lepa 6bUUf y TBoero 6pfrra. _ _ _ _ _ _ y oawero _ _ _ _ _ _ _ y TBoeH cec:rpbi. _ _ _ _ _ _ Y BaWeH _ _ _ _ _ _ _ y TBOH-X Jtpy.reH. _ _ _ _ _ _ Y aawux _

We were _ __ ____ ___ _ ____

at at at at at at

brother's place yesterday. brother's place _ sister's place _ sister's place _ ffiend~' place _ friends' place _ city. dormitofy. apartment. pictures.

RbI eme He BH,o,eJIH ________ ________ ________


Mbi rOBOpHmt 0 ______ _______ ______

uawero r6po.a.a. Halliero 06me-ACH-TUJI. HallieH KBapTHpbl. lIliWHX KaPTHII.

You still haven't seen OUf _________ OUf _________ OUf _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ our We were talk.ing about _ ________ _ _________ _ ________ _

TBoeM JtoMe. BaWeM _ TBoeM 33.J1BJlI:'tHH. BallJeM _

_ _ _ _ _ _ TBoeil np6cb6e. _ _ _ _ _ _ BaweH _ _______ TBOHX KHHrcl.X. _ _ _ _ _ _ BawHx _


REPETITION DRill

your house. yOUf _ your application. yOUf . your request. your _ your books. YOUf _

Repeat the above models, observing tbe pattern of endings.


RESPONSE DRILLS

1. Here comes my brother.

Do you know my brother? BOT lU{eT MOH 6pAT. Bw lHaeTe Moen> 6piTa? BM H,ll,er MOJi cecTp3.

OW lHaeTe MOJO CetTpy?


(MOIl 6paTbM, MOil cCcTpbl, MO" JtPyr, MOR nOJtPyra)

2. Here's your briefcase. Youforgol your briefcase again. BOT Balli nopnt,eJlb. Bw: omin. u6Wm ca6ii DOpT~. BOT oawa 1I:HH:ra. BLi ouin. Ja6LvDr cao.o KHIiry. (Bawe 33JlBJlCUHe, Baw" BClltU, Barna ra3eTa, Baw ::acypHaJI. Baw" OJIaCTHHkH. Barna KBHTaIfUUJI, Barn 6HJleT)

3. Take my notebook. No, lhanks, I'll take my own. BOJbMH MOIO TeTpA.zu,. HeT, cnacii60. Jt BOJbMy caolO. BoJbMH Moe p3..nHO.
300
I.fSSON

HeT, cuacH60. H B03LMY ceoe.


(MOH npaH,JJ;aw. MOJO P}"lKY. MOH CJIQBapb, Moe nepa, MO" Terp3.AH, MOIO ..-:apT)', MOlt 6HJleThl)

I3

QUESTION-ANSWER DRILLS

I. Whose mistake was she talking about? About mine.

o '{t.eH oWH6ke Olla rOBOpKna?


o Moeii. o '{bC:M nnCbMe aHa o MoeM.
rOBOpw.a?

2. Are you reading your own application? No, yours.


Bbi 'imeTe

caoe JaJlBJletute?

HeT, Biwe.
Rbi 'lHT3.eTt CRee CO'illlleHHe? HeT, lUilue. (CRee nHCLoMO, CROll CTIIXH, CROlO pa60ry, CBOH O'lepK, CBOW KflHl'y)

(0 '{bID: CTIfxax, 0 lfbeM o'{epKC, 0 'lbcli

kapTIIHe, 0 '{beM CO'{HliellHH, 0 l.JbHX Remax, 0 'lbnx )l(ypllaIlax, 0 '{bC:M 6JtJJcre, o '1beli npocb6e)

EXPANSION DRILL

You haven't seen the cilY yet. You haven't seen our city yet.
BbI eme He RH.aem.f r6po.D:a. Rw eme He BH.D:eJlH Hamen) ropana.

Bbi eWe He BH.neJIH UapTHpbt. Rbi eutc He BH.aeJl?l HaWeii KBapnlpLI. (.a.6Ma, 06we)f(IITIUl, Kapnrn, KOMlIaTbl, ROKJana, yllilBepclITeT3, WKOllbl)

SUBJECT REVERSAL DRILL

STRUCTURE REPLACEMENT DRILL

Your brother was at my place yesterday. I was at your brother's yeslerday


TooK 6paT Bl.Jepa 6b1n y MeBJi. st B'Iepa 6wJl y TBoero 6p8.Ta. TBOH .a.PYJbR B'Iepa 6b1nH y MeHR:. B: B"Iepa 6blJl y TBOH" .D:PYJeH. (TBOII cccrpbl, TOOK .a.pyr, TBOSI nOLl,pyra, TBon 6paTbSl)

I was reading your novel.

I was talking about your novel. $( tmTM BAw poMbo st roBOplin 0 BJiwCM pame. $( '1ltT3Jl RaWII CTHXfl. Jl rOBOpHJl 0 BlituHx CTHx8.X. (Bawy pa60Ty, Barne COlllHelllle, Baw O'lepK, Bamy KHHry, Bame JaJlBneHHe, RawH pa60Thl)

SINGUl.AJt. PLURAL

Masculine
'1eli M6H, 1"86", CROit HaW, BaW

Neuter
"!be MOe, TRaC, ceee name, Rarne

Feminine
'IbR MOR, TBOJi, CBoli mlllia, BaWa 'IbtO MOJO, TBo.tO, CBOtO Hamy, aAwy 'IbH MOH, TBOIf, cROIf Hallill, BaW"

NOM

ACC

(like nom or gen)

(like nom)

(like nom or gen)

GEN

'Iber6 Mocro, TBoer6, cBoero HaWerO, Bawero

PREP

(0) '1bC:M (0) MoeM, TBoeM, CBoeM (0) H3rnCM, aameM

'IbeU Moeif, TBoCil, CROe" HaWen, aaweu

'Ib"X MO"X, TBOHX, CBOHX HalllID:, Balll"X

LESSON 13

JOI

DISCUSSION Possessive adjectives all belong to the soft declension, with endings in the oblique cases (genitive. prepositional, dative, and instrumental) like those of the soft-stem adjectives. Note thal, except for Ham and aam, which have their stress consistently on the stem, the possessive modifiers all have ending stress. The reflexive possessive ca6ii, awe, CBO'i, CaoH one's own declines exactly like MON and nOH. Rarely used in the nominative, it may substitute for Moii, TRoii, Ham, or Uw in those situations where subject and possessor are the same.

I gave you my briefcase. We're talking about our friend. You gave me your book. You gave me my book. It is only when the subject is in the third person that CRoii plays a distinctive role. It differs in meaning from ero, eti, and MX, the unchanging third person possessives.

nopT~b. Mw rooopuM 0 HaweM (caoeM) lIPYre. Bw MHe lIan" Bimy (C80tO) mHry. Bw Mile lIanH MOJO KllHry.

Ii 83M .aa.n Moii (ceoii)

Compare WiLh Compare wilh Compare with

OR 3a6bln CRoii nopTq,enb.

011

3a6hlJI

ero nopnl>enb.

He forgot his (own) briefcase. He forgot his (someone' else's) briefcase. Zina was reading her (own) book. Zina was reading her (someone else's) book. They were talking about their (own) friends. They were talking about their (other's) friends.

3HHa 'lIlTana como KHHry. 3Hlla 'umina ee KHl1ry.

Oml rooopHnIl 0 CBoHx .ll.ppbAA. OllH rOHOpllnll 06 Hx .ll.PY3bllx.

Possessive modifiers are often omitted when it is clear from the context that the possessor and the subject are the same: A 6ban y 6pan (or y MoerO 6pin) I was at my brother's place.

Review of second conjugation verbs


1103BOHHn. (pry) to phone n03801ll0 n03HOHH:u:rb 1l03HOHHT n03HoHHM n03BoniITe n0380luiT

PRESENT-FUTURE

ENDINGS

CTOlin, (ipfv) to sland


CTOlo

c.llhlluaTb (ipry) LO hear cm':lluy


CJIblllJHlllb

"J'OC'ITb
(ipfv) to ask npowy np6cHwb np6cIlT npOcHM 'npOcHTe
llpOcJlT

..ymin (pry) 10 buy


K}'TUIIO
KynHllJb

SG

-10

or -y

2
3
PC I

-~b

-MY -MM

CTOHWb CTOHT CTOI'iM CTOI-lTe CTOliT

CJlblllJllT CJlblWIlM CJIblWHTC


CJIbiWaT

KymfT KynllM KjlDfTe KfrniT

2
3

-MTe -lilT or -aT

SUBSTITUTION DRILLS

1. You never go
OHM

10

the movies.

Bw HHXor,na He XO.ltHTe B XHHO. HHlCorAA HC X6,1],J1T H KHtlO. (Mltl. 'I, ona, Thl, ero .aPY3bJl, MOW T08apllUl no kOMllaTe, Obl) LESSON 13

2. I hear rile bell. A CJIwwy JDOHOK. On CJlbunHT 3BOHOk.


(MbI, BbI, Tbl, Ollll,
MbI

HaTawa. CTY.lleUTbl,

see)

302

3. Site alwoys asks 'hat 'he windows be opened. Omi ocer/l3 np6cuT OTlepblOaTh Olena. Ollli: ocer.na np6c$lT OTlCpbJOaTh olena. (H, Bbl, 3ulla, Mbl, TbI, )"fHTenb, eelCpeTapb, )"flhenbHHUbI) 5. Comrade Alexeev. often goes to Kiev. TOBapHlJJ AJleKteeB 'laCTO C:JlUIT 0 Klieo. ~'I1t npo80AHJOOi 'laCTO C3.lU1T 0 Klieo. (MbI, OUH, .If, Bbl, TbI, 3Ta :lKeHlltHHa) 7. Volodya talks a lot at meetings. Bono.cur Muoro roOOpHT Ha co6pAHH.llX. ~ CT)'.rtetrrw MHoro rooop.1i:T Ha C06p3.HHSIX. (TbI, BbI, .If, Haw oaXTep, Mbt oee)
STRUCTURE REPLACEMENT DRILLS

4. I'll phone home tomorrow. 3uoTpa Ii n03001llO 1l0MO. 3aOTpa MbI n0300llHM .I10MOii. (aHa, Bbl, OIlH, OJler, Mbl, $I) 6. I don't remember her name. sl He nOMKIO ee "MeIlH. Tbi He nOMHIUUb ee "MeHH. (OHU, BbI, CTy.neHTbI, MbI, $I)

1. Irina war looking out lhe window. Irina is looking out the window. HpHHa CMOTpCna 8 OICHO. "pHHa CMOTpHT B OuO. 8bi CMO",enH 0 okub. 8bi OU)Tptrre S 0"'"110. (CTy.nCHTbI, .If, MbI, Tbl, Kon.lf)
QUESTlONANSWER DRILLS

2. We often used to stand in line. We often stand in line. Mhi 'laCTO CTOMH B O'lepe.rw.
Mbi 'IaCTO crOli\t 8 o'lepe1Uf. A 'laCTO craM B 6'lcpe.nH.

.sl:

'IaCTO (BbI,

crow

B 6'lepe1Uf. TbI, MLI, .)

JlJ()!lH, MOSl cecrpa,

I. I'm flot asleep yet, how about youfellows?

We're not asleep, either. .sl eute He cumb, a abl, pe6liTa? Mbi To*e He CIlIOf. .$I ell.\e He cnnJO, a 31'01' napeHb? Oil TO*e lie ann. A eute lie cnmo, a Tbl, KomI? .sl eute lie cnmo, a O,,? .sl ClUe He cumo, a Tbl? .sl Cute lie CnJIIO, a Obi, 1'OOapHIl.\H? .sl eute ue CllJ1lb, a 3TH mbAI1? .sl elUe lie cnmo, a :iTOT rp:oKJJ,aHl{H? A ewe lie cnmb, a HaWH nonjT'lHKH? .s'f ewe lie cnJ1JO, a BbI, .ncaywxH?

2. She pays tlery little for her room, how about you? I also pay very little. OHa Malia nnaTHT 3a KOMllaTY. a Obi? H:Ii MallO Ma'ly. aHa Mana nml.THT 3a KOMHaTy, a ee CCCTpa?
... OHa ManO nJiaTHT

(a ThJ; a :)Ta nCEiI1ua; a :lTIf 3aOt llUlll.hl; a 3TOT rocnOAHII; a :ITa aMepuxallKa; a Bbl, pe6.Ta)

4. Will you permit that? 3. When are you going to see that film? Of course we will. We'll see it tomorrow. 8w pa3peWliTe 3TO? Kor.na Obi IlOCMOTpHTe 3TOT 4JIiJlbM? Mbi nOCMOTpMM en) 3aS"rpa. KOHl:'IHO, MW pa3pewHM. Pe6,)Ta pa3peWaT :iTO? Kor.na neael! l'IOCMOTpHT 31'01' 4JH:.rrbM? KOIle..HO, OHH pa3petUaT. OH IlOCMOTpttT er6 3aBTpa. (TUOII no.npyru, neBHua, TbI, BonO/lH H (eeKpeTapb, HX 6paTbSl, 3Ta aMepHKaHKa, ncTp, TOOH TooapHW no KOMllaTe, TbI, On. H ranjl, Bama )"f1rreJ1bllHua, Moil eelCpeTapb, BbI, 3Ta /leBywlCa) 6paT, ero CCCTpa, Toaapllw U,apanKItH)
LfSSON 13

303

STRUCTURE JUPLACEMENT DRILL

She oughl to receive a leiter SOOIl. She'll receive a leiter soon. ami cK6po nOJDICHa nOJIY"Hrb nochMo. Oua cKapo nOJlYIIHT "HCIoMa.
Bbl CKOpO nOJDKHbl nOJIY."HTh nochMo.

(6paTbH, aMcpHKallKa, TbI, Y'IllTCJIhllliLlbl, SE, rplDKnaHHH CCMCHOB, lTiI aMCpmCaHI..lbI, MbI,

npo$eccop)

BbI CKOPO nOJly"IJITe uHcloMa.


STRUCTURE REPLACEMENT DRILL

I. I met her al the stalion. I'll meet her at the station.


A ee aCTpCTHJI Ha aOK3iuJe.

2. Do you hear me?


Dbi Mcmi CJIbIIllHTC?

Tw MeUM CJIb1I11HUlh?
Dbl MCHJI BCTpe1'H1'C?

H ce BCTpC'fY lIa

BOK)Ue.

npoaollHHK ee aCTpCTHJI Ha BOK3a.ne.

TbI Meus Bc-rp(iTIUllh?


Bbl MCHJI BH.QHTC? Bbl MCHII U3BHllHTe? Dbl MeHII yCJIblllHtTe? Dbl MeHll: nOMI:U1TC? Dhl MCHll: JHo6HTe? Dw MCH~ n03HaK6MHTe?

npoBOAHHK ce BcrpCnrr na BOIoaJle.


(lllOif>ep, :JTa lKeHUUtHa, aMCpl1KallCKHC neBIJ;hI, Mhl, llPYJMI, 3TOT M)'iK'fHHa)

SUBJECT REVERSAL DRILLS

I. I won't (be able 10J hear the custodian. The custodian won't [be able to] hear me.
Aile yCJlblUly aaXTCpa.

2. He'll pay for them. They'll pay for him.


6H
3alIJJaTHT

3a

IIHX.

BaxTep MeHli He YCJlblunrr.


A HC yCJlhrllly ceCTCp.

OUH 3aUJIlil"HT 3a nero. 6H 3anJIaTHT 3a MCIlJi.

Cecrphl

MetiS

lie YCJIblW3T.

H 3anJla<fj 38 nero.
(Te6.l1, 3HHy, pe6S1T, Hee, MefUl, Hac, aac, K03J10Ba, HlIX, HOIIYT'fHKOB, l1'oro 'ICJJOBeKa)

(ceKpeTapSl, Tc6S1, aac, pc6S1T, neBlll(, nCBlJ;OB, cryllcnToK, $J.lJUlnna, nCBywCK)


QUESTION-ANSWER DRILLS

J. Will you study the Russian language? I'm already .~tudying Russian.
Dbl 6yncTc y'fHTh pycCKJ.:lii }I)bIX?

H y*e ylly pyceK"" H3MK.


31'01' CTynellT 6yneT Y'fHTh pycclmH H3bIK?

2. Where will you put the records? 1'1/ put them on Ihe table. Kyna abl ItOJIO)KliTe nnaCTHHKlf? H 1I0JlOiKY Hx 113 crOJl.
Kyna Y"ilTCJIh nOJIO)KHT DJJaCTHHKH?

'On y"m::e

y'fHl" pyCCKHH 93bm. (aMcpuKaHCK:uI nCBHua, Tbl, lTOT napenb,

Oil

1I0J1allalT

Hx

118

crOJl.

(aHa, c1'ynCnThI\ nCBCU:, IICBHu:a, y60pUlHLlbl, TW, MM, BbJ, .uCBYWKH)

TaoSE nonpyra, aMcpHKaHCKII" ncaeu, aMcpHKa~CKHC nCBLlhl, :)Ta aMepHKaHKa, 3TH aMcpHxalmbl)

DISCUSSION

I. Comparison between the present-future endings offirst and second conjugation verbs.

Verbs of thc second conjugation have thc vowcls -H- and -9- (or -a-) in their present-future cndings as compared with -0- (or -e-) and -10- (or -y-) for vcrbs of the first conjugation.

304

LESSON

I3

FIRST OONJUGATION

:malO
IlltY

JlIliWJb H,UeWb

JHaer H,UeT

JHaeM H,neM

Jllaere MeTe

Jm'uar

(. ,nd 00)
(e and y)

HlIYT

SECOND CONJUG....TION CTOIQ CJIblWy CTOMWb CJIblWMWb CTOIiT CJIblllIHT CToHM CJIblUIHM CToliTe CJIbUUMTe

CTon
CJIb1WaT

(M and R) (H and .)

2. A/Jernation of stems in the present-future of second conjugation verbs. Alternation of the final stem consonant occurs only in the first person singular. There are two types:

TYPf: I (Stems ending in C, 3, T,

.lJ.,

CT)

TYPE 2 (Stems ending in n, 6, B, ., M) Compare JlJ06HTh, JU0611T with l1tOO.rnb Compare octiBHTb, OCTUn with ocni.1lI0 Compare maTh, mJIT with Q1JIIQ Compare n03Hax6MHTh, n03Hax6MSlT with n03Hax6fl,vllo

Compare cnpocHTb, cnp6cMT with cnpomy Compare BHJJ.eTh, BWT with IlH:y
.

Compare BCTpCTHTh, IlCl'pCTMT with BCTp4!:'Iy Compare 3aXOllHTb, 33.X6,lV1T with 33.Xo..y

3. The present-fwure stem versus the inFmitive-past stem. In second conjugation verbs the endings of the infinitive and past are consistently added to a form of the stem which ends in a vowel. This vowel is automatically dropped before the endings of the prescnt-future. INFINITIVE-PAST
CMOTpC~Tb

PRESENT-FUTURE

CMOTp-IQ, -HWb, -SIT cnblm-y, -H/llb, -aT roBOp-IQ, -HWb, -liT

-11, -11a, -11H


CJlbllua-n.

-11,-11a,-)1H rOBopM-Th -11, -11a, 11H 4. Stress pallerns in the present-future. The same three basic stress patterns that are found in first conjugation verbs are also found in second conjugation verbs: a. Stress consistently falls on the ending: rOBop.o, rOBopHwb, rOBopHT, roBOpHM, rOBOpHTe, rOBopliT. b. Stress consistently falls on the stem: 8C'T]X'Iy, BCTpCrHWb, BCTperHT, BCTpC:nrM, BCTptTHTe, BCTI>eTJIT. c. Stress falls on the ending in the first person singular, but shifts back to the stem in all other forms: npowy, np6cHlUb, np6cHT, np6cHM, np6cHTc. np6cSlT.
LESSON 13 305

'lTEHI1E 11 nl1CbMO

rfuul Kyrnina HX Ha TOJ1~e. CerO.ltWi ee nOJI.pYnt nOH..lJYr B KpaCHblH yrOJlOK, r.ne ecn. npOHrphlBaTeJ1b. ORU 6y.nyr
AMepHKl1HCKHe nnaCniHxH O"!eHb TpYJI.HO JI.OCTaBaTb. TclM CJlywaTb My3blKy TaHUeBaTb. raJHf npHHeCe-r CDOH ROBbie nnacniHKH.

306

LR'iSON

13

3HaeWb, Oller, }! BCTpeTHJI eerOJJ.HSl. KaTio. fJIe? B 6H6J1HOTeKe? Her, B KpacHoM yronKe. ItIHTepecHo, OHa HH'JerO He cnpauJH83JIa 060 MHe? HeT, omi, KaK Bcer.na., rOBOpH.n:a TonbKo 0 ce6e. rJpaBJJ.a, OHa nYM3eT H rOBopHT ocerJJ.a TonbKO 0 eeoc. OHa " :lKHOCT TonbKO llJIJi ce6Ji. Ka:lKeTCSl.. BaW" pe6siTa mo6siT Hawy 3MepHK3.HcKyfO My3blKy? ,[{a, J],:lK3.3 MbI O'leHb m06HM. TonbKo nJl3CTltHKH JJ.ociaTb TPY.lJ.HO. A Ji O'leHb mo6mo BaWH HapOJJ.Hble Me.nO.nHH H Y'KC K)'nHlI MHoro nnaCTuHoK. I1HTepecHo, KaKHe. XOTihe nocnywaTb? ,ll,a, KOHe'fHo.

- Xopowo, sf npHHeey "X ceroJJ.HS!: Be'lepOM. ECJut xOTHTe, R npHHeey H COOH 3MepHdHcKHe.

- 0, ,Il,a, nO",anyHCTa! Mbl "X C YJJ.OBOllbcTBHeM nocnyw3eM.


- 3JJ.ecb l:IJJ.eT BoHlla H MHp')' 3TO aMepudHcKHii qnlnbM. - 3H<1IO, HO TbI BHllHllIb, fan}!, KaKaSl. o'lepeJJ.l. y dCCbl? llpyroH Q>HJlbM. - Her, Ji xO'ly TonbKo H3 :hOT! TaK JlI06mo :hOT poMaH! - Hy, xopowo, noHJJ.cM Ha 3TOT.

Mhl Mo",eM nOHTH H3

.st

BOT MO" TOBaplfW no KOMHaTe, fanS!:. XO'leWb, Ji Te6si n03H3KoMlIfO?

- 4TO TbI, Oner? 8eJJ.b ero xopowo 3HaJO, 3TO HHIConaii neTp6o. 311paeCTByH. KOJlS!: ! - A, ranS!:, npHBer! 4TO TbI Tyr Y Hac .o.enaeWb? -,ll,a BOT xO'ly nOCMOTpeTb BaW KpaCHblH yroJlOK. Oller rOBopHT, 'ITO y sac XOPOWHH npOHrpblOaTeJlb H HOBble nllaCTHHKH. - OTnH'IHO. CeH'IaC 6YlleM cJlywaTb My3blKy H TaHUeOaTb. HHHa XO'feT 'fHTaTb IKypHaJl I\AMepHKa, HO OHiI He 3l1aeT, rne ero 1l0CTaTb. KorJJ:a aHa CnpaWHBaeT 0 KHeCKe, CH Bcer.ua OTOe'laIOT. 'ITO OH pacnpO.uaH . nOCT3W :hOT )KypllaJl y 3HaKOMoro aMcpHKaHua rpaHTa, HO R He XO'fY eH rOBOpHTh 06 :hOM.

.st

.st

Y 3HHbl eCTb XOpeWH" npoHrpblBaTenb H Muoro IlJTaCTItHoK. OHa mo6HT HapO.l.tHble


neemf H cnipble pOMaHcbl. CerOllH}! K He" 33H.l.teT t1)HJlHnn. 611 npHueCCT aMepHKciHCKJ.ie nJiaCTltHKH, H OHH 6YJJ.yT cllywan )];:lK,\3 If TaHlI,eS3Tb. BOJIKOB KynHJI 6HJlCTbi 0 Tearp, HO raJiIi He Mo",eT nOHTu, OHa Be'lepoM pa60raeT. 801lK08 rOBopHT, 'ITO Tor1l3 OH TO:lKe He noHJJ.CT. 6H CnpaWHBaeT r3.nlO, He 3HaeT lIH OHa, no XO'leT noHTH. OHa OTBe'fae-r, 'ITO ee no.o.pYnf XOTenH noiint, HO He JtOCT3.nH 6HJ1er08. 01131 JtyMaeT, 'ITO OIlH C yJtOBOJlbCTBHeM Kynn y BOJlKooa 3TH 6HJlerbl. nerp laWen 8 Kny6 nocJlywan nCKlI,HJO 0 pyCCKHX HapOJlHblX necHu, HO npo<j>eccop 6wJI GoneH H. J1eKUHH He 6blJlO. Toma OH nowen 8 KOMHaTy, cae CTOHT npOHrpblBaTeJlb H MO>KHO CJIywan DJlaCTHHKH. TaM OH ocrpeTltJl 3HHy, H OHU .llOJlro BMt':cTe CJIyWaJlH CTapble pyccKHe poMaHcbl B xopoweM MCnOJlHCHMH.
LESSON J 3

307

LESSON

14

PREPARATION FOR CONVERSATION

Ha T8Huax
to be tired (or exhausted), to get tired I'm tired or I'm exhausted. ooh!ugh! Ooh, I'm exhausted! hoI Irs so hot! Ooh, I'm exhausted! It's so hot!

.sf

YCTaTb (pfv I), yCTally, -elllb, -yr yetina.

. y",.
~,

Yep. y""""
>KapKO (adj )l(apKHH) TaK )l(apKO! yCT'liJt.a! TiA .lipKa!

sr

OT.aOXHy-n, (pfv I), OTllOXHY, -elllb, OT.aOXHCM! ,nasaTb (I), .aalO, -emb, -101' .nasan! -Te! (imper)
.l{asaiiTe OT1l0XHCIU!
CB060JUlbIli

-y-r

to rest, have a rest Let's rest! or We'll rest! to give, let give! let's! Let's have a rest! free. unoccupied, vacant Over there are some empty chairs. then again, but then, however But then again, where are Kalya and Volodya? toward, to to them, fot them to them, to see them, to their place Let's go see them! or Let's go join them! maybe, perhaps Maybe we should join them? to suggest, projX)SC, offer something I wanted to suggest something to you. Yes, I'm listening.

BOil dIU cao6OllHbIe crjnbH.


anpO'lCM A Bnpo'tcM, r.ae K3.TH H Bom'tll.H?

K (or KO) (plus dat) HM (or H1tM) (dat of oHa) II: HliM nOH.aCM K HHM! MO)KeT (full form Mo",eT 6bm.)

MO>KeT noiineM K mtM?


npe.anorin. (pfv U), npe.ano,q, npe.anOJKHllIb, -aT 'ITO-TO A XOTen saM .....~TO npeJl,1JO~-Nn..

!la. Jl CJTYWaJO.

J09

nepeifTit (pfv I), nepeHny, ---eWb, -YT nepeitTit Ha nl


)l.asaiiTe nepeimeM 118 <(11;1),

to go over, go across to switch to "Tbl," start using the familiar form of address Let's switch to "Tbl." We're already good friends after all. agreed, agreeable Fine, I'm willing. ThaI's wonderful. to drink, have a drink it's necessary to drink, we have to drink We must drink to that! although even if only, at .Jeast lemonade We must drink to that, even if only some lemonade. Wanl to? Not "Obi," "rn." (Lit. Not "xoTlITe," but "xo'{ewb.") to forget Don't forget we're using "TW." Not "BW," "TW." Don't forget we're using '"TW" now. to get used to, to be used to, to become accustomed to
I'm not used to it yet. Excuse mc, I'm not used to it yet.

MM Benl> YjKe xOpOmHe nppl.ll.


cornaceH, corm1:cna, -<>. -bl Xoporno, Ii co,mien8.

BOT II IlpeKpaCIIO!
HhIUJ.fTb (pfv I), BbITlhlO, OhlUbeWI>, BblUbfOT nau.o BblUIlTb ]a :ho lIa.ll.o BbInIlTh! XOTJI XOTJl 6hl JlIlMona.n
3a 31'0 llaJl:O BMIlHTh, XOnl 6b1 JJHMOlla,D,a.

Xonhe?
He XOTl1:TC, a xO'{ewb. 3a6bloaTb (I), 3a6blBoo, --eWb, -101' He 3a6hloaii, '{TO MW Ha (rbI. He xonrre). a XO'tCUIh, He Ja6b1Baii, IfTO MY 118 <<1"W, npmn:IKH}'Tb (pfv I), nplfBwKHy, --eWh, -yr (past npHBblK, npHBbrKna, -<>. -Il) 5i erne He npIlBhlK. H1Blllllt, Ii el..Lle lie llpHBbIK.

6yh
nOiineM B 6ylj)eT.
SUPPLEMENT

snack bar, sideboard Let's go to the snack bar.

.nBOp Ha Jl:BOpe CerO.nIBI Ha .ll.BOpe O'{Cllb )l(apKo. CBC)I(O Ha }].Bope CBC)I(O. norOlla KaKajj CerO/l,Hl'l nor6.ll.a? TeIlJlO (adj TCnJlbIH) CcrO.u.IHI TcmlO. CcrO.nHl'l TenJlal'l noro.na. xono.nHo (adj XOJlO.nHblif) CcrO.nIDl x6J10.ll.1I0. CerO.nHSI XOIIOll,Hasr noro.na. OTJIblXaTh (I), OTJl:hlX{UO, --eWb, -lOT 8M OTJIbIXaeTe?

yard, backyard, courtyard outside, outdoors, out; in the yard It's very hot out today. cool, chilly It's cool outdoors or [t's chilly OuL weather What's the weather today? warm It's wann today. The weather is wann today. cold It's cold today. The weather is cold today. 10 rest, relax, vacation Are you resting?

310

LESSON 14

npeJlJlaraTb (I), IlpeJlJlan\.1o, -ellIb, -lOT 4TO Bb! l1pC.ltllaraeTC? ncpeXOJU'lTb (II) (like XO.niITb)
3JlCCb MO:lKHO nepexOJlliTb
npHB~I'lKa

ymn-lY?

3TO CTpallHaH npHBbr'lKa.

nJlOXOH
3TO MOxaR npHBbl'lKa.

10 suggest, propose, ofTer What are you suggesting? 10 go across, go ovcr Is it all right to cross the street here? habit That's a strange habit. bad, poor That's a bad habit.

HaTllHUax
3URa
I

YlP, ycnlna!

Tak )l(apKo!!
BOH TciM CBOOO,llHhlC

Oner 2 )lae3HTe oT.noXHeM! 3Hua 3 Xopowo! A


nOHJleM.

CljnbSl:.
MO)KeT nOH,neM k HUM?

BnpO'IeM, r.ne

Kin" H BOJlo.lUl?

Oner 4
3HHa 5

3Hae-re, 3H:Ha. x XOTM BaM 'ITO-TO IlpeAlJO)J(UTb.

)la, x CJlYwaH>.
}'IKe xop6wHe .nP)'3bX.

Oner

6 llaBaHTe nepeii,aeM ua TbJ. MbI: BelIb

3UR3

7 Xopowo. x cornacHa.
BOT H npeKpaCHO! 3a :ho Ha.no BblUHTb, XOTX 6bJ JlHMOJl3Jla. 2 XOTHTe? XOTHTC, 3 (<xO'lCWb.

Oner 8
3HII3

9 He

He

336blBaH, 'ITO MbJ H3 Tb.t.

Oller 10
NOTES

113BJfHH, x Clll.e lie rrpHBbIK.) nOHlleM

B 6y<J>C"r.

1 Both )KapKHH and ropsioorii mean hOI, but ordinarily they are not interchangeable. In reference to weather, climate, and room temperature, only lfi"apKuii is used, for example, KaKOH )KapKHii .!I.eH.. 1 What a hot day! rOpK'IKH, on the otber hand, must be used in referring to objects or things that are hot, for example, "Opli'l8H BO,lJ,3 hot water.

Note that the genitive form JlHMOIIlI,lJ,8 is used herc. Nouns denoling divisible mailer are used in the genitive case to indicate a portion of the whole amount, i.e., some. For example, compare >1 BblUHJI M01l0K8 I drank some milk with ji BblllltJl MOJlOKO I drank up the milk, i.e., all the milk. The word JfHMOIUlll. is used by some Russians not only for lemonade, but for almost al)Y soft drink.
l

) In this conversation we find two more cxamples of past tense vcrbs in Russian, both perfective, where present tense constructions are used in English:

Yep,

YCTina!
npllBbiK.

.R eute He

Ooh. I'm exhausted! rm nol used to it yet.

As used here, 6y~ is a snack bar or food countcr with very limited fare, mostly cold. Although Khrushchev prohibited the sale of alcoholic beverages in snack bars, it is sometimes possible to obtain beer there. The word is also used to describe a cupboard or sideboard where dishes, utensils, table linens, snacks, and beverages arc kept.
LESSON 14 311

PREPARATION FOR CONVERSATION

H ....p a

B UJaXMaTbI

(pI only) Hrpa H rpa B waxMaTbl. 3a CTonOM KaJKCTC~, 31'0 Kal'~ Ii BonoAli
WaXMaTbJ

Ja

311113,

CMOTJlII: .d.lKe-rCH.

:ho

KliTH

cTon6M. H BoJloJUI

13 CTOJIOM.
01U1:

chess, chessboard, chess set game, play, playing A game of chess. at the table I guess that's Katya and Volodya at the table. Look, Zina, I guess that's Katya and Volodya at the table. they're playing chess Yes, they're playing chess. Let's go join them 1

HrpatOl'

WaxMaTbl

J(a. B UIlIXMaTbi HrpafOT.


jf lie 3Uan, 'ITO Thl IIrpaewb. KaTH, Ii H He :man, 'fl'0 HrpaenJh.

n:.

1 didn't know you play[ed].

Katya, I didn't eyen know you play[edJ. and how! And how! checkmate to me, for me She beat me (Iii. gave me checkmate). two times, twice She beat me twice. No kidding! That I've got to see! to sit down, take a seat instead of, in place of You'd better sit down in my place, Qleg. I've had enough, I've had it I've already had enough. to play, playa game two together why not playa game Why don't you two playa game together? Well, why don't you two boys playa game together? you'l1 be bored to be afraid I'm afraid you'd be bored. that's an idea, I wouldn't mind, perhaps That's an idea. Bul I'm afraid you'd be bored. That's an idea. But I'm afraid you girls would be bored.

emf: KAK (or KaK eme)! H eute KaK!


MaT

Mile (dat of Ii) QHa Aaml MHe Mh. ,nBa pa3a Omi )lBli pala lt3.na Mile Mar.
J(a Hy! 31'0 if ,nOJllKell nOCMO~Tb.
ca.nHTheH (II), caJKYCb, ca.nil:rnbe~, -liTeH

BMeCTO (plus gen) JIy<tUJe TLt. OJler, C3.aHCb


C MCHsl

BMOCTO MeHti.

,noa6J1hHO

C MeHM

y'lKi .ltOBOJJbIlO.

cblrpaTh (pfv I), cblrpatO, -ellIb, -101'

a,UaOeM nO'lcMy 6bl He CblrpaTh nO'-lCMy 6bl BaM B,ltBoCM He Chll'phb? A no<teMY 61.1 sliM, pe6liTa, BJtBoeM He
CblrpaTb?

CKy'lHO 60JiTbCH (II) [bajatC<)], 60K>Cb, 60I1WbCH, -Ji:rc~ EOJOCb, 'lTO BaM 6YAeT CKy'lHO. nOJKanyu nOJKil..rIyi-i. T6nbKO 6010Cb, 'ITO mlM 6y,neT
BaM 6YlleT

CKy'IHO.

nmkaJlyii. TOJlbKO 6oIOcb, 'ITO BaM, JJ;esyUIKH, 6Y.ltcr CKY'lHO.

312

L~N

14

BOJJJ.YX CBe)K"H lIa Cae)KHH BOJAYX BblHTH (pfv I), Bbdl.IlY, Bblit/leUlb, -YT (pasl BblUleJI, Bblluna, -0, -H) Bblit.lleM Ha Cae)KHH B03.llYX. Mw 8WiD.eM HeMnOro fta caellClrii B03J1YX.

air fresh, cool OUI into fresh air to go out, get off (a vehicle), come out We'lI go out into the fresh air. We'll go out for a bit of fresh air. Want to. Zina? all right, O.K.
O.K.

Mw

XO'felUJ>, 3MHa?

na.auo
Jliluto.
nplIXOJlHTb (II) (like XOAHTb) HaM (dal pI of Mbl) n PIIXO.llHTe K HaM. K6H'iIlTb (pfv n), K6H'Iy, -1IU1b, -aT
A BbI

nptlxoDJiTe

K lIliM, KOr1lS I\OIl'itlTe,

to come, arrive to us, for us Come see us or Come join us. to finish And you come joip us when you've finished.

SUPPLEMENT

KOH'laTb (I), KOH'latO, -eWb, -tOT Kor.llA BbI: KOIl'iaeTe pa66ry?


HJ 1l0My BaM nllCbMo HJ .Il0My. BblXO.llHTb (II) (like XO.llHn.) 0" pt.llKO BblXO.llHT HJ .Il0My. npHHrH (pfv I), npw, -CWb, -tr (paSI npHUleJt. npllUina. -6, -H) Kor.lla BW npH1leTe K HaM? KaeeTCH, BaW nOe:J.a. npHwen. rymiTb (I), rymitO, -eWb, -toT 8b! 'laCTO ryJllieTc B napKC?

to finish When do you finish working? or When are you through working? from one's house, from home There's a letter for you from home. to go out, come out, get off (a vehicle) He rarely goes out of the house. to come, arrive When will you come to see us? II seems your train has arrived. to walk (for pleasure), stroll Do you oftcn stroll in the park? to go for a stroll, go for a walk Let's go for a walk (or stroll).

norymhb (pfv I) (like ryJlliTb)


D,aBaihc norymlcM.

Ifrpa B WaXMaTLI
3. - 3HHa

O. -Oner

B. - Bml./lliMHp K. - KilTS(
It

O.

3HHa, CMOTpH: K3)KeTCH,

:ho Kanl

Bono.nS!

Ja

CTonoM.

3.
O.

2 )la, 8 waxMaTbi HrpalOT. 1 nOH.neM K HHM.


3 KaHl, R "
He JHan, 'iTO Tbl HrpacUlh.

LF.SSON 14

313

B.
K.

J1y'lwe Tbl,

OJler,

ca.luicb BMtkro MeHli.

MeHli Y)Ke nOBOJ1bHO.

7 A oO'leMy 6bl S3M, pe6lin, BnBDeM He Cblrp3Tb 7

O.

nO:lKan:yH. TOJJbKO 60tOCb, lfTO BaM, ,QeBywKH, 6y,neT CKylfHO.

3. 10 J1!lnH0. A BW, pe6li:Ta, rrpHXO,QHTe K HaM, Korna KOIf'lHTe. 2


NOTES
I

Chess has traditionally been a very popular game with Russians of all ages.

The Soviet government prides itself on having tbe best chess players in the world.

As a result of winning only second place at an internationaJ chess tournament, the government took measures to insure a crop of future champions by introducing a course in chess playing in Russian secondary schools.
l Notice that English often uses the present or even the pasl tense after when, whereas Russian more accurately uses the future:

npltxoJJkre
KOH"tMTe.

HaM, Kor.wi 8W

Come join us when you finish (or when you've finished-lit. when you 'shall have finished).

Basic sentence patterns


I.

,uasaHTe cblrpiieM 8 dpTbl.


_ _ _ _ _ _ _ 8 waXM3TbJ.
______ B

_______ 8
______ B

"'YT66n. TellHltc.
6eHc66Jl.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ B XOKKeH.

let's playa game of cards. _ _ _ _ _ _ of chess. _ _ _ _ _ _ of soccer. _______ of tennis. _ _ _ _ _ _ of baseball. _ _ _ _ _ _ of hockey. Let's take a break or Let's rest a while. __ switch to "Thl." __ go to the movies. __ drink to tbat or Let's drink a toast to that. __ go get some fresh air. __ have a game of chess. __ go join the otbers or Let's go see them. __ go to tbe snack bar.
I had something I wanted to suggest ______________ _ _

2. ,uaoaihe

OT!J.OXHCM.

nepeH.n.eM t1a Tbl. _ _ _ nOH,neM B KHIIl,). _ _ _ BbmbeM 3a 3TO. _ _ _ Bb.lH.neM Ha CBe:mH B03JlYX.
_ _ _ cblrpaeM B waxMaTbI.

____ DoUncM " HUM. _ _ _ noH.neM B 6y.ph.

3.

$I XOTCn saM ___ eH

lfT6-ro

npe,lUloJkUTh.

_ _ HM

-,---__ eMY _ OH xo-ren MHe lfT6TO npe.llJ1o)Km.


_ _ _ HaM _

to to to to

you. her. them.


him.

He had something be wanted to suggest to me.

to us.

314

LESSON 14

4. MHe 1I)')Klla K:ipTa EBpOnbl. BaM _ HaM _ Te6e _

I need a map of Europe. you _


Wc _

I1M
EMy

_
~_

. - - - - - 5. Mue Hy>Kell
1I00blH 3TJ1aC. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ CJlOOapb. _ _ _ _ _ _ ccKpeTapb. Mile lI)')Klta HOBaM npoJt3BuU1U3. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ KOMHaTa. _ _ _ _ _ _ pY':lKa.

you Thcy He needs Shc

_ _

_
_

I need a new _____ _____ I need a new _____

atlas. dictionary. secretary. salcslady. room.

_ _ _ _ pen.
_ _ _ _ _ notebook. I need a new radio.

_ _ _ _ _ _ TCrpiutb.

Moe HjJKHO "OBoe pa;mo. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ nepO. MHe HYJlCHbl 1I00bl:e nrrpA,Iul. ________ nOJIXH. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ CljJlbll.

_ _ _ _ pen 1J>oin'J.
I need new notebooks. _ _ _ _ shelves. _ _ _ _ _ chairs.

6. Moe XOJlOJtIIO. __ >KapKO. __ CKy'lIlO. BaM lie XOJlO)1HO? ___ )KapKO? ___ CKy':lHO?
7. KAK Ha )l8ope? - Ha .llBOpe ltopowo. _ _ _ _ _ Tenno. _ _ _ _ _ xono.lloo. _ _ _ _ _ ::dp"o. _ _ _ _ _ CBe>Ko.

I'm cold. _hot. _ bored. Aren't you cold? _ _ _ _ hot? _ _ _ _ bored?

What's it like outdoors? It's nice out. _warm_.


_cold _

_ho'_. _chilly _

8.. Ka" ceroAlIlI renno!


_ _ _ _ _ xono)lllo! _ _ _ _ _ >KapKo! _ _ _ _ _ xopowo!

How warm it is today! __ cold ! _ _ hot _


_ _ mcc _

9. KaxaJl cero)lH.l'! norona?


norona cerO,ll,IUI xop6w3JI.
TeIlJ1~.

What's the weather like today? The weather's nicc today.


_ _ _ _ bad _ _ _ _ _ _ _ warm_. _ _ _ _ cold _ _.

_ _ _ _ _ _ ""0....
________

_~

________ xonoJlHaJI. :lKapKaJI.

_ _ _ _ hot _ _

10. BAM rIltCbMO tb llOMy.


_ _ _ _ _ H3 MOCKB':".

JIemulTp:i)l.a. _ _ _ _ _ 113 EBpOnbl. _ _ _ _ _ 113 K IfTaJi. _ _ _ _ _ 1t3 AMCpIfKIt. _ _ _ _ 113 CIllA.


_ _ _ _ _ 113

There's a letter for you from _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ from _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ from _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ from _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ from _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ from _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ from

borne. Moscow. Leningrad. Europe. China. America. tbe U.S.A.

USSON 14

315

II.

_eH _ eMY
6H

Ji

BaM 3BOHKn B 'lac.

_ _

I called you at one.

__he'
_ _ him
__

_
_

MHe 380H.H.n nOCJIe o6ella.

_Ha.M

___ _ u'
_

He called me after lunch (or in the afternoon).

__ Te6< 12. 6H npHWe.n 1\0 MHC. _ _ _ _ _ _ K Te6e.


_ _ _ _ _ _ K HaM.
_ _ _ _ _ _ K saM.

you

__

He came to see me. ________ you.

______ u,_
_______ you. _ _ _ _ _ _ her. _________ thcm. He came back home or Hc's come home. When will you be through working 1 ___ will he be ? ___ will thcy be ? ___ will we be ? ___ will you be ? ___ will I be ? Are you just about finished eating dinner? Is he finished ? Are you finished ? Are they finished ? I'm just about finished eating dinncr. We're finished _ She's finished _ She gives English lessons. They give _ We give _ I give _ Do you give Russian lessons? Does he give ? Do you give ? They'll give him a pass. You'll give _ We'll give ~ You'll give _ She'll give _ I'll give _ I'll let you know. He'll let _ We'll let _ They'll let _ Will you let mc know? Will you let ?

-,-

_ _ _ _ _ KHCH. K HHM.

6H npHwen K ce6c .n:OMO".


13. Kor,na Bbl KOH<JHTe paOOTaTl,? ___ ou KOH<JJtT ? ____ Oil" KOll<JaT ? _____ Mb1 KOR<JHM ? ____ Thl KOH<JHWb 1 ___ Ii KOH<Jy ?

14. Rbi YJl<C KOH<Jaere 06c,naTb? 6H __ KOH'faeT ? T';' KOll'faeWb ? OnH _KOI:l<Ja.IOT 1 R }')KC KOH'falO o6ellaTb. Mbl_ KOH'laeM _ OH<l-KOH'faeT _
IS. OHa. ,naeT ypOKH aHrmrnCKOro jl3hIK3.. Om! llaHlT _ llaeM _

Mw

R AlOO

_
? ?

Rbi ,naeTe ypOKH pyccKoro J13blKa?

611 .n:aeT
Tbl ,naeillb 16. OH" eMy lla.n:yT npOnycK. Rbi _ _ ,naJUITe __ Mbl __ lla.rlUM __ Tbl ,n3mb _ aHa __ lIUCT _ R _ _ naM _

17.

R BaM lIaM 3HilTb. 6" _JlliCT _


Mbl _lla.n:HM __

OUU -.n:a.rlY"r

Rbi MUe ,na.llHTC 3l1arb? Tbl __ ,naWb ?


316

lEiSON 14

18. Kor.na kOIl'lHWb, Thl ueMlioro OTJl.OXllewb? ___ KOII... HTe, Obi OT.QoxHere? Kor.Qa KOH"'y, Ii HeMuoro OT.QOXHy. ___ Kon....HT, 01150 _ _ oT.QoxHeT. _ _ KOH"'HM, Mbl _ _ OT.QOXHeM. ___ koH...aT, OHIt _ _ OTllOXHYr.

When __ When __ __ __

you finish, will you rest a bit? you finish, will you rest __ 1 I finish, I'll rest a bit. she finishes, she'll rest _ we finish, we'll rest _ they finish, they'll rest _
I vacation in Yalta. we vacation _ _" you vacation _ _ they vacation _ _ you vacation _ _" Khrushchev vacations __"

19. J1eToM Ii OTJJ.blXOO B AnTe. ___ Mbl OT.Q.blXaeM __ " ___ ru OT.Q.blx8eWb_" ___ OHH OT.Q.blX3JoT_" ___ BbJ OT.Q.blx8en: __" ___ Xp)'lUeB OT.QblxaeT _ _"

During the summer ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ She's already used _ _ _ _ _ _---'_ _ _

20.

__ K

OHa K HeMy Y'Kc HaM

npHBbll(JJa.
_
_

_ _ K HHM __ k

BaM Te6C

_
_

_ _ 1(0 MliC
_ _ I(

to to to to to to

him. us. them. you. me. you.

Pronunciation practice: fmal c1nsters witb [r] or [r]


A. Final clusters with [r] followed by a hard consonant.

(gorpJ ,op6 hump (jtrpJ cep6 Se,b (bMJ 66pT shipboard (mart] MapT March [sgirt] COltPT alcohol, spirits [,pM] cnopT sport (tOrt] TOpT cake

[/!6rtJ '1epT devil (i>Ci'kJ O'lepK sketch, outline (p...kJ napK park [yerx] .epK peak [syerx] CBCPX above [mor~] MOpjK walrus (marlJ Mapw march

[fau) $lpe fan" (touJ TOpe torso [leurs) KyPc com", [to,~ TOP! peat [ger~ HCpO nerve [norm] HOpM of nonns (~ornJ ,nCPH turf

B. Final clusters with [r) foUowed by a soft consonant.

Note: Although the writing system does not indicate it, the P preceding a soft consonant is pronounced soft.
(skarn] grief cKop6b

[yelO sep<j>b
shipyard

([enJ

<CP3b queen (in chess)

[SIJlcIlJ CMCpTb
death

[skAtinJ CKaTepTb tablecloth [Q!:t yill] "'CTBePTb quarter


U3SS0N 14 317

C. Clusters with [r] in final position.


[akr} hp acre (tinr) ",imp genre Watr] TeaTJ) theater (metr] MeTP meter D. Clusters with [r] in final position.
r~in\abr] [a~6tr1

oce-rp

sturgeon [litr) nl1TJ) liter (smotr] CMOTJ) review

[eentr] UellTJ) center (rpiQistr) MHHHCTJ> minister higr] THrp tiger

celfTIi6Pb September (ak\abr] OIITli6pb October

[najabr] H0116pb November [~ikabr] lIcKa6pb December

[vmitrl inside

BH~b

STRUCTURE AND DRILLS

The dative of KTO, 'ITO, the personal pronouns, aDd the reflexive personal pronoun coo';
NOM

>ITO
"OMy

"0
"IeMj

Mile

ThI
Te6e

OH,Oll6

OHa

..,;,
HAM

...
aaM

OIlH

(no nom)

OAT

(HeMy)

'MY

eM (HeM)

....
(HHM)

ce6t

Notes
1. The altcmate third person fonns, the pronoun: K neMy, K ncil, and K "HM.
IICM)',

nci, and IlIIM, are used when a preposition precedcs

2. The dative reflcxive personal pronoun to (or for) oneself has no nominative. It is used when thc subject and indirect object are the same: >1 KynHn ce6C nnacnttt.KY. (I bought a record

ceoe

for "iyse!f.)
MODELS

$i

XOTCn

saM

"ITO-TO Ck:uaTb.
_

1 wanted to teU you something.

_ _ _ CMY

_ _ Te6e

- - - - him - - _ you _

_ _ eii
_
011
~_HM

_
_

_ _ _ _ _ he< _ them
_ us

_
_
_

xo-re.n

Mile "ITO-TO C"a.J.3,Tb.


_

He wanted to tell me something.

_ _ _ 113M

3J8

l.ESSON 14

KOMy :ho nJICbMO? Mile? _ _ _ _ _ _ ? Te6e? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ? HaM? _ _ _ _ _ _ ?B3.M7 _ _ _ _ _ _ 7 EMy?

_ _ _ _ _ _ 1 E01
_ _ _ _ _ _ ? HM?

Who is that letter for? Me? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ? You? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ? Us? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ? You? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 7 Him? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ? Her? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ? Them?
I'll come nnd see you on Saturday. _ _ _ _ _ him _
_ _ _ _ _ you _ _ _ _ _ hcr . .

.sf

K BaM

np'llY

II

cy666Ty.
.

_ K HeMy

_ K Te6e
_K He"
_ K HH.'I.t

.
.

_ _ _ _ _ _ them Come and see us on Saturday.


_ mo _

OpHXO.zuiTe K HliM B cy666Ty.


_ _ _ _ KO MHe _

.sf Kynnw

BaM

:hy nnaCTIlHKY.
_ _
_

_ _ _ cc6e _ _ _ T06e
_ _ _ OMY

I'll buy you t!Us record. __mysclr _ __you _

_ _ him
__hcr

_
_

- - eO - - - _ _ _ HM _
Qmi KYnHT ce6e _ _ _ To6e
_ _ _ MHe
~

_ _ lhem

UOBbI"

nOPTienb. _
_ _

She'll buy herself a new briefcase, _ _ _ you _

_ _ _ me
_ _ _ us

_
_

_ _ HaM

CUED QUESTION- .... NSWER DRILL

(you) To whom did 1M teadler say that? To you. (BhI) KOMY Y'lHTeJlb 3TO CJn13an? BaM. (Ji) KoMj Y'lHTeJlb :iTo CKa.3an?
MIU~.

(MbI, Thl, OHH, all, alia)

RESPONSE DRILLS

I. Oh, you're here already! rll bring you Ihe paper. A.x, Bbl }')Ke 3.o;6<:b! R npHllecy BaM l'ueTY. Ax, aHa }')Ke 3.o;Ccb! A npHHecy eii ra3hy.
(Tbl, all, OIlR, raJUl, peKTOp)

2. I don't know his house number. He doesn't want '0 tell me, Ji. He 3HaK> 1I0Mepa ero .o;OMa,

011 Mile lie XO'leT rOBOpHl'b.


OHa He 3HaeT HOMepa ero ,ll,OMa.

Oil Hi He XO'leT rOBoptin.. (MhI, npo4>cccop AneKceeo, Tbl, Obl,


peKTOp, pe6l1Ta)

LESSON 14

319

3. I wasn't home. Who came 10 see me?


MeHR He 6blJIO llOMa.

4. She's sick. I'm on my way to see her.


OHa 60Jlblla.

KTO 1'0 MHe nptlXo.ruin?

6p.a:ra

lie 6bUlO llaMa.

~ ~

H.JtY

Ie:

Kro I' HeMf npKXo.ruin?


(Hac, ero, B~C, llCDywelC, re611, nCOHUbf,

Mo" TOsapHU.t OOJlell.


CTYJlCHTbl, Obi)

..eM.

HAY I' neMj. (OHIl, :lKClla peKTOpa, TbI, ceKpeT3.pb,

"'l
5. He hasn't been to your place yet. He'l! come to see you.
011 y Bl'tc Cute
011 IIpHlih
II:

He

fibl1l.

BaM

011 Y IIHIt eute He 6b1Jl. OK lIptt,!],eT I' 118M, (y Hac, y HcC, Y HHIt, Y Te6ll, y MClIll, Y Hcro, y Bac, y MCH.lI, Y Hac)

SUBJECT REVERSAL DRILL

I. She bought him a present. He bought her a present.


Oua l(ynH.ria
OR h.'"YJIHJI

cM9

OO.aaPOIC.

iii

DOllapolI:.

Mbi KynH.riH cMj uOllapoK.

On

KynHn HaM DOllapolI:.

2. He'll bring her Sflme lemonade. She'll bring him some lemonade. Oil npHHecer eH J1IlMoHliJIa. Oua nptUfecN e.\1Y J1HMOUW. A npHllecY cit J1HMOlla,na. Oua DpHHeeer Mlle JlHMOUliJJ,II.
(Mbl npHllecCM, Obi npllileeeTe, OHII UpHnCCYT, lbl IlpHHCCelllb, all I1pHHeeer)

(51 KynHJI, TbJ KynHJIa, Dbl KynHJHf, OHII

KynHJlH)

3. J wrote him (l lefler. He wrote me a letter.

.st

HanHcan CMY OHCbMO.


HallHw

On

MIMi IDICLM6.

Mbi HauHwH eMY UHCbMO. Oil llanHW IIiM UHClo~6.


(Obi HaUHC3JlH, Tbl H8nHC3Jl, aHa Ha nlleana, OHH HanHcaJJH, 011 HaTIHC3Jl, 51 H8nllcaJJ)

The dative case in impersonal constructions


MODELS

Mae til: ..lIpKO. HaM _


EMj _

I'm so-hot.
We're-.

Eii
HM _

He's _ _. Shc's __. They're _.


Aren't you hot? _ _ you_? Won't you be bored? ___ you ?

BaM lie :lKapKO? Te6e ? BaM HC 6yncT CKy'lHO? Te6e ?

320

LESSON 14

MHe 6y'UCT
HaM

CKy'H-lO.

EMy

E"
HM
HaM

.
.
_

I'll be bored. We'll be_. He'll be_. She'll be_. They'll be_.
I was cold. Wewere _ Hewa5 _ Shewas _ Thcywere _ _

M He 6bulO X0J10ltHO.

EMy

E"
HM

_
_

Te6e 6hi.no X0J1oltHo1 BaM 1

Were you cold 1


_ _ you __ ?

Mile napa H,IlTH.


H;M
3a'lCM

_
BaM ClleWI1Tb 1

____ u, _ _- ?
_ _ _ YOUf _ _ ?

It's time for me to be going.

_ _ reM
A MIll~ _ HaM

What's your hurry? or Why should you hurry? or you _ _ ?

MO)l(II0 nocMoTpCTb 1

May I look 1 or Is it O.K. for me to look 1 .__ we_10r us l' I was happy there or I felt good there. or He _ He I'm thirsty or I feel like having a drink. _ We're __ or We

Mlle T3.M 6bWO xopowo. EMy _


MHe XO"l.eTCJI

H;M

min. _

REPETITION DRILL

Repeal the above models, noting that the person who is involved in each instance is expressed by the dative case in Russian.

CUED QUESTION-ANSWER DRILL

(f)

Who's thirsty?
Jam.

(11)
(olla)

KoMY Mile,

XO"l.CTCli nl1Th?

KOMy

XO'fCTCli IlI1Tb 1

Eo,
(Bbl, ThI, all, MhI, OHM, SI, Olla, Bbl, Mhl)

RESPO!'l'SE DRILLS

I. We'll be dancing. We won't be bored.

Mw 6jltCM TaHUCBaTb.
BiM 6ylteT Ckj'IHO. (SI, OH, ThI, ona, OH", OH, BbI, SI)
He

HaM He 6ylteT o..-j'Iuo.


Ow 6jltcre Ta.Hl.lesaTb.

2. He went home. He was bored. 0H nowen AOMOii. MY 6wo CI.:ylfHO. aHa nowna .nOMO". I!ii 6bI00 a.y"lllO.
(OUIt, ThI, BbI, MhI, SI, 011, Tbl, olla)

LESSON 14

32J

QUESTION-ANSWER DRILLS

I. Where are you going?

Home. Fm bored here.


Ky.llil. Thl tmellIb? )l,OMOH. MHe J.necb CKy'lUO. Ky.na Bbl tmeTe? )l,OMOH. HaM 3.necL CKy'lHO. (au, OHIt, Mbl, oHa, Tbl, BbI, OH)
SUBSTITUTION ORJ LL

2. Why are you ill such a hurry? It's time for me to go home. nO'ieMy Thl n\K cnewHllIh?
MHe nopa .uOMOH. nO'leMy OH nlK cnewlh? EMy nopa .nOMOH.
(olla, ami, BbI, TbI, OH, aHa, BM)
STRUCTURE REPLACEMENT DRILL

He knows that he'l! he bored.


3l1aeT, 'iTO eMY 6yoneT CKy'lHO. QHa 3HaeT, 'ITO eH 6Yll,eT CKy'lHO.

Du

He wantS to learn the results. He's curious to know the results.

du

XO'lCT

Y311aTb pe3ynbTaTbJ.

(Mh!,

Bioi, ~, OHH, KOJl}!, 1'101, ran}!, Bce)

EMy HaM

HHTepeClIO y3HliTh pe3ynbTaThI.

Mhl xonlM Y3Han, pe3yJIbT<1Tbl.


STRUCTURE REPLACEMENT DRILLS
HllTepeCIIO

II's time for us to go. It was lime for w to go.


HaM napa HJ1TH. HaM nopa 6blJl0 HlI,TlI. MHC napa II)),TH. Mile nopa 6wno HLn"Ii.
(cii, HM, BaM, HaM, MHC, Tc6c. eMy, MM,

(OHM, Tbl,

Y3l.llln. pe3YJILTllTbl. OHa, BbI, st, Mhl, OH, Thl)

MHe)
RESPONSE DRILLS

I. I was at Ihe flea market. I found il interesting there. $I 6hln ua TOJlKf'!Ke. Mile TiM 6wJIO KlITepeclIo.
QH 6hW lIa TonKy'lKe.

2. We danced for a long time. We're hot.


Mhl nOJ1ro Tal:lL\enaml.

EMy nlM 6wJIO HlITepeello.


(MbI, OHa, BbI, OIlM, OH, }!)

HaM iKapKO. dH .uoJlro TaHL\eaan. EMy iKapKO. (H, OIlH, TbI, OlIa, BbI, MM, H)

3. You have time. Why should you hurry?


Y BaC eCTh BpCM.lI. la'leM BaM CnClllHTb? y Te6l'i: eCTb BpeMII. la'leM Te6e CnClllHTb? (y Hero, y Hac, y HHX, YHee, y MeH$l, y Bac, y Te6S1, Y nux)
DISCUSSION

4. We want 10 read. May we read? Mbl XOTHM '1HTaTb.


HaM
MOiKl1O '1HnlTh? MOiKHO '1~Tb ?
H, OHJf, Tbl, Bbl, MLI,

61:1

X6'leT '1HTaTb.

MY

(olla,

on, SI)

In impersonal constructions the dative case is used to identify the person affected or involved in the situation. Such dative constructions are especially common in conjunction with infinitives or shorl-form neuter adjectives ending in -0. in the past and future, the neuter verb forms 6bl.'l0 and 6j.1J.eT are used. They usuaUy precede the infinitive or short-fonn neuter adjective.
322
LFSSON 14

Te6C TaM He 6YlleT IIHTepeCHO. EMy nopa 6bUlO HJJ.Tli. MHe 6blJ10 XOJlOllHO. HaM 6YlleT XOJlOllHO.

You won't find it interesting there.


It was time for him to be going. I was cold.

We'll be cold.

Tbe dative personal referent may be omitted for a more general statement. )KapKo. It's hot. nopa llllTH. It's time to be going. M6:lKIiO nocMoTpen.? Is it all right to look? KaK H1rrepecHo! How interesting!

Tbe dative case witb uylKelf, IfYJKHa, UYlKHO, and Ifyll<llld


MODELS

Mile lIy..cen arJlae. MHe Hy..ceH 6bJJI arJlae. Mne lIy..ceH 6YlleT 3TJJae. Mile lI}':lKn3 K3PTa EBp6nbl. Mile IIY:lKIHl. 6wmi Kitp'ra EBpOnhl. MHe lI}':lKm'1 6YllCT KftpTa EBpOnbl. Milt Hy*1I0 p3Jrno. Mile lIY:lKHO 6blJIO paaHo. Mile n:;.110 6yoneT panna. Mile lI)')KJlbI lUUO'tli. ' Mile 1IY"'lIb1 6bulH KJlIO'tH. Mile II}':lKHbl 6yonYT KJlIO'tH .
REPETITION DRILL

I need an atlas. I needed an alias. I'll need an atlas. I need a map of Europe. I needed a map of Europe. I'll need a map of Europe.
I need a radio. I needed a radio. I'll need a radio.
I need keys.

I needed keys. I'll need keys.

Repeat the above models. noting the pattern in the present, past. and future .
CUED QUESTlONANSWER DRILLS

I, (I)

Who needs an atlas? J need an atlas. (li) KoMj nY-"CH aTJlae? Mile Ily*etl iTJlac, (Mbl) KOMy H)0Kell :1TJlac? HaM ttY*eu aTJJaC, (oHa, Oil. Mbl. Tbl. OHA, }I, oHa, TbI)

2. (chess set)

What does he need? He needs a chess set. (w3XMaTbl) 4TO eMY HjJKIIO? EMy HY'...H";' WaXM8Tb1. (1I6:lK) 4T6 eMY ny,.cllo?

EMy ny*eH "0*,


(JlHMOH311, KBIITaHl.l,IUt, flJ1aCTHIIKH, 6YMara. :ypHaJI, MonOKO. ra3eTa, npaH.AW1l, PY"Ka)

3. (cupboard) What will we need? We'lf need a cupboard. (wd$) 4T6 HaM 6yoneT uY*"no? HaM 6YlleT HY*eu WKa. (n6JlKa) t.h6 113M 6yoneT HY":lK1I0? HliM 6Y/.teT IIY*Ha 1I0JIKB, (KJllO'HI, npOHrpblBaTeJlb, ,,1138eCTH}I. lIOaoe MecTO, :lKypllan (,OrOHeK", l(Be'lepIIRli MOCKBa, waXMaTbf)

4. (secretary)

Whom did she need? She needed the (or a) secretary. (ceKpeT3.Pb) KTO eM 6bU1 HjJKeH? Eii 6Lan uy",eu KpeTapb' (y66pulI1u.a) KT6 eH. 6bln lIy"reH? ii 6bfJla Hy"'IUii yOOputH118, (peKTOp, npOllaBlttHL(a, TOBapUlli BonKoB, y'lHTeJlbllHu,a, Bax:rep, HaTawa H 3ulIa, npoleccop OpJlOB)

, Some speakers stress the first syllable of lbe plural form: Ilf*xw.

!...ESSON 14

323

QUESTION-ANSWER DRILLS

I. What dictionary does he need? He needs Ihis olle. KaKoii CJIOBflPb eM)i Hy*"ell? EMy "~eH BOT nOT. KaKOH xypuan eMY uyxeH? EMy Hy..-etI BOT nOT. (nona, poMaH, nepo, IOlHra, CTyn,

T""""'")

2. Are Ihere any cups here? I need a cup. Ty,- OCTb '1amKH'1 MHi Hy:tma '1lirnKa. Ty,- ten. CTari.m.l 1 Mue Hyi:eH CTah.-aH. (nO)l(KH, H01l:H, BHJlKH, KapaH}l3..UjH, nepb$l, llOCKH. Te'1"p<lJJ.H)

RESPONSE DRILLS

I. Here are some pencils. We don't need pencils. 8M KapaHJlamH. HaM KapaH,lI,llUIH He IIY*llbI. 8M nponycd.. HaM npouycd He IIYjt;HhI. (cnOBapb, KBHTanUHSI, KJUO'lll, Jlll$T, TaKcH, TeJIe$oll, HOClUlblUHXH, Kexpe) 3. Where can one get pencils? She needs pencils. rlle MO:lKHO ,llocniTb Kap3llJl.auui? ii Hy:HW ...-apaHJI.auui. rlle MO::trnO llocniTh H6.1 ii nj;eH 00-.. (nepbR, MaTepHaJJ. xopo6.:y, CTOJl. TeTPa.o.H, nonxy, CJ10Bapb, orypJJ;bl) 5. The children got [hold of] some pencils. They needed pencils. Pe6m llOCTanH ICap3HltamH. HM IIY*uw 6W.n.. Kapa",lI,aIUH. Pe6liTa J1OCT3.Jm crYnbH. 11M UY*HW 6biJlH CTYnMIL. (cTon, nomy, KU"!"", CJlOaapb, TeTpa,llil, HCTOplUO KHTaSl, KapTy AMepKlO:l)
DISCUSSION

2. Oleg doesn'l have an aI/as. Does he rea//y need an atlas? Y Onera HeT 3TlIaca. PaJSe eMY lIy*eu liT.[lac? y OJlt~:ra HeT ATnaCOB.
PbBe eMf H)'jI'uLI liTJlaCbl?

(HeT TeTpa.o.eH, ReT CJIoaapeii, !leT nponyCKa, HeT nepa, HeT KnlolfeH, HeT CTona, lIeT nom:u)

4. Where did you get paper? I'll need paper. rlle Rbi llOCT8.rrn 6)'Mary'1 Mile Hyt.Ha 6YAeT 6YMara. Cue Rbi llOCTIuIH xapTy E8p6nbl? MHe H)"IOIi 6YAeT Kapn Eep6rn..l. (CTOII. xapaHllaI11H, nOJay, nponYCK, 6HJ1eTb1, ropJl'l)'lO 80.ny, MOIlOICO) 6. He had no key. He needed a key. Y Hero He 6b1J10 VHO'la. EMy uy>KClI 6WlJ KmO'i. Y Hero He 6bUlO np6nycKa. EMf lIy*eH 6L,(jJ IlpOUYCK. (py6I1J1. Konefum. 6HneTa, TCTpa.nCH, paJU-lO. CTaxana)

Hy*eu, uy-ALB8, Hy*HO, and uy~ are the short forms of the long.fonn adjective HjJKuLIi necessary. Tbey are used in constructions where the dative indicates the person in need and the nominative indicates the thing needed: MRe Hy:IIlJIa K3pTa. (I need a map.-Lit. To me a map is necessary.) In the past tense the appropriate form of 6Wn, 6wJ'lli, 6Lmo, or 6Wmt is used in agreement with the short-form adjective and the nOlln indicating the thing needed. EMy Hy*Ua 6wJla x3pTa. EM)i HylKeH 6W.n wa<Pep. EMy HY*uLI 6Li1.'IH liw.mm. He needed a map. He needed a driver. He needed some boxes.

324

LESSON

14

In the future, the appropriate fonn of 6Y.ZleT (for singular) or 6yJJ.YT (for plural) is used with the shortform adjective.

Moe Ily*llli 6YJJ.:eT KapTa. Moe IIY*HY 6yJQ'T KapTbl. Moe HylKllO 6YJJ.:eT nepO.

I'll need a map. I'll need maps. I'll need a pen.

The neuler form HY*1tO is also used in infinitive constructions.

MHe HYmto Cn3Tb.


HaM Hj*110 6Ll.TJO cneIDJhb. EMy HY'*nO 6YJJ.eT pa66TaTb.

I need to sleep. We had to hurry. He'll need to work.

The imperfective verb )laBSTb and its perfective )lSTb


,a,aaan. (imperfective)
PAST

nan. (perfective)

,a,asan,,a,asana,JJ.:asano,nasanH

.an

He nan

.ana
He JJ.ana

.llano He nano

....

He nanK
[Qoo'~J

!Qed,IJ
PRPS

[QidalllJ

[Qed,I,)

na.o, .naewb, AaCT, naeM, naen, na.oT


6yny naeaTb, 6Y.uewb nasATb
nasaH! nasaH"re! n3.M, naWh, nacr, na.nHM, .lIan.HTe, Ila.n.y-r naH! naMn!

FliT

IMPER

MODEL')

I. Imperfective verb naBliTb

6H naBin yp6KH pyCCKOro H3blK3.. Qila JJ.aBa.na _ Mbl !tasinH _

He used to give Russian lessons. She used to give _ We used to give _ I give English lessons. You give _ He gives _ We give __ You give _ They give _

..s1 .na,o yp6KH aHfmiifcl<OrO R3h1Ka. Tbl .uaeWh _ 6.1 naeT ~_ Mbl .uaeM _ 8w naere ~ _ QHJ.I JlalOT _ ..s1 6yny naBaTb ypOKIl pyccKoro H3blK3.. Tbl 6Y.lleWb _
Mbl 6YlleM 8bi 6yneTe OH" 6yJlYT

6H6~eT----------------_
_

I'll be giving Russian lessons. You'll be giving _ He'll be giving _ We'll be giving _ You'll be giving __ They'll be giving __
Don't give them so much water! Don't give !

He na8Mi J.lM TaK MH6ro 80JJ..bl! He na88iiTe !

I...fSSON 14

325

2. Perfective verb JlllTb

0"

MHe nan KJlIOni. Ou Mile fie ,na.J1 KJlIO'teH. Om\ MHe Aa..n:a KJlIO'tH. Olla MHe He na..n:a KJlIO'teif. On" MHe .nann KJlIO'f". Omi MHe He nann KJIIO'IeH.

He ga ve me the keys. He didn't give me the keys. She ga ve me the keys. She didn't give me the keys. They gave me the keys. They didn't give me the keys.
I'll give him five rubles. You'll give _ She'll give _ _ We'll give You'll give _ They'll give _

.st T"eMY na.M min. py6neif. __ namb _


Qmi. __ ~aCT

M" __ ~aWiM
8 .. __ """"'"
QU" __ ~"'*

__

_ _
~

llaif MHe ny Kmtry! lll\iITe !


REPETITION DRILL

Give me that book! Give !

Repeat the above models, noting that the perfective verb .win has an irregular future. Note also that the imperfective verb .IllIsan. has a present tense based on an alternate form of the stem without
-118-.

STRUCTURE REPLACEMENT DRILLS

I. J 'II give [prillote] lessons. J give [privote] lessons.

2. Don't gi,'e him the key! Give him the key!


He n3BaH eMf KJlIO'la! ,lI.aii eM)' IUIIO'l! He )laBaH eH pbl6bl! )laM eii pw6y! He ,naBMi "M 611J1eTOB 1 He n3B{u'i eMY HOMcpa TCnC(!>6Ha! He ,lJ,alH\H "M cnoaapli! He )],aaaH CH nponycKa! He naaMi eMy .O,ynaca!

.st

6y.ny .l1asaTb yp6KU.

Jt J1.aJO ypOKH.
OH 6Y.l1eT naBaTh yp6KH. Ott )l8iIT yp6KH. (MOll ToaapHum, MOJl no.npyra, Mbl, 3TOT Y'lHTCJ1b, Th!, $I, 3TH llcaywKH, BbI, MOH
~pyr)

3. J gille singing lessons. J used gille singing lessons.

.st natO yp6KH neHHR.


A lI.aBliJl
yp6.... nell..A.

'0

4. She gave him ten rubles. She'lI give him ten rubles.
OHa llaJlll eMy nCcJlTb py6ncH. Olla ,!laCT eMy ,aeCRTb py6mHi. .st eMY .necJl.Th py6neH. B: .naM eM)' lI.CcJm. py6ncii. (Jl. .a.ana, Mbf 011" lI.anU, Bbf nann, Tbl .nana, npo4Jeccop CeMeHoB aMepHXaHUbl nanK)

Mbl naCM yp6KH nellHJl.

Mw AasaJlH yp6"H neUHR.


(aHa, OUH, OH, BbI, MbI)

na..n

nan",

nan,

5. She'll gille him the tickelS. She gave him the tickets.
Olla nacr eMY 6HJleTbi. OHa JJ.aJli eMj 6KJleTW. 326 LESSON 14

$i .a3.M eMY 6W1en...

B: lI.M eMf 61tJ1en...


(B3XTepwa, Mbf, Mama, neBUbI, Bbf, oua, AneKceea)

6. The teacher let him talk.

The teacher didn"t let him talk. YlilfTenb Aan eMf rooopiITb. YlutTe.m. ue Aall e..... y rOBOpHTL. OHa AaJla CM}' rOBopHlb. Omi He Aalla eMy rooopm" (OpnOB, Mbl, AeBywK3, Y'tHTeJUl, GpaT, ceCTpa, Oner, :lKella)
QUESTION-ANSWER DRILL

7. f placed all ad in the paper. I'll place an ad in the paper. .H .nan 06b1IBJ1eIlHC 0 n13eTy.

Jl AiM 061>ABJIeIlHe 8 r8~TY'


Mhl Ainu 061>RBJleHHC 8 n13eTy. My A8lJ.HM 061>aWIfMC 8 ."a3thy.
(Ohl, y~HTeJlb, 11>1, 3TOT 'le.rTOBCK, Mall:

1l0Apyra, aMCpltlCaHUbI, MhO)


RESPONSE DRILL

R, 31'3.

:lKeHllUlHa,

Does Kozlov hal'e the atlas? No, he gave if to me. ATnae y K03JI6oa? Hh, 0" JI.i;t ero Mtfi. ATnae y HHx? HeT, OHM AM.. er6 MMe" (y KonH, y HeC, Y HpHHbl, Y Hero,
y )"IHTeJlbIlHl.U>l, Y Y'lKTe1leH, Y ra.mt)

He has a dictionary. He'll give them the dictionary. Y Her6 ecn. CJlOOapb. OM HM rolcr CJt08apb" Y MeHJi ecn. CJlOOapb. jj: liM .rtI:M CJloBlipb. . (y Hac, y Hee, y TeGR, YMeM, y oac, y tutX, Y Hero, y Hac)

DISCUSSION

Thc perfective verb .win. has an irregular future whicb must be memorized: .wiM, A8lUL, .rtI:cr, AaJDiM, AaJUfTe, Aa$. Its imperative is .wUi! .wiiin! Its imperfective counterpart AWn. has a present tense based on the stem [daj-J: AaJO, Aaeuu., .Il.1Ie-r, 1I.1ItM, Alle-re. AIIKtT. The other forms of Aaa8n., including the past tense, infinitive, and imperative are based on lhe longer stem [dava-]: lI.ad.rl, lI.wn., .aaw. All verbs with infinitives ending in -ll8an. follow this same pattern, for example, Ilpo.ll.W..... to sell, Y3uaaan. to recognize, C03HaBaTL to realize.

Suggestions that include tbe speaker: part I-perfective verbs


MODELS

noli.aeM 0 cy666Ty B KJIy6!

):laaall 1l0H.neM

):laBaihe nOH)leM
BhdilJ.CM HeMu6ro AaBlHi BhlH..nCM )],ae3iiTe BbliW,eM lIa

! !
CBe:lKHH S63.nyX! !
_

Let's go to the club on Salurday! Let's go ! Let's go ! Let's go out and gel a bit of fresh air! ! Let's go out Lei's go out _ Let's drop in on them! Let's drop in ! Let's drop in _ Let's take a break! or Let's rest a bit! Let's take ! or Let's rest __ I Let's take ! or Let's rest __ !
LESSON 14 327

laHJi.eM

HHM!

3aMcM ! }laoaHTe JaiiD.eM _ _ I


OTAoxueM!

JlaOa"

}lad" OTD.OXHeM!
llaoaHTe 1

norOBopHM 06 3TOM Jlene! AaBaH TIOrOBOpHM 1 AaBaihe noroBopHM _ _ ! CbJrpaeM B rnaxMaThll AaBaH CblrpaeM _ _ , AaBaiiTe CbJrpaeM ~,

Let's talk a bit about this matter! Let's talk ! Let's talk _ Let's playa game of chess! Let's play ! Let's play _

REPr:TlTION DRILL

Repeat the above models, noting that either the first person plural perfective verb alone, or tbe verb combined with Jl8Baii (familiar) or Jl8BaiiTe (pluralpoJite) can be used. ,lI,aBaii(Te) makes tbe suggestion more tentative and is somewhat comparable to English How aboul it? or What do you say?

STRUCTURE REPLACEMENT DRILLS

I. We'll go 10 the park.

Let's go 10 the park! Mbl nOHJleM B miplC. nOH.tJ.CM B napK! Mbl nO).lO:lKJlCM OK01l0 KHocKa. nO}.{O*Jl,CM OK01l0 KHocKa! Mbl 3a6y,ueM 06 ::ITOM. Mw 3ai1;:l,cM B 6yepcT. Mhl nocMoTpliM B CJIoaape. Mbl KyflHM 3TOT MaTepHa.rr. Mbl oCTaBuM eMy KJIIO'lH. Mbl 1l0H,UCM B KHHO. 3. Let's buy Ihem a present! Let's buy Ihem a presenl, how ahoul it? KYlH1M HM nOJlapOK! )laB~H KyUMM 11M DOJlapoK. noroBopHM 06 :hOM! )luaH 1I0rOBOpM.\f 06 jTOM. nOH,neM OTJlOXHeM! KOH'IlfM .iTy pa66Ty! npHHeceM cTon! npO'lHT3.eM 06'bSlBnClIlle! 3ai.fJIcM B KOMHCCllOHHblH MaraJifH! OCTaBHM 3TOT pa3roaop!
QUESTION-A-NSWER DRILLS

2. We bought a dictionary: Let's buy a dictionary! Mbl Kynwm C1I0aapb. KYIIHM C11oBaph! Mbl no,ayMamt 06 nOM. nOJQ'MaeM 06 nOM! Mbl OTKpbum OKHO. Mw chlrpiU'm a waxMaThl. Mw norOaOpHlIIl 06 nOM Jlene. Mbl npeJl1l0:llUUrn: eM)! paooTy. Mbl nOJlO)l(.n;iU'Ul na yr1lY. Mbl OCTaBHJlH KJllOLJH lIa CT01le. Mbl BWTIlUm 1IItMOHaJla. 4. I want 10 go to the theMer. How about (us) going to the theater? R xO'ly nOHTIl: B TeaTp. )laBliiiTe nOHncM B naT)). .H xO'ly OTJlOXHYrh. ,lJ,aBaiiTe 01JlOXIICM. ..R XOLJy BWHTIt lIa Cae:lKItH B63,lJ,yx. R XO'ly cnpocHTh 06 :hOM. $i xO'ly nOllO:lK,uaTb. 5i. XO'ly noronopHTh. $i XO'ly noHTI't Ha T3.HIl,hI. $i XO'ly 3aHTH Il :ho 3,lJ,aHHe.

I. Well, how ahoul the movies, shall we go? O.K., let's go! Hy, KilK HaOICT KUHO, nofu!cM'1
J1a,lUlo, DOii,nCM!

Hy, KaK HaCLJCT KRHrlf, KYnHM'1 J1wo, KYIIHM! Hy, dK HaC'ICT 06e,ua, n006eJlaeM? 318
LESSON

Hy, Hy, Hy, Hy, Hy, Hy,

K3.K dK KaK KaK KaK Kal(

llaC'ICT O'lepKa, lIaml:WeM? HaC'ICT 'last, BbDIheM? lIaC'lCT pa66ThI, KOH'lItM? HaC'IeT nnac-l'HHOK, nOCJlywaCM? HaC'lC'r 6HJ1eTOa, B03bMCM'1 HaC'IC1' KocnOMOB, 3aK3:lKeM?

14

2. Wanl 10 go to the club Smurday? O.K., let's go! XOTlhe nOHTli e cy666Ty e K.ny6?
Xopow6. ,1X8Baii"re no~eM! XOTilTe HeMIl6ro OT/lOXHYTh? Xopow6. Jl.a.aiiTe OT,1XOXHeM!
RESPONSE DRILLS

XOTI1Te CHell norOBoplfTb? XOTilTe JaHn! K IIlfM? XOTihe cblrpATb 0 waxMaThI? XOTiITe 3aMOnollTb Ja HlfX CJIooe'll(o? XOTilTe nocMoTTh ;hOT qlllnbM? XOTiITe OOHTIf 8 Jan?

I. Let's take a cab! O.K., let's! ,UaBaiiTe BOJbMeM TaKCH. Xopowo, BOlJoMeM! ,UaeAihe nepeilueM Ita fbi. Xop0w6. uepei.neM! AaBaHTe nanHweM eMy nltCbMo. ,l:lasaHTe nO,1XOJK1leM aBTooyca. AadHTe OTliomeM B napl(e. ,Ua8aJrre 3aK3XeM 6u.neTbl. ,l:laeAi'iTe nocnywaeM pyocKHe neeHu. ,l:laBairre nofweM noo6e.naeM. llaeaHTe BbinbeM n"MOHana.

2. I have 10 go to Kiev. Me too. Let's go IOgether!

R .nOn:ell

noexaTh

KHeB.

A TO.eo JJ;aaai noe.neM BMkre!


HanHc3Th CO'lHHeHue. TOa;e.)].ad.ii RamfweM a.\fkre! R .uOJDICeli nOHTH B 6H6nuoTel(y. .sf .uOn:eH cnpocrn 06 3XJ3MeHax. A .u6.mlCeH 3aHTH 8 MaraJ"H. R .llOJDICeH BbiKTH Ita cee:.cHH BOJAYX. A AOJDICell nonpocrn ero 06 :hOM. R .llOJDICeH IIOAO:Jl8Tb TooapHIUa. R llon;llCeH npo'lHT3Th raJb"y.

R .aOmKen

Jt

3. I'm going (0 go to Ihejfea market. Let's go together!

A noiinY Ita Tomcy'lKy.


nObeM BMecre! A JaJCaJKY 61tJ1en... 3aK8*eM BMecre!

R Doo6C/lalO 8 CTonOBoH. R Hx no.uo)lCJ:tj. R nocnywalO lUIaCTHIIXH.


R nOCMOTPIO )Kypllan
A norymilO
AMepll.Ka.

A JailnY

8 napKe. Ita n6'lTY.

DISCUSSION

. Most suggestions that include the speaker are expressed using the perfective form of the verb. The basic fonn is the subjectless first person pluml verb. In informal spoken Russian, however, AaBaN or .nUBaii:"re oflen precedes the first person plural form: .aUdH for addressing and .naeaiITe for addressing Obi. Use of JJ,uBaH or .nuBaiITe. only adds an informal lone, but makes the suggestion more tentative and open to discussion. It is some what comparable to English suggestions prefaced by: What [do Y01~J say we ... ? How about (us) ... ? Why d01l'1 we . .. ?

n:.

Compare nOCJlYwaeM IUIacTIhuCH. with

Let's ]jsten to records! What do you say we listen to records?

The unstressed suffix -Te may also be added to the first person plural form of a few verbs, mostly verbs of motion. It makes the suggestion more formal and polite. Let's go to the movies! or Shall we go to the movies '! Let's go OUI for some fresh air! or Shall we go out for some fresh air'!

Bbili.neMTe lIa cBc:1l1i BOWX.

The subjectless first person plural of a very few imperfective verbs may also be used in making suggestions: HlleM, eJJ,eM let's be on our way! let's go!

I...SSON 14

329

Adverbs and short-form neuter adjectives ending in


MQIJEL<i

-0

6H
Bbl

cnOKoih-lblH 'feJIOBeK.

6H CnOKOHHO

31'0

pa6oTacT. HCnpaSlfnbHbl\.f OneT.

HCnpaBJ.il1bHO OTBeUUlH.

3TO HCY1l66HblC C"J"YlIb.ll.

Ha IIUX IIcy,n66no CH,IlCTb.


31'0 npOCThIC CJl0Ba.

I1x np6cTo

nHeaTh.

l-1rpa. B flee TPYAno "fpaTI>. 31'0 CKy'lHbIH poMim.


31'0 TpYilFla}l

Era

CKy'lHO 'HITaTh.

:~ho .D:oponi.ll 8emb. alia 1loporo CTOHT.


31'0 JICrKHj;! .ll3bIK.

Era JIcrKO y'l."1'I>.

Oil XOp6WHH CTY1leuT. 6R xopomo pa66TacT.


REPETITION DRILL

He's a quiet person. He works quietly. This is an incorrect answer. You answered incorrectly. These are uncomfortable chairs. It's uncomfortable sitting on them. These are simple words. They're simple to write. This is a difficult game. It's difficult to play it. This is a boring novel. It's boring reading it. This is an expensive thing. It costs a lot (lit. dearly). This is an easy language. It's easy to learn. He's a good student. He works well.

Repeat the given models, noting that short-fonn neuter adjectives and adverbs may be fonned by dropping the long~fonn adjective endings and adding -0. Observe thai sometimes the stress may differ. Compare xOpOUIKii with xopomo, and nnoxoii with DJIOXO

STRUCTURE REPLACEMENT DRIl.LS

I. He lives quietly. He's a quiet person.

2. It was a warm day today. Today was warm.


CerOllHR 6blJl TelUlhlii ,IIeUb. CerOlUUI 6h.ino TcnnO. Ccro,nHSI 6blJJ xopoWHii .a:eHh. Ccro,nUH 6h.ino xoporno. (XOJlO,IIUhIH, )KapKHH, OTllH'lHhlll, npeKpaCHblii, TPY,llHhlii, CKj"lHhlii, nnoxoii)

6H On

CnOKOHDO :lKHBeT. cnoKoiiublii otenOBeK. otenOBeK.

du "pOCTO )K~fBeT.

On np<lCToii

(CTpaUHo, Cl<y'lHO, I.fJITepecuo, CBo601I.HO)

3. Tomorrow will be warm. It'll be a warm day tomorrow.


3aBTpa 6Y.o:CT Terwo.

4. I have a quiet room. I feel peaceful there.


Y MeHii cnOKoiimul KOMHaT3.
Mue TaM cooKoiino.

38BTpa 6Y.lteT TeDJlhlii Jl.eUl.


3aBTpa 6Y1I.CT )KapKO.

Y MeDii nnoxolSi KOMHaTa.

laBTpa 6YJl.eT *aPKHH Jl.eHh.


(XOJIO,llHO, HeUJIOXO, XOpOWO, l'CnnO, )KapKO)

MHe

TaM nnoxo.

(xopowaR, TCllilaJI, XOJIO,IIHaR, uey,n06I1aR, HenJIOXaR)

330

LESSON

14

5. He'.\ an excellem secretary. He does excellent work. (Lit. He works excellently.)

6. This is so boring! This is such a boring essay!


3TO TalC ClCy'lIlO! 3TO TaKO. CKf'lIIh.lH O'fepK!
3TO TaK HHTepCcliO [

0"
011

OTJUi'lllbIH CeKpeTapb.
OTJUi'lllO

pa60Tatt.
ceKpeTapb.
HeIlJlOXOH,

0"

;KOp6WHH

3-'ro TaKO. Hlrrepeeuh.lM O'fepK!


(TaK XopoWO, TalC CTpaIlHO,

OK xopoUJ6 paOOTaeT.
npeKpaCHbJH, XOPOWHH, OTnH'llfblH)
(WIO;KOH,

TalC

rtlIOXO,

TalC CK)"iHO,

Tal(

IIHTepecHO)

7. That's an interesting business (OT affair). That's interesting.


~o HHTep&:Hoe

aeno.

::no

:)yo KHTepeem. ::'TO rtlIox6e aCno.


11110XO.

(acY'lHoe, npocT6e, nerxoe, TPYJlHoe, CTpaHHoe)

'1THI1E 11 nl1CbMQ

LESSON 14

331

~ ~." ~ ~
'W?'UJ
/

~~~/ H.<X ,,~N U- ~ ~ .'

~ ~
e.i'
/-U

~ /<,<Z h/?'t..(f(;.~ ~ ~ ~ ~ :>'?nO, H-O k" - ~


,<:a:&

~
00"<:-

~.

Bc'!epOM HUlla 11

CCMCU HAy,- B KRHO,

a celt'iac HM IIa.aO

OTltoXHYn.

BOT all"

B3.1iJIlI

B 6H6JlHOTeKe KHHfW Ii :a.:ypHaJIbI, CH):VIT ~ 'lHT310T. A


cTYAeHTKa Hrpa.!OT B LU<lXMaTi>1.

33 CTOJlOM Y oKml CTyAellT It

EA,
MaT.

K3.:lKeTCH, CKy'lHO,

om\ 'l<leTO CMOTpHT B OKUO.

HaBepHo, CTYAeHT cK6po ,lJ,3.CT tHi

HHKonaH rOJ1o.Qcu. eMy .n3BHO nopa HATH 06eA3Tb, HO Hana KOH'UITb paoory. EM)'

TPYJlHO

KOH'IHTb

re. B'Icpa rami 6b1JI3 3Aecb, 11 oUH

BMecre

pa60TaJIH. a

ceroaH$(

ee HeT.

Ou c.aena.n owH6KY. a rAe - He 3HaeT. Tenepb 6u CHllHT H HllleT .:hy owH6Jt:y.


CnpOCHJI Mcml 0 XHTpoBe, Ii KOf1l3 eMY. K Tene$6Hy nOJlOWJI3 X<eHa XHTpoea
pa66TaeT.

BOT noca.aa!

OJ](~r

$I

Ii

CK333.n. 'fTO XHTpOO 66ncu. OH D03BOKHJI CKa.3a.na, 'ITO 0" Y:lKe BDOJlHe 3110POO H
norOBopHTb 0

Oner XO'lCT 8C'iepoM 3aunf K HeM)'

If

pa60TC.

HHlla lie O)l{Ull:ana J.lCTpCTUTh K03n6Ba B Kny6e. OHa He 3u3na, <{TO OR 'laCTO XOll:HT Ty.na. EH HIHepecHo, <no 6R TaM .nenaeT. M6)1{eT 6blTb nber? Her, KOUC<{1:I0. B KJ1y6e He nbloT. TaM HrpalOT B WaXManl, c.rrYwalOT MYJbIKY, mlOr.aa TaHl~YIOT. K03n6B rOBopHT CU, <{TO <faCTO urpaeT B WaXMaTbi BOU TaM, 33 :hUM CTonOM. OR cnpamUBaeT. He XO<{eT JllI 3URa nOCMOTpe-rb, K3K OR u TOBapKl.lt 6Y.nyr HrpaTh. Ho OHa rOBopliT, <fTO CH 6Y.neT CKy<fHO, OHa He m-pae-r H He nOHHMaeT :hOH urpbi. He X6<feTCH cero.nHJ( 06e.naTh .nOMa. A Ii KaK pa3 Xon~J1 npe.nnOlKHTb Te6c nOrlTH B pCCTopaH. C y.nOBOJ1bCTBueM. B KaK6"? 3.necb Ha yrny CcTb xopomHit. 5i 311a10. 5i TaM pa3 6blJla. TaK nOHll:eM Tyn;a, XopOWo? Xopow6.
LESSON 14

332

XOlfCWb.

flOH/.J;eM BMCCTe
Hy)f(1I0

B 6H6mwTcKy?

A 'lTO Te6e nlM

B3ll:Tb ?

POMaH (Har.ul1 3ua"d>Mble)).

Y Me.lli ecTb 3TOT pOM3H. XOlfeWb, ll: Te6e .aaM? A TeGe 6" He H)0KCH? HCT, it era y>Ke 'I"Tan.
Bbl y>Ke CK33amt peKTOpy 060 MHe?

He-..,

cme He rOBOpHn.

51

XOTen npe,ltJ1OJIUfTb BaM

BaM K3)1(eTCSl, 'ITO TaK 6yneT Jly..we? .R Hy 'ITO Obi! Ou 6'1CHb npOCToH Ii MHJIb.lH BaM lie CKy'lHO CHJJ,erb Bee BpeMS! nOMa?

noATH K "eMf HeMRoro 60K>Cb era.


'1CnOaeK.

BMecre.

nOH,QCMTe!

Ha, Sl cnyw3JO
He

My3b1Ky.

CTpaHHO, 'ITO Dbi

mb6HTe

CHACTb

BOT

T3.K, c.nYW3Tb

MY-IblKY '" "H'lerO He .nenan..

A T:l1.K
-

MOry.
BaM

.
ere .aaM?

3H3,L{llT, Bbi He JU06HTe My3blKY. 3a'lCM BaM Torna sarn npoHrpblS3TeJlb?

npaella. 0" MHe He Hy:CH. XOntTe, Ji

-CnacH60.
-

TonbKo 6" o'teHb CTapblH. 3-ro HIf'ler6.

n;. JIYMaClllb 0 neTpOac? HI1KOnae MIl" Onere? fi er6 ItMeIHt He 3HllJO. BHlIcna TonbKO JlBa pba. Y Hero CHHHe rna3a.
nlIlSl, 'ITO

3Ha'iIlT, :ho Oner.

.R

ero BI-hIeY K3lK.nblH .neHb Ha neKUIIRx..

~ x.oTena CHUM n03HaKOMHTbCR.

~ Mory Te6~ n03HaKoMHTb. TOJIbKO 60tOCb, 'ITO Te6e 6Y.neT C miM CKy'lHO. 6H
3TO HHTepecHO. n03HaKOMb ",ie, nO)KanyHcTa. Xopom6. I1HTepeCHO CMOTpCTb, KaK OHH HrpalOT, npas.na? Bbl 3HaeTe :hy Hrpy, OOT aaM H IIHTepCCHO, a R UII'lero IIC nOHHMlho, II MHC CKy'lHO. Tormi nO'leMy 61,1 DaM He B35fTb )I{ypHaJ1? BOT nOCJlC,lJ,JrJ.JH HOMep ((OrOHbKa,),

Bee BPCMR 'lTOTO 'lHTaeT II .nalKe, KalKeTCSI, miweT cntxu.

xOTHTe? - CnacH60, ~ C y.uOBOJlbCTBIICM nocMOTpK), TaM, KCTthH, eCTb O'lepK 06 AMcpHKe. CMOTp.tTe. BOT npOBO.l\HHK. CKalKHTe eMY CeH'lac. n pOBO.uHHK! .$I npOCHJla 0 Kacce ,lJ,3.Tb Mfle HH)Kllee MOCTO. HaBepx.Y MHe Ho BaM ,lJ,aJIH sepx.Hee, H Ji trnllero He MOri c.nCJIaTb. MO)KeT 6b1Tb, :hOT rpaJKlI,aHHH

HeylI,06HO CnaTb. MO)f(eT cmiTb naBepxY. - KOnC"IHO, MOri. MHHyTKy, ~ CeH"IaC B03bMY caolt DemH. BOT, nO)f(anyHCTa. CnacH60.

LESSON 14

333

LESSON

15

PREPARATION FOR CONVERSATION


KaHHKyJIbI, KamtK}'JI Htl K311HKynbl

noe./J.eM K HaM H8 K811HKYJlbl

(pi

only)

noeJleM

HaM lIa KaHHKyJlbl.


IImillbi 113 1\3UMli:YJJhI?

nnaH KaKite y Bae nOKa


IIHKaKOH

vacation on (or for) a vacation, to spend a vacation Let's go to our place on our vacation. plan; map (of city) What plans do you have for vacation? for the time being, meanwhile, while not ... any, none at alJ None at all for the time being.
And what plans do you have?

nOli:a "Hli:SKHx.

A Y Bae

li:ali:MC MaULl?

POJUtTeJJH. --eii MbI: bJIHM K POJUfTCll.flM.


KOJlx63

Mw bJUlM K POJlIITe.nJlM B KOJlX03.


Mbf C 6paTOM

MbJ c 6paTOM eJDJIM K powrremlM 8 KonX03. 06bl'IHblJ'l (ad v 06bl'lHO) Mbi C 6p:iTOM 06W'IIIO lb,D,IIM K powhe.11HM 8
KO.""C)).

parents We go to see our parents. kolkhoz, collective farm, village We go to the kolkhoz to see our parents. my brother and I My brother and I go to the kolkhoz to see our parents. usual, usually My brother and I usually go to the kolkhoz to see our parents. from here, hence kilometer.. threefifths of a mile fifty It's fifty kilometers from here. to invite We thought of inviting you. far, far away. distant Fifty kilometers is a long way off, Thanks, but fifty kilometers is a long way off.
335

OTCK)Jla KHlIOMeTp mITb,D,et:JiT


[gi\l\li~t]
li:NJI0MfipoB

:)ro mrTb,D,eriT

OTCtO,1ta.

npHrnacHn. (pfv II), npHrJlawy, npHrnacHwb. -lIT

Mt:.:

Jl.YMa.'1H BaC

npHrnacHn..

JlaJIeKIIH (adv JlaJICKO) n"Tb,D,ecJiT KHlIOMCTpoB -::ho Jl3.JIeK6.

CnscM60. Ho ntn'bD,ecKT naneKo.

KHJlOMapoB

-.iTo

pa3peWCHI1C
MIIl~

He HaJIYr pnpeUleHHR.

pennissiom, authorization, permit They won't give me a pennit. (it's) impossible, one can't, one must not foreigner (It's] impossible for foreigners to travel freely. about, to (different places), in, via, along, around, through, up and down country Foreigners can't travel about the country freely. I forgot that foreigners can't travel about the country freely. too bad, pity, sorry Yes, it's really too bad ~r I'm very sorry.
I haven't seen your kolkhozes yet. After all, I haven't seen your kolkhozes yet.

Henb3H HHOCTpaHell, -Hna HH0CTp3truaM HeJlb3li c8066HIIO cbHKTh. no (plus dat) CTpaH3, -&I:; CTpaHbI, CTpAH
HIIOCTpiHnaM HeJlb3JTcB066,llHO

tJHKTh no CTpaHe. A H Ja6bw2, 'ITO HUocrpaHuaM HeJTLU CBOOOHHO brorn. no C'Tpaue,

"'.,,.
)l,li,
O"tCHL

.anI>.

>1 HaWUX KOJlX030B eme He BH,n:eJl. A BeltL B8wHX KOJlXOlOB elllc


He BM;J,eJT.
CHHMOK, ~MKa

snapshot, picture
I have a lot of snapshots. I have a lot of snapshots of our

Y
Y

MeH.H eeTb MH6ro CHHMkOB.

MeHli

ecrb MUoro CHHMkOB

Hawero kOJlX033.

noc.'JywaiTe, y MetUi
DOKa.J3.Tb (pfv XoniTe, DOKDt:y?

ecn. MHOro
(like
CKa33.Tb)

CIIHMKOB tnimero KOm:Ol8.


I)

kolkhoz. Listen, I have a lot of snapshots of our kolkhoz. to show I'll show (them to you if] you like (/it. You want, I'll show). Yes, please do.

0,

UBeTHoii HeKoTopblH ueKoropwe n:e ltBeTIwe!


CIUfMaTb (I), CHHM~ho, -eWh, -lOT CaM, -a,

colored, in color some, certain Oh, some are even in color! to take off, take (a picture) oneself Did you take them yourself? apparatus, camera Yes, I have a new camera. Zorky (name of camera) Yes, I have a new Zorky camera .

-6,

CaM"

Bhi

C8MH CUIIManH?

.annapaT y MeHM HOBblH annaph. 36pKHH .lI.i, y MetUI HOIWii annapliT ..:J6p1\HH.,

Ali,

Bblwen, Bbluma, -0, -H


(past tense of Bbl:iiTH) CHHmo::K O<IeHl> HCfIJlOXO BWlIIJJK. nopliaoK, -,lI.Ka no nopwy D.aaaiin: 0I0Tptn. no oopliHKY. The pictures came out very well. order, arrangement, sequence in succession, in sequence, one by one Let's take them one by one.

336

LffiSON

15

SUPPLEMENT

B nOpMKe Bce B nopwe? 6mbKHH (adv 6mbKo) 6mhKo OT BbI :lKHBhe COBCCM 6mbKo OT uac. Hc.aaneK6 Mi:d )KHSeM He.na..neK6 OT r6po.na. npHrnawaTb (I) OHii 06b1\(HO nPHrJlaWaK>T Memi K ce6e Ha kaHHK)'JIhI. MIiJui, -Ii; -H, MHJ1b C1c6nbKo MHnb OTCtOJ13. .nO BOK3a.na? OTT)'Aa Ck6nbKO kHnOMCTpoB OTT)'Aa .ao M OCKBbl?

in order, all right, O.K. Is everything all right? near, close close to, near You live quite close to us. close, near, not far We live close to (or not far from) town. to invite They usually invite me to their place for vacation. mile How many miles is it from here to the station? from there How many kilometers is it from there to Moscow?

nOel\eM K HaM H3 KauHKyJJLI

r.-r"""

l1>. -

l1>Hminn

r.
<1>.

<l>Hminn, KaKHe y Bac nn3.Hbl Ha KaHKKyJlbl?

2 nod

HHKaKHx. A y sac?

r.
<1>.

3 Mbl c 6phoM 06W'fHO e3!1HM K p0!lHTeJUIM B KOJlX03. 3TO OJITb.aed.T KHJ10MlhpOB


oTciO.aa. I .!lYMlUUf BaC npKrnaCHTb. 4 Cnacu60, HO mITb.aeCSl:T KHJIOMeTpOB 5 :ho JlaneKo. MHe He .aa.ayT pa3peweHIDI. 2

r.
<1>.

5i.

H 3a6blJIa, 'ITO HHOCTpaHuaM HeJlb3H CBo60,ll,HO e3'uHTb no CTpaHC.

6 )],3., O'lefib )f(anb.

5i.

BC,Il,b Baunu KonX030B ewe He BH,Il,eJ1.

r. 7
<1>.

nOCJlywatiTe, y MeHH ecrb MHoro CHHMKOB Hawero ~0J1X03a. XOTuTe, nOKa)f(y?

8 )],a, nO)f(anyMCTa.

6,

HCKoTopble .aa)f(e uaeTHbJe! Bbi caMH CHUManu?

r.

9 )],3., Y MeHsi HOBbiM annapaT (30PKHID', 1

<1>. 10 CHUMKH O'feHh Hennoxo BWWJllL )],aBaUTe CMoTTb no nopsiltKy.


NOTES

1 KOJIX03 is derived from KOMeKTJUU'oe x03SiicTBo collective farm. The word


KOJIX03 has almost entirely rcplaced the old word .a.epeBKJI, in the sense of vi/Jage. Russian villages usually consist of one long street lined with wooden huts on both sides. Behind each hut is a small garden patch and, as a rule. a smaJl, log balhhouse.

LESSON 15

337

Exchange students in the U.S.S.R. can travel within a thirty-kilometer radius from the city where they live; to travel farther, they must apply for a special permit. It is unlikely that such a pennit would be granted to visit a collective fann.
1

The Zorky is a Gennanmade camera and is very popular in the U.S.S.R. In Russian 36p... " means sharp-sighted or vigilant. "
J

PREPARATION FOR CONVERSATION

r3JISI nOK3JblOSeT <l>HnHn~y CIIHMKH

n0K33bJ8aTb (I)

ra.rul n0K33bJBaeT tPlulIlnny CHHMKH.


66UlHH,-a~,-ee,-He

.KA
8M 661.1tHH BH.n. none, -H; DOnj,-eH 8M 06W;HH BM,!:{: TjT nonl1.
KOnx03RblH

86T 66uurif BH,u: TjT kMXOJHbiC nMI1. oJepo, -a; 03epa, o3i:p nee, -a; neea, -OB B.a.amt Ty-r nomi, a BJJ;aJ1" nee H 63epo.
Bu.neH, BHJl,H3., Bu.nHO, BH)])IbI

B.nami BH.D.Hbl

JIee H

6Jepo.

BOT MILlHM BHit: TyT uoml:, a 8,lI,ami Btl):I.Ilbr nee H oJepo. H363., -bl; H36h1, Ib6 A BOT mima H:wa.

to show Galya shows Philip snapshots. general, over-all, common view, aspect Here's an over-all view. field Here's an over-all view: over here are the fields. kolkhoz, collective fann (adj) Here's an over-all view: over here are the kolkhoz fields. lake forest, wood{s) in the distance Over here are tbe fields, and in the distance the woods and the lake. visible, can be seen I n the distance the woods and the lake can be seen. Here's an over-all view: over here are fields and in the distance you can see the woods and the lake. village bouse, hut, cottage, farmhouse And here is our house. wooden, made of wood Ob, made of wood 1 And what's that in the street 1

.nepeBHHHhlH ...... . v, llcpes1lHBalll ." , .

A iTO 'f1'O ua ymme ?

:ho
Y

konOlleu, ICO",OAeQ.

-Jlll.3

well That's the well.


running water, plumbing We don't have running water.

BO,llOnpoBO.a.

HaC Her BOJlonpoBOJla.


LESSON I5

338

oenp6, -a; oenpa, ne.nep oe.npaMI-I IIOCHTb (n), IIOWy, U6cI-lWb, -SIT Haao BOay HocHTl. Oe,/l,pHMH.

pail, bucket by (or in) pails, in (or by) buckets to carry We have to carry water in buckets or Water has to be carried in buckets. to imagine, envisage, picture otherwise, differently I imagined the kolkhoz would be different. You know, I imagined the kolkhoz would be different. stone, brick You probably thought the houses would be brick, didn't you? electricity, lights You probably thought the houses would be brick and {that] there'd be electricity, didn't you? to build, construct They're building houses now. They're building houses now for farmers.
I read in Ogonyok the kind of houses

npeACTao.nJITb eWe (I)


"Halle (or Hualle)

.sf HHalle npe.nCT3SJ1liJl ce6e


KOJlX03.

A Ii. :mien. tota..e npellCTaBJl'liJr

ce6e

KOJlxch,

K3.MCHHblH Obi: ltYMaJlH. HaaepHo, ,llOMa K8MeHHble. A3? :meICTpHllecT80

Bw AYMaJDI. HWpRO: ,/I,OMi.


KAMetlHble, :J.'1elCTpll'lec1lJO,

Ai.?

crpOHn. (II), CTpCUO, -HWb, -SIT Tenepb CTpOKT AOMa. Tenepb CTpOSlT AOMa J])UI
KOJlX03HIIKOB.

.$I '1HTan B

OroubK60, KaKHc Tenepb crpOKT .nOMa ll,ltSi


KOJlx63"HKOO.

tbey're building now for farmers. Yes, I remember reading in Ogonyok [about] the kind of houses tbey're building now for fanners. Oh yes, I know. tourist That's the kind they show to tourists. Oh yes, lknow. That's the kind they show to tourists. family Here is our whole family. Here is our whole family at the table. photograph, picture And in this picture our whole family is at the table. . to be hanging, to hang icon, holy picture I see you have icons hanging. God to believe, trust to believe in. have faith in Do you really believe in God? My brother and I don't believe.
L.E.SSON 15

J],a,

a o6MuJo 'lMTU (<OrofIJ>Kf:,

KalOie Tenepb C'Jl)6.... Jloi'tui


JlJliI k"OJlXOJHHICOB,

A,3HaJO.
TypHCT "aKHe nod3blBa'OT TypHCTaM. A. 311I1.0, TaKHe n0K83b1BaIOT rypHCTaM.

ceMbR, -H; cCMbU, ceMe~ BOT BCH u:iwa ceMbJl:. BM TYT BCli nawa ccMbli 3a CTOJl6M.

cP6To (indecl n) A "a :hOM ep6TO oeli lIliwa CeMLK 3a CTOJJOM.


OHcCn. (II), OUCHY, oHcn
",,:oHa

Y de, li RH*)'. ""O"bI BHCfl,

Gor, -a
aepHn. (II) (plus dat) sepHTb B (plus ace) P8Jae ow aepMTe R 1i6ra? MW C6paTOM
He

aepllM.

339

OTl:U, OTU3

MllTb, MilTepH; MhepH, -eH BepylowHH Ore... H MaTI. y lIac aepytOlQJIe.


W~PKOBb,

father mother one who believes, believer Father and mother are the believen; in our family. church Father and mother go to church. Do you have a church there? Then you do have a church there? village neighboring, next There is one in the next village. Therc is one, only [it is] not in ours, but in the neighboring village.
It was opened after the war.

uepKBH; -~, -eil

O"ell K MaTI. XOJUIT B ...epKOBh.

Y BaC H uepKoBb nlM ecrb? TaK y BaC H QepKOBb T8.M ecrb?

ceJlO,

-a; cerra, cCJI

coce~HHil,-~~, -ee,-He Ecrb B coce~HeM ce.ne. &rb, TOJJbKO lie y HaC, a B CoceJUlCM CeJTe.

n6cJTe BOHnhl OncpWJIH.

SUPPLEMENT
~opora

.uopora He O'lCHb xopowaH. Haw ~OM o"eHb 6mhKo OT ~oporH. BbI 3HaeTe ~opory K03epy? [fO ~op6re no ~opore llICn KaK6il-To '1CJlOBeK. no Aop6re AOMOil li KynHJI ra3ery. HaM [fO Aopore Kb<ercH, HaM [fO Aopore. nocTpoHTb (prv II) (like crpOHTb) 3~ecb CKOpO [fOCTpOn HOBbIe ~oMa. [fOBepHTb (prv II) (plus dat) nOBepbTe Mile, Oil XOPOllIHI1 '1CJlOBeK. coreA, -a; coreAH, --en l OHH HaWn coceAH. coceAKa Hawa coce~Ka [fPHHeCJIa HaM :ho. "epa Bepa s (plus ace) Y Hero ner SePbl B ce6li. KOJlX031HfUa Moli M3.Tb KOJIX03ffil.lI,a.

road, way, route Thc road isn't very good. Our house is very close to the road. Do you know the way to the lake? along the road, on the way A man was walking along the road. On my way home I bought a paper. we're going the same way Looks like we're going the same way. to build They'll soon build new houses here. to believe Believe me, he's a good man. neighbor They're our neighbors. neighbor (f) Our neighbor brought us this. faith, confidence faith in, confidence in He has no faith (or confidence) in himself. collective-farm worker (0 My mother is a collective-farm worker.

I Note that the final stem consonant of coce}l neighbor, which is hard throughout the singular, becomes soft in the plural. Compare the singular: cocb, eeeeil,ll lsa~t, SlI~6<bJ with the plural: coceJtH, CI>Cl!Aeii, 0 coceJlllx, coce}lll.'ol [saij&,li, sa~ij, asa~eq'Jx. saijCq'Jm].

340

LFSSON 15

raJlH nOKalbmaeT tbHJlItnny CHHMKH


r.-r3JUI

<lI. -

<lIHJl"""

r.
$.

BOT 06UlH" BfuJ.: TjT KOnX03HhJe 1I0mi, a BLl,amf BHLl,Hb! nee H oJepo. A BOT Helwa "36a.

20, .nepeBll:HHa}l?! A :ho 'ITO TaKOe Ha yJIHue?


3 3TO KOJI6.1.l.eu. Y mi.c neT BOJl,OnpOB6.o.a, Haao BOAY HOCHTb BCJl.paMI1. 1 4 A .R, 3HaeTe, I1Ha'le npe.ncTaBJI.RJI ce6e KOJIX03. 5 Bbl Ll,yManH, HaBepHO: .nOMa KaMeHHble, :)J1eKTpHlfecTBo,.na?2

f.
(1).

r.
<1>.

6 .lla. ~ nOMHJO tntT3..n B (OrOHbke, KaKHe Tenepb CTp6SIT .nOMa


7

JI)I}I

KOJlX03HHKOB. l

r.
(1).

3HaK>. TakHe nOd3b1BaIOT TYPHCTaM. A Ha 3TOM 4>6TO acH HaWa ceMb.R 3a cTonoM.

A,

8 Y B3-C, .R BH)Ky, HKOHbJ BHch. P33Be 8b1 8epH"Te B Dora?

r.
(1).

Her, Mbl c

6phoM He BepHM, HO OTeu H MaTh Y HaC BepyK>Ullle, XO.nHT B uepKOBb. S


It

10 T6.K y BaC

uepKOBb TaM eCTb?

r.

11 ECTb: TOJlbKO He y Hac, a B cocellHCM cene. nOCJJe BOi:lHbl OTKpblJIH. 6

NOTES

I In Russian cities there was running water (at least cold) even before the Revolution; however, it is still nonexistent in rural areas.

l Electric lights are usually not found in rural Russia. Note that the term ....aMetIHWii.literally stone, refers to all nonwooden buildings, Le., brick, stone, stucco, and so forth.

In some villages, two-family and multi-family houses have been erected under Khrushchev's program to modernize the villages.
l

Russians usually use lhe word lfM)ro (short for CluiMOK, in reference to snapshots of people.

4toro~a4lH.),

rather than

, The noun uCpKOBL (I) church has a sort final ~tem consonant except in certain plural cases where a hard [v) occurs. Compare the nominative plural ItCpKBH [cerkyi] with the prepositional 0 ItqlKBix [acirkvax] and with the dative ttep08.\4 [cirh.im]. , Ce.'l6 is a large village. Characteristically it had a church in pre-Revolution times, but this is not necessarily true today.

LESSON 15

341

Basic sentence patterns


I. npHBeT :lKeHC!

---=",e!
- - MY><y! _ _ _ OTloi! _ _ 6phy!
_ _ _ MarepH!

_ _ _ POLUiTenJlM! ___ .aPY3blfM


_ _ _ 6paThJlM!

_ _ _ c&:TpaM!

Say hello to your wife. _______ sister. _ _ _ _ _ _ husband. _ _ _ _ _ _ father. _______ brother. _______ mother. _ _ _ _ _ _ parents. _ _ _ _ _ _ friends. _ _ _ _ _ _ brothers. _______ sisters.

2. nOICa:lKHTe 4lwuinny emf MICH.

___ OT""

_ _ _~ HKKOJlaK> _ _

_ _ _ cecrpC
_ _ _ _ M3.TepH
_ _ _ _ .D:P)'3bHM

_
_
_

_ _ _ _ po,a,l-fTenJlM _ _,

_ _ _ _ TypuCTaM

Show Philip the snapshots. _ _ Nikolay _ _ _ Father _ _ _ Sister _ _ _ Mother _ _ _ your parents _ _ _ your friends _ _ _ the tourists _
On my vacation I usually go to see my parents. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ friends. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ brother. ________________ sister. And I go ___ ___ ___ to to to to tbe kolkhoz. the viUage. Kiev. Odessa. to to to to to to Grant. the professor. the teacher. the tourists. Zina. the teacher.

3. Ha KaHHKYJlhl Ji 06b1'lHO C3:lKy IC po,!JJhenm4. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ K .aPY3bliM.


_________ K _________ K

=TpC,

6""".

li

b:l'y B KOJlX03.

___ B

ce.n:6.
O.lleccy.

_ _ _ BKHeB.
___ B

4. JlaH-re 3TH cP6TO rpAHT)'.


_~

npo<peccopy,

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ Y'lHTeJ110.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ TypHCTaM.

_ _ _ _ _ _ 3Hlle. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 'lIb'eJlbIll1ue .

Give these pictures _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ They won't give _____ _ _ _ _

5. MHe He .n<vI.Yr paJpewe"HJl.


K6~c

ranc
HHKomuo

_
_

SpATy OT"" HaM


4>H.Jlltnny

_
_ _
_

me a pass. Kolya _ Galya _ Nikolay _ _ Brother _ _ Father _

u,

_
_

_ _ _ _ PlUlip
I need more sleep. _ Oleg needs _ The students need _ My husband needs _ _,
~naneeds

6. M He Hano oonbwe cnan.. 3HHe _ Onery _ CrylleHTaM _ My,.y _

342

LESSON 15

CeC'"T]X H3.nO 60Jlbllle CObb. OTuj _


Iipan.RM _

My sister needs more sleep. My father needs _ My brothers need _

7. WHOCTp3.HU8-M HeJJb3li CBo66.1lHO

C3JUITb

00 CCCP. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 00

CTpaHe.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 00 KKTiJo.

Foreigners can't travel about freely in the U.S.S.R. _____________ in the country. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ in China. We walked all around _______ _______ _______ __________ __________ __________ the park. the field. the woods. the kolkhoz. the city. the village. the station.

8. My XO.llHnH 00 napxy. _ _ _ _ _ no DonlO.' _ _ _ _ nonecy.


_ _ _ _ no Konx63Y.

_ _ _ _ no r6poJlY.
_ _ _ _ no

oeJJY.

_ _ _ _ no BOJOany. 9. MHe era

_ee __
_ _ B8C

*a..nb.
_

__ HX _ _
__ Te6li _

MHe 3Huy. _ _ _ Kamo _

em

_ _ _ _ ct>wllfnoa.
_ _ _~ KOnx03HIUCOB.
10. Y mix utT sePbl 8 ce6li.
______ B

I feel sorry for him.. _ _ _ _ _ her. _ you_ _______ them. _ you_ _______ Zina. _ _ _ _ _ KolyB. _ _ _ _ Philip_ _______ the coUective farmers. They have no faith ______ ______ ______ in in in in themselves. this thing. people. man. the vacation? tomorrow? Sunday? this Saturday? this week? this evening?

;ho .Ileno.

_ _ _ _ _ _ 8 JlIOJleii.
_ _ _ _ _ _ B 'teJlO&eICa.

II. KuHe y sac Wl3.HhI ua lI:3HlU:yJlhl? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ua 33..BT'p3?


___________ HaBOCk~H~? _________ Ha 3T)' cy666Ty? ______________________ Ha 3TY He.a.emo?

____________________ Ha 3TOT

Be'tep?

What are your plans ______________________ _______ _______ _________ ______________________ My parents live ________ ______ ______

for for for for for for

12. Po.rUtTeJlU *HB:fT .a.aneK6 OT MOCKBbJ. _________________ He.a.aneK6 OT MOCKBbJ. _________________ 6mt3kO OT MOCKBbJ. ___________ nllTb.a.ecliT XIUIOMCTpoB
oTClO.a.a. ___________________ ,UaneK6 oTclOJla. ______----- He,ll3nekO oTclO.lla.

a long way from Moscow. Dot far from Moscow. close to Moscow. fifty kilometers from here.

_ _ _ _ _ _ a long way from here. _ _ _ _ _ _ not far away from here. We've covered (or walked) a mile. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ about a mile. ______________ two miles. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ three miles. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ five miles.

13. MY npawnH MHmo.


___________ OXOJlO MKnH. .nse MKnH. ___________ TpH MKnH. _ _ _ _ _ ruin. MKnb.

'Nate that. occasionally takes the stress (rom the noun: It6

IIOJPO

[p6p;lul, a6 iRCJ (p6lisu).

l.ESSON IS

343

MbJ npOWnH KIU10MCTp.


_ _ _ _ _ OKono
KI.fJJOMeTpa. _ _ _ _ _ 1103 KI.fJJOMe-rpa.

_ _ _ _ _ ':Ien';'pe ICHnOMbpa. _ _ _ _ _ OliTb KHnOMtrpoB.


14. Ouii:

We've covered (or walked) __________ __________ __________ __________

about a kilometer. about a kilometer. two kilometers. four kilometers. five kilometers.

y.lt"e Dpown" Olin, ypOKOB. _ _ _ _ _ _ B6ceMb _~ _ _ _ _ _ _ nCorrb _~


.

They've already covered five lessons. _ _ _ _ _ _~_eight ~


_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ten _

15. ,llop6ra It.lleT K oJePY.

_ _ mna

The road goes to the lake. _ _ _ went _ The bus is going to the kolkhoz. _ _ _ was gomg _ _ _ _ arrived at _ Let's play cards. ____ chess. ____ soccer. _ _ _ baseball. ~ tennis. _ _ _ hockey. We'd better DOt play cards. _ _ _ _ _ _ chess. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ socce. _ _ _ _ _ _ baseball. ________ tennis.
_ _ _ _ _ _ hockey.

_ _ men

ABTo6yc It.llh B Konxo3.

_ _ _ UpHWCn. _ _.
16. ,llaB1l.iITe HrpaTb 8 dpTbt.

_______ 8 waxMaTbJ. _ _ _ _ _ B <l>YT66n. _ _ _ _ _ _ B 6eiic6on.


_ _ _ _ _ _ _ 8 -reUHHC.
_ _ _ _ _ _ B XOKXeM.

17. J1y':lwe He 6YlleM

HrpATb B KiJ.PThJ.

__________ B

_______ _________

waXMaTbi. B <l>YT66n. B 6eAcOOn.


TeBHHC.

__________ B __________ B

xOKKeA.

IS. H.K He CUluIT. ___ rOBopliT.


_--,--_ TaH!.tYK>T.

_ _ xaASIT.
___ HrpaK>T.

People don't sit like tbal _ _ _ _ talk _____ dance __ _ _ _ _ walk _ _ _ _ _ _ play _ _

or That's no way to sit. or to talk. or to dance. or to walk. or to play.

19. llBepH YJKe OTKPblB3K>T. _____ 3aKpbI8UK>T. Y:lKe BhIXO.D)fT H3 uepKBH. n ponycxoB 60nbwe lie llatOT. TaKHx pOMaHOB 60nbwe fie mlw)'T. Ero CTHXOB 66mwe He 'lHTaIOT.

They're opening tbe doors already. They're closing _ People arc coming out of church already. Passes are no longer being given. They don't write such novels anymore. People don't read his poetry anymore. Tourists usuaUy take pictures or our farms. _ _ _ _ of our lakes. _____ of our stone houses. _____ or our buts. _ _ _~_of our woodeD churches. _____ of our woodeD cburch. _____ of our Russian villages. _____ of our collective farmers. _____ of our collective-farm womeo.

20. TypHCTbI 0610'':1110 ClllfM3.JoT


H3mB _ _ _ _ D3mB
_ _ _ _ _ HawH

KOma3b1.

oJCpa. ICllMeHHble llOMa.

_ _ _ _ HarnK i06bl.

_____ HaWK llepe8liHHble ltepkBH.


_____ Barny .aepeBmH)'lO
UepKOBb.

_____ HaWK pYecICHe ce.n:a. _____ HliwHX Kom03HHKoB.


_ _ _ _ _ 1IawItX. KOJlJf.03Hlli.{.

344

LESSON

15

21. Ha :hOM $lTO MOJ:! ceMbR. _ _ _ _ _ MOM OTell,. _ _ _ _ _ MOlt POJlHTenH. _ _ _ _ _ MaR MaTI.. _ _ _ _ _ MaR _ _ _ _ _ MOM coceJl. _ _ _ _ _ MOH coceJlH. _ _ _ _ _ HaUJH Konx03HHXH.

cocem:a.

family is in this picture. father is _ parents are _ mother is _ My ncigbbo, (I) ;,_ _~ My neighbor is _ My neighbors are _ _~ Our collective farmers are

My My My My

Pronunciation practice: consonant clusters with [I] or


A. Clusters with [I] or [l] in second position.
[blank]
6m'iIiK

m
[mletnij] milky
MnelfHblH

blank

[vlaH] enaCTh powe'

blisb]
close
blud~]

6mbKo

[vlellJ .nC3Tb
to crawl into
[kla~U

(pIAnJ
plan
[plox~

nna.
J nnoxo
nm:m,

6mO.no platter, dish [vhl.znij] BJla:lKHblH humid B. Clusters with [1] or


[1M]

KllRcn.

to curse
{mlat~ij]

it's bad
MJlaauntH

(pHIJ

younger

to be swimming

UJ

in initial position.

n6a

of the forehead [Ibi] n6w foreheads

[1i6t] n:lKCT he's lying , [lfi] n:lKU


of the lie

n~n:;l]

I1b,nHHa I1bHa

ice Ooe

Una]
1I~1i1J
O~uJ

ofOax

(lgat] nrATb to lie [Igiln] nryH

IIvAJ llbBa
of Lev

nbCTlin.
JlbutY

to Oaner
I Oanee

IIda] nbilA
of ice

liar

C. Clusters witu (lJ or min final position.


(nerl) nepn pearl [smisl] CMblCJl [ansambU aHcaM6nb ensemble [zuravl] )kypaellb crane
[suiktaklJ CneKTakIlb

sense
[rubl] pY6Jl1.. ruble

[karai>ll
ship

Kopa6I1b

show [l}in6kU 6HHOKJlb binoculars

[0<=11 OTpacm. branch [zaF.lslJ 3apOCJ1b brushwood [rnisll MblCJlb thought

[v6pll
outcry

eonm,

D. Clusters with (lJ or

01 immediately

before the final consonant.

[stolpr CTon6 post [dolkJ .nOnf duty [pOls] non3 he crawled [volk] e6nK
wolf

I'6lk] WenK
silk

(pulsJ nYIIbC
pulse

[pOlkJ

nOIlK

[allJ
alto

AnbT

regiment

[;oleJ )KeJ1lfb
bile

[ku[l] KynbT
cull [fall] cPanblllb falsehood

[vals]
waltz

ml.lIbC

LESSON 15

34S

STRUCTURE AND DRILLS

The dative of nouns: singular and plural


MODELS

<DHnHnny Hjxen npilnycK. Bna.nHMHpy _ EBreHIUO " HHltona.o " K6nc "

Mawc
HpHHe Maplhf npHHecH OTl.~ CTaJl:3.u _ _ 6paTY
_ _ _ _ aMCpHK:3I1Lt)'

_
_ _
BOttbi.

Philip needs a pass. Vladimir _ Evgeny _ Nikolay _ Kolya _ Masha _ lrina _ Maria _ Bring __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ Father a glass of water. Brother _ the American (m) _ _ tbe teacher _ the secrelary _ the teacher _ the American (f) _ _" Nina _ Maria _

_
~_"

_ _ _ Y'IIITemo " _ _ _ cekpeTapfb _ _

____ ____ ___ ___

Y'lHTeJ1 bHH Ue - - aMepKKaH"e _ HHHe " MapHJI "

nO.nOH..nlITC" re.ne4x)IIY. cTony. _ _ _ _ KlUlca/fly. _ _ _ _ " OKIlY _ _ _ _ K.nOCKe. _ _ _ _ K ,llBepH.


_____ K

_ _ _ _ " IdpTe.

Come (or go) to the telephone. _ _ _ _ _ to the lable. Come (or go) over to the cupboard. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ to the window. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ to the blackboard. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ to the door. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ to the map. He lectures ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ on on on on on on on music. mathematics. literature. physics. chemistry. history. geography.

0"

'lHTaeT neKlum no MY3blxe. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ no MaTeM:lTH.Ke.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ f10 JIHTeparype. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ f10 cI)lbJ.lxe.


_ _ _ _ _ _ _ 00 xHMlfIl. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 00 HCTOpHII. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 00 reOIlJaquIH. nOJ801lHTC cTYJleHTaM B nOlle.ne.nbHmc. _ _ _ _ CTYJlelfTKaM _

Call the students on Monday.

__coeds
_ __ singers _ _ _ singers (0 _ _ _ teachers _ _ _ fathers _ _ _ mothers _ _ _ parents _ _ _ teachers _ _ _ secretaries

_
_

_ _ _ _ lleSu3.M _ _ _ _ _ ncBlluaM _ _ _ _ _ Y'lHTeJ1 bHH llaM - - - _ _ _ _ OTu3.M _

_ _
_ _ _ _ _

_ _ _ _ MarepJiM
_ _ _ _ po.QJiTeru<M _ _ _ _ Y'IIHemiM _ _ _ _ cekpeTapliM

_
_ _ _

346

LESSON 15

no no no no no

nOHe.uenbHHkaM R ocer.ua )lOMa. OTopUHkaM _ cpe.naM _ lfeToepraM _ nRTHHLtaM _ noq~nM _ no BOCkpe<:eHbJlM _

On Mondays I'm always home. On Tuesdays _ On Wednesdays _ On Thursdays _ On Fridays _ On Saturdays _ On Sundays _

NOUN eNDINGS IN THe DATIVE

SINGULAR

-y, -to

-e

-"
..waepb-nouns, lICtluii-nouns ending in-KII, lOtti-nouns

aM- and maul-nouns


Hard stems and stems ending in 'I and ll.l Soft stems
:lIIl:tlui-nouns (except ~tI nouns)

-y
CTony 6p,hy KOJ1Jouy re.nelOHY OTuj To8ApHlJJ.Y
KJlJO'Iji

-H>

-e
<KeHe

-"
llUep" MATepll O'lCpe)l1l HCTOpHIl 1JekUU" Map"'" liMeHH opeMeHII

llHtO HHK01JalO y'uhcJlIO napHto KnT:ho nnaThto co6"aHlUO

ce.""e
HaTarne Kone

rane
.neoytUke npollaorn.HUe

MOcry

oKKj

PLURAL

-aM

-AM

Hard stems and stems ending in

'I

and ll.l

Soft stems

-aM

-AM

YJllaM ropollI.M rocnimw.llM .llf:oymnM pe6RTaM <KeHaM cecrp3M OkHllM CTomiM KapT8M TOoapllUl,aM

6paTbRM .D.BepliM napuKM nC1mHILV

co6paHH.""
YUlTe.nr.. O'lCPeJti.""
llecHRM

.upYJbaM crY1JblliM Jla6opaTOpHHM

LESSON 15

347

REPETITION DRILLS

Repeat the given models, noting thc pattern of endings for nouns in the dative case.
CUED QUESTIONANSWER DRILL.S

I. (Vladimir)

Who needs tickets? Vladimir:. (B1IanHMup) KoM}' Hy;Knbl 6HJ1eThl? BJlSrolMHpy. (.ueayuJKu) KOMy H)')KHhI 6HJ1eTbI?

2. (Zina)
(3I1Ha)

Who are you selling your camera to? To Zina. KOMy abl npo.naeTC Bam arrnapaT?

)l.CByntKaM. (aMCpl1.KaHKa, CTy,ueHTM, CCKpeTapb, AnCKCCCB, HaTawa, ee no,/\pyru, TOBapl1lU 801lKoa)

3HIIC. (EareHUH) KOMy BbI npo.nae-rc Bam annaph? EarClIHIO. (nJXXPeccop Opnoa, ralllJ, aMepl1KaHen, y'lHTCJlh, .upy3b.1l., Toaaprnu, HmcOJlaH, Mapllil)

3. ifriends)

Who did you call on? Friends. (,uPY3bll) K KOMy Dbl 3aXOJIHlIlI? K ~PY3LliM. (pO,uHTCJIH) K KOMy Dbl 3axo,uHJUl? K porolTeJllIM. (npoct>eccop Opnoa, aMepmcaHKa, y'lIfTCJlb, 311Ha, CTy.nCHThI, amI, aMepllXaHIJ;W, rpaHT)

4. (conveniences) What's he accustomed to? Conveniences. (y.a06CTaa) K 'lcM)i OH npwsblK?


(.a)l(,i3)
K y.u.OOcTBaM. K 'lCMy OH nplfBwK?

K IDKlhy.
(AMepI1Ka, y.a3.'l.lf, Espona, npocb6bt, pa6ol:a, KlfTaH)

RESPONSE DRIL.L.S

1. Mosko's thirsty or Masha wants a drink.

Bring Masha a glass of water. Mawa X6'1CT m1Tb. npHliecH Marne CTadu ao.a.W:. OTtU XO'lCT ruITb. npHuecH omy CTad" Bo.nLi. '(cccrpa, Oller, CCKpeTapb, UCBI1Ua, Toaapl1lU CeMeHoB, nCBen, rocno.nHH rpaHT) 3. Doesn't Philip have a permit? Give Philip a permit. y '1>llllHnna HCT pa3pernenllil? )l.aiin c])HJDirrny pa3perncllHe!
QUESTION-ANSWER DRIL.L.S

2. Oleg is asking where the lake is. Tell Oleg where the lake is. OJler CnparnHBaeT, rne 03CpO. ClmiKHTe OJlery, r.ae <hepo. Y4:HTeJ1b cnparnlfaaeT, r.ne 03epo. CKaiKHTe y<tH-reJIlO, r,D,e o3epo. (ee no.npyra, CTy.neHThI, ero ,upyr, ero )KCHa, ero Toaapmu, raJl'l, cecrpbt)
Y KOllH HeT pa3pernellllil? JUne KOJle pa.lperneHHe! (aMcpHKallueB, rocnOJUfHa rpaHTa, aMcplfKaHKll, Y<lIITeJleH, K03noBa, 3I1Hb1)

1. Isn't Oleg going to come?

No, Oleg would be bored there. Oner He npH1leT? Hb, OJICry 6y,D,eT TaM CKylfIIO. 3Hila He npl1.neT? HCT, 3ii:ue 6y,D,C'f TaM CKylfHO. (CTYIlCHTbI, ce no.npyra, I1X .npy3bll, cro 6paT, K0J111, npoq,eccop, aMCpI1KaHCU, ncaUl.l,a)
348
LFSSON

15

2. Does your frielld have your camera? Yes, I ga~'e it to my friend. Tao" annapAT y TOSapHma? )la, Ji er6 !lin TOB8pltIUY Tso" annapaT y ceCTpW? )la. li en~ win ceape, (APj"3eH, npo4>eccopa, ee nOJI.pyrH, TosapUma no KOMilaTe, aMepUXaHlJ,a, 3UHbI, 6para)
4. Is he a professor of music? Yes, he lectures on music. Oil npoleccop MYJblKH? Aa. 6tI 'lIITlieT JlCKUHIt no Mj3w..-e. 0" Ilpo<peccOp MareMaTHxH?

3. Did Nikolay buy WI alias? No, Nikolay 110 longer needs an atlas. HHKOJui" KynHn hnac? Her. HHKOJI.9.tO IiTnac y",e He Ry"'CU. 3HHa KynHna aTnac? HeT, 3Hue aTnac )')l'"e lie Hy.CU. (pe6J1Ta, npo4>eccop KYPO'tJrnH, orell" cecTpa, lHJIHnn, Y'fUTeJlbHUu.a)

(npo4>eccop 4lH3HKll, npoJeccop XllMHR, npo4>eccop reorpa41UH, npocf>eccop .JIHTepaT)'pbl, npocf>eccop HCTOpHH)

Aa. 6ft 'lIITlieT ne..UH" no MaTeM3TMKe


STRUCTURE REPLACEMENT DRILL

He'll come on Scturday. He usually comes Scturdays. Oil npu..aer 8 cy666ry.


OR 06bMto npHx6.rurr no cyfi66TllM.

(B 'leTBepr, B BOCXpecenbC, B W1~, BO BTOpHHJ:, B nOlleJI,enbtfHK, 8 Cy660Ty, B CpeAY)

OH npu..aer a cpCJI,y.
08 06bruto Dptlx6JI.MT
flO

Cpe.!l,liM.

DlSCUSSION: NOUN ENDINGS IN THE DATIVE

Singular I. Those CT6JJ- and Ot'HO-nouns taking ~a in the genitive singular take -y in the dative singular; those taking -11 in the genitive singular take -10 in the dative singular.

2. )Kcua- and ,/lBept.-nouns have identical fonns in the dative singular and the prepositional singular; so, too, do the nouns HMH and BpeM1l.
Plural Nouns taking -ax in the prepositional plural take -aM in the dative plural; tbose taking -HX in the prepositional plural take -HM in the dative plural. Stress
I. Stress in the dative singular is the same as that in the genitive and prepositional singular.

r---------'IL __________ NOMSG


GEN SG PREP

so

DAT

sa

I
I
I I I I I I I I

CT6. OTen OX"O


)!CeRa

CTO.a
on.\

OKHa

CTone OTu.e OKHl:


)lCeHe

CTony OTI.l.Y OKay


)KCUe

ran.

*eHbl

ranH

ran.
JI.Bepu O'tepenH BpCMeHH
Ma-repu

ran.
,.,ePH o'lepe.!UI BptMeHH
MaTepU

,.,ePh

ABepH
6"1epe,llH
BpeMeHH

o'tepe.ltb

BoW'

MaTb I __________ L

MarepH

LESSON 15

349

2. Stress in the dative plural is the same as that in the prepositional plural.

1-------------------I
NOM PL

GI::"N PL

PREP PL

DAT

PL

I , I

~--------------------

CJlODa CTO.JD:d OTu,b1 OKHa ,ll,OCKH )KeHbl


ceCTpbl

napa" JlBepu 6<iepeltH opeMeHa MaTeP" PYKH rOJIOBbl

CJlOD crOJIOD OTUOD OKOH or OKOH ,ll,ocOK )Ken cecrep DapKeH ,ll,Ilepeu O<iepelteH BpeMeH MaTepeii

PYx
rOJIOD

CJlODaX cromix OTUax OKHRX ,ll,OCKax )KeHaX cecrpax napRJix llBepiix O<iepe,wix BpeMeHax MaTepn PYKax rOJIoB<lx

CJlODaM crOJIaM OmaM OKHaM ,ll,OCKaM )KeHaM cecrpaM napIDiM llBepliM O<iepe,w:iM BpeMeHaM MaTepiiM
pyK!lM

rOnOBaM

~--------------------'---------------'

Dative constructions with BailO


MODELS

MHe mlllO noiini Ha nO<iTY. EMy _

I1M

Eu - - - - _
_ _ _

BaM HaM Te6e

1 need to go to the post office. He needs _ She needs _ _ They need You need _ , We need You need ,
I had to go to lhe library.

MHe HU.nO 6hlnO nOHTH B 6lf6J1HOTeKy. EMy _

He
She They _

_
_

Eu
I1M
BaM HaM

_
_
_ _

you
We

_
_

Te6e - - - - - - - -

you
I'll have to go to He'll have She'll have They'll have _ _ You'll have _ _ We'll have You'll have _ _

_
my parents. his _ her _ their _ _, your _ _, our _ your _ _,

EMy

MHe Ha.nO 6Y.a.eT exaTb K po.ru'ITeJHIM.

Eu
I1M
HaM Te6e

_
_
_

BaM- - - - - - -

REPETITION DRILL

Repeal the given models, noting that Hll.110 is typically used in infinitive constructions together with the dative.

350

LESSON

15

QUF.STION-ANSWER DRIL.L.S

I. Is Zina going to (he collectil'e farm? Yes, she has to go there.

31lHa eJleT 0 KOJlXOJ? as, eii Hbo TYAA eXaTb.


Oner e,neT
(pe6HTa,
B KOJI.XOJ?

2. Did the secretary often go to the village? Yes, he had to go there often. CeKpeTft.pf. 'laCTO eJ,JlIUl B celiO? as, eMf ..aCTO nbo wno TYJ],a ,hll,KTb. ne-rp 'laCTO eJlUlJI B ce.no?
.lla, e....y 'lacro HaAo 6wJlo TYAa hlUfTb. (CTYAeUTbl, Y'lHTeJlbUHua, TOBapltlU UapanKHH, Marna, OTeQ, ee .nP)'3bll, oecrpa)

as, e.-.tY HaJlO TY.lS exan..


)"lHTeJlb, ee

nOJlpyra, OTe/.(, ero

ponHTeJIH,

ranH,6paT)

RESPONSE DRILLS

I. Is it possible Orlov doesn't know Galyo yet?

Orlov has got to meet her. P<bBC Opnoo eute lie JUaeT ramo? Op.11ooy IliAO C Heii 1I0JIISKOMHTbCH. Pa3DC BOJlCJ,llJI Cute lie JUaeT r<iJJJO?

2. Galyo heard there was on interesting movie playing. She'll have to see it. rami cnblrnana, 'ITO lfJteT lIuTepecHblH
(~IIJlbM.

BonoJl:c Hli)J,o

HeK

nOJIISK6MHTf.CH.

til ua.uo 6YAeT ero nOCMOTpCTb.


E)paT CJJwwan, 'ITO lfJteT ""TepeCUblii
4lHlIbM.
EMy

(Cawa, ero 6paT, ero ccC1'pa, lleByuJKH, 3Hlla, pc6l'lTa, TbI, OTCU.)

lIli.no 6YAeT

ero UOCMOTpeTb.

(TbI, cecrpbl, MOl, :lKeH3, npoleccop, l'I,

npo.llaB11tHu.a, w<>$ep, CTY.llellThl)

3. Masha didn't manage (or how! time) to order


tickets. She has to go and order tickets. MalUa He ycnena 33JCaJ3Tb 61U1eTbl.

4.

Oleg wallted 10 speak English. He had to study English.


Oner XOTCn rOBOpHTh no-aHrJlHHCKH. Uty Hbo 6bLrto y'Ofn. aHrllliic"-Kii ilJW..-. neeeu xott.n: rOBOpHTb no-aHTJlHKCKH. EMj "aAO WJlO y'llin. aurJUiiiclo.':Hii ilJIJiK. (.aeByuJKH, ee 1I0npyra, era TOBapltut, MX AP)'3bl'l, oecrpa, OTeI.t, 6paT, CTY.lleUTXa)

M Ha.aO noini 3aKal8n. 6H114ITbi.


npocl)Cccop ue ycneJl 33KaJaTh 6H1len...

My

Hbo nom 3BKaJJin 6Mbbl.

(OTCU, BbI, 6paThl'l, MaTh, MbI, nonpynt,

l'I, CeMeH, Tbl)

5. Kolya's parents are ill. He must go to see his parellfs.


PO,llHTeJ1" Komi 60nbllbl.

6. I was 01 the staliOrJ. I had (0 buy tickels.

EMy HllAo exaTb K po.wheJIl'lM. PO,llliTeJ1H MalllH 60JlbUW. f:ii H3.JJ.O eXaTb K poJ],MTeJUIM. (Ko3noBa, Oml, BaxTepa, HMKOJl:ul,

.R 6blJl Ha CT3.HlUiH. Mile ml.!to 6wJIO KymCrb 6ltJleTbi.


Dlla 6blJllI Ila CTaUltHH.

.ii 1ll1,/.l,O 6wJIO KyllMn.

6HJIeTbi.

(all, OHU, Thl, OHa, BbI, Mol, l'I)

MapuM, Bononll, wocpepa)

QUESTION-ANSWER DRIL.L

Why is Kolya in such a hurry? He has to make it to the post office in time. nO'IeMy KoJl.l'I rl.ro:: cneuJlh? EMy H8JJ.O ycuen. ua oO'I1"y. nO'IeMy OHH rl.J: cnewfI.T? "1'01 HSAO yene... Ha DO..-ry.

(Obl,

TBOM TOBapHlUH, ee

cecrpa,

3TH

,/.I,eaywKJI, HOT napeHf., TBOH


npoAaButHLta, TbI, BonoJlJl)

Ap)'3bH,

I...mON 15

351

DISCUSSION

Ha.no is an unchanging form used chiefly with infinitives to ex.press an urgent need to perform some activity. The dative which usually accompanies lla.nO focuses on the person for whom the action is necessary. In the past tense Ha.aO is followed by 6';1110; in the future by 6Y,ll,eT.
EMy lI:i.'1o 6blJlO nolin!: B roPOJI. EMy lIiJlO 6Y.lleT noliTlf B rOpo.'1.

He had (0 go downtown. He'U have to go downtown.

In colloquial Russian the infinitive is sometimes omilted. This is especially common with verbs of motion where (he destination is mentioned.

Mile HMO Ha nOliT)'. MHe lui.no 6buio Ha yp6K.

need (0 go to the post office. I had to go to class.

The combination He HiJIo is often used as a plea that the addressee no' do something. Infinitives used with He Hi.ao are always imperfective.

He HliJlO 06 nOM rOBopm.


MOJKIIO OTKpbrTh oKHa? - HCT, He aillo (OTKpbloaTh (ncoH).

Don', talk about that. Is it all right to open the windows? No, don', (open the windows).

Note that constructions.

H8JJ.O

and the short-form neuter adjective Hy*HO are often interchangeable in infinitive He had to hurry. Hehad _ I've got to go to the post office. I've got _

EMy ny*1IO 6buio cnewHTb. EMf mino 6buio _ Mile UY.HO nOMTH Ha nOliT)'. Mile Hilto _

The past tense of the imperfective verb HIITH and its prefixed perfective derivatives
MODELS
th6 WilO B KHtlO ']

llIen aMcpHKllHCKHU !pHnbM. liml aMepHK3.IICKaJl Kapnflla. IlInH aMepHK3.IlClme IPHnhMbl.

What was playing at the movies? An American film was playing. An American picture was playing. American films were playing. After the lecture he went home. _ _ _ _ _ _ she went __. _ _ _ _ _ _ they went _ . How did _ _ did _ _ did _ _ did the lesson go? the meeting go 1 the lecture go 1 the exams go?

nOCJJe neKL1,I1H Oil nOWCIJ .nOMO.

______ oml nOUUla _ _.


______ OHH nownH _ _.

K.h: npowen yp6K 1 __ npown6 c06pAHue 1


__ npowna neKIJ.HJI? __ npoUUlH 3KJaMeHbl1

6H BOWen B lCoMHaTy. OHa BOUUla _ OHH BOUUlH _


352 l.SSON I 5

He entered the room. She entered _ They entered _

611

lIa MllIlyn:y 3awen B 6H6J1110TCJ.,y.


3awna _

Omi Mw

3awJlli

He dropped by the library for a minute. _ She dropped by We dropped by _


He came after lunch (or in the afternoon). _ She came They came _

6u npllwCJJ nocne o6e.a.a. Omi npIIWJl3 _


Omi npllwJllt _ Oner TonbKO TO BWWeJI. 3"Ha Bwwna. JJ.e8yutKH BblUlnH.
REPETITION PRACTICE

Oleg just stepped oul. Zina _ stepped out. The girls __ stepped out.

Repeat the above models, noting particularly tbat aU perfective verbs derived from Mll'TIi are pattemed alike in the past tense.
SUBSTITUTION DRILLS

I. How did your lesson go?


K3K y sac npowen ypOK? KaK y sac npowno co6piHHe? (3Dar.tellbl, o6e,ll, neKUHJI, yrpo, apeMJI,
He,llen~,cy660Ta,TaHUbI)

2. Volodya entered the dining hall.


lkmolUl DOrneJI S CTOlIOSYW.
OHH sowmi 0 CTon6s)'IO. (olla, CT)',lleHTbI, 3Hlla II Oner, }"lHTC1lb CeMeHOS, Hanwa, KaTR It HHua)

STRUCTURE REPLACEMENT DRILLS

I. I'm on my way to the station. J Wlls on my way to the station. .s1 UJJ.Y ua criHUIlIO.

2. The lesson will go wel/. The lesson went well.


Yp6K npoitue-r xoporn6. Yp6K upoweJl xopow6. Co6paJlHe npoitueT xopowo. C06paHlle DpotWIO xopowo. (:na J~IMa. 3Ta He.a.eJUI, 3KJaMellbl, DpeM$l, JleKltHJI, se'lep, cy660Ta. 06eJJ,)

A lUen

H8 C11lJtlUno.

611 It,lleT H8 CTalllJ)ilO. OH weJl H8 CT8J1ltHJ().


(OHII, Obi, Olla, ero TooapllW, Mbl, napeHh,
6paTb~)

3. He'll stop by the library. He stopped by the library.

4. They'll enter the coach. They eflfered the coach.


OMit DOI1.a.y-r S Bar61l. OIlM aOlWIH 0 8arOIl. Marna BOH,neT u naron. MaUla oowmi B 8al-(1II. ()"IHTeJlbHHl.(a, ce cecrPI>I. ee 6paT, TOOH TODapIlUlIl, Mbl, 011, Dbl, Tbl, Oner)

611 Jali,lleT B 6H6J1110reKy.


Oil
3ameJI B 6H6.rIHoTeKy.

011"

Jal1,lJ,y-r D 6H6J1HOTCKy. OMli :J8U1J11i B 6H6JIHOTeKy. (ThJ, Olla, Dbl, CTy.a.eHTbl, npoeccop, y'lHTemi, yHTenbHHU3, TBOH T08apHUlH)

STRUCTURE REPLACEMENT DRILLS

I. J had to stop by the house. I stopped by the house.


M He IIbo 6bmO JaHnt JJ,oMo~L A J&1Uen ,llOMoi. HaM IIbo 6bmO 3aAni ,lloMoA. Mw JaJ.IJJIIi ,llOMON. (npo4Jeccopy, nOJJ,pyraM, Te6e, xeHe, oaM, w<XPePY, aMepHKaHKe)

2. Katya had to go out of the house. Karya went out of the house.
KaTe Ha,110 6bmo DblllTH H3 ,llOMy. Kin 8buunl Ih ,llOMy.
OTl~ Ha,110 6bmo SWHTH "J ,llOMy.
On~q

obu.uen HJ ,llOMy.

COnery, c:CcTpaM, MaTepH, saM, Y'I.IlTeJ1IO, HaM, JJ,esytUKaM, eA)

LESSON 15

353

3. I didn'l want to go Ol'er (0 him. I didn'l go over 10 him. A He xoTtn K HeM)' nOJ1oiiTu. Jl K HeM} He UOAOUJe.n.

Mbl He XOTClIH JC HeM)' n0J10iiTH. Mbi K He.",} He IJOJ1OlDJtli. (MaTh. OTell, cecT3.. 6paThJl .upyr, POJlHTeJtH, KOllJl, J1PY3bJl)

QUESTION-ANSWER ORILLS

I. Where were you hurrying to lllSl nighl?

I was 011 my way (0 the movies. Ky.ua Tbl cncUJ!.tll 8'1epa ae'lepoM? Jl well B KUIIO, KYJ1a oarna CCCTp8. cnernIDIa 8'1Cpa BC'fCPOM '/ Qua lWIa 8 KMHO, (Bbl, OH, OHM, THOJI )"IMTeJlbHHu,a, THOii TOBapHlQ neTpOB, CTYJ1eHThl, 3TOT napenb)

2. Will Ko/ya go 10 the post office? He has already gone. KonJl noii.ueT IIU n6'1Ty? On }"i'e nowen. Era :lKeHa noii.ner !fa n6'fTY? DlIli y.-i IJOUL'I8.. (on, HX y60pWuua, TBOH 6paTbJl, Jho60Bb ne"Jl>OBI.la, THOU TOBapHm)

STRUCTURE REPLACEMENT DRILL

She's walking along lhe street. She was walkillg a/ollg the streel. Olia HJleT no yJHfll,e. QHa wmi no YJtHlIe.

nOll.pYrH HJ1YT no Ynuuc. nOllp)'I'" nun'i 110 YJlHl.le. (MW, npo.uaBUlHl.la, Bbl, BonollJl, cCcTPW. OTen, MaTh, Qner)

DISCUSSION

The past tense of IIJ{TIi

10

be going is based on an alternate root and has the following fornu:

em)

wen

(0 mni

(n)

","6/ (PI) mnH

All the prefixed perfective derivatives of HJtni have pasts built on these same forms. With the exception of BblWen:, BblUIJI8, BbnunO, and BbuwuI (from Bbliint to go out), whcre the stress is consistently drawn to the prefix BW-, the stress is always on the last syllable of the past tense fonn.

PAST

.
nOlllJllt: BOWmt: Jaw"" nplflUm'i: npolllllH no.nowmt: nepewllH

lNANTTIVE

nowen BOllleJI 3alllen npuwen npowe.n no.uoUIen nepeUIcn

nOUUla OOWll3 3awJla nPHIllna nPOlllna no.nowJH\ nepelllJl3

noUUlO BOlllJlO 3aw.nO npHIllno npown6 nOllOWJlO nepelllno

go enter uiiTJi drop in npllkni come upoiini pass, go, go by, go through nOlloiin'i to go up to, approach nepcifni to go across, cross

nom BOrn

to to to to to

354

LESSON 15

Suggestions that include the speaker: part II-imperfective verbs


MODELS

AaaaitTe C~OTpen.

ClUiMKH.

_ _ _ Hrpan. 8 dpTbf.
_ _ _ CJlYm3Tb nn3cmHlm.

____ 06eJl:an. B CT01l680". _ _ _ min. 'fai1.


_ _ _ paooTaTb lIMCcTe.

____ nen. nec"u.


.QaBaitTe 6YlleM CMOTpCTb CHJiM.m. _ _ _ _ _ _ "'l)llTh B kapTbl.
_ _ _ _ _ _ CJIYrn3Tb nnaCTIttUClf.

Let's look at snapshots! __ play cards! __ listen to records! __ eat dinner in the dining hall! __ drink tea! __ work together! __ sing some songs! Let's look at snapshots! __ play cards! __ listen to records! __ eat dinner in .the dining hall! __ drink lea! __ work together! __ sing some songs!

_ _ _ _ _ _ 0&;'O'31'b B CTonoBoH.

_ _ _ _ _ _ min. 'laM,
_ _ _ _ _ _ pa66TaTb uMcCTe.

_ _ _ _ _ _ nen. neelUl.
J],auaH're He 6Y.ueM 06 )TOM rOBOpI-fTb. ua era JleKUlfll.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ XODirrb

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ o6e.ll.aTb B CTonOooH.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ pa60Tan. no cy666TaM.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ OTXpbfa3Tb

OKon.

_ _ _ _ _ _ ry.n3.

CJIDITb.

Let's not ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

talk about it! go 10 his lecture! eat dinner in the dining hall! work on Saturdays! open the windows! go there! work today. dance today. sleep outdoors today. go there anymore. play with them anymore. think about it anymore .

RY'fwe He 6yneM cerOlllLM paOOTaTb.


_ _ _ _ _ _ _ cerOJlWl' TaHuesaTb.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ cero,UWI cnan. H3 ,llBope.
_ _ _ _ _~ OOJlbWe

rynA

bAHTb.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ OOJlbWe C "liM" Hrp3.Tb. _______ 6611bUJe 06 nOM nyMaTh.

We'd better nol ______ ______ ______ ______ ______

R.EPETITION PRACTICE

Repeat the given models, noting the alternate ways in which suggestions that include the speaker and employ imperfective verbs may be expressed .

QUESTION-ANSWER DRILLS

I. Want to look at snapshots?

Fine, let's look at snapshots. Xonhe CMOTJ*n. CHHMICH?


Xopomo, AAsaiiTe c ~ auOtKH.

2. Shall we talk about il? No, let's not talk aboul it


Mbi 6Y.ueM rOBoprn 06 hOM?

HiT, .uauiiTe He 6Y.ueM rOBOpKn. 06 iTO!tf.


Mbi 6Y.ueM nHcaTb 06 :hOM?

Xonhe

miTh 'l3.M?

Xopow6, D.llUHTe min. 'laM.


(cnymaTh WlaCTHHKH, 'fHTaTh cntXH,

HeT,

.uaJUi.iiTe He

(cnpawHBaTb

6YJJ.e.\f OHcaTh 06 iT()M. 06 3TOM, ero :.!laTh,


CT05lTb B

Y'fHTh PYCCKHM HrpaTh B

1I3b1K:, pa60TaTh Oe'fepoM. KapThI, 06e.uaTb B cTonoBoM.

CJJywaTb pa,zuto, arpaTh B WaXMaTb.l,

eMy 3BOHHTb,
OTBe'laTb)

O'fepeJJ.H. eMy

nen. nCCHIt)

LESSON 15

355

3. Do you want to work today? No, let's not work today. Bbl xonhe cer6.1UUl pa66T3Tl.?
Her. nY'IlUe He 6yJJ,eM ceroAIUI pa60TaTL. By XOnfTe cero,O,H,. Hrp3.Th B dpTbf? Her, .'Ij-uue He 6y,O,eM cerO.loul 1U"p3.n. B

4. Shall we read today? No, let's read IOmorrow instead. Mbl 6Y.nCM cer6AHjI 'l1tT3.Th?
HeT, Jly'llUe 6Y,/l,eM 'UlTan. 3a8Tpa. Mbi: 6Y.nCM cer61lu" cn9w3Th .lVku? Her, Jlruue 6YAeM cnjwan. 388Tpa.
()"tun. cnoaa, nHean. nHCbMO, HrpaTb B

ripTW?
(mtcaTh 3<U1BJleHHe, 'lltT3Th CTHXH, o6e.naTh B CTonOBOH, T3.Hu.eOaTh, coaTh

WaXMaThl,

CMOTpeTb CHHMXH, T3.Hu.eBaTh,

HCKaTh pa60TY)

1Ia llBOpe, OeTb

poM3HCbI)

RESPONSE DRILL

They're playing tennis. Let's play too! am! HrpaJOT 0 TeHHHc. J],aoaii To*e HrphL!

all"

'lHT3.IoT

:lICypHan.

J],aaaii To::e 'lHThL!


(CM01'p"T CIIHMKH, TalU.(ylOT, o6enalOT, CWlT, IU..l.wr "ltry)

DISCUSSION

In affirmative suggestions that include the speaker and use imperfective verbs, ,a,aDaR (or .llwifre) may be followed either by the infinitive alone or by 6YAe.\I plus tbe infinitive: )].aoaH 'lHrln. (or JJ.aoaii 6y,neM 'lHT3.Tb) Let's read! In negative suggestions employing imperfective verbs, 6YAeM cannot be omilled. JIy<tWe is often used instead of .Ilaali..i (,aaaUre): Aa.saH De 6YlleM 'lHT3.Tb (or JIY'wIe He 6y,a,eM 'lHT3.Tb) Let's

not read!

Impersonal constructions using the subjectless third person plural verb


MODELS

rODopliT, B'lepa 6btno co6p3HHe. MHe roOOPHJlH, 'ITO Il'lepa 6bIJ1O c06paHHe. Y)Ke oTKpLloaJOT .llBepll. 3.neCb npoJJ,aWT pbl6y. Cx6po OTKpOJOT .llBePli. MHe. He JJ,a.njT paJpewemt,.. TaKHC ./lOMa nori3L101U<lT T)'pHCTaM. Tenepb Cfl)OHT nOMa All" KonX03I1HKOO.

They say there was a meeting yestcrday. I was told there was a meeting yesterday. They're already opening the doors. Fish is sold here or They sell fish here. They'll soon open the doors. They won't give me a pass. That's the kind of houses they show tourists. Houses are now being built for the farmers .

STRUCTURE REPLACEMENT DRILLS

I. They sell fish.

They sell fish here or Fish is sold here.


Owl: OPOD,3KlT pw6y. l.lJkl,. DPO.D:aKrr pY6y.

Oui! rOBopJiT no-aHrmiiiCKH. OH" nOHHMOOT no-pyccKH.

0"" ,/laKlT nponycd.

ami OT.Il.blUJoT mhOM.

am!

n0K33bl8aK>T 4>HnbMbl.
noK3.3L1B81()T

OH" npo.naKlT nOllep-MaHHble semo.

3JJ,ecL

eJlKnbMLI.

356

LESSON

I5

2. Who told him? Why was he toid? KTo cMj cK33an?

nO"teMY eM}' CK333J1K?


KTo cMj pa.3peWUJI? nO"leMj eMj pa:JpernM.IIK? (noc.naJI, )l.3.II, nQtcaJaJI, npo,/.{aJI,
HanHC3JI,
OTtcp~n,3arrnaTKn,

3. We'll close the doors. They'll soon close the doors or The doors will soon close. Mbi 3aKpOeM Jt.BCpu.
Ckopo
UKpOH>T

Mbi
3BOlUUI,

OTKpOeM

ltBipH. MepU.

npe,llJlol!KH./I)

CK6po OTICpOH>T .I:lUpK. Mw lIam11l1eM 06 nOM 8 ra.3tTe. Mbi paJpeWHM C3,/.{HTb 80 BJlallHBOCTOIt". Mw nOtcaJKeM ny npTHHy. Mw OTXpOeM co6phHe.

Mb.t
4. The administrator will gh'e us a room. They'll give us a room or We'll be gj~'en a room.
AzlMHUHCTpaTOp HaM ,/.{~kr 1I0Mep.

npuHeeeM oGe,1J,.

AzlMHlIHCTp:iTOp HaM

nod.xeT Tearp.

A.nMHHHCTplnop HaM 06 3TOM Hamiwer.


A,llMHIIHCTp8.TOP HaM Pa3peWHT Ty,1J,a

noexaTh.
A,1J,MHtlHCTphop lIaM nocoBlhyeT Ky.na

HaM ,1J,a$ HOMCp.


A,1J,MHIIHCTphop HaM O'I"Kp6eT ,/.{Bepb.

noHTH.
A,llMmmCTpaTOP naM 06 :hOM CKa*eT.

HaM OTICpOJOT ,/.{BepL. AzlMUHHCTp{tTOp "'1M n03BOHItT B 'lac.

RESPONSE DRILL

QUESTION-ANSWER DRILL

Who sits like that? That's no way to sit! or People don't sit like that! KTo til( cHJUh? T aK He cHJJ.JiT!
KTO TaK

paooTaer?

TSK He

paOOTaJOT!

Willlhey gh'e you a pass '! They already did. Te6e na.aYr np6nycK? MHe y;ke AinK. Te6e HanHwyt" 06 nOM? Mae y;ke HllIIHCliJIH. Te6e p33pelllaT H3MemiTh HAUl?
Te6e OTaenlT H3 Il0c0JlbCTBa? Te6e n0380HJiT C paOOThl? Te6e nOKfuKyr CHHMKH? Te6e KynRT I'I0PT<PeJlb?

(nHweT, 'lHTaCT, urpaeT, CTOIlT, TaHuycT, rOBOpI1T)

STRUCTURE REPLACEMENT DRILLS

). I can'l sleep. They don't let me sleep. A lie MOrj cnaTL. MHe He ,/.{aJOT CUSTL, A He MOrj paOOTaTL. MHe He ,/.{atOT paOOnTL.
(nHeaTh, 'lHTaTL, CJlywan., ,l.{}'MaTL,

2. He couldll't speak. They wouldn't let him speak.


611 lie MOl" rOBOpHTh. EM$' He Aa:BimI rOBOpH-n., 6H He Mor cnpocHTb. EMy He aaaiJul copo<::Hn., 6H He Mor O1~e'laTh. 6H He MOr OTXPblTh co6pAHHe. 6H He Mor CJlYwaTb p:1,nH0. 6u lie MOl" OTJ10XIrj'n.. 611 lie Mor XOJ1HTh B KHIIO.

HrpaTL)

LESSON 15

357

DISCUSSION

The third person plural verb without a subject is used when the aClion is attributed to an indefinite group. The speaker either does not know the source of the action or finds it convenient not to mention the source, for example, if it is attributed to officials in power. Such constructions may be rendered variously in English, for example, rOBOpH-r flley say, people say, if'S said. Such constructions are often used where English would use the passive voice.
MHt~ rOBOpH.n:lf, 'ITO 3aBTpa 6YAeT 3K3aMeH.

Y)l(e OTKpblB<ltOT ,llBeplf.


3Aecb rOBopHT no-pYCCKlf.

I was told there'd be an exam tomorrow. The doors are being opened already. Russian is spoken here.

4TEHI1E H nHCbM6

358

LESSON 15

liOpHC M HxaijJlOBH't, y BaC HeT .a.epeaJlIIHOrO Aw,Hxa?

0 BaM? MHe Hy::HO nOCJTaTb p0Jl.HTeJUIM npourpblsaTellb. A p3..38C Y HHX B KOIlxo3e CcTh )JlelITpH'ieCTBo?
ECTb, 33'leM

.lla, OCTb.

.st

.a.30HO

:ho 6YlleT

XOp6W~H

Kynihb liM npolirpblBaTenb H BOT []oJJ.apoK )VUI HHx.


XOTM

KynHll.

AYMalO,

'ITO

- CKaJlGhe, HHKomHi, y BaC 8 KOJIX03e XOpOWHe H36bl? - ,ll,a, O'leHb xopOulHe. - Itt BO,lJ,Onpo8011 ecn, ? - Her, Bononpooo.na Her. Ho y HaC MHoro KOnO,llues H xop6wee o3epo. .l{a " mOA" H<\WH npH8buurn HOCHn. BO,lty, J.U.1 He TJlY.u.HO.
MHe CTpaHHO JTO

c.nhlwaTb. Y mic

AMepHKe

Bee

COOceM Hua.'fe.

lfTO :ho TaM CTposn?


KaJKeTCjl ,ll,OMa lVBI KOJlx63HHKOB.
KClMeHHhle!

- 6,
Ax

)].a. B OroHbKe Hen.aoHo 6blJl 06 :hOM O'lepK.

li 'lHTM, 110 He 3Uan, 'ITO :ho 06 .:hOM KOJlx63e. Aa, B 3nfX H68blX nOM3x, rOBop.li-r, 6Y.a.eT 3J1eKTpHP.JeCTBO H JJ.3.:lKe Jla uy? J.1 Bee y.a66cTBa? BaHHbl.e, y6opHble? 3Toro Ji He 3H,ho. A TeJle<Jx}n? He lJ,yMalO.

n3.,

BO.ltOnpoaon.

- 3HaeUJl., Oner. Ji Y'Ke npHBwK 3lJ,OCl.. B ropone, K 3neKTpii'lecTBy H panHo, a BOT npnexan HelJ,3.BHO B HAw lConx63 H - HH'IerO TaM He,-. CTpaHHO lJ,aJKe, KaK mo.aH MOfyr :lKHTl. 6e3 3THX yno6cTB! - A Be.o,l. Hd caM Tb >Kun, KOnIa .nOMa 6bl:n. - )la Ji )')Ke H He nOMHfO 06 :hOM - Tax naBUO :ho 6bJnO. - A BOT KOH'mwl. yHiIBepcHTer, MO)l(eT 6b!Tl. 6Y.aewl. B CB<>eM KonX03e pa66TaTl.. OmiT(, npHBblKHewh. - Her! $i B Konx63e pa60TaTh He 6Y.ay, He xO'ly. BnpO'leM, KOfAa ,j KOU'Iy, MO:lKeT 6blTh TaM y)l(e 6Y.aer :meKTpH'IeCTBO. - rami, nOMHHTe, Ji BaM noKA3hIBaJl CHlfMKH cj>a6pHKH. rAe pa60TaeT MO OTeU? - )la . ..s1 ce6e HHa'ie npe.llCTaBJlJina aMepHK8.IICKHe cj>a6pHKH. - Bb! lJ,3JKe, K3.:lKeTC}(, He nOBepHJlH MHe, nph.aa" - HeT. c1lHlumn. Ji BaM noeepKJIa, TOJlhKO Ji y)l(e npHBbIlma HHa'le .aYMaTh 06 AMepKKe. - A 3HaeTe, KOrll,3. Ji CfO/.la eX3Jl, Ji TOJKe Bee ce6e HHa'le npell,CT3BnJ:in. BaWH cryneHTbl y'IaT aHfmHicKKii: }(3bl:K? )l.a, H HeKOTopble }')ICe Rennoxo roBOpJiT. Bbi C HH:M:H p<l3Be He rOBopliJIH? rOBOpHn, HO no-pYCCJ:H. Tb :lKanh! Jt He 3Han, 'ITO Oml: rOBopJiT no-aHrmfHCKH. )la, a Ji leaK ph JJ.YMan cnpocHTh BaC, rOCnOll,HH rpaHT, Ka~ OHB rOBopJiT. 3aBTpa 3aHlJ,y K BaM H noroBoplO C HHMH.

-..st

LESSON 15

359

LESSON

16

PREPARATION FOR CONVERSATION

CJly"laH

(s!utij)
[Qi~asnjj)

neC"IaCTIIl..IH

Hec"laCTHbIH CJly'laH

IOPKii HHKOJlllCSK'I,

il,aBHO

de He 8H):{CJI!

case, occasion, incident, event, chance unbappy, unfortunate accident, unfortunate incident Yury Nikolaevich, I haven't seen you for a long time! why, why is it, how come But why are you walking like tbat? You mean you haven't heard? leg, fool to break I broke my leg. to fall, fall down I fell and broke my leg.. almost, all but, nearly I almost broke my leg. I fell and almost broke my leg. good heavens! my goodness! my God! Oh for heaven's sake! to happen How in the world did it happen? to present, introduce to imagine Imagine! or Just imagine! stairway, stairs, ladder Imagine! It happened on the stairway.

'ITO 3TO

[!t6eI~)
TaK

A 'fT6

lTO

8W

NJIeTe?

Obi pa3Be He CJlWUJaJIH?

Jt Jt Jt

(ace sg Hory) CJlOMaTb (pfv I), cnoMalO, -eWb, -lOT CJ]OMM eWe HOI)'. ynacn. (pfv I) (ful ynaJ,tj, --eWb, -iT; past yoan. -a, -0, -H)
HOra

yuan H CJI0Man ce6e HOry.


'IYrb He '1Yrb He cnOMin ce6e Hory.
H ..

J1: ymiJi

y-n,

He CJJOMU ce6e u6l-y.

Ax

&6:lKC Moii! TW. f)6;e Moil!


cnY'nrrbCR

(pry II) KliK :a;e iTo cnyoui'lOCb?


npe.ll.CT3.BIlTb
upe:nctiBHTb

(pfv II), npenCT:lBJJIO,

-BHWb, -8RT

ce6e

npellCTasbTe ce6e! JJCcTHHUa nesQic;)]


npeJ],CTaSbTe

ce6e!

3TO CJlY'HrnOCb Ha

JJCcTIUlue.

361

BHH3 BHH3 no JlCcTHHue .s1 WeJl Bmb no JlCCTHHue. BJlPyr H BJlpyr ynan .s1 wen Bmb no nccTlmue H BJlPyr ynan. npettCTWU,Te ewe, DIM POlD nO Hlimeit Jlk:Ttnme H BttPYr you,

down, downstairs down the stairs I was going down the stairs. suddenly, all of a sudden and suddenly fell I was going down the stairs and suddenly fell. Imagine! I was going down our stairs and suddenly fell. bad luck, misfortune, unhappiness What an unlucky break! really, indeed That was really an unlucky break! foolishness, stupidity, nonsense It was plain stupidity! sixteen years sixteen years I've been walking up and down those stairs for sixteen years. careful, carefully

HeC'laCTbe

[\li~casti~]

BOT lIeC'IaCThe! aeHCTBHTeJJbHO BOT, D:eHCTBHTCJlbHo, oec"laCTI.e! r.rrjnOCTb (f) npOCTO r.rrjnOCTb! IlleCTHaa.uaTb ~isnat<:;)n nt':T (gen pi of ro,ll, year) weCTHaa.uaTb mh lliecTHanuaTb nCr XOlKY no .:lTOH nCCTHHue.
OCTOp(nKHblii., OCTOPOlKHO

(short form OCTopO)I(eH, -)I(Ha,


-1.1) WecTtUI1J.U8TI> Jlh xmKy DO :hoit JlecTlDDlC, BcertUi tik OCTOp6*eu, a TjT BnpYr yoaJl!
-0,

I've been walking up and down tbose stairs for sixteen years, always [being) so careful, and all of a sudden I fall! anyone, anybody, any' to anybody (lit. with anybody) It can happen to anybody. to consult, tum to, address Whom did you consult., or What doctor did you see'? Osipov. physician, doctor He's a good physician. not likable, not nice, not personable He's a good physician, but not a likable person.

Bdnlii co BCl1KHM

3ro co

BCtiKHM MO"'eT

CJlyaufn.CiI.

06panfTbcSl (pfv II) [abratitc:)] 06P8:WYCb, 06panl:WbCR, -l1TCR Bw k KOMy 06paTlLrrHcb?

K OeHIlOBY,
BpAtl, -a; -H,-eH XOPOWHH Bpa'l.
HeCHMnaTlI'lHblH

6H

00

XOpOUlHH Bpa"l, HO HecHMD8"I'H"lHw:H.

"IeJlOBeK

00
.ll.a

KaKOH-TO 6e3JJ.YIIJHWH KaKOii-TO,

unfeeling, cold, impersonal (lil. without soul, heartless) a, an; kind of, some kind of He's kind of cold and unfeeling. soul, heart, feeling What's feeling got to do with it? specialist You need a specialist.

yrna
]8"1eM BaM JtYlUa?

CneUHaJlHCT BaM CDl'l.lH8J1HCT oY:eu.

362

LESSON 16

"ph,

-a, -0, --hi


KOfIe-nlO,

BY upUlol,

right You're right, of course.


doctor I don't like going to doctors or I hate going to doctors. How I hate going to doctors!

J1

a6KTOp,-a;nOKTOpa,-oB He J]Io6mO XOAHTb K nOKTopfLM.

Kale Ii He mOOJUO XOnM1::b


K

nOlCTOpaM!

SUPPLEMENT BO Bd:KOM CJIi'!ae Bo BCHKOM CJIY'fae, " B MocKBy He noeA)'. HaBCpx noll.D.eM 1(0 MHC HaBCpX. rnYnJ:.lH KaKb OHa rnynaJI! yMHWH QHa TaKlUI yMHaJI! CHMnanf'fHblH

in any case, anyway, in any event In any case, I won't go to Moscow.


up, upstairs Let's go upsta.irs to my room. foolish, silly, dumb, stupid How foolish she is! wise, intelligent, smart. clever She's so clever (or wise)! nice, likable He's a very nice person. year this year Once a year I go to Yalta. This year I won't go there. month; moon this month Twice a month we went to the city. This month we won't go there.

On 6'ieHh CHMnaTlI'iHbIH
ron, -a
B

'ienOBCK.

3TOM rom'
r6.o. Ii ~x:y
8

Ph

>urry.

B 3TOM rom' Ii T)'M He noeA)'. MecHU B jTOM MecHue ABa pll.3a B MecHU Mb! C3AlWH
B

r6pan.

B jTOM MecHue Mb! Tyna He noenCM.

C.n. -

CeprCH nhnOBH'i
n3BHo

IO.H. -lOpUH HHIWnaeOlf'i


BHAM!

c.n.
IO.H.
c.n.

lOp""
3

HHKOmieBH'l:,

BAc HC

A 'iTO :ho

Bbi TaK H,lleTe1 1

2 Bbi p!l3ee

He cnbtW3Jut

1 .s1. yoan H 'fYrb He CJlOMan

ee6e HOry.

Ax Tbl,

Iio:IKe MCK!2 Kh :IKe :ho cnYlfHllocb 7


BHH3

IO.H.

4 npe,ltCTllBbTe ce6C, Well

no HaWen necTIIHue " BAPyr ym'uJ.

c.n.
IO.H.

5 BOT,

,neHCTBHTeJ1bHO, HeclfaCTbC!

6 np6cTo rnYnOCTb!
OCTopO:lKeH, 3

llIeCTR<Ur.u3Tb

ne-r xoX<j no :hon neCTlIHUe, Bcer,l~a

TaK

B,npyr ynan!]

en.

7 3TO co BCslKHM MO:IKeT cnYlfHThCJI. Sbl K KOMy 06p3T1fnHCb?

LESSON 16

363

IO.H.

8 K 6cHnooy. 6H XOpOUJHH opa'l, HO 'ICll00CK HccHMnaTH'IHbIH. 6C3.llYWHbrH


KaKoH-To. 9,[{a 3a'leM BaM JJ.ywa 1 BiLM cllcUHa.mlCT Hy>KCH.

c.n.

IO.H. 10 Bbl llpaobJ, KOHe'lHo. KaK si: HC m06mo XOLlHTb K JJ.OKTOpaM!


NOTES
I "Iro :ITO, 'fT6 and even 'lef"O in a more colloquial style are often substituted for ltO"leMj why in spoken Russian. Stylistically this is something akin to the colloquial English how come: "Iro no aW ... Hi.... He 3ax01lKTe? How come you don't

drop in to see us?

66r God is one of the few Russian nouns with a vocative form: ooa;e! The expression liO",e MOii! is a stock phrase with its own special word order. It is not as strong as the English My God! but is rather like Good heavens! or My goodness! In Soviet publications. the word for God is written with a small initial letter.
2

The form neT, which functions as the genitive plural ofrolt"year with numbers and adverbs of quantity, is actually the genitive plural of nero summer. Compare oroffi rOA with Mllom ncr, wecmllAnaTb JleT. (Consider the poetic use of English summers as, for example, in "She was sixteen summers old.") The regular genitive plural form rOlloR is very rarely used. roJt also has alternate forms in the nominative plural: roJXbl and rOlla.
J

Although .lIYm3. literally means soul, it is often best translated as hearl, in the sense of empathy or sympathetic character. Note that the adjective oo~ is formed from 6e3 without and ,IQ'lUa.

PREPARATION FOR CONVERSATION

'1YRCTBOBaTb

ce6J;J

(1)1

to feel How do you feel? by far, much, considerably Much better, doctor.
I have almost no trouble walking. (Lit. I

'1yRCTIJyH), '1YuCTsyewb, -.aT

KaK RW: ce6JI "lYscmye..-e?

rophno rOp8.:tllO .rrY'IllIe, lI6KTop.

st nom C8000llHO xo",y.


.lli*e CMOr IlellJKtlM
DptliiTIi.
K 88M

walk almost freely.)


I was even able to come to your office on fool.

COKni (pfv I) (/ike noATH)

yM, -a
coiini: c yM8.

to go off, get off, come (or go) down mind. sense to go (or be) out of one's mind. to go
(or be) crazy

Are you out of YOOT mind?


, Forms of ..yIlCUOllan. are Simplified in speech. 11K: first a should never be pronounoed. 11It sccond a may abo be dropped so Ihal in rapid speech 'Iy.n.yae is usually pronounced ltultuj\il. (Compare Ihis with lAP'K'noyiTe, which is usually pronounced julnlsluj\ij or, in very rapid speech. [u1rl1M\iU

364

LESSON

16

.st

DaM CK833..n XO,lJ,UTb T6J1bKO

I told you to walk only about the room. half an hour per day, a day You can walk only half an hour a day. then

no K6MH8Te.
nOJl'taca B lU:Hb BaM MO)ICHO XO.nHTb TOJlbKO nOJ1'taca B Aellb.

T6

.st *e BliM oca3an xoroin roJJ.....'O


no K6MHaTe
..e~t
H

TO He 66nwue.
B

lIOJI'taca

JJ.eHb.

But I told you to walk only about the room and then not more than half aD hour a day. to become, get, grow, step
-JITCSI

CTaH08ltTbC1I (II) [st;)nayitQ] CTaH08JUOCb. CTaH6BHWbC1I. MHe CTaH68IfTC1I J1y..we. 'teM ... TeM ... 'teM oonbwe, TeM nY'twe

I'm getting better or I'm improving. the ... the ... the more the better The more I walk, the better I get. to seem It seemed to me I was improving.
Excuse me. doctor. but it seemed to me the more J walked. the more I improved.

4eM oonLwe li xox.:y, TeM nY'lwe Mile CT:rnOBIITCJI. Ka33.ThCJI (I) (past KaJa..nOCb. pres Kb.::eTCJI) MHe KaJ3..nOCb, liTO ,.tHe CTaHOBHTC1I nyllwe. "JBKmlTe. J1.0","TOp, KO MIle ..."8.3i.rI0Cb, "ITO ' 'tiM 66JJbl1Ie li xoo.i. TiM Jly"llUe Me craH08HTC$t. oGpaW3.TbC1I (I) [abrUtatc}]

to consult. tum to. address, go (or come) to Wby did you consult me? in general, at all Why did you [bother toJ consult me at all? to like, please, appeal to just as you please, exactly as you like ;f If you do just as you please, then why do you bother to consult me at all? to be angry, to be mad Don't be angry, doctor. exacl, precise; exaclly, precisely I'U do everything ex.actly as you say. Don't be angry. doctor; I'll do everything exactly as you say.

06pamalOCb, 06pamaelllLCJI, -K>TCJI 3alleM Dbi KO MHe 06pama..nHcb? BooGme 3a'teM Bb! Boo6me KO Mile 06paminHCb? "pa8IfTbC1I (n) [nrayit(;:;)} HpaamOCb. Hpa8HUlbCSI, -JlTC1I TaK, Kl1K 8aM HpaBIITC1I eCJJH ECJIH Bbi ,uenaeTe d.-. KSK aiM upaBH1'CH, TO 38'tCM Rbi Tor.n:a aoo6lQc KO Mile 06panuiJlHcb? ceP,lJ,(lTbCSI (II)
[~irQitc;)]

cep)l(yCb, cePAlllllbCSI, -SlTCll

He Cep,lJ,UTCCb, .n:6KTop. T6'H1bIH; TO'tHO .sf 6YAY ,ae..naTb Bee TOIIHO TaK, K3.K 8b! CK3.JKe're. He Cep.wf"recb, ,lJ,OKTOp, tl 6yJJ.Y .llellan. BCe TO"fHO nK .-liK Rbi

c.-ai:eTe.

LeSSON 16

365

Hy,

xopornO. nOKa:lKMTe

~U1e

H6ry.

Lla. HtIlJlOXO.

Well. all right. Show me your leg. Yes, not bad. to ache, hurt, pain My leg (or foot) hurts. It's almost stopped hurting altogether.

60neTh (II) Y MeHli 60nifT Hora. OHa y MeKli: nom CO&eeM He

6omiT.
Macca:lK ne.naTb Macca:lK no yrpa."f Hano )lenaTh no yrpaM Macca:lK. npo)lomK3Th (I) npoll.OJDKaiiTe JJ.e.IJBn no yrpaM MBCca:lK. Ma3L CO peuenT A B8M llaM HClBWii pCllcrrr HB M8Jl>. nOMOntTL (I) (plus dat) CnBcM60. ~ Mallo MHe 004CHb
nOMorI.eT.

massage to massage in the mornings, mornings You have to massage it in the mornings. to continue, keep on Continue massaging it in the mornings.

ointment, salve prescriplion, recipe rll give you a new prescription for ointment. to help Thanks. The ointment really helps me. When am I to come? or When should I come? When should I come again, on Wednesday?

Kor.na MHe npHHnt:? KOf".a.a MIle npKm omiT...


iii

cpe.QY!
end to go away, leave (by vehicle) No, I'm going away the end of this week. in five days in about five days I'm going away in about five days. to come back, return I'll return in about five days. earlier, before I'll return in about five days, not before. I'm going away the end of this week and will return in about five days, not before. to set, designate, appoint. assign to give an appointment, set a date I'll give you an appointment. Phone me in a week and I'll give you an appointment.

KOHeU, KOHua; -hi, -68 yel:an. (I) HtT, II yeJ}KafO 8 KOHut :iToii HeJJ.e.nH. 'Iepe] min. nHeH nHeH tlepeJ nliTb Jt yeJ:lK3fO nHe" 'Iepe) miTb. 8epHYrbCJI (pfv I) ['t'irnute;,] sepHyCb, BCpHCUlbCR, -y..CR Jt BepHYCb nHe" lItpel nliTh. p3nbwe Jt Bcpnycb .aHe" 'Iepe3 ruiTb, lie prou,we. A ye3:lKalO B KOHUe :hoii HC,tlenM H IIiCPHYCb JUlCM 'tepe3 min.,
He pl1.HblUe.

Jt

HaJH3,(HTb_(pfv II) HaJHa'lHTb neHL BiM HaJH3'ly .IleHb.


MAe 'tepel

nOJBOHKTe
M

MeJlVlIO,

ii aiM

Ha3H8.-ry

n;nn.

U!SSONI6

SUPPLEMENT

xy)j(C j'j "IyBCTBylO ce6li ropi13,rto x)0i<c, .nOKTOp. paccepLUITbC~ (pfv II) (like cep,rtllTl,C5l) nO"leMy OH T<1.K lIa MCHli paccePJUIJlCli ? nOMO"lh (pfv I) (like MO"lh) (plus dat) 6H, HaBcpllo, BaM nOMO;.KeT. yt':xaTb (pfv I) (like t':xaTb) Korna OH yt':XaJl H3 MOCKBbl? j'j CKOPO yeflY BJIeHHHrp<iJ:l.. Ha'ianO 6H yt':XaJl B Ha "lane :hOH He.nt':mL B03Bpall.\aThCH (I) O'rel..l B03Bpall.u1eTcH 1l0MOH B WeCTh. n03)j(e OHll npl-lllyT n03)l(c. B KOHUt': KOUl.\OB [fkance kancof]
B KOHUt': KOHUOB, OH nOJl)"lllJl pa3pewt':UHe.

worse I feel much worse, doctor. to become angry, get mad Why did he become so angry with me? to help He'll probably help you. to go away, [eave (by vehicle) When did he leave Moscow? I'll soon leave for Leningrad. beginning, start He went away at the beginning of the week. to return, come (or go) back Father returns home at six. later, later on They'll come later. finally, in the end, in the long run, after all He finally got a permit.

o. -OCHOOB
IO.H. -lOpH" HJ.lKOnaCBH"I

O.

I 3npaBCTByHTC! KaK Bbl ce6A '1YnCTByeTe?

IO.H.

2 rOphAO ny'Hue, Aonop .


npHHnf.

.H

nO'iTH cB06oLlHO xo~y. ,l];a:lKc CMor neWKOM K BaM

o.
IO.H.

3 Bbl C yMa cowmi? .H :lKC BaM CKa3an XOAHTb TOJlhKO no KOMHaTC 'H:M nOJI'laca B ,LJ;eHb.

Ii

TO He 60JIbWe,

4 J.13BmufTe, Aonop, HO MHe Ka3aJlOCb, 'leM 60Jlbllle $I XO)KY, TeM Jly'lWC MHe cTanoBHTcSI. 5 ECJlH Bbl AeJIaCTC TaK, K3K B3M HpaBHTC~, TO 3a'leM Bbl Torw'i. Bo06me KO MHe 06pamarUiCb ?!
LESSON 16 J(,7

O.

FO.H. O. IO.H. O.

6 Hc ccp.n.tlTCCb, .o:OKTOp, H 6Y.o:y .o:enaTb BCe TO'lHO TaK, KaK Bbl CK3.JI(CTe.1
7 Hy, xopowo. nOKa)foiTe MHe Hory. )la, Hennoxo.

8 OHa y McnH nO'ITH COBceM HC 6omiT.


9 Xopowo, HO npOllOn)i(lHhc llenaTb no yTpaM Macca)i(. ..st BaM .n.aM HOBblH
pel.{enT tIa Ma3b.

IO.H. 10 CnacH60. 3Ta M<l.3b MHe O'leHb nOMoraeT. Kor.o:a MHe npliHTH omiTb, B cpe.n.y?

O.

II HeT, H YC3)i(alO B KOHl.{e :hOH HC,I],Cnli


n03Bomhe MHe 'lepe3 Hellemo,
Ii

BepHycb .o:HeH ...epe3 nliTb, He paHbwe. 2 li BaM Ha3H3.'ly ,lIeHb.


Ii

NOTES

I Although spa.. and ltOKTOp can sometimes be used interchangeably, only ,1J,OKTOp is used-as a form of address or with names: Y ltOKTOpa OCHDosa, "CKa*liTe, ,1J,OKTOP ..." Bpa.. and .lI.OKTOp apply to both men and women.

0" (OHa)

XOpOWHH Bpa'l. 3TO .o:OKTOP neTpOBa.

He's (she's) a good doctor. This is Dr. Pelrov (t).

General practitioners are mostly women. as are the majority of dentists and oculists in the Soviet Union. the word order in the expression Me" otepe3 min. The placement of a numeral after the noun which it modifies serves to express approximation. Com pare .o:IU) .. ad two hours with ..aca ,D,Ba about two hours; ceii..ac BOcCMb ..acOB it's eight o'clock now with ceii'fac 'laCOB BOcCMb iI's aboul eight o'clock now; and B .o:eBATb ..acOB at nine with ..acoB B lteBATb around nine.

1 Note

Basic sentence patterns


I. KAK BaM ____ ____ ____
nOHpaaHJIC.II. :hOT nOllpaBHnaCb 3ra 1l0npaBIUIOCb era nOHpaBWlHCb era Bpa'!? Ma3b? DellHe? PO.o:HTCJJH? How did you _____ ______ _____
I guess she ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

like like like Iike

thai doctor? that ointment? his singing? his parents?

2. Ka:lKeTCSI, Ji eH IIpaBJllOcb. ____ Mbl _ HpaBItMcSl. ____ 0" __ HpaBI1TC.II.. ____ Th. __ HpaBlillIbC.II.. ____ OHM _ HpaaSiTC.II.. _ _~_ Bbl _ HpaaHTecb.
3. OHa '!aCTO 3aXO.nHJla K COoeH coceltKe.
_________ _________ _________ ________ _________

likes me. likes us. likes him. lik-es you. likes them. likes you.

CBOHM COceltSiM. K COOCMy y'!lheJ1Jo. K COoeH cccrpe. K CBOMM 3HaKoMblM. K CBOCMy 6paTy. K camiM nOJJ.pYraM.
K

She often called on _ _ _ _ _ _ on _ _ _ _ _ _ on _______ on

her neighbor. her neighbors. her teacher. her sister. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 00 her acquaintances. _ _ _ _ _ _ 00 her brother. _ _ _ _ _ _ 00 her girl friends.

368

LESSON

16

4.

Oli 06paTl1J1CH KXOpOl11CMy BpalfY.


______ KpyCCKOMy CnCu,llaJIHCTY. _ _ _ _ _ _ Ie UOBOMy JIOKTOPY' ______ KaMepllteaHCKoMy npo<Jleccopy. ______ K lfaCTIIOMY Bp3lfY.

Hc consultcd _____ _____ _____

a good physician. the Russian specialist. the new doctor. the American professor. private physician.

_____ 3

5. Mbl W)]H no KpacHBoH .aopOre. _ _ _ _ crapoii _

_ _ _ _ H6BOH

We wcre walking along a lovely road. _ an old _ _ a new _


_ good _ _

_ _ _ _ xOpOweii _ _

_____ npHMoii _ _ _ _ _ kak6H-To _ _

_ _

a straight _ _ some kind of_<

<

6. nOklUKJfre :hOT 4>H.nbM

eawKM CTy.v;eHTaM.
CBOHM
MOU:M~

<
<

Show the film to your students. _ _ _ _ _ _ >:our


_ _ _ _ _ wy

_
_

1I0BhlM

<

craPWM

<

aMeplU:aacrHM _. xop6WHM _
7. n03BOHHTe :hoii ",eHUlHHe.

______ ______ ______ _

the the the lhe

new _ old _ American _ _


good _

_ _ _ _ .3TOMy <fe.noeekY. _____ 3THM mOJl)lM. _ _ _ _ 3TOMy Bpa<fY. _ _ _ _ trOH JIeBywKe. _____ 3TI1M M0110.o.b1M mO)J)lM.

Give this woman a call. __ this man __ these people __ this doctor __ this girl _-,-__ these young-people Don't Don't Don't Don't Don't Don't stand (or step) there! sit (down) there! be afraid! be angry! consult them! go back to them!

_ _ < < <

8. He CTaJJOBHTeCb Ty.v;a.! He C3JI.HTeCb TY.v;a! He ooHTecbl Hc cePJIHTecb! He 06palllaihe<:b KUtiM! He B03BpalllMiTecb It HKM!
9. Jj YJUlBJIlhOCb, 'ITO Bbl KHeMy06panUUlCb. OHa ylmBJIlicTCJI _ Mbl yJtHBJlliCMCJI _ _ OJlcr yJtHBJIIIe-rCJl 01111 yJIHBnliIOTcJl' _

Tw IIC Y.ll.HBJllteWbCJI, 'ITO li

Ie

lIeM)<

I'm surprised that you consulted him. She's surprisecl<1 _ We're surprised< _ _ Oleg is surprised'They're surprisoo _ You're not surprised that I consulLed him?

Rbi He YJIIIBJlliereCb
10. Kor.aa OHa BCp'iCTCJI? __---'Tbl eepuewbcll? .,-_--"Bbl eepHeTe<:b? R BePHYCb <fepeJ He.ne.nIO. 6u eepHCTCJI _ Omi eeplljTcJI'_

06paTll.nCll ? ?

You're not surprised'When will she be back? will you be back '1 _ _ will you be back '1 I'll be back in a week. He'll be back,-_ _ They'll be back'----_

_~

LESSON 16

369

II. OlUf acermi a03aparm'uOTCR a 'lac. Bw a03BpawaeTeCb_ _. J1 a03Dpaw<bOCb._ _ Tw B03DpautaeWbClL--. MM B03DpautaeMCX_ _. LloKTop_ B03BpalUaeTCX'---__

They always return at one. YOII retum _ 'return'-_ _ yo,au retum'-_ _ W, return _ _. The doctor returns Will you help me? Yes, I'U help you. Will he help you? Yes, he'll help me. Will they help us? Yes, they'll help us. Did he help you? Yes, he did. Did she help you? Yes, she did. Did they help you? Yes, lhey did. When's the best time for me ___________ ___________ __________ __________ ___________ ___________ to to to to to to to

12. BbI MHe nOMOJKeTe'1 - LIa, li B<iM nOMory. OH BaM nOMOJKeT? - LIa, OH ~1He nOMOJKeT. OHii HaM nOMoryr? - Lla, OHii HaM nOMoryr. 6u BaM nOMor? - LIa, nOMOL OHa BaM nOMorna? - LIa, nOMOrna. OHiI BaM nOMorml? - !la, nOMOfmi.

13. KOfJI.j MHe nY'!llJc npl1Hni?


_______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ npHexaTb? ycxaTb? 3aHTlI? nOHTlf? Bowni? aeplIYt"bCJl'?

come? arrive? leave? stop by? go? go in? return?

14. KYLla Mlle ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

nOIITH? 3BOHlfTb? ::ho nonOJKHTb? noex3Th'1 CMO",e,.b? nHcaTb? ~ nOCTynaTb'1 _ _ _ _ eXaTb?

Where am I to (or should J) go? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ call? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ put this? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ drive to? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ look? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ write? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ enroll?

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ g01 I'm getting better. _ _ _ _ worse.


I was getting better. _ _ _ _ worse.

15. Mile cTaHOOHTC,SI nY'Iwe. _ _ _ _ _ _ xY:lKe.

M HC cTaHoB!iJJocb JIy'Iwe. _ _ _ _ _ _ xYilCe.


CTaH6oHTC,S[ _____ _____ ____ ____ _ _ _~
x6noJI.llo.

)KapKO. Tenno. caeJKO CKj'iHO. HHTepCcHO.

It's getting cold. _ _ _ _ hot.


_ _ _ _ wann.

_ _ _ dully. _ _ _ boring. _ _ _ _ interesting.

16. KaK Dbi ce6li 'iyBCTByeTe? - J1 ce6Ji 'iY8CT8YJO nnoxo.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ xopowo.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ nYlfwe. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ fopa3Llo nY'!we. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ x~e. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ropa3,n0 xj:lKe. 370


LESSON

How do you feel? I don't feel well. I feel fine. _ _ beuer. _ _ much better.

_ _ worse.
_ _ much worse.

16

17. Killc nO-TBocMy, PC3YJlbTllThi xopowl1e? - Lla, nO-M6eMy, pe3yJlbT<lTbl O'ICHb xop6wMe. KaK no-aawcMy, pe3YJlbTaTbi xop6wHe? -lla, nO-MoeMy, pe3YJlbTaTbI O'leHb xop6wHe.

What do you think, are the results good? Yes, in my opinion, the results are very good. What do you think, are the results good? Yes, in my opinion, the results are very good.

18. n03BOHHTe MHe 'Iepe3 HeAe.rno.


_ _ _ _ _ _~__ !tBe Hc.aeJlIf. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ TP" _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 'IeTblpe
_0

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ miTL Ile,lle.rlb. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ llIecTb lle,lleJIL.

Call me up in _____ _____ _ ____


-----

a week.
two weeks. three _ _ four _ five _

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ MecSiu. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ llBa MeCJ'H~a.


_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ WCcTb
MecHl~eB.

_ _ _ _ _ a month. _ _ _ _ _ two months. _ _ _ _ _ six months.

'" - - -

Pronunciation practice: the voicing of ordinarily unvoiced consonants


Contrast the following sets in which
K,

c, and

qre first pronounced voiceless and then are voiced. The letter pronounced [g] [gbaru] K 6apy to the bar [gdomu] K .u6My La the house
K

A. The letter

pronounced [k] [kparu) K mipy to the steam [ktomu) K TOMy to the volume
K

B. Thc letter c pronounced [s)


[sgit] cmIT sleeps [spar] coop argument

The letter c pronounced [z] [zQit] C6HT knocked down [zOOr] c66p harvesting The letter pronounced [d] [adz3.ra] aT )Kapa from the heat [adgadaU oTra.n.aTb to guess
T

C. The letter

pronounced [t] [atsaraJ OT llIapa from the spherc [atkatiit] oTKaTaTb to roll off

STRUCTURE AND DRILLS

Prepositions reqniring the dative:


MODELS

and no

oR H.ttY K,116KTOpy. _ _ K 6p<iTy.


_ _ K ceCTpe.
_ _ KOTuj.

_ _ KMhepH. _ _ K po.uHTeJlHM.

I'm on my way ______ ______ ______ ______ ______

to to to Lo to to

the my my my my my

doctor's. brother's place. sister's place. father's place. mother's place. parents' place.
I..ESSON

16

371

nOJlOHAI1 K Tene$Oliy. _ _ _ _ KCTOJly. _ _ _ _ K OKIlY. _ _ _ _ KAOCKC. _ _ _ _ KdpTe. nOJloiUlIi KO Mlle. _ _ _ _ I( HaM.


3TO H3J:tO CJl.enaTb
_______
______

Go (Qr come) to the phone. to the table. ______ to the window. _ _ _ _ _ to the blackboard. _ _ _ _ _ up to the map. Come over here to me. _ _ _ _ _ _ to us. This has to be done ________ _______ ______ _______ _______ _______ by by by by by by by noon. evening. Tuesday. Wednesday. Friday. the end of the month. the beginning of the week. for for for for for for for for the the the the the the the the e'lam? lesson? lecture? work'? enms? classes? lectures? dinner?

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ I(

_______

_______ _______

o6C:JlY. BC'Iepy. 1(0 BT6pJrnl(y. K cpeJl.C. 1: ntnUfue. 1( IWHllY MCcJl:n.a. 1( Ha'lany HeJlCJm.
I(

Rbi: rOTOBbI K 3K3AMeHy? _ _ _ _ " ypOKy? _ _ _ _ _ I: JleKUHH? _ _ _ _ " pa66Te? _ _ _ _ _ k 3K3<iMeHaM? _____ K 3aHHTHJlM? _ _ _ _ K nCKlUUfM? _ _ _ _ K o6C:Jl.Y.
no no no no no Be'lepaM Mbl I'YJlHeM YTpaM BOCl:peceHbJlM cy666TaM cpeJlaM
B

Are you prepared (or ready) __________ ___________ ___________ __________ ___________ ___________ ___________ napKe. _ _ _ _

In the evenings we stroll in the park.


In the mornings On Sundays On Saturdays On Wednesdays _ _ _
~

He XOJlI1 no napKy! ____ n6 Jlecy! ____ no ymll..laM! nOJllo! ____ no nomiM! _ _ _ _ ItO ceny! _ _ _ no r6poJl.Y! ~_ _ no Aop6re! ____ no ymme!

____ no

Don't walk (or wander) around in _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ in _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ in _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ in _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ in _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ in _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ in _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ in _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ in He gives lectures on _ _ _ _ _ _ _ on _ _ _ _ _ _ on _ _ _ _ _ _ on _______ on _______ on

the park! the woods! the streets! the fi