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I GEDE NIKA WIRAWAN

UNIVERSITAS UDAYANA 2010

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background When someone said something to us, we have to know what that person mean or what is the exact message that contains in her or his utterance. Some utterance contains meaning more that it is actually uttered. For the example, if someone asked you, Do you know where the station is? that question has a meaning more than it looks like. It is a simple yes no question but it need something that we should to do for that person. If one person asks that question, it means that he or she wants us to explain her or him the way to station. It also contains the information that the speaker does not know where the station is, so that he or she wants us to explain the way to the station. Some utterance like that belongs to what we call speech act. Actions performed via utterances are generally called speech acts. (Yule, 2000:47). The use of speech act in our daily conversation could not be avoided since all linguistic communication involves linguistic acts. One of the use of the speech act that is very interesting to be studied is when the speech act used by the shopkeepers since the shopkeepers communicate with the customers in their activity selling the goods in which the activity of bargaining happen among the shopkeepers and the customers. In selling the goods in a high price, of course the shopkeepers will use certain speech act that may be different with the common people use in their daily communication. Meanwhile, the shopkeepers must face the customers who bargain their goods in order to get the cheapest price. In this activity there may be such kind

of speech act that dominates the communication among the customers and the shopkeepers to get the price that agreed among the buyers and the shopkeepers. The study of speech act actually had been done by some people. One of them is Carlos L. Bernal (2007). In his paper which is entitled Speech Act Analysis of Judicial Decisions. He explains about a judicial decision the judge says something about the law, the facts of the case, and the consequences that the legal system imputes to the parties, in the most cases, the plaintiff or the prosecutor and the defendant. He emphasizes the research on the way the judge in saying the things he does bring it about that he has adjudicated a case and the kind of speech acts, or more precisely, illocutionary acts, does he perform. Besides, he also stresses on their relation to the adjudication. The study of speech act is very crucial in order to avoid misunderstanding among the speakers. We need to distinguish the intention of the speaker to the hearers. Besides, this study in this research is focusing on the speech act used by the shopkeepers and the customer when the bargaining activity among them happening. They may use certain speech act that can lead them to misunderstanding both of them if they can not interpret their speakers utterance correctly since we know that some speech act is performed in a given utterance of the sentence, for a speaker may mean more than what he actually said, which the interpretation itself will depend on the context where the utterance is said. Furthermore, there are actually many shopkeepers that could not speak English properly, so, their way in using speech act without causing the customer upset with their way of spoken English is very interesting to learn.

In this research the type of the speech act used by the shopkeepers would be found out. It will be analyzed according to the theory of speech act. There are actually five categories of speech act according to Searle (1976). They are assertive, directive, commissive, expressive, and declaratives. Besides, the way of the speaker produced the utterance in their conversation would also be analyzed in order to know how the speakers produced their speech act in that sort of circumstance.

1.2 Problem of the Study According to the background above, there are two problems that are formulated. They are: 1. What are the types of speech act used by the shopkeepers and customers in their communication? 2. How do the shopkeepers and customers use the speech act in their face to face conversation?

1.3 Aims of Study In doing this research, there are many aims that want to be achieved, i.e.: 1. To identify the types of speech act used by the shopkeepers and customers in their communication. 2. To analyze the way of the shopkeepers and customers when they use the speech act in their face to face conversation.

1.4 Scope of discussion 1. The types of speech act used by the shopkeepers and customers in their communication. 2. The way of the shopkeepers and customers when they use the speech act in their face to face conversation.

1.5 Research Method In producing a piece of scientific writing, a study must use a methodology. Methodology means a system of procedure and the technique of research or the process, principles and the procedure to approach the problems and to find the solution or the answers. It is required in order ensuring the smoothes of the process and the maximum result, which needs to be achieved in the research. The investigation conducted within this study was adopt field research method, in which will be observed in the conversations. The methodology of doing this research was the application of systematic steps, which used qualitative method. It is the method that to find out the answer of the problems and information normatively. Qualitative method was chosen as a method that was used in this research because the problem that was discussed in this research was more showing the quality of the research result. Some analysis in this research such as finding the reason and the way of the shopkeepers and the customer use speech act in their interaction needed to be analyzed by qualitative method. In this research, there were three steps that would be followed. They are data source, data collection, and data analysis.

1.5.2 Data source Data source is the source which will be taken from which the data is obtained for the sake of the study. Actually, there are three kinds of data sources that are available. They are primary sources, secondary sources, and territory sources. But, in this study, the data sources that were used by the writer were primary data from the macro linguistic. The primary data is the data that we can get directly from the source, in this case was the shopkeeper and customers. The shopkeepers that were chosen as the data were the shopkeepers in the area of Sanur and Kuta District. The shopkeepers in Sanur and Kuta were chosen as the data source in this research because both Sanur and Kuta are two districts in Bali that are very famous for their tourism industries. Of course because of the growing of the tourism industry up in these districts there are many senior shopkeepers that had been experienced in selling their product to customers. Most of the customers are foreigners, so they use English in their interaction although there are also many local customers that bargain the products, but most of the customers in these two districts are foreigners that make these two districts as the appropriate data source that could be analyzed in this research. 1.5.3. Method and Technique of Collecting Data Collecting the data is an essential step in every research because the data are objects of the analysis. The process of collecting the data must be systematically done in order to get accurate data. In order to get the necessary data and information as the main topic of discussion, the method that was used in collecting the data was observation method.

There were ten shopkeepers and their customers in Sanur and Kuta that their conversation were taken as the sample. It was chosen by the technique of purposive sampling. It was one of the techniques in choosing the data by Sampling Technique. Sampling technique is the technique of choosing the data to take the sample in the large number. Meanwhile, purposive sampling was one of the sampling techniques used to choose the sample through the particular characteristic or feature which was considered to have the relationship with the feature and characteristics of the previous sample. Purposive sampling could also mean that there must be a strong purpose in choosing the data that is needed. It means that there is a certain purpose of the researcher that makes his or her choose those samples. This technique was chosen to determine the data source because the research needed some shopkeepers that sold different kinds of products. In Sanur and Kuta there are many shopkeepers that sell their product different with the other ones. For the example, there are some shopkeepers that just sell souvenirs, and another one sell clothes and handicrafts. So, in this research the diversity of the shopkeepers made the analysis more universal. Practically, the process that had to be done in order to gather the data is explained as follows: 1. The data was collected through video recording. The conversation between the shopkeepers and the customers when the activity of selling and buying happens was recorded. The recording of this activity was in the form of video because the research did not just need the speech act that appeared but also the way of the speakers in selling their goods. This would be needed in the analysis to determine the context of the situation of the utterance said by the

speaker that could give us the exact intention of the speaker in uttering the expression. 2. The conversations that had been recorded were transferred to the written form in order to make the data easier to be analyzed because the analysis in this written form needed the script of the conversation in order to make the reader more understand about the speech act that would appear. Another that, the written form of the conversation would also enable the reader to understand the classification of every single speech act that appeared in the conversation because the speech act appeared in the conversation were classified to its classification. 3. After the conversations between the shopkeepers and the customers were recorded, the speech acts that appeared in the conversations were identified. The identification depended on the theory that was used in this research. That was the theory of speech act that was proposed by Searle (1979). According to Searle, there are five types of functions of speech act. They are Assertives, Directives, Commisives, Expressives, and Declarations. It was not all of the speech act that appeared during the interaction would be analyzed but some of them were chosen that belong to Assertives, Directives, Commisives, Expressives, and Declarations.

1.5.4 Method and Technique of Analyzing Data There are actually two sorts of method of analyzing the data, qualitative and quantitative. But in this research the data collected were analyzed qualitatively. On

the other hand, qualitative method was a method that was used in the research that focuses on quality rather than quantity. This research used this sort of analyzing method because all of the problems that had been proposed above needed to be analyzed descriptively. The type of speech act, the way of the speaker in producing their speech act and the reason why they could use certain speech act more frequently were analyzed by this kind of method. They needed word circuitry that would explain us about the topic that was discussed descriptively that could enable the reader understand the analysis. The first problem in this research that is the types of speech act that is used by the shopkeepers and customers in their communication with the customers will be analyzed according to the theory that had been proposed by Searle. The theory provides the explanation about the classification of speech act. Some of the utterances produced by the shopkeepers and customers were chosen as the data that was analyzed in this research. The utterances that belong to Assertives, Directives, Commisives, Expressives, and Declarations were analyzed using the theory proposed by Searle. In the research, the description about the classification was also be served in order to give the reader information about the reason of every pieces of conversation could belong to certain type of speech act. Besides, descriptive method was also important in determining the intention of the speaker, or in the other word, descriptive method was used to interpret the speech act that appeared during the interaction. In this case, the theory proposed by Hymes was used to analyze the context of situation of the utterances. The context in which the utterance said was important to be analyzed to give the exact interpretation of the speech produced by

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the speaker because if the utterance said in different context the interpretation of the utterance itself was changed according to the context in which utterance is being said. So, in analyzing the context of this utterance the theory of Hymes was used. Hymes proposed a model of analysis called Ethnography of Communication which segments a context of situation into eight approaches abbreviated as SPEAKING. It consists of Setting and scene, Participants, Ends, Acts of sequences, Keys, Instrumentalities, Norms and Genre. Because of the conversation between the shopkeepers and the customers was recorded by video recorder, so, the analysis of the context of situation based on the theory of Hymes could be done. The second problem, about the way of the speaker in producing the speech at that they use in their conversation was analyzed qualitatively. It was included in the analysis of the context of situation specifically in the acts of sequences because acts of sequences gave the way how the speaker produced the utterance. As we know it needed the real picture of the conversation to know about act sequences, so, the video recording helped in giving the information about the act sequences of the speaker during the conversation. There are actually eight elements of the theory of Ethnography of Communication proposed by Hymes to analyze the context of the situation. Among eight elements of the theory, there were four elements which were included to analyze the context of the situation in this research, i.e.: setting and scene, participants, ends, and acts sequence. This was because these first four elements were considered relevant enough to describe the context of the situation that would be needed in this study.

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CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE, CONCEPTS, AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

Some points are included to be explained in this chapter. They are explained in sub chapter namely review of literature, concepts, and theoretical framework. The first sub chapter is Review of Literature. It covers a brief explanation about previous studies related to this study which has been done by some students of English Department Faculty of Letters Udayana University. The second one is about the concept which is relevant to support the understanding of speech act. In the concept there are many definitions of speech act from different expert that has different perspectives of what speech act is. There are also similarities of the theory that could be seen in the concept. The last sub chapter is Theoretical Framework. It briefly explains the relevant theories used to analyze the data.

2.1. Review of Literature The study of speech act actually had been done by some researchers. One of them is the graduate paper from Wiweka (2008). In her paper titled Indirect Illocutions in Notting Hill. She analyzed the type of the indirect Illocution that was immerged in the movie Notting Hill. Besides, she also gave the reader context of the situation where the utterance is said by the speaker. She analyzed the context of the situation in the movie in order to interpret the exact interpretation of every speech

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act that appeared in the movie. That is because one utterance could consist of more than one type of act. This makes the paper is worthwhile to be read. It gives the reader clear explanation about the indirect illocution and its interpretation. The data was selected randomly by documentation method. The data was obtain from the movie entitle Notting Hill in which the indirect illocutions are taken from the movies dialogue. The data was analyzed using the theory that is proposed by Searle that is about the functions of speech act. Meanwhile the context of situation where the utterance is uttered is analyzed using the Hymes Mode of Speaking. The data was presented formally. From the study that is held by Wiweka about indirect Illocution in the movie Notting Hill, she concluded that there are four function of indirect illocutionary act that is performed in the movie, i.e. assertive, directives, commissives, and expressive. Besides, each function of illocutionary acts which is indirectly performed bring a totally different intended meaning from what they are literally perform. The different between this study and the study that is held by Wiweka is that in the data that is analyzed in this study is acquired from the shopkeepers and the customers that make this research need observation. In the other hand,

Wiwekas research just analyzed the movie that is not need an observation. Wiwekas analysis is just focusing on the interpretation of the illocution based on the context of the situation meanwhile in this research the used of the speech act will emphasize the way how they produced speech act. The next one is the graduate paper that is made by Mahendra (2009). In her paper entitled The Analysis of Illocutionary Acts Found in Alices Adventures in

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Wonderland, she analyzed the illocutionary act in the story using the theory of speech act that is proposed by Bach and Harnish, especially for its categorization and its meaning. Besides, the theory of the context of situation is also used in the study that is proposed by Hymes. The last theory used is the theory of Natural Semantic Metalanguage. Actually, she used three sorts of theories because each problem in her paper was analyzed by one theory. The first theory that is proposed by Bach and Harnish is used to analyze the first problem of her study that is about the types of illocutionary acts occur in the Children story Alices Adventures in Wonderland. The second theory, the theory of context of situation that is proposed by Hymes is used to analyze the second problem of the study that is about the function of the illocutionary acts that were found in the story. Meanwhile, the metalanguage theory by Wierzbicka is used to analyze the explication of the function of the illocutionary acts that occur in the children story Alices Adventures in Wonderland. The data that is used during the analysis were taken from the children story entitled Alices Adventures in Wonderland that is written by Lewis Carrol (18321898) which is consists of 12 chapters and 152 pages. The method that she used in her research is documentation method. So, there were no respondents or informants involved in this study since the data was taken from the book. Meanwhile, the technique used in the study is taking notes technique. Based on her analysis there are several points that could be concluded related to the problem that had been proposed. The first one is all types of illocutionary acts proposed by Bach and Harnish were found in the children story Alices Adventures in

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Wonderland. They are constantives, directives, commissives, and acknowledgment. Constantives is usually used in which the speaker express his belief of something to the hearer, directives express the speakers desire and become the reason for the hearer to act, commisive usually is used when the speaker obligates oneself to carry out the action, and the last is acknowledgments are used in which the speaker expresses his attitude toward some earlier action. The second point is that there are several functions of each type of illocutionary acts that were found in the story. The first one is constantives illocutionary acts. There were also two functions found, i.e. protesting, and denying. Second is directives illocutionary act. This type consists of requesting, forbidding, and warning. One function of commissive illocutionary acts were found namely offering. And there were three functions of acknowledgments illocutionary act found. They are greeting, apologizing and thanking. The last point is that the theory of Natural Semantic Metalanguage that has an important role in defining the meaning of the illocutionary acts functions. By using this theory and also the concept which is proposed by Wierzbicka, the meaning of the word can be understood well. This theory can also be used to differentiate the words which have similar meaning. The written that is made by Mahendra has three combination theories during the analysis meanwhile in the analysis of this research just use one theory to analyze the entire problem that had been proposed. Besides, her research belongs to documentation method and this research belongs to observation method. It needs observation. During the observation, the involvement of the respondent and informant

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is necessary.

However, this research is still crucial to be read since there is

something unique about this research. It used the theory of Natural Semantic Matalanguage by Wierzbicka that can be used to differentiate the words which have similar meaning. The next research that had been done by Sekarini (2006) is entitled The Analysis of Directive Acts in Novel Jane Eyre which is discussed about types of directive acts and their meaning in the novel Jane Eyre. Directive acts express the speakers attitude toward some prospective action by the hearer and his attention that is his utterance or the attitude taken as reason for the hearer to act. Types of directive acts and their meanings are very influenced by context of situation. One utterance may have different meaning under a certain circumstance. This study was aimed to analyze types Directive Illocutionary Acts and their meanings within the context of situation (which abbreviated in SPEAKING) in novel Jane Eyre. In collecting the data, this study used library research method. Firsly, the novel Jane Eyre was thoroughly read, and then dialogues which containing directive illocutionary acts were randomly taken and listed by using note-taking technique. In order to have deeper analysis, sixteen appropriate data were selected as the corpus. Preceding the analysis, the selected data were presented in the form of dialogue, and then descriptively and qualitatively analyzed based on the theoretical frame work. The analysis of the data was mainly focused on the theory of directive acts proposed by Bach and Harnish (1979), who are mostly influenced by Searles conception; the theory of affective meaning by Leech (1974); and the theory of Ethnography Communication (abbreviated in SPEAKING) by Hymes (1974). Other

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speech acts theories such as the theory of proposed by Austin (1962), Searle (1969,1979), Leech (1983), and Allan (1986) also supported in analyzing the data in this study. The analysis came forward with two conclutions. They were types of directives acts and the meanings of directives acts. Firstly, after determining the utterance under the contex of situation proposed by Hymes (1974), there were six kinds of directive illocutionary acts could be found in the novel Jane Eyre. Those were requestives, questions, requirements, prohibitive, permissives, and advisories. Secondly, the affective meaning of directive acts through the utterances used paradigm cases are request, ask, order/command, forbid, allow, and suggest. One of the journals that had been reviewed is the journal that had been written by Peter G. Broad (1988). This journal entitled They Finally Got the Joke! A Speech-Act Approach to Helping Students Respond Appropriately to Foreign Language Texts. This journal describes the use of speech act to enhance the students understanding of the foreign language through the application of speech act approach. This written convinces us that the problems that are always encountered in the class such as the linguistics variation in the foreign language that make the student lack of the understanding about the language itself. The theory of implicatures that is proposed by H. P. Grice help the researcher in finding the result of the research. This theory offers a way to get the intention o f the readers response as encoded in the text. Grices theory, along with other developments in the theory of perlocutions, makes predictions about how

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readers are supposed to respond to something in the text, whether or not they do respond that way. In the written, author explain us that Once students have learned to think of literary characters as pure language constructs, they are better able to differentiate between such things as story and discourse or plot and theme. Beginning readers can see that the question is not about the autonomy of characters but about the nature of existence. Humor in literary works, especially when it relies on wordplay and detailed cultural knowledge, is probably one of the hardest features for students to appreciate. Here, too, though, a simple introduction to elements of speech-act theory can be useful. This written also gives the reader a way to make the students interesting to read a book in the foreign language. For the example In Lazarillo de Tormes, the sixteenth-century originator of the picaresque genre, examples of language play abound. The following instance is taken from the episode of the squire where Lzaro is trying to save his master from starvation by helping him overcome his pride. The squire has agreed to try some of the pigs knuckle and is clearly enjoying it. Many students may not recognize the reference to the old saying Hunger is the best sauce. But students familiar with Grices maxims will at least be aware of something implied beyond the text and know to seek it out. Lzaro apparently violates the first maxim of quantityMake your contribution as informative as is required (45)when he refers to a better sauce without any further explanation. The clear implication is that something further is to be understood, in this instance one of the central motifs of the work. While an intellectual awareness of what is happening

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does not produce the spontaneous laughter that the text is aiming at, it does at least give the student a greater sense of participation and a basis for enjoying or appreciating the text. The conclusion of this written is that the enhancement of enjoyment and appreciation is probably the most important contribution speech-act act theory has to make in the teaching of literature to undergraduate foreign language students. If students can be taught to recognize that there is more to the texts they are asked to read than a simple story line, their involvement with the process becomes much more complete and much less an exercise in frustration and a matter of trying to figure out what the teacher wants me to see. In the end speech-act theory can enable them to read any text more intelligently and to think critically about what they are doing. This written is very important to read because it gives us a picture about the application of the speech act theory that could be applied in the teaching learning activity that could enhance students language understanding. This application also proves us that the theory of linguistic does not just use to analyze the language itself but also could be implemented in the field that could bring advantages for the user. The difference between this research and the written above is that this research is focusing of the application of the theory of speech act identifying the speech act that is used by the shopkeepers and the customers. Meanwhile, the written above give us the explanation about the application of the theory of speech act in improving students language understanding. The other journal that also writes about speech act is the journal that is written by Jacqueline Nastri entitled The Construction of Away Massages: A Speech act

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Analysis. This study investigated the extent to which these communicative goals are reflected in the language structure of away messages, by examining the speech acts performed through the production of 483 away messages crafted by 44 participants. The messages were also analyzed for the use of non-standard orthography and humor. The results show that the messages were constructed primarily with assertives, followed by 19xpressive and commissives, but rarely with directives, confirming that away messages tend to reflect both informational and entertainment goals. Nonstandard orthography and humor were also common, although experienced participants used fewer non-standard forms than less experienced participants. These findings are discussed in terms of computer-mediated discourse and online selfpresentation. The theory that is used during the analysis is the theory of speech act that is proposed by Searle. According to Searles basic taxonomy, there are five main categories of speech acts. (1) Assertive acts are phrases employed to form in the addressee a specific idea, proposition, or belief (e.g., Out for a while, We won the game!). With assertives speakers commit themselves to something being true. (2) Directive speech acts focus on calling the addressee to action, yet do not require the sender to reciprocate any action of his own (e.g., call the cell). (3) Commissive speech acts relate to committing oneself to a future action. Note that in contrast to assertive speech acts, commissives are not based in current facts (e.g., Going to the gym then class). (4) Expressive speech acts are based on psychological states and relate to the expression of feelings or emotions to the receiver (e.g., Its been a sad day). Expressive speech acts reflect affective reactions to a situation, and therefore

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are not necessarily based on assertions of fact. The fifth category of speech acts is declaratives; according to Clark (1996), this category can be broken down into two subsets, the (5) effective speech acts and (6) verdictive speech acts. This study used a sample population consisting of 49 undergraduate students who were recruited in Spring 2004 from a communication class at a large northeastern university in the United States. The sample consisted of 29 females (59.1%) and 20 males (40.9%), who ranged in age from 18 to 22 years old. Students in the study were given course credit for their participation. Five participants did not produce any away messages; thus the final sample size was reduced to 44 participants. The findings suggest that participants made active use of away messages for self-presentation purposes (Goffman, 1956), a social function that was not necessarily a part of their original design (i.e., indicating absence from computer). Much as we do with clothes, the IM users in this study tended to change their away messages on a daily basis. The quantitatively defined speech act structure (i.e., assertives, commissives, and 20xpressive) reported in the present study, which is assumed to reveal the intentions of the speakers (Searle, 1979), complements the qualitative approach of Baron, et al. (2005), supporting the view that informational and entertainment motivations underlie the construction of away messages. Participants also displayed their personal tastes by using humor and various forms of quotation in many of their away messages. These results paint an overall picture of active and purposeful impression management by means of away messages. This is congruent with Baron, et al.s (2005) proposition that away messaging is onstage or overt

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impression management behavior. It appears that away messages are part of the modern expressive equipment students at U.S. universities use to perform social roles (Goffman, 1956), at least in front of online buddies. This study is worthwhile to be read because the research is the analysis of the speech act in the field of communication technology that could bring us knowledgment about the theory of speech act that could be used in analyzing the data that is related to the field of communication technology. The research also gives us the picture that not all of the types of speech act that is proposed by Searle appeared in the communication. Just few of them appeared during the analysis such as, assertives, directives, and commissives. The different side between the written above and this written is that this written not just classified the speech act that appeared during the communication between the speaker and the customer but also give the way of the speakers in producing speech act itself. Nevertheless, the similarity of this research and the written above is that both of them classified every speech act that appeared during the classification to its classification. 2.2 Concepts In the history of linguistics and the philosophy of language, language was viewed primarily as a way of making factual assertions, and the other uses of language tended to be ignored. However, the work of J.L. Austin led philosophers to pay more attention to the way in which language is used in everyday activities. His student John Searle and some other linguists further developed this approach, the study of speech act form part of discipline of pragmatics, which form part of

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linguistics. John Austin and John Searle, developed speech acts theory from the basic belief that language is used to perform action: thus, its fundamental insights focus on how meaning, used, and action. According to speech act theory, communication is not just a matter of having the intentions are to be recognized, but more specifically of having the intention to perform a particular type of speech act to be recognized. According to Austin (1962), speaking a language is performing speech act, such as making statements, giving commands, asking questions, making promises, etc. Austins specific formulation of speech act theory opens with a distinction between what he calls the constative, that is, an utterance used for stating things, for conveying information, and the performative, that is, an utterance used for doing things, for performing actions. The phrases I now pronounce you husband and wife (when uttered the ship Joseph Stalin, I promise Ill be there, and I bet you five dollars. Austins point is that in making such utterances under the right conditions, speaker performs, respectively, an act of marrying, christening, promising and betting. Searle (1969) states that speaking a language is engaging in a rule govern form of behavior and in so speaking we are performing speech acts, such as making statements, asking questions, making promises, and so forth; and more abstractly, acts such as referring and predicating. Searle also states that: The unit of linguistic communication is not, as has generally been supposed, the symbol, word or sentence, or even the token of the symbol, word, or sentence, but rather the production of issuance of the symbol or word or sentence in the performance of speech acts. More precisely, the production or issuance of a sentence token under certain condition is a speech act, and speech acts are the basic minimal unit of linguistic communication.

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(Searle, 1969:16) Bach and Harnish (1979:39) concluded that speech acts are the acts of communication. To communicate is to express a certain attitude, and the type of speech act being performed corresponds to the type of attitude being expressed. For example, a statement express belief, a request express desire, and an apology express regret. Levinson (1983:234) states that speech acts are irreducible to matters of truth and falsity. First, all utterance not only serve to express proposition, but also perform action. Second, of the many ways in which one could say that in uttering some linguistic expression a speaker was doing something, there is one privileged level of action that can be called the illocutionary-or, more simply, the speech act. Another linguist, Allan (1986:64) proposes the language come into existence only because some performs an act of speaking or writing. Speech occurs when a speaker produces an acoustic signal that represents a thought, idea, or message to be conveyed to the hearer who decodes the signal to arrive at a similar message. Speaker is said to have perform an act through an utterance, such as the act of stating a fact or opinion, the act of confirming or denying, making prediction, or request, giving command, etc. According to Yule (2000) in expressing their mind, people do not only produce utterance containing grammatical structures and words but also performs acts via those utterances. Actions performed via utterance are generally called speech acts. (Yule, 2000: 47). In addition, there is a certain circumstance that surrounds the

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performance of speech acts so that the particular speech act can be recognized and interpreted by the hearer. Levinson views that of all the issues of the general theory of language usage, speech act theory was probably aroused the widest interest (1987:226). This statement gives an interpretation that speech act seems to be the most discussable issue which is sliding from time to time. On the other hands, Bach (1979) argued that speech acts are the acts of communication. He states to communicate is to express a certain attitude and the type of speech act being performed corresponds to the type of attitude being expressed. According to Hymes (1981) In order to speak a language correctly, one needs not only to learn its vocabulary and grammar, but also the context in which words are used, this context what we called the context of the situation. Hymes developed a valuable model to assist the identification and labeling of components of linguistic interaction that was driven by his view of the need of this context in order to speak a language correctly. The model had sixteen components that can be applied to many sorts of discourse: message form; message content; setting; scene; speaker/sender; addressor; hearer/receiver/audience; addressee; purposes (outcomes); purposes (goals); key; channels; forms of speech; norms of interaction; norms of interpretation; and genres. Context of situation is a term that is first introduced by Malinowski. He states the utterance becomes only intelligible when it is placed within its context of situation. Halliday (1985: 137) states that the critical position of the context beyond the situation as quite explicit: language is the ability to mean in the situation, or

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social, context as a product of a complex interaction between the large culture and the means of its creation. It is the process of continuous movements through the system, a process which both express the higher orders of meaning that constitute the social semiotic the meaning system f culture, and all the same lime changes, and modifies the system.

2.3 Theoretical Framework There are two sorts of theories that will be used in the analysis. They are the theory of speech act and the theory of the context of situation. The first theory that will be use in the analysis is the theory that is proposed by Searle. There are three component of speech act that are simultaneously performed when saying something. 1. Locutionary act: saying something (the locution) with a certain meaning in traditional sense. This may not constitute a speech act. 2. Illocutionary act: the performance of an act in saying something (vs. the general act of saying something). The illocutionary force is the speakers intent. A true speech act. e.g. informing, ordering, warning, undertaking. 3. Perlocutionary acts: Speech acts that have an effect on the feelings, thoughts or actions of either the speaker or the listener. In other words, they seek to change minds! Unlike locutionary acts, perlocutionary acts are external to the performance. e.g., inspiring, persuading or deterring.

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Two types of locutionary act are utterance acts, where something is said (or a sound is made) and which may not have any meaning, and propositional acts, where a particular reference is made. (note: acts are sometimes also called utterances thus a perlocutionary act is the same a perlocutionary utterance). Searle (1976) proposed that there are just five basic kinds of action that one can perform in speaking. According to Searles basic taxonomy, there are five main categories of speech acts. (1) Assertive acts are phrases employed to form in the addressee a specific idea, proposition, or belief (e.g., Out for a while, We won the game!). With assertives speakers commit themselves to something being true. (2) Directive speech acts focus on calling the addressee to action, yet do not require the sender to reciprocate any action of his own (e.g., call the cell). (3) Commissive speech acts relate to committing oneself to a future action. Note that in contrast to assertive speech acts, commissives are not based in current facts (e.g., Going to the gym then class). (4) Expressive speech acts are based on psychological states and relate to the expression of feelings or emotions to the receiver (e.g., Its been a sad day). Expressive speech acts reflect affective reactions to a situation, and therefore are not necessarily based on assertions of fact. The fifth category of speech act is declarations. Declarations are illocutionary acts whose effect could immediately change the institutional state of affairs. Examples of this class are declaring, christening, pronouncing, excommunicating, etc. the successful performance of one of its members brings about the correspondence between the propositional content correspond to the world, for example, if a judge sentences somebody into jail, then he becomes a prisoner who is in jail.

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These speech acts are illustrated in Table 1.

Speech act

Properties of speech act Statements of fact, getting the

Examples At the library, I have class until 5 today, out

Assertive viewer to form or attend to a belief The sender uses this to get the call me, pick me up at 8, Directive receiver to do something (i.e. a call the cell command) The sender commits himself to do Commissive something you at 7, bars all night I hate this weather, Sender expresses feeling towards Expressive the receiver Fridays Youre fired, Play ball, To change an institutional state of Declarative affairs fined Chapter at 7 or youre School sucks, I love be back at 5, Ill meet

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The second theory is the theory of the context of the situation that is proposed by Hymes. To facilitate the application of his representation, Hymes constructed the acronym, S-P-E-A-K-I-N-G, under which he grouped the sixteen components within eight divisions: Setting and Scene Setting refers to the time and place, i.e. the concrete physical circumstances under which the speech act takes place. Scene includes charactics such as range of formality and scene of play and seriousness. Within a particular setting, participants are free to change scene the level of formality. Participants The participants are speaker and the hearer. These are about who produces utterances and who receives them. It can also be said as sender-receiver, or addresser-addressee. Inaddition, element of participants also includes the relationship and social demention (solidarity or social distance and social status or power) among them. Ends Ends are the conventionally recognized and expected effects or outcomes of an exchange as well as the personal goals that the participants expected to accomplish in speech acts. This includes goals, purposes, and outcomes of the speech acts. Act Sequence Acts sequence is about the content and actual form of what is said. That is the precise words used, how they are used and the relationship of what is said to the actual topic at the moment in which the conversation takes place. This aspect thus can give description of what the speaker means by his utterance.

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Key Key refers to the ways of used by the participants of the exchange in performing speech acts. Keys include the tone and the manner in using the language; whether it is light-hearted, serious, mocking, sarcastic, pompous, etc. The key of speech act can also be marked non-verbally by certain kinds of behavior, gesture, posture, or even department.

Instrumentalities This element refers to the means of communication used in performing the speech act. It includes the channel employed during the speech act and the forms of speech language, dialect, etc. the channels of speech acts can be differentiated between verbal and non-verbal. Norms Norms are specific behaviors and properties in speaking and also how this may be viewed by someone who shared them. Norms of interaction and interpretation are varied according to the participants social status. Genre Genre is the categories, topics of the conversation. it refers to distinguish types of utterances, such as poems, proverbs, sermon, prayers, lectures, and editorials. They are all marked in specific ways in contrast to casual speech.

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CHAPTER III SPEECH ACT USED BY THE CUSTOMER AND THE SHOPKEEPER DURING BUYING AND SELLING ACTIVITIES

This chapter includes finding and analysis of the speech act found in the conversation between the shopkeeper and the customer during buying and selling activity. Very type of speech act is found in the conversation and they are briefly explained include the context in which the utterance is said. There are five function of speech act found in the conversation between the shopkeeper and the customer. They are Assertives, Directives, Commisive, Expressive, and Declarations. All of the five types of speech act could be found in the conversation since the surrounding suspend for the speaker to produce all kinds of the type of speech act. The analysis presented in this chapter represents the whole findings. Not all of the utterances said by the shopkeepers and the customers are analyzed in this chapter. A few of them were chosen as representations of the whole. The chosen is based on the categorization of the type of speech act found in the conversation. For the example there are three utterances are chosen to represent the assertive type of speech act appeared in the conversation. there are four conversations are used as the data source. Every speech act analyzed is from that conversation. the number of the conversation is also given to enable the reader to figure out in which conversation this data is taken from.

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The analysis is represented by firstly showing the data in the form of a piece of conversation of the shopkeepers and the customers during buying and selling activities. The utterance which will be analyzed is bold typed. Then, the context of the situation is described mainly from its setting and scene, participants, ends, and act sequence. Next, the analysis of every type of speech act is presented.

3.1 Assertives There are three utterance used as samples for Assertive type of speech act. They are taken from different conversation. Both of the conversation is taken in Kuta district.

Data 1: C: Five, for one fifty. S: no, one hundred for one. C: for one, no, its too much.. S: its good.. C: I go to five area and they gave seventy, now one hundred ah.. S: how much you want? (C2) Context of the situation: 1. Setting and scene The dialogue is taken in Kuta district. Precisely in Popies Line 2 street Kuta. This street is similar with the street in which the conversation 1 takes place. This place is really crowded by the foreigner who spends their day in

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Bali. The shop in which the conversation is taken place is the shop in the corner of the shop complex. This shop is very strategic because the location is exactly in a bend of the road. This is the way to the Hotel where the foreigners stay. The name of the shop is Kunti shop. This shop is a small shop which sells many foot wears, bags and wallets. There is a small mirror in which the customer could see their foot with the sandals they try in the shop. The foot wears is put out side the shop. In the front, the customer could choose many wallets from Prada to D&G. The bag is also put in the front in order to enable the customer to be easy in choosing the bag the wants to buy. Besides, it is also easier for the pedestrians to see the bags so that they could spend a few minutes to see and to buy the bags they want. In front of the shop, there is a small chair where the shopkeeper sits waiting for the foreigners who have intention to try many footwear or choosing many bags and wallet. The paving extend in the front of the shop in which the pedestrians walk from the beach to their hotel located in Poppies area. In front of the paving, the poppies street is passed by the motor cycles and cars. This small street became crowed of their existence. The scene of this conversation is informal situation. The conversation is recorded in the evening when there are a lot of foreigner walk passing the shop to the hotel where they live. It was 19.15 P.M. on 19 of August 2009. It was the time in which the place was really crowded by the foreigner. 2. Participants

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The participant of this conversation is the shopkeeper and the customer. The shopkeeper is Balinese woman named Sang Ayu Putu Darmianti. She lives in Jalan Poppies line 1 Gang Sorga Cott. She is twenty two and just graduated from Diploma III of English Department, Udayana University. She is not married. Her parents own the shop and she always helps her parents to sell the goods in the shop in the evening. She is the oldest child in her family. She has one brother. 3. Ends. The purpose of the speaker in uttering the utterance I go to five area and they gave seventy, now one hundred ah.. is to complain through informing the shopkeeper that he has visited several shops in Poppies line 2, but the result is that he got more expensive price in this shop. 4. Act Sequence The shopkeeper and the customer are involving in the bargain activity. In uttering this utterance the customer use his kind of gesture in conjunction with the utterance. The gesture is just a kind of style. The style he used during his speaking likes a rapper. He moves his hands very often. It just likes a rapper who has a show on the stage. In saying this utterance, he shows the expression just like the expression of somebody who complains something. When he complains to the shopkeeper he said I go to five area and they gave seventy now one hundred ah.. then the shopkeeper give her respond to the customer by saying S: how much you want?

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If we see in a glace the sentence that the customer says I go to five area and they gave seventy is actually such kind of reporting. He wants to report the shopkeeper about the price of the stuff that becomes higher in that shop. But if we see the context of the utterance itself, this utterance is actually more than just a repot of the customer to the shopkeeper about the price of the stuff that he wants to buy. So what this utterance might belong to? Before answering that question, lets considering about the reason why the customer says this utterance. This utterance in fact said when the speaker wanted to reveal his disappointment to the shopkeeper. He actually had entered several shops before finally he came to the shop where this video was taken. He had asked for the price of the good he wanted to buy. Unfortunately, in this shop he got the highest price he had ever asked. So, he revealed his disappointment by saying this utterance. He wanted the shopkeeper to know that he had gone to several shops that gave him a lower price than in this shop. He thought that at this shop he would get the lower price but the fact is the apposite. The other reason of his disappointment could be the price of the wallet that is not suit with the worth of the good he wanted to buy. He actually wanted to buy some wallet for a good price that he thought might be appropriate for those kinds of goods. That made him tried to enter a lot of shop to ask the price of the stuff. Hopefully he could get the best price although the fact is not as what he expected to. He thought that the price the shopkeeper gave to him was not appropriate for those kinds of wallet. The shopkeeper actually wanted him to pay for one hundred thousand rupiah for one piece. In the other hand, he actually did not think that the wallet is not as

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much as expensive. So that he bargain it more and more until he got exhausted to bargain it because the shopkeeper had fixed with her price. Because of his disappointment that knows the price become higher and higher. The customer actually also complain about the price given to him is very high that is much higher than the price given by the other shopkeepers. We can see in the conversation that the customer say I go to five area and they gave seventy, now one hundred ah.. is a complaining about the price given. The price that increases from seventy to one hundred is a trouble for customer to but something that he wants because he does not get the lower price but in fact he got a higher price given by the shopkeeper. 1The fluctuation of the price often happens during selling and buying activities in Bali, especially if the customer goes from one shop to the other shop. This inconsistent price given by shopkeeper always become a trouble that make the customers got confused in deciding to buy something that he or she wants. This customer is one of the victims of this circumstance that could make him very mad because of the unstable price that could be higher from one place to the other places. The customer gives her responds in the conversation that prove the utterance is recognized as a complaint by the shopkeeper. This could be seen through the responds given by the shopkeeper. When the customer complain the price that is more expensive that the other shop, then the shopkeeper offer him the price he wants. That is why the shopkeeper produces the utterance how much you want? this utterance means that she give the customer to price the wallets he wants to buy. If the
1

This uncertain condition of the price in the buying and selling activities could happen in certain places. It is not always happen during buying and selling activities. In some cases the price could higher or in the other cases it could be cheaper.

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price in the other shop could be cheaper and in this shop is more expensive, he could propose his own price actually to get the best price. This proves that the shopkeeper has successfully recognized the utterance as a complaint of the customer about the price of the wallets so that she gives a solution by allowing the customer to give price to the wallets he wants to buy. This circumstance is a common thing during bargain activity. The customers will complaint about the price that the price in this shop is more expensive that that shop. So that the shopkeepers will give the chance to the customer to give the price to the stuff they want to buy. This act could also make the shopkeepers to think one more to give an expensive price to the customers because they know that the customers have known the price of the stuff they want to buy from the other shop. This act often success in decreasing drastically the price given by the shopkeeper. So, the customer would be easily getting a cheaper price from the shopkeepers for the stuff they want to buy. So, it is clear that the customer complains about the price of the wallet he wants to buy that higher than the other shops he has visited before. The next matter is could complaint belong to the type of speech act, assertive? To answer this question we should know what complaint is. According to Oxford Learners Dictionary complaint is a reason for not being satisfied; a statement that somebody makes saying that they are not satisfied. In this context, it is clear that this refers to the dissatisfaction of the customer of the price of the stuff that he expresses using reporting the other cheaper price from the other shop. But how could this complaint could belong to assertive? In assertive, the point of the utterance is to commit the

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speaker to something being the case. The preparatory condition of Assertive class is S has evidence, reason, etc for the truth of P. So, the complaint is actually a member of Assertive class. Based on the explanation above it could be concluded that I go to five area and they gave seventy is an Assertive.

Data 2: C: how much? S: one hundred and twenty. (C1) Context of the situation: 1. Setting and scene The conversation above is taken place in Kuta district. This is one of the districts in Badung regency. This regency is one of the eight regency that spread a long the west coast of Bali. Kuta is well known for its tourism industry. It is the heart of the tourism destination in Bali. Most of the foreigners who came to Bali spend most of their day to enjoy the beauty of Kuta. Kuta does not just offer the amazing panorama of its white sand beach, but it also offers the tourist the heaven of shopping. Hundreds of shops and mall are spread in the district. Even though, in the narrow street we can find the sellers who offer their goods to the foreigners. The shops are diverse from the high class shops that offer tourist the expensive Gucci bag to the standard one that sell the local product. From the most gorgeous gown of Altamoda to the amazing art of Ubud painting can

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be found here. There are also a lot of shops that sell the brand, such as Prada, Billabong, Giordano, CalvinClein, Guess, Suffer girls, Volcome, Dolce and Gabbana and the others. Although in the big mall and shops the sellers give the fix price, but in the traditional market that runs by the local people the tourist can challenge their bargain ability. Every stuff in the shop that runs by the local can be bargained, from Prada bag, Dolce and Gabbans wallet to the fantastic local handicraft that is really appropriate to be your merchandise can be found here. One of the local shops that run by the Balinese is located exactly in Poppies line 2. It is one of the most crowed spot in Kuta. This area is full of the hotels, restaurant, and shopping center. There are hundreds of shops that can also be found in Poppies line 2. But the local shops are dominated the shopping area of the spot. Most of the shops are own by the local people. The narrow space of this street compelled the tourist to walk in the side walk that lay just in the side of the street. Through this pavement, the tourist can fill their vision with a lot of stuff offered by the seller. It is like there are no boundaries that the sellers have with the guest. They just offer the goods that they sell to the guest that pass the pavement in front of their shop. They never consider whether the tourist tend to buy their goods or not, but their way in offering the goods is just the attraction that may catch the peoples attention to buy something in their shops. One of the art shop that involve in poppies line 2 is Kencana art shop. This art shop is own by Nyoman Sumerti and established in 1988. This small

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art shop mostly sells handicrafts and various products of ceramics. From the big ceramic pot to the small ashtray can be found in here. It is not very difficult to find this art shop from Kuta Beach. It is just few meters to the west. From the main road, Jalan Pantai Kuta we can turn right to the west and enter the poppies line 2 street and go street down, after finding the curve just turn left. Then, in the left side of the street we can find several shops that line from the south to the north of the street. This shop is just in the middle of the shops that line the street. This strategic location made this are is very crowed by the tourists who spend their day in Kuta Beach. The hotel where the tourists stay just few meters from this spot that make this are is more accessible to them. Outside the shops we can see the cars and motor cycles pass the small road a long with the pedestrians. The street is also filled with the locals who offer their assistance in transportation service. They are called ojek. Ojek is a motor taxi that can get the tourists to some places that they want to. This ojek are spread inside the art shop in poppies line 2. Inside the art shop where the shop keepers put their goods we can see the ceramic products and many handicrafts are arranged neatly. Of course the better the shop the more tourists will be attracted. There are also some Chinese ornaments that we can see hang on in the middle of the art shop. The paintings are hanged on up the wall to enable the customers to see the beauty of the paintings from the distance. Below the paintings we can see several wood handicrafts that are handmade and are showed on the rack that put on

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the wall. In the middle we can also see a table than fill with wood handicraft and ceramic products. The customer can go in side and see the goods directly before they buy. There is still small space available between the stuff, and there the customers bargain the things that they want to buy. The conversation is taken on 19th of august 2009. It was 06.42 P.M. the people who had finished their activity just coming back to their hotel at that time. They pass this art shop if they want to reach their hotel from the beach. That circumstance makes the spot are crowded in the evening that became a great opportunity for the shopkeepers to offers their stuff to the customers. Meanwhile, the scene of the conversation above is in informal situation. It happens two minutes and twenty eight second. Between the customer and the shopkeeper do not know each other and never had contact before. 2. Participants The participants involves in the conversation above is an Australian man that is about in his forties and the local shopkeeper that is about in her fifties. The local shopkeeper is Ni Nyoman Sumerti. Ni is the initial name for women in Bali. Balinese has no standard American names that consist of first name, middle name and family name. But there are also many rules that Balinese has to follow in giving name to their children. Most of the traditional Balinese woman has the initial Ni in their names and I for man. Nyoman is the

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standard name for the third children in the house. Every third children in Balinese family will have Nyoman or Koman in their name. Nyoman sumerti is just like a typical Balinese woman who has brown skin, dark hair and approximately one hundred and sixty meter high. She is one of the local people who is originally from Kuta district and lives there with her family members. She spent most of her life selling stuff in the beach before she has her own shop in Poppies line 2. Because of that she has no time to continuing her study to junior high school. She just finishes her study at elementary school. The financial condition of her family at that time compelled her to work hard in supporting her family financial situation. Probably that circumstance makes her English is not as good as educated people. She makes a lot of mistakes in grammar and word choices. As long as she can understand what the speaker says everything is under control. So does the foreigner, they understand the lack of their interlocutor in producing English. Nyoman is not the only shopkeeper that has this insufficiency, but most of the seller in this area has also this condition because most women in their age have no sufficient education background. For most of Balinese in 1960s education is unimportant for them. They live as a farmer; just few of them have the idea that education is important. Meanwhile her younger assistant, Tuik, is just in her twentieth. When the recording was taken, Nyoman and her younger assistant talk to the foreigner that had an intention to buy her things. There were three people actually who entered the shop but just one of them bought the good.

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He is the person that was recorded. He is Australian that looked like in his thirties. He is a white man with his blue eyes and brown hair. He just likes the other Australians that often visit Bali. 3. Ends. The end of this conversation is to achieve the most appropriate price agreed both by the seller and the customer. This is the function of bargaining; it will give the customers the lowest price that she or he expected from the goods that she or he buys. Meanwhile, the seller is also challenge to rising up the price of the goods that the customer wants. The seller will maintain the price that she expected and will pursued the customer to buy the stuff with the price that she wants. This bargaining activity will end if both had got the price that is agreed. 4. Act Sequence Two pedestrians were just coming back from their activity in the beach, when the shopkeepers kept her shop and waited for the customers to buy their stuff. Two of the pedestrians who are both Australians were watching the handicraft that attracted their attention. They went inside the shop that own by Nyoman and saw around the shop to find the best thing that might catch their eye and their intention to buy something that might be very fascinated for them in a good price. After seeing many goods available in that shop, one of them seemed attracted by one of the handicraft that was put on the table. It was a small piece of jewelry box that is paint in the natural color

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just made it resemble with the natural wood. He took it and hold it on his hand. He saw it carefully before he decided to bargain the handicraft to get the best price that the shopkeeper could offer. After a few minutes, he finally asked the price of the handicraft to the younger shopkeeper and began the conversation with how much? he produces this utterance in accordance with bringing the handicraft in his hands. He observes the detail of the handicraft the wants to buy. He split the handicraft to see the inside of it. The small brown handicraft is just a tiny thing available in the shop. He even could open it easily and observe it very detail. His eyes never move to the other direction. They just focus on the handicraft in his hands. Then the younger shopkeeper with her Balinese accent said one hundred and twenty. She said the utterance with taking the handicraft from the hands of the customer and asked her aunt about the price and then the younger shopkeeper said the price of the stuff one hundred and twenty. The production of this utterance is accompanied by the glance of the shopkeeper directly to the eyes of the shopkeeper. She tries to ensure the customer that the handicraft is actually worth for one hundred and twenty. With the handicraft in her hand and her eyes directly focusing on the customers the shopkeeper responds to the question of the shopkeeper by saying one hundred and twenty. One hundred and twenty is actually the price of the handicraft that the customer wants to buy. Before analyzing what kind of speech act this utterance, the

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reason why the speaker produces this utterance should be find out in order to make the analysis structurally. This reason will help the analysis why this utterance could belong to certain type of speech act. The first reason why the speaker produces this utterance because of the lack of the information of the customer that does not know the price of the handicraft he wants to buy. Because of the need of the customer about the information of the price of the handicraft he wants to buy, he asks the price of it to the shopkeeper. So, this information fulfills the requirement that the customer need to decide whether he should buy it or not. This information will affect the end of the conversation whether he buys it or no. if the price is too high the customer may not buy it. The second reason why the shopkeeper produced this utterance is to respond to the customer curiosity of the price of the handicraft. When someone asks a question to the other, the answer will be given as soon as possible. It is not polite if someone do not answer the questions being asked. In this context, the shopkeeper wants the conversation goes on well so she gives the answer of the question needed by the customer. This answer will fill up the curiosity of the customer about the price of the handicraft. Besides, the respond given by the shopkeeper of the price implicates that the customer understood the intention of the customer that needs the information that he does not know. So from the explanation above we know that the shopkeepers respond the curiosity of the customer by using this utterance. Here, the shopkeeper gives a report to respond the question of the customer and to fill his need of the information about the price of the stuff that he wants to buy. So, it could be concluded that this utterance

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is a report of the customer in order to respond to the customers curiosity of the price of the stuff. According to Wierzbicka (1987) to report means to say something true which is witnessed by the speaker. Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary defines report as act of giving spoken or written account of something heard, seen, done, studies, etc. therefore, the information given by the shopkeeper is a kind of report. In this case the shopkeeper say the name of the price that actually needed by the customer. The report given by the shopkeeper by saying one hundred and twenty has been successfully recognized as a report by the customer. The customer gives his responds based on the report he has. From the video recording, it could be seen that the customer say No no. In responding the report given by the shopkeeper. This respond implies that the report given by the shopkeeper bring a bad impact for him. It is why he does not give a good respond to the report given by the shopkeeper. If this utterance is a report how could this report belong to assertive? Act of reporting belongs to Assertive class since it commits the speaker to something being the case. The propositional content of this utterance which belongs to this type could be tested, whether it is true or false. The utterance utters by the speaker is one hundred and twenty. The property is whether it is true or false that the price of the handicraft is one hundred and twenty. So based on the explanation above, it can be concluded that one hundred and twenty is belong to the type of speech act Assertive.

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Data 3: S: How much you want? C: I go along actually, whats your very best price? (C1) Context of the situation: 1.
2

Setting and scene

Location : Kencana Art shop Jalan Poppies 2 Kuta District, Badung Regency-Bali Date Time : 19 of August 2009 : 08.48 P.M.

The scene is in informal situation 2. Participants Name Address Age Education Marital status 3. Ends. The ends of this utterance are to convince the shopkeeper that the speaker as the customer in the conversation that he has visited several shops before he visits this shop. This act is used by the customer to get the best price : Ni Nyoman Sumerti : Jl. Kubu Anyar no 20 Kuta-Bali : 49 : graduated from elementary school : Married

The complete information of the situation and the identity of the shopkeeper have been explained above.

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from the shopkeeper so that he could bring the handicraft home with a cheap price not as expensive as the price given previously. 4. Act Sequence The customer is the speaker of the utterance. In producing this utterance he acts as if he is very disappointed with the price given by the shopkeeper. He moves to ward the outside of the shop as if he would leave the shop. It just likes the act of the customer who wants to leave the shop because of the expensive price of the stuff. He does not show his interest in doing bargain activity. That is why the shopkeeper moves toward him and show the handicraft to him. In producing the utterance Im go along actually, whats your very best price? the customer moves his fingers to convince the shopkeeper that he has visited several shop before he comes to this shop. The moves of his fingers are actually successful in convincing the customer. That is why she then, shows the handicraft to him and approaches him to attract him to buy the handicraft and not to leave the shop. His girl friend is just besides him when he produces this utterance. She does not say anything. She just let her boyfriend to bargain the handicraft sells in that shop. Indeed, she follows the moves her boyfriend to leave the shop. She moves toward the outside of the shop. Meanwhile, her boyfriends eyes focusing on the shopkeepers because they are arguing about the most appropriate price for the handicraft that he wants.

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I go along actually is said when the speaker responds to the question of the hearer. In the other hand, this utterance is not match if we use it as the answer of the question. The question is How much you want? and the answer is I go along actually, whats your very best price? how much you want is actually a question asked by the shopkeeper to know about the price that the customer wants. In the other hand, the customer does not give the answer of the question. Indeed he gives the responds that does not actually not the answer of the question, How much you want? in fact, the question how much you want? actually should be answered by the price of the customer wants. But this case he does not do that. If the context of the situation of this utterance is seen, the question and the respond are actually not matched. This utterance is actually said when the bargaining activities happens during customer and shopkeeper. The customer wants the cheaper price than the price given by the shopkeeper. That is why when the shopkeeper asks the question; the customer gives that kind of respond to the shopkeeper. This is just one of the customs in bargaining culture where the customer determines the price of the stuff. In Bali, we actually could determine the price of the thing that we want to buy. From the context of the situation, it has been clear that this conversation is taken place in Bali, where the shopkeeper is a Balinese and the customer is a foreigner. Although the shopkeeper who is notably a Balinese woman, she could not take no notice of her culture when she speaks to the foreigner. Moreover, the conversation is taken place in Bali, where the custom originally comes from. So, it is easily for the foreigner to understand the culture and get used to it.

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So, from the explanation above we could conclude that the first reason of this utterance could appear in the conversation because the customer wants the lower price than the price given by the shopkeeper. He thinks that the price given is very high and it could actually lower than the price which the shopkeeper given. The second reason is because of the culture influence. The bargaining culture in Bali that allows the customer to determine the price and the customer could make the price lower than the price given by the shopkeeper. There is actually one more reason why the customer produces this utterance. This is the most crucial reason that will affect the respond of the shopkeeper to the customer. The customer actually wants to convince the shopkeeper that he has visited several shops before finally he visited this shop. And he wants to convince the shopkeeper that he also know the price of the stuff in the other shop. This will determine the decision to release the stuff with a high or lower price. The reason why the customer convinces the shopkeeper that he has visited several shops is to make the shopkeeper believes that he has known the price in the other shop so that the shopkeeper can allow her to take the handicraft with a lower price. The utterance of the customer in convincing has been successfully recognized the shopkeeper. This could be seen through the respond given by the shopkeeper to the customer. She says Okey, less less Convincing is one of the members of assertive type of speech act. As defined by Oxford Advance Learners dictionary, to convince means to cause somebody believes that something is being the case. In this utterance, the speaker causes the other participants to believe that he has visited several shops. Convincing itself could

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belong to Assertive type of speech act because it commits the speaker to something being the case. In saying this utterance the speaker commits himself that he has visited several shops before. Therefore, it can be concluded that this utterance is belong to the type of speech act assertive.

3.2 Directives There are three speech acts in the conversation between the shopkeepers and the customers are used to be the samples in the analysis for directives type of speech act.

Data 4: C: beautiful! S: going to the temple, if going to the temple, ya, ceremony in Bali. C: ceremony, ya, beautiful. Do you have a white? S: a white, (C3) Context of the situation: 1. Setting and scene The recording is done in one of the shops in Sanur area. This shop is named Jinggo Leather Fashion. It is located in Jalan Danau Tamblingan 132, Sanur-Bali. The location is actually a nice place in Sanur area. This location is very strategic because it is the center of the tourism area in Sanur. The hotel spread out in this area makes this place always full of the visitors. The visitors are also varied from the Japanese to European full the place every single day.

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This street has been famous for the center of the industrial area in Sanur. The attraction in this place is not actually the shops spread in this area. The most interesting thing for the foreigner when they came to this place is the beach. The beach is located few maters from the shop in which the foreigner do the buying and activity in the recording. There are many beaches in this area. The nearest beach from this shop is Sindu beach. It is just one kilometer from this place In front of the shop, there is a restaurant for the foreigner. The restaurant is exactly located across the shop. So, the foreigners who have their lunch in the restaurant could see the things sells in this shop. The restaurant sells many European foods. It could be seen from the menu shows in the front, such as Spanish tapas and Italian pasta. The restaurant looks very luxurious. It may provide the best quality of the food for the foreigner. It may be one of the most expensive restaurants in the area. It is a big contrary between the luxurious restaurant and the unpretentious shop which are located face to face in this area. The mix of the plain building and the modern one makes this area full of the diversity. The street spreads along between them is not as crowded as the other streets in Denpasar. It is very calm. The surrounding incredibly reflexes the sense of the tourism destination that should be clam, friendly, and full of peace. Besides restaurants, there are also many Hotels built in this area. One of the biggest and located near the shop is Grand Hyatt. This hotel is located approximately one meter from the shop in which the recording was taken. The

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guess of the hotel could be the foreigners who always crowd the area. There are actually the other hotels near the shop, but they are not as big as the Grand Hyatt. Besides hotel, a few meters from the shop there is a big supermarket built for the foreigner and the local. This supermarket always crowds by the local people and the foreigner. There are many things could be find in that place, such as food, books, dvds, etc. The shop itself is a small place in which the customers who visit it could find many clothes. From the cloth to Slendang could be found in this small place. The clothes sold here are varied form the one which is colorful to the one who as rare paint in it. All of them are shown in side the shop. There is also a mirror in side the shop. This mirror probably used by the customers when they try the clothes sold in this shop. It is put in one of the corner inside the shop. The shopkeepers house is exactly beside the shop. There is a small door which connects the shop and her house. This is an easy access for the shopkeeper to move from her house to her shop. She does not need to stay in her shop all day long. She just needs to go to her shop if there are customers visit her shop. Even, when the customer in the recording enters the shop there was no one who attends the shop. When she shouts, the shopkeeper comes from the small door which connected her house and her shop. She probably stays at home rather than attending her shop. This is probably because there is no customer visits her shop before the customer in the recording come to her shop. In the other hand, the scene of this conversation is informal situation.

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2. Participants The participants in this conversation are the shopkeeper named Jero Jepun and the customer named Donna. Jero Jepun is a house wife of a man who is notably not originally from this are. The husband is from Taban Regency. He moves to this are several years ago. Then they bought this place from the local people to build a shop they own. She has two children, a girl and a boy. The older one has been marries to a Balinese girl. Her husband is a guide and her son works in one of the hotel in Nusa Dua area. She is the only one in her family who takes care of the shop. She could help the family financial situation fro selling the clothes in the shop so that she remain run her shop rather than closed it. Although the tourism industry in Bali often gets a bad impact of the global economic crisis or the travel warning for many countries, this shop could still run the function to be one of the nice places for the foreigner to shop during their holidays in Bali. Although she said that there are many problems she faced if the tourism industry in Bali turning down, she has no idea to close the shop because this is the only one she could do in her fifties to support the financial condition of her family. She graduated from junior high school. She has no ability in speaking English at that time. When she starts her business in selling fashion product she just learns it by practicing the language every day. The contact with the foreigner makes her ability better and better in speaking English. Sometimes she learns the language by asking her friend about the translation of particular

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word in Bahasa to English. She practices what she learns from her friend everyday. This daily contact with the foreigner probably is the caused of her ability in speaking English. She actually learns English at school but it gives no contribution to her. She never understood the lesson at school so that she gets nothing that could be applied at the real life. Meanwhile, the customer is an Australian. She has a holiday in Bali since she got holiday to travel to Bali and Singapore. She spends three days in Bali and four days in Singapore. She wants to find a cloth for her self and a log of gifts for her friends in Australia. She walks around the complex of the art shop in this area to find the items she wants. There she could find a lot of choices from the handicraft to the fashion product for the gift that she could give to her friends in Australia. This shop is the first shop she visited in that area. She plans that she will visit more than one shop to find all of the things she needs. 3. Ends. The end of the utterance is to make the shopkeeper to do something for her. In this case the speaker wants the shopkeeper t find a white cloth for herself. The shopkeeper knows how to find the white cloth for herself, so that the customer believe that she could ask the shopkeeper do that for her. 4. Act Sequence In producing this utterance the speaker bring a small bag in his shoulder. She stared directly to the eyes of the shopkeeper. She wants to convince the shopkeeper that she really needs a white one. She stood asking

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the shopkeeper to find a white cloth for her, meanwhile the shopkeeper seriously responding the request of the customer in searching the white cloth for herself. Before producing this utterance, she has tried the cloth chosen before. She produces this utterance with the cloth in her body. Then, she kindly asks the shopkeeper to find the white cloth for herself. At this circumstance the production of the utterance Do you have a white? happens. It was exactly after the customer tries the cloth and the Slendang she produces this utterance. The shopkeepers respond is immediately given after she produces the utterance. The shopkeeper spontaneously said a white. Then, she moves toward the series of the cloth hand on the wall of her shop. Then, she found the white cloth with the silk-screen in it. This utterance is being said when the speaker want to see the white cloth available in the shop. She had looked around to see the white cloth for herself, but could not see the white one that she wanted. She believed that the shopkeeper knew the white cloth that she wanted. So that she asked the shopkeeper about it. After the customer asked about it, the shopkeeper searched for the white cloth that she wanted immediately. Unfortunately the white cloth she wanted did not available at that time in that shop. At least, the speech act produced by the customer actually had been successful in the communication because the shopkeeper act immediately after the utterance was said. The structure of the sentence above is actually a question. This structure is not actually as same as the structure of imperative that could be used to make someone to

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do something for the speaker. In fact, this yes no question had been successfully made the hearer to do something for the speaker. In this case the successful of the customer to made the shopkeeper to act as what she wanted. Although in this case the shopkeeper did not find the match item as what the customer expected but at least, it had been succeed in making the addressee react as what it should be. In the other hand, in deciding Do you have a white? as a directive is not just depend on the structure of the sentence itself but the context of the situation of this utterance will determine the exact meaning of this utterance whether it could belong to directive or not. If the context of this utterance is noticed more clearly, the intended meaning of the speaker could be known through the context itself. As it has been stated above that the customer wanted to find the white cloth for herself, and then because she could not find it she asked the shopkeeper help her to find for her. In this case the customer used a question to ask the shopkeeper to do something for herself. It has been clear that this utterance belong to the type of the speech act, directive. The customer who had been asked the shopkeeper to do something for herself had been successful in ordering the shopkeeper to take a white cloth for herself. Although the way she asked her by yes no question Do you have a white? but the reaction of the shopkeeper as what as she wanted to. She actually wanted her to find the white cloth and she did that. The question even was not answered by the addressee because it was not what the speaker wanted from her. The answer yes or no in this case does not actually the target of the speaker wanted from the hearer. The

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speaker just wanted to get the hearer to something for her as what the rule of the directive type of speech act should be. The utterance above has been successfully recognized as a request by the shopkeeper. This could be seen from the respond of the shopkeeper to the request of the customer who wants a white cloth. After uttering the utterance Do you have a white? The shopkeeper immediately responds it through uttering a white. the, after that, she spontaneously search the white one for the customer. This respond shows that the customer has been successfully producing a request for the shopkeeper to find a white cloth for her self. The shopkeeper is also successfully recognized that the utterance itself is a request for her. That is why she gives the correct respond for her customer. Although in this case the hearer said the word white, that is not actually the answer for the question. It just likes a platitude during the conversation. It is clearly not an answer for the question of Do you have a white? that the customer asked to the shopkeeper. The shopkeeper had realized about this. So that she do not answer the question by yes or no, but she prefer to do an action as what it should. It means that the conversation has been successful because of the correct of the interpretation of the hearer in interpreting the utterance of the customer.

Data 5: S: How many do you, two packet or one packet? C: oo. just one packet. S: how much you want to pay? May be I know the price

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C: Thirty? (C1) Context of the situation: 1. Setting and scene Location : Kencana Art shop Jalan Poppies 2 Kuta District, Badung Regency-Bali Date Time : 19 of August 2009 : 08.48 P.M.

The scene of this conversation is informal situation. 2. Participants The shopkeeper: Name Address Age Education Marital status : Ni Nyoman Sumerti : Jl. Kubu Anyar no 20 Kuta-Bali : 49 : graduated from elementary school : Married

The customer is an Australian. 3. Ends. The end of the utterance is to ask a question to the customer. Asking a question means that the customer is waiting for the answer of the customer related to the answer she asks to the customer. She actually needs the information form the customer that she has to know. Through asking him a question, she could get some information from the customer since the source of the information is the customer.

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4. Act Sequence In producing this utterance the shopkeeper shows the handicraft to the customer. She stares directly to the eyes of the customer in producing the utterance. From her eyes, it could be known that she has a lot of expectations from her selling this day. through directly staring at her customer eyes and showing the handicraft, it could be known that she really hopes that the customer would buy the handicraft she offer to him. While brings the handicraft in her hands and her eyes stares directly to the customers, the shopkeeper produces the utterance how much you want to pay? May be I know the price. This action reflexes spontaneously from the shopkeeper. She does not need to think too much to produce the utterance as if she has mastered this style. The style which is often used by the shopkeeper that offer the customer to give the price to the handicraft he wants to buy. The customer gives his respond to the shopkeeper after a few second in silent. He thinks the best price he could give to the handicraft the shopkeeper sells to him. after a few second thinking about the most appropriate price that suit for the handicraft he wants he produces the utterance Thirty? this is respond of the customer to the request of the shopkeeper in pricing the handicraft he wants to buy. The speaker of this utterance produces it when she wants to know the price of the customer wants. In this case the culture of bargaining activity influences the use of language itself. In bargaining activity the customer could determine the price of the

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stuff that he wants to buy. That is the reason why the shopkeeper produces this utterance that is to know the price that the customer wants. Because the customer has known the culture of bargaining activity in Bali, he immediately responds to the questions being asked by the shopkeeper. Grammatically, this utterance is actually not grammatically correct. How much you want to pay? has an error syntactically. The speaker forgets the complement do in the sentence. The correct one should be how much do you want to pay? although this utterance is not correct grammatically, indeed it has been recognized by the hearer as a question and should be responded by the answer that he has given. In fact, he has given the answer that actually as what as the shopkeeper expected. This all means that the speech act produces by the speaker has been successfully interpreted by the hearer, so that he could give the correct respond to her. From the explanation above, the speaker wants the hearer to do something. In this case the shopkeeper that asks a question to the customer. What she actually wants from asking a question to the customer is to get information about the price of the stuff that is appropriate for the customer. It is because the culture of bargaining activity that allows that customer to determine the price of the stuff that he wants to but. To get this information the shopkeeper produces the question, how much you want to pay? and it has been responded correctly by the customer by giving the information of the price of the stuff. The utterance Thirty? is an enough respond to prove that the customer has responded to the shopkeepers request. The answer Thirty? is information for the shopkeeper that is uttered by the customer. Because the customer gives his respond to

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the shopkeeper correctly as what it should be, it means that the customer has been successfully recognized the utterance produced by the speaker as a request of the information. The customer realizes the lack of the information the shopkeeper has. He is the only source of the information and he realizes it. This is the reason why he gives the information she needs. It is also imply that the shopkeeper is successful in producing the request referrer to the customer. So, it had been clear that the sentence is such kind of a question, but this question signals a request for the hearer to inform something. So, this utterance is actually a request of the speaker produced in the form of the question. A request could belong to directive type of speech act. According to Searle, requesting belongs to directive type since this type is attempting the hearer (in varying degrees) to do something. Besides, in directive class, the sincerity condition is S expresses wants or wishes or desires that H do A. the shopkeeper attempting the customer to give the information about the price of the stuff. She also expresses her desire that the customer gives that information to her. From the explanation above, it is clear that the speaker has intention or desires to make the hearer to do something form her. Another that, she also believes that the hearer could do what she intended to do. The shopkeeper believes that the customers could give her the price of the stuff that he expected. Then, she gets the respond of the customer that gives the price itself. it means that the utterance has successfully been used in the conversation since it gets the responds from the hearer. So, it is clear that this utterance belongs to the type of speech act directive.

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Data 6: S: okay, may be a little bit more than thirty C: thirty five (C1) Context of the situation: 1. Setting and scene Location : Kencana Art shop Jalan Poppies 2 Kuta District, Badung Regency-Bali Date Time : 19 of August 2009 : 08.48 P.M.

The scene is informal situation. 2. Participants Name Address Age Education Marital status : Ni Nyoman Sumerti : Jl. Kubu Anyar no 20 Kuta-Bali : 49 : graduated from elementary school : Married

The foreigner is an Australian. 3. Ends. The end of this utterance is to request something to the customer. In this case, the shopkeeper requesting the customer to increase the price he gives to the stuff he wants to buy. The shopkeeper needs the information of the price that the customer to the stuff itself. This information just could be gotten from the customer. That is why the shopkeeper asks the customer to

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increase the price of the stuff. Thirty is not enough for the handicraft, so that she requests to increase the price of the handicraft. 4. Act Sequence The utterance is said by the shopkeeper while she holds the handicraft in her right hand. She said the utterance by wagging her hands. This is a body reflection of the shopkeeper in requesting the information. The shopkeeper standing face to face to the customer and the customer always moves his eyes from one side to the other. It is like he does not show his interest of the price given by the shopkeeper. Meanwhile the shopkeeper keeps on persuading the customer by asking the request to the customer to increase his price. When the customer stares to the customer and her hands spontaneously wave exactly in front of the customer, the utterance okay, may be a little bit more that thirty is produced. The production is followed by the respond given by the customer by saying thirty five. They were last not more than a minute. This is a short utterance with a spontaneous reflect from both of the speaker and the shopkeeper. They never think a lot in deciding the price of the handicraft. The price just comes out from their mouth as if it was the easiest task to do without given any sequence. Okay, may be a little bit more that thirty is an utterance that is produced during bargaining activities. In bargaining activity the customer could determine the price of the stuff. In the other hand, the shopkeeper could also convince the customer that the price of the stuff is not as cheap as that. She will show her respond based on the price given by the customer. If the customer bargains the thing extremely cheap,

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the shopkeeper will increase the price itself. And then, the customer has to increase his expected price until both of them get the most appropriate price for the thing. In saying this utterance, the shopkeeper actually gets a very low price from the customer. So that she has to increase the price of the stuff she sells. The customer worth the thing for thirty thousand but for the shopkeeper that price is too low for that kind of thing. So, she must increase it. In the other hand, she says okay, may be a little bit more that thirty. In this case she actually does not give the price directly, but she wants the customer to increase his expectation of how much that things worth for. She wants the customer gives price by himself without interfere the duty of the customer that has to decide the price of the things. She believes that the customer could increase the price he gives to the stuff. In fact, the customer actually could do what she expects to do. The previous price, thirty thousand increase to be thirty five thousand. This is because the shopkeeper triggers him to give a better price for her and her desire to get a higher price has been achieved. The customer worth the stuff for thirty five thousand rupiah that implies the utterance has been successfully interpreted correctly by the hearer. Besides, it also has been successfully fulfilled the expectation of the shopkeeper that wants a higher price. So, in getting the higher price, the shopkeeper actually requests the customer to give higher price. Because of her requesting, he gives the price of the stuff to the shopkeeper. In this case, the request of the shopkeeper on the price of the stuff causes the respond of the customer. He follows the bargaining activitys custom used by the shopkeeper to determine the price of the stuff he wants to buy. Although this price

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may not agree by the shopkeeper later but at least, the communication has been gone on well. The request of the shopkeeper in knowing the price wanted by the customer has been regarded by the customer. So, the utterance of the shopkeeper is not meaningless anymore but it becomes meaningful for the customers because of the respond he gives him. From the explanation above, it has been proved that the request of the shopkeeper has been successfully recognized as a request by the customer. As it was explain before that it could be seen from the hearers response. The action of the customer in saying thirty five shows that the request of the shopkeeper has been accepted and fulfilled by the customer. According to Searle, requesting belongs to Directive type. This type is attempting the hearer to do something. Here, the customer that do something for the shopkeeper as the speaker. In directive class, the sincerity condition is S expresses wants or wishes or desires that H do A. in the conversation the desire of shopkeeper could be seen in knowing the price of the stuff. Based on the explanation above, it has been shown that this utterance is a request that belongs to the assertive type of speech act.

3.3 Commisive There are two samples that could be found in the conversation between the shopkeepers and the customer during selling and buying activities. The samples are taken from the conversation recorded in Kuta and Sanur.

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Data 7: C: No! not fifty. Whats your very best price? S: Okay, Ill give you forty four. C: Forty? (C1) Context of the situation: 1. Setting and scene Location : Kencana Art shop Jalan Poppies 2 Kuta District, Badung Regency-Bali Date Time : 19 of August 2009 : 08.48 P.M.

The scene is informal situation. 2. Participants Name Address Age Education Marital status : Ni Nyoman Sumerti : Jl. Kubu Anyar no 20 Kuta-Bali : 49 : graduated from elementary school : Married

The foreigner is an Australian. 3. Ends. The utterance is produced by the speaker in order to offer to the customer. This is an offer of the shopkeeper about the price of the handicraft. She offers him her price that is forty four. The price expected by the shopkeeper is actually decreasing from the previous one. This offer is given to

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the customer because the customer gives a very cheap price to the handicraft sold by the shopkeeper. 4. Act Sequence In producing this utterance, the shopkeeper uses her gesture. This gesture involves her hand. Her right hand shows the customer four fingers. This is like the teacher who teaches what number four is by the fingers. This is probably the way she wants to ensure the customer that she is very sure that this is the fix price that she would not change. Although the shopkeeper is going to release the handicraft for forty thousand rupiah from the previous price she offers forty four. The utterance Okay, Ill give you forty four is just coming out from the mouth of the speaker while she stares to the customer with her friendly smile. This smile is just like the smile of the friend that would give something without return. She likes that she has given him the best price for the handicraft he wants. In the other hand, this circumstance is used by the customer to turn the price down to be forty. This is also his responds to her offer. Finally, both of them agree to price the handicraft for forty thousand. Ill give you forty four is a future sentence that describes something happen in the future. Ill give you forty four is said by the shopkeeper that describes something that she will do in the future. As it has been stated in the context of the situation that this conversation is among shopkeeper and the customer, so that this utterance is produced by the shopkeeper for the customer, in the other hand, the

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shopkeeper probably does the action or not. The use of will in the sentence above proves that the activity that the shopkeeper does in the future could be a fact or not. There are many reasons actually caused the shopkeeper produces this utterance. The first, reason is actually she wants to finish the bargaining activity that has been spending most of her time. When she produces this utterance, she actually has given the customer to decide the price of the handicraft by himself. In the other hand, the customer gives a very low price to it that causes the shopkeeper realized that the conversation with the customer spends her time a lot. That is why she just want to makes sure that the customer gets the price that she thinks appropriate with the condition of the handicraft. So that though giving this statement she expect that the conversation they held will be finished soon. This circumstance is actually not a rare custom in bargaining activities. At the beginning of this activity the shopkeeper would freely the customer to give that price of the stuff in his or her expectation. If there is no agreement between them in a long talk, the shopkeeper will give a price and express her or his mind in the future form. Although the shopkeeper would not probably sell her stuff in the price she given but at least, it will not far from the price she given at this time. This is because the customer could still bargain the stuff although the shopkeeper has given her final decision about the price of the stuff. This is a culture in that bargaining activity that always happens like that. So that, there is not a shock of the customer anymore that probably not know about the this culture but the customer in fact has been get used to it and the conversation could flow as what it should be.

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The second reason is that she actually wants to give the price of the stuff to bring in the customer to her influence in directing the customer to buy the stuff based on the price she agrees with. This is because the customer has given a very low price to the handicraft. Although she has given him many chances to price the stuff but he never gives the price that is similar with the expectation of the shopkeeper. The price he gives is always far from the expectation of the shopkeeper that is why she gives him the price that she expects. Actually, if the utterance of the shopkeeper Ill give you forty four is analyzed more deeply. It in fact appears as an offer of the price that she will give to the customer if he agrees with the price given. The shopkeeper offers him forty four thousand, from the previous price fifty thousand. The shopkeeper hopes that through this offer the customer could interest with price she given. She probably believes that turning over the price could finish the conversation soon and it could also make the desire of the customer in deciding whether he should buy the handicraft or not. In this case, the shopkeeper commits something to the customer through promising. In the conversation, it could be seen that the use of auxiliary will has a specific purpose. The shopkeeper uses this kind of auxiliary to express her commitment to the customer. She commits him that she would give him forty four thousand if he agrees to buy that handicraft in that price. In bargaining activity it is a common thing for the shopkeeper to use the act of offering that is because it could attract the customer to buy the thing that he wants. This is one of the strategies of the shopkeeper to make the customer increase the price he gives to the stuff.

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This utterance is successfully recognized as an offer of the customer in the conversation. It could be known through the respond given by the customer when he gives his idea to bargain it for forty thousand. This respond is crucial to identify whether this utterance has been successfully understood by the customer or not. If the respond he gives to the shopkeeper is different, the utterance itself will also have different interpretation. For the example if after saying this utterance the customer go out from the shop the utterance is probably not as an act of offering but it prefer to the act of persuading. But in this case, the customer has given his respond so that the utterance Ill give you forty four belongs to the type of an act of offering From the abbreviation above, it has been clear that the utterance produced by the shopkeeper is actually an offer. This offer hand been successfully recognized it as an offer, that could be known through his responding. Act of offering is counted as a member of commisive type of illocutionary cat since the point of this type is make the speaker committed (in varying degrees) to some future course of action. So, it must be obvious that the utterance of the shopkeeper, Ill give you forty four belongs to the type of speech act commisive.

Data 8: C: just white. I want just white because my body have a dot. S: long time, no body sale. C: Ill think about it! (C3) Context of the situation: 1. Setting and scene

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Location

: Jinggo Leather Fashion Jalan Danau Tamblingan 132, Sanur-Bali

Date Time

: 29th of August 2009 : 03.20 P.M.

The scene is informal situation. 2. Participants Name Address Age Education Marital status 3. Ends. The end of the utterance is to promise. The customer promised the shopkeeper that she will think again for buying the cloth in the shop. When she has tried the clothes and she finally does not buy one of the clothes, she say Ill think about it! to the shopkeeper. It is a polite action from the customer rather than saying nothing. 4. Act Sequence The customer says the utterance in front of the shopkeeper. She says the utterance exactly after she checks the one of the clothes showed in the shop. The touch the cloth and then see the detail of the ink-screen of the cloth. She probably has an idea to buy the cloth. After she examines the quality of the cloth, she places it again in the place where she should be. Then, she says : Jero Jepun : Jalan Danau Tamblingan 133 : 52 : graduated from elementary school : married

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Ill think about it! In saying in utterance she does not glance to the shopkeeper. She just moves her head to the shopkeeper and produces the utterance. Ill think about it! is actually an ending in the conversation held between the shopkeeper and the customer. The speaker of this utterance is the customer. In saying this utterance, she obviously has many reasons. The first reason is that the customer wants to end the conversation that has spent her time. She actually does not want to waste her time by searching for the thing that she does not want to buy. This is because there is no white cloth available in the shop. In the other hand, she actually wants to buy a white cloth for her self. The shopkeeper says that there is no totally white cloth available in the store. Although the customer does not want any cloth except white. The shopkeeper offer her the cloth that is actually does not totally white. It has many silk-screening in it, so the customer thinks that it is not what she wants and she pretends to finish the conversation by saying this utterance. She is strict with his choice to choose the white cloth. She does not want to change his mind to choose a white one with silk-screening in it. So, although the shopkeeper offers her the white one with silk-screening in it, she will refuse to buy that sort of cloth. Because she thinks that there is no white one available in the shop she just wants to go. Ill think about it! finally said by her and she goes out from the shop. Most of the westerners are really strict in doing something. It is like in the case above, the westerner immediately say Ill think about it! and go out from the shop when she des not find the things that she wants in that shop. Although she is

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offered a white one with silk-screen that is notably has a white background as what the customer wants. In the other hand, she firm in her decision in her choice. She even has decided before, that she wants to buy a white one and even she does not change her mind with the other one. It is very different with the mostly Balinese people. Most of the Balinese people often go to the shop to buy a cloth for the example but it does not mean that they will search for the very specific like what the westerners do. She will see and choose the best one for them self after looking all of the cloth available in the shop in they will buy as what as available there. The second reason why she says the utterance is because she wants to commit something to the hearer in this case the hearer is the shopkeeper. She commits something that she probably do or may be she does not do as what as her commitment to the shopkeeper. From the context of the situation, it is known that the shopkeeper offers her a white cloth with silk-screen in it that the customer does not want to buy because of her strictness with the totally white one. The main reason why the speaker produces this utterance is actually she wants to express her politeness to the shopkeeper because of her postponing in buying the cloth. In a glance the sentence is a future form that could be seen from the auxiliary will the sentence has. This is a clear clue that convinces the people who see the sentence that it is a future form or a simple future tense. In the other side, in expressing this utterance the speaker does not just want to express what she wants to do in the future. It is sense insignificant if the speaker just expresses her feeling to say what she actually wants to do in the future without has any intention in saying this utterance.

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In order to know the deep analysis to get the reason why the speaker produces the utterance, the context situation must be understood completely. The situation where the speaker saying this utterance is during selling and buying activity during this activity the bargaining activity may involve in it. From the context of this utterance, it could be know that the speaker who has a role as a customer in the conversation has a long conversation with the shopkeeper. She even has asked the price and tries to wear the cloth that the shopkeeper calls Sarong. She has done many things in the shop as like as she is going to buy the cloth there and the shopkeeper treat her very friendly. She even helps her to wear the cloth because the customer never wears that kind of by her self. It is not polite for her not to buy the cloth meanwhile she has visited the shop and has been treat like she is going to buy the cloth itself. Because of this she does not wants to make the shopkeepers disappointed just because she does not buy the cloth. To do this she does not need to spend her money to buy the thing she does not want. She just promises the shopkeeper that she will think again to buy the cloth that she has tried in her shop. It senses like the customer wants to treat the shopkeeper nicely as what she did to her, so that she uses her promise to do this. This is a polite act that somebody could do not to make the shopkeeper disappointed with her, when she has entered the shop and buy nothing. To promise, as defined by Oxford Learners Dictionary means to tell somebody that one will definitely give or do or not do something. In the same way, the utterance uttered by the speaker performs the act describe above. Act of promising belongs to commisive type of illocutionary act. The point of this class is

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committing the speaker (in varying degrees) to some future action. As what has been stated above that the speaker use the future form to express his commitment to the hearer. Ill think about it! is said to the hearer to commit the hearer that she will think again to buy the cloth. This commitment could be done or not by the speaker in the future. Based on the analysis above, it is clear that the utterance Ill think about it! belongs to the type of commisive speech act. The auxiliary will in the sentence is an obvious clue that the utterance belong to a promise, and promise belongs to one of the type of speech act, commisive. The commisive type of speech act clearly appeared in the conversation between the shopkeeper and the customer. So, one of the type of speech act that may be used by the customer during buying and selling activity is a commisive type of speech act.

Expressive There are three data could be found in the conversation belongs to expressive type of speech acts. All of the samples are found in the conversation held by the shopkeeper and the customer in Sanur area.

Data 9: C: I like that one.. S: Idul fitry may be going to Java. (C4) Context of the situation: 1. Setting and scene

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Location

: Jinggo Leather Fashion Jalan Danau Tamblingan 132, Sanur-Bali

Date Time

: 29th of August 2009 : 03.20 P.M.

The scene is informal situation. 2. Participants Name Address Age Education Marital status 3. Ends. The end of the utterance is actually to express the appreciation of the customer to the cloth she likes in the shop. The customer wants to express this expression so that she could share it to the hearer. She loves the one cloth that she sees at the shop where she visits. 4. Act Sequence In producing the utterance I like that one the speaker points her finger to the cloth she likes. In the other hand, she does not look at the cloth she likes. She remain focuses her eyes to the shopkeepers. They are in the conversation so that the shopkeeper does not move her yes toward the cloth she likes but she still stares the shopkeepers eyes. The shopkeeper is standing : Jero Jepun : Jalan Danau Tamblingan 133 : 52 : graduated from elementary school : married

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in front of her. They loot at each other and arguing about the price of the cloth the customer likes. I like that one is actually an utterance that is actually said by the speaker during seeing the cloth available in the shop. The shop located in Sanur area visited by rare of people. This customer is the only one visited the area at that time. She is a foreigner who wants to find a white cloth for her self. She sees many clothes in the shop. She actually wants to find a totally white cloth that is cheap and could be bargained. The shopkeeper offers her many clothes that are very nice and interesting. The price is also could be bargained as what as the customer expects. When she is offered a white one with silk-screen in it, the customer is attracted by that cloth and in this circumstance, the utterance I like that one is produced. In producing this utterance the speaker really wants to express her feeling about one of the clothes she found in the shop. Although that is not actually the exact cloth that she intended to buy, but that cloth is very nice for her that could make her like to the cloth very much as what could be seen through her feeling. The expression of the like she expressed show the hearer that actually interested to the cloth she has seen in the shop. This like could influence the customer in deciding whether she should buy it or not. In the conversation the customer expresses her feeling about her like to the cloth in accordance with the gesture of her body. She pointed his finger to the cloth and sees the cloth, in the same time she also produces this utterance. Her action as what has been explained shows that she really likes the cloth and it is actually her real feeling about the thing that she sees in the shop. Some people may say something that

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is not similar with their heart. Inside is different with outside. In this case, from her gesture, in pointing and sees the cloth with her own expression proves the hearer that she actually really like the cloth. She says the thing that actually similar with what she feels about the cloth at that time. The main reason of this utterance is actually the intention of the customer who wants to express her appreciation to the cloth that she saw in the shop when she searched for the totally white one. The expression of the customer about her interest with one of the clothes available n the shop is actually an appreciation. It could be seen through her act and the utterance she uses to express her feeling. By saying I like that one infer the hearer that she appreciates the cloth very much. She likes it and she expresses it through her act that implies the hearer that she appreciates it. Her acts such as pointing her finger to the cloth and sees the cloth with her won way in expressing her like to the cloth shows that she really appreciates it. This utterance actually has been successful to be recognized as an expression of the appreciation by the shopkeeper. This can be seen through the utterance of the speaker saying Idul fitry may be going to Java. This utterance proves that the appreciation of the customer to the cloth is recognized by the shopkeeper. She actually wants to show her respect to the customer by giving the information about what the sarong could be used for. The lack of the English the shopkeeper has limits her expressing her respect to the customer. She actually wants the customer knows that the nice cloth actually can be wear to Java because it was Idul Fitri day when the Mouslems in Java celebrate their Idul Fitry as a holiday for them. She actually gives the information to emphases

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that she could wear it to Java. But the lack of her ability in speaking English has limited her strength in expressing her feeling and her communication to the foreigner. Although she has a limit in her speaking ability, but she actually has been successful in interpreting the utterance of the customer who is notably a foreigner who speak English at that time. She has been able to know the intention of the customer in the communication. Because of her respond to the utterance of the customer, it means that the utterance I like that one has been clear that the utterance itself could be categorized as an appreciation. The limit of the ability of the speaker often becomes a problem in the communication between the shopkeeper and the customer in Bali. They could communicate each other but in expressing what they want is not as simple as expressing something with their own language. In many cases this circumstance could make trouble during communication. Fortunately during this conversation both of the speaker and the customer could understand each other and could interpreted the utterance of the speaker correctly. The shopkeeper who notably has a different culture with the speaker could realize the intention of the speaker in expressing her appreciation to the thing that she likes. This is probably because of the regular interaction of the shopkeeper with foreigner during selling the goods in her shop. The location of her shop in Sanur area that enables her to contact with the foreigner since it is one of the center of the tourism destination in Denpasar. Sanur itself is the best tourism destination in Denpasar city. It is the area which is developed mostly in Denpasar city.

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According to Oxford Learners Dictionary, appreciation is pleasure that you have when you recognize and enjoy the good qualities of something or somebody. In this case, this pleasure could be identically to the pleasure that the customer ahs when she enjoys the good quality of the cloth she sees in the shop. The silk-screen in the cloth creates a pleasure for her. It means that it is clear the customer herself has an appreciation to the cloth that she sees. So that the utterance she produces when she sees the cloth, I like that one is clearly an appreciation. Expressing an appreciation counts as a member of Expressive type of speech act because the point of Expressive type is expressing a psychological state that the speaker feels related to something to speaker or hearer and an appreciation has similarities in it. The point of an appreciation is also an expressing a psychological state that the speaker feel. In the appreciation, the psychological state that emphasis more about the feel of joy of somebody in enjoying something or somebody. The appreciation expressed by the customer is an expression of a psychological state that the customer feels when she sees the cloth. She feels the joy of the cloth itself. Meanwhile this joy is an expression of a psychological state. It relates to the psychological state of the speaker it change to the joy when she sees the cloth. This change is caused by the cloth that she sees. So, it has been very clear that this utterance is related to the psychological state of somebody about something, that is why the utterance I like that one could be categorized as a type Expressive speech act.

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Data 10: S: you do the sarong? C: not very well. (The shopkeeper helps the customer to wear the sarong) C: beautiful! S: going to the temple, if going to the temple, ya, ceremony in Bali. C: ceremony, ya, beautiful. Do you have a white? S: a white, (C3) Context of the situation: 1. Setting and scene Location : Jinggo Leather Fashion Jalan Danau Tamblingan 132, Sanur-Bali Date Time : 29th of August 2009 : 03.20 P.M.

The scene is informal situation. 2. Participants Name Address Age Education Marital status 3. Ends. : Jero Jepun : Jalan Danau Tamblingan 133 : 52 : graduated from elementary school : married

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The end of this utterance is affection. This is the expression of the speaker in expressing her like or her love the cloth she wears. She wears a beautiful cloth with the help of the shopkeeper. She likes the cloth and then because of that she wants to express it. The result is the production of this utterance from the speaker. 4. Act Sequence The utterance is said when the customer wears the cloth help by the shopkeeper. The cloth is really fit in her waist. The shopkeeper is a master in helping people to wear the cloth. To wear the cloth she lifts her small bag up a little bit. It also enables her to see the whole cloth in her body. Her eyes stare to the mirror behind her. So that she turn her self to the direction where the mirror stands. In this circumstance she produces the utterance beautiful! The shopkeeper sees the customer with one of the clothes in her shop. She looks very satisfy for the happiness of the customer in wearing the cloth. Her eyes look at the work she has done in front of her. The satisfying of the customer is the result of her work. She says nothing for a moment after she sees the cloth in the customers body. After a few seconds, she takes a slendang and then she produces the utterance going to the temple, if going to the temple, ya, ceremony in Bali. Beautiful! this utterance is just coming up from the mouth of the speaker when she is trying the cloth she sees in one of the shops in Sanur area. She produces this utterance in accordance with her expression that really expresses her feeling when she sees the beauty of the cloth. She rotates as if she enjoys it very much. The

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joy caused by the beauty of the cloth clinks in her body is the circumstance in which caused the speaker produces this utterance. One word said by the customer has a meaningful sense. The speaker would not produces the utterance without has no any attention in her mind. Definitely, the intention is related to the expression she wants to show to someone around her. This expression must be related to the cloth she wears in her body. The beauty of the cloth is the only one reason why the customer produces the utterance Beautiful! The interjection mark put in the end of the utterance describes the stress of the utterance said by the speaker. This stress in her pronunciation has any means in it. It shows that the customer extremely enjoy the cloth she wears. She really wants to express her feeling created by the cloth she wears. The expression she produces shows that she incredibly enjoy the cloth she wears. So, the stress in the pronunciation she produces describes her feeling about the joy created because of the cloth she wears. This is the reason of the appearance of the interjection mark in the utterance. Above has been explained that the interjection mar in the utterance is due to the stress of the utterance by the customer as the speaker of the utterance. In stressing the utterance she probably has reason in it. She actually wants to attract the hearer to she her with the cloth in her body that is very fit. She wants her to see it. Some people often do it realized it or not. The stress of the utterance could attract the attention of the hearer, as what happen in the conversation between the customer and the speaker. The customer stresses in the pronunciation she produces attracts shopkeepers attention to see her with the beautiful cloth she likes.

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In fact, the speaker has been successfully attracting the shopkeepers attention in seeing her self wearing the beautiful cloth she likes very much. She pays attention to the customer. She looks into the joy feels by the customer when she wears the cloth. More respond she gives is that she even helps the customer to make her more complete wearing the cloth with the slendang. It is a small cloth wears in the waist in accordance with the long cloth. It is usually used by the Balinese to go to the temple. The combination of the long cloth and the slenang is a kind of the traditional Balinese costume to go the temple. The tradition to go to the temple with a long cloth and a slendang is followed by the foreigner to visit the temple. Today the tradition wearing a long cloth and a slendang to go to the temple is a must for everyone. Whether you are a foreigner or not, this tradition must be obeyed by the people who wants to visit the holy place in Bali, whether it is a temple or a sacred place. This is the reason why the shopkeeper gives the slendang to the customer. She realized that the customer loves the cloth very much so that she wants her to make her appearance more complete with the slendang that makes her ready to go to the temple. This action shows the respect of the shopkeeper to the customer. She wants the best for the customer. She gives the best services to the customer that probably could attract the attention of the customer to buy both the slendang and the cloth. Back to the utterance Beautiful! produced customer, it has been clear that the stress in the utterance produced by the speaker to express her extreme joy and to attract the attention of the shopkeeper. Besides the interjection mark, the word

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beautiful said by the customer also has a meaning in it. The speaker may also have reason why she could produced the utterance in the shop. If the utterance Beautiful! sees without considering the context of the utterance, this could mean that the speaker love or like something that she sees. If the context of the situation of this utterance is connected to the utterance itself, the utterance could mean that the speaker want to show her feeling that love the cloth very much. That is why the word beautiful is used to describe the beauty of the thing that she likes or she loves. The people who used the word beautiful are often used to describe something or someone that they love or like. According to Oxford Learners Dictionary the word beautiful means pleasing to the sense or to the mind. In this case this word has been appropriate to be used by the customer in describing her feeling about the please that she has in seeing the cloth itself. The sense of the pleasure the customer has about the clot itself performs the affection of the speaker or the customer to the cloth she wants to buy in that shop. The utterance itself is actually the affection of the customer in expressing her love to the cloth she likes. This feeling appeared during the time when she sees the white cloth with the silk-screen in it. This feeling was expressed by the customer by saying Beautiful! So, this utterance is actually the expression of the affection of the customer to the cloth she likes. This affection expression very emotional by the speaker, so that she stresses the word and it finally got the attention of the shopkeeper to it. It has been obvious that the utterance said by the customer is an affection of the customer to the cloth she likes. According to Oxford Learners Dictionary

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affection is the feeling of liking or loving somebody or something very much and caring about them. Through the expression of the customer in saying Beautiful! shows the hearer about the feeling of liking of the cloth that the customer radiates. She likes the cloth and because of that she produces the utterance Beautiful! Affection is one of the groups of the expressive type of speech act since the expressive type emphasis the expression of certain psychological state. This psychological state reflects in the expression of affection in which the feeling of liking or loving somebody or something belongs to the psychological state. In the conversation the customer experience this psychological state when she expresses her feeling about the cloth in the shop. Finally, it could be conclude that the utterance Beautiful! produced by the customer in one of the shop sells cloths belongs to the type of Expressive type of speech act since it is the expression express by the customer which imply the hearer that the customer produce an affirmation.

Data 11: S: a bit longer.. C: too expensive. Can I bargain? S: a little. C: a little? Umm. (C3) Context of the situation: 1. Setting and scene Location : Jinggo Leather Fashion

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Jalan Danau Tamblingan 132, Sanur-Bali Date Time : 29th of August 2009 : 03.20 P.M.

The scene is informal situation. 2. Participants Name Address Age Education Marital status 3. Ends. This utterance is the expression of the speaker about the price offered by the shopkeeper. The end of the utterance is actually to express her astonishment about the price given by the shopkeeper. This astonishment is caused by the shopkeeper gives the price of the cloth for one hundred thousand. For the customer it is very expensive. Knowing that the price is very expensive for herself, she expresses the expression of astonishment so that the shopkeeper could turn the price down. 4. Act Sequence The speaker produces this utterance while she holds the cloth in her hands. She examines the quality of the cloth at that time. She stares the shopkeeper while producing the utterance. Her position at that time is exactly in front of the shopkeeper. She stands face to face with the shopkeeper. They : Jero Jepun : Jalan Danau Tamblingan 133 : 52 : graduated from elementary school : married

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spread the cloth so that all of the part of it could be seen. They are doing the conversation precisely in front of the mirror in the corner of the shop. The shopkeeper is standing in front of the customer and seeing the eyes of the customer. They communicate each other and they do the bargaining activity. This is a few minutes from the time the customer enters the shop. She directly searches for the cloth she wants to buy. The shopkeeper helps her to find the best one for her. The shopkeeper even shows many good clothes to the customer to be chosen. She shows the customer the motif of the cloth. Then, the customer began to curious about the price of the cloth. This is probably because the shopkeeper has showed her many clothes and the intuition to know the price came out from her mind. When the shopkeeper gave her the price that she agrees for the cloth, the customer begin to feel that the price is very high for her and this is the circumstance in which the utterance too expensive produced by the customer. Too expensive is the expression about the adverb of degree. In the utterance said by the customer, this adverb of degree followed by adjective. The adverb of degree too explains the adjective in the front. That explains that the thing is extremely expensive. The use of this adverb of degree is often in the informal situation. So, the use of the adverb of degree too in this situation is actually has been correct since it use in the informal conversation between the shopkeeper and the customer during buying and selling activity. The utterance said by the speaker must have a reason why she produced the utterance. The reason is probably to express that the price given by the shopkeeper is more than she expected. To express her feeling about the price given by the

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shopkeeper, the customer needs such kind of expression that would explain that the thing that the shopkeeper do in that situation has been in contradiction with her desire. The shopkeeper prices the cloth that the customer wants to buy for one hundred thousand rupiah. For the customer, this is not the most appropriate price that could be for one piece of a simple cloth sold in the small shop in Sanur. She thought that the price is extremely high from what she expects. That why is after saying Too expensive the customer asks the shopkeeper whether she could bargain the cloth or not. In Bali, especially in the traditional market or a small art shop like the shop in which the customer bargain the cloth, it is allowed to bargain something, without asking whether something that is bought could be bargain or not. But in the conversation the customer ask the shopkeeper whether she could bargain the cloth or not after saying too expensive. This is probably the customer still does not very familiar about the culture in the area. This could also imply that the customer wants to show her politeness first, before she bargains the cloth she wants to buy. In the other word, she wants to get a permission to bargain the cloth before she does it. So, here the utterance too expensive is also the fraction of the politeness attitude said by the speaker to bargain the cloth. She gives responds to the cloth before she asks the shopkeeper whether she could bargain the cloth or not. It is such kind of a polite attitude somebody gives to the other in doing something. The expression could be the signal for the hearer that the speaker wants something more and the expression could suspend her next action in an appropriate manner. This

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manner is considered by the speaker so that she gives her respond of the price before she bargains the cloth politely. Some people often do this kind of action when she or he wants to do something to the other. The people who want to critic the work of the other would give the good side of the work first before the critic argued. The critic probably will give the bad effect to the target, but the opinion about the good side of the critics will turning sown the level of the disappointment of the hearer as the target of the critic. This case similar to the case in the bargain activity in which the customer said too expensive, this responds is given to the shopkeeper before she asks a permission to bargain the cloth. Besides, to suspends the permission indirectly this expression is also could give the respond to the hearer that price is actually extremely high, so that she must make it cheaper than before. In bargaining activity criticize the thing that customer wants to buy is a common thing. This critic will trigger the shopkeeper to give the cheaper price than before. This is because the shopkeeper does not want to loose the customer that she has. Giving an expensive price could disappoint the customer, so she would give a cheaper price for the customer. The argument given during bargain activity by the customer is a common thing. Sometimes, the customer would say that the thing she wants to buy has been imperfect, something wrong with this one and that one. This argument is actually a weapon for the customer to fight with the high price given by the shopkeeper. Through this critic the shopkeeper will think to turn down the price of the stuff she sells in order to accomplish her mission in selling her stuff.

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So, it has been clear that the customer has many reasons in producing this utterance. In the other hand, the exact intention of the customer in producing this utterance is actually to express her astonishment about the price of the cloth that is very expensive. According to Oxford Learners Dictionary astonishment is a feeling of very great surprise. In this case the action of the customer has a similarity with the definition of the astonishment based on Oxford Learners Dictionary. The use of the adverb of frequency too by the customer indicates that the utterance is the expression of a very great surprise. The great surprise here refers to the extremely expensive price given by the shopkeeper. The customer is very surprise by the action of the shopkeeper in giving one hundred thousand price to the simple cloth she wants to buy. The intention of the speaker in showing her astonishment has been successfully recognized as astonishment by the hearer because she has given her respond to the astonishment of the customer. She allows the customer to bargain the cloth she wants to buy. This indicates that the shopkeeper has caught the idea of the utterance said by the customer in the shop. Her astonishment is responded by allowing her to bargain the cloth itself. This responds clearly describes that the astonishment of the shopkeeper is not just an utterance or word circuitry that has no attention to the hearer. Through this responds, it has been proved that the utterance has been successfully accomplished the function as an astonishment so that the customer has also been successful in producing her astonishment. This astonishment belongs to the type of expressive category. The main idea of expressive type of speech act is expressing a certain psychological state. This idea

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has a similarity with the idea of the astonishment in the psychological state since the astonishment also focusing in this aspect particularly in the feeling. The feeling itself belongs to the psychological state; because of that astonishment is also the member of the expressive type of speech act. In the utterance too expensive the psychological state could be seen in the aspect of the feeling of the great surprise of the customer. This feeling perform the expression of the customer in expressing her mind about something. In this context, she shows her expression in responding to the utterance of the shopkeeper who gives her expensive price for the simple cloth. This expression indicates her psychological state to the people around her. This is to get a respond fro the hearer based on what has been expected by the speaker in producing this utterance. From the explanation above, it has been clear that the utterance too expensive said by the customer belongs to expressive type of speech act.

Declaratives There is one sample that could be found in the conversation of the shopkeeper and the customer belongs to the type of declaratives. This is the pieces of the conversation taken from the conversation between the shopkeeper and the customer in Kuta area.

Data 12: 1. C: too much

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S: Okay fifty lah. Come on. Seventy for most, you fifty, yea. C: No! not fifty. Whats your very best price? S: Okay, Ill give you forty four. C: Forty? S: Yeah, alright. (C1) Context of the situation: 1. Setting and scene Location : Kencana Art shop Jalan Poppies 2 Kuta District, Badung Regency-Bali Date Time : 19 of August 2009 : 08.48 P.M.

The scene is informal situation. 2. Participants Name Address Age Education Marital status : Ni Nyoman Sumerti : Jl. Kubu Anyar no 20 Kuta-Bali : 49 : graduated from elementary school : Married

The foreigner is an Australian. 3. Ends. The end of this utterance is to approve the price that the customer wants. The customer turns the price down becoming forty, from the previous price forty four. This price is actually agreed by the shopkeeper, so that she

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gives her approval by saying Yeah, alright. This means that the customer could pay the handicraft that he wants to buy for forty thousand rupiah as what as he wants. 4. Act Sequence The utterance is said by the shopkeeper. In saying this utterance, she moves her right hand toward the handicraft holds by the customer. This is a gesture she gives for the customer. The shopkeepers intention in using this gesture is to allow the customer to pay the handicraft for forty thousand rupiah. The utterance Yeah, alright is produced as the last utterance of the shopkeeper in the bargain activity with this customer. The shopkeeper says Yeah, alright standing in front of the customer, glancing to the handicraft hold by the customer and moving her right hand to the handicraft. Meanwhile, the customer also stands in front of the shopkeeper glancing to the handicraft. He immediately gives his responds by saying Alright. This is an indication that the customer also agrees with the price and wants to pay it. The utterance Yeah, alright is said when the shopkeeper allows the customer to buy the handicraft for forty thousand rupiah. The toleration given to the customer after a long time bargains the handicraft itself. The shopkeeper seems very reluctant in releasing her handicraft for forty thousand, but she finally let the customer to buy it in that price. This price has been agreed by both of them. The customer and the shopkeeper have a same expectation about the price of the stuff.

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The agreement they made based on their own expectation of the price of the stuff and forty thousand in the point in which both of them agreed the price. In bargain activity this kind of circumstance always happens. The customer and the shopkeeper will defense their price. Although the customer would like to increase the price and the shopkeeper decrease the price but they will attempt to have the price not far from the price she or he wants for the first time. If both of the customer and the shopkeeper find the point in which they agree each other about certain price, the selling and buying activity could be successful. On the contrary, if they do not find the point in which they agreed each other, the selling and buying activity would fail. This is the long activity to get the point in which both of the shopkeeper and customer will agree the price of the thing in the shop. This utterance is actually a signal sends to the customer to let him to buy the handicraft for forty thousand rupiah. When the bargain activity is going to finish one of the sides, in this case the shopkeeper finishes the bargain activity by giving an agreement statement to let the customer to buy the stuff for the price that the customer expected. The customer triggers the shopkeeper to release the stuff for forty so that she agrees and gives this statement to finish bargain activity so that the customer can pay for forty thousand rupiah. In bargain activity it is often one of the side, it could be the customer or the shopkeeper will give the agreement statement to finish the bargain activity. If the case is like the case in which the conversation takes place, the shopkeeper will defer to the customer and give the customer go with the stuff for the price he wants to pay. In the other cases, the customer ma strict with her price and would not let the customer to

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pay for the price the customer expects. In this case, the customer will pay the stuff based on the price given by the shopkeeper. This is probably caused by the price given by the customer is very cheap for the thing she or he wants to buy so that the shopkeeper has to strict with herself in giving the most appropriate price to the customer. The statement Yeah, alright will give such kind of the approval from the shopkeeper to allow the customer to buy the handicraft for the price he expects. This approval is important whether the customer could bring the handicraft home or not. This approval enables the customer to have the stuff by paying it for forty thousand rupiah. It is as what he has expected before. Without this approval it is impossible for the customer to buy the handicraft for forty thousand rupiah. It is also means that without it the customer gets something from this shop and it also means that he just wastes his time to bargain the handicraft. So, for the customer this kind of approval is very important to get what he wants in that shop. During the bargain activity this approval is very important to be notice. This simple approval, like what the shopkeeper said in this data, Yeah, alright is really important in determining the price of the stuff in one shop. This simple approval could not be ignored by sides, the customer and the shopkeeper. This is the sign of the shopkeeper to agree with the price of the customer propose. Actually, this agreement is not just said by the shopkeeper but the customer could also say this simple approval. This is based on which one of them who end the bargain activity by agreeing the speaker price proposal.

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The shopkeeper makes the approval simple because it is said in the end of the conversation and it is just like a closing of the conversation. It always happens like that in the bargain activity. The shopkeeper will use simple statement to agree the price proposed by the customer. This could be influenced by the situation during bargain activity. Bargain activity needs long time enough to get the point in which the shopkeeper and the customer will agree each other about the price of the stuff. To get this point the shopkeeper and the customer spend a lot of time in the activity. The impact is that the customer and the shopkeeper would be very reluctant to say more word when she or he had an agreement point in which both of them agree with the price. In the end of the conversation both the customer and the shopkeeper do not want to waste more tome to say the word the do not need to say. The shopkeeper just says simple word to close the conversation and the customer will understand the signal. Then, the payment is conducted and the selling and buying activity end. They make the procedure simple at the end but a little bit complicated in the begging in which they must argue each other to determine the exact price of the stuff. The simple argument said by the shopkeeper in the end of the conversation has explained everything that the customer need. Although this is just a simple statement it does not mean that the statement meaningless. This simple statement has been understood by the customer that the shopkeeper has agreed with price he proposes so that he could pay the stuff for the price that he expects. So, it has been clear that this utterance is an approval of the shopkeeper in approving the price proposed by the customer. According to Oxford Learners

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Dictionary approval is agreement to, or permission for something, especially a plan or request. In this context the shopkeeper agree to the proposal of the customers price that has been proposed before. The request of the price requested by the customer is also a caused of this approval. Because of the request of the customer in requesting the cheaper price, exactly forty thousand rupiah, the shopkeeper produced this utterance that permits the customer for paying the handicraft in that price. This utterance has been successfully recognized as an approval by the customer since he gave his response immediately after the shopkeeper gives her approval. After the shopkeeper said Yeah, alright, the customer immediately said alright. It means that the customer has been successful recognizing this approval given by the shopkeeper. This recognition is very important in determining whether the utterance belongs to the approval or not. This responds clearly describe that both of the customer and the shopkeeper have got the agreement of the price of the handicraft. Both have agreed to price it for forty thousand rupiah. Through this responds the shopkeeper could guess that the customer will pay for forty thousand rupiah for one piece of the handicraft. It also implicate that the buying and selling activity has been successful to be conducted in that shop. It means that that is the end of the activity of the shopkeeper and the customer in the shop. The approval belongs to the type of directive of speech act. As it states by Searle(1979:17) that declarations bring about some alteration in the status or condition of the preferred to object or objects solely in virtue of the fact that the declarations has been successfully perform. As what has been described before that the successful of the utterance said by the shopkeeper because the customer gives his

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respond to the utterance. This success changes the status or the condition of the handicraft sold by the shopkeeper. Before the utterance was said the price of that handicraft is above forty thousand. In the other hand, when the shopkeeper give her approval the price 3change become forty and it is s what as the customer expects from the handicraft. Because of the approval given by the shopkeeper, the status of the handicraft could change immediately after she gives her approval. This proves that the approval belongs to the declarations type of speech act since it changes the status or the condition of the handicraft. This change gives impact to the changes of the conception own by the shopkeeper and the customer that after the approval the price of the handicraft has change to be forty thousand rupiah. So, from the explanation above it could be concluded that the utterance produced by the shopkeeper Yeah, alright belongs to the type of directives of speech act.

The change of the price is from fort four to forty. The fluctuation of the price during bargain activity often happens. This condition is caused by the shopkeeper and the customer to get the point in which they could agree the price each other.

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CHAPTER IV CONCLUTION

Based on the foregoing analysis, there are two points that could be concluded to answer the problems of this study:

1. All of the types of speech act proposed by Searle, i.e. Assertives, Directives, Commisives, Expressive, and Declaratives are used during buying and selling activities. All of the speech acts appeared in the conversation have their own meaning determined by the context in which the utterance used or the context of the situation of the utterance. From all of the SPEAKING abbreviation proposed by Hymes, they are four components that are essential in influencing the meaning of the speech acts appeared in the conversation, i.e. Setting and scene, Participants, Ends and Act Sequence. These four components of the SPEAKING abbreviation are determining the exact interpretation of every utterance. This interpretation would determine which type of speech act, the utterance belongs to.

2. The speakers have their own ways in producing the utterance, such as staring to the hearer, using body movement, expression and the certain gestures. They are the ways of the speaker in producing the utterance. They are also the ways the speaker expressing the expression with the utterance produced by their mouth. The gestures, the body movement and the other gestures used in the

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same time of the production of the speech acts. Some of the movement could be the clue in identifying the meaning of the utterance, such as the finger pointing of the speaker could imply that the utterance refer to the thing that the finger pointed to.