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GROUND IMPROVEMENT TECHNIQUES INTRODUCTION The increasing need to redevelop land in urban areas has led to major development

in the field of ground improvement, a process that is continuing and expanding. The techniques are compaction grouting, jet grouting, in situ soil mixing and drain pile. The factors which can influence the effectiveness of each technique are identified. NEED: Soil improvement is the central issue to many of today's engineering projects. v Where land is scarce v God quality materials are in short supply v Developed sites are often times congested & contaminated. v Therefore new innovative research is bared on classical eco-technical engineering. v Ground improvement, in lieu of structural support is a viable option when the existing ground conditions are less adequate to perform their role in foundation support or lateral stability situations. v Soils are highly variable in their properties-rarely homogeneous GROUND IMPROVEMENT TECHNIQUES PERFORM Satisfactory for the engineering requirement of the proposed structure. ROLE OF GROUND IMPROVEMENT IN FOUNDATION ENGINEERING All structures are designed by considering the properties of ground at the time of starting of the project. The size and shape of a given deposit and the engineering properties of the soil in the deposit may change very significantly.

THE FACTORS WHICH CONTRIBUTE GROUND ALTERNATIVES 1. Effect of seasonal moisture variation. 2. Effect of winter seepage and surface erosion. 3. Effect of vegetation. 4. Effect of temperature variation. 5. Effect of vibration. 6. Effect of mining subsidence and pumping. 7. Effect of construction operation. SEASONAL MOISTURE VARIATION The moisture content of the soil will influence the shrinkage and swelling properties & soil. In the areas & wet and dry seasons, the soil will swell and shrink in regular cycles. MEASURES TO CONTROL 1. Field observations for several years. In a region are made to estimate shrinkage and swelling. GOAL OF GROUND IMPROVEMENT 1. Modify soil properties 2. Strength 3. Stiffness / compressibility 4. Permeability TYPICAL APPLICATIONS 1. Minimize settlement 2. Increase Bearing Capacity 3. Create seepage Barriers/Provide Drainage 4. Stabilize Dispersive, Collapsing or 5. Expansive Soils 6. Fill Voids 7. Improve Stability of Slopes.

METHODS OF GROUND IMPROVEMENT 1. Soil Replacement 2. Admixture Stabilization/In Situ Mixing 3. Dynamic Compaction 4. Grouting-Compaction/Jet, etc. 5. Drains 6. Vibro Technologies 7. structural Reinforcement GROUTING DEFINITION Improvement of soil or rock through injection of chemicals or cementations materials. COMPACTION GROUTING Soil improvement involving the injection, under relatively high pressure, of a stiff grout to displace and compact soils. The injected grout pushes the soils to the side as it forms grout column or bulb. COMPACTION GROUTING-APPLICATIONS 1. Reducing liquefaction potential 2. Arresting foundation settlement 3. Lifting and leveling structures 4. Pre-construction site improvement 5. Settlement control over tunnels or sinkholes WHEN IT IS TYPICALLY USED? 1. Soil compaction near existing buildings and underground services, where vibratory methods are not practical 2. Very small compaction projects, where the mob / demob cost of vibro equipment is prohibitive 3. Many low cost providers 4. Low headroom COMPACTION GROUTING LIMITATIONS 1. Limited use in coarse grained gravels where ground cannot be prevented to enter the soil pores 2. Cohesive soils that will remold or where injection causes build up of pore water pressures JET GROUTING High pressure jets cement grout are discharged sideways into the borehole wall to simultaneously wall to simultaneously excavate and mix then mix the soil. DEFINITION: JET GROUTING The process of creating soil-cement in place with a stabilizing grout mix delivered at pressure through nozzle(s) at the end of a monitor inserted in a borehole. The soil-cement by lifting and rotating the monitor defined above at slow, smooth, constant speeds, cutting and mixing the soil with grout and air.

ROUGH CLASSIFICATION OF GROUND IMPROVEMENT TECHNIQUE Type Techniques - COMPACTION BY STATIC METHOD Pre-loadingPre-loading with consolidation aid Compaction groutingInfluencing ground water table - COMPACTION BY DYNAMIC METHOD Vibro Compaction Compaction using vibratory hammers Dynamic compaction (drop weight) Compaction by blasting Air pulse compaction - REINFORCEMENT WITH DISPLACING EFFECT Vibro stone columnsSand compaction piles Lime / Cement Columns installed by displacing method - REINFORCEMENT WITHOUT DISPLACING EFFECT Mixed-in-place method Jet grouting Permeation grouting Grouting freezing IN GENERAL:Ground Improvement techniques:v Vibro piers v Vibro replacement v Vibro compaction v Vibro concrete columns v Dynamic compaction v Soil mixing v Injection system for expansive soil.

VIBRO PIERS:- Vibro peirs, also known as aggregate piers are typically installed to intermediate depth of 5 to 20 feet for the support of new loads. - Vibro peire are quick to install & very effective at reinforcing the supporting soil. - Vibro piere reinforce the ground to increase bearing capacity, reduce settlement, increase globally stability & decrease deformation. VIBRO REPLACEMENT STONE COLUMNS:- Vibro replacement stone columns extend the range of soil that can be improved by vibratory technique to include cohesive soils. - Densification & reinforcement of the soil with compacted granular columns or "stone columns" in accomplished by either top-feed or the bottom-feed VIBRO COMPACTION:- Vibro compaction also known as vibro flotation is used to density clean, cohesion less soils - The action of the vibrator, usually accomplished by water jetting reduces the inter-granular forces b/w the soils particles, allowing them to make into a denser configuration, typically achieving a relative density of 70% to 85%. DYNAMIC COMPACTION:- Dynamic compaction is the dropping of heavy weights on the ground surface to density soils at depth. - Its application Reduce e foundation settlement Reduce seismic subsidence] Induce settlement in collapsible soil

SOIL MIXING BY THE SINGLE AXIS TOOL METHOD:- Soil mixing, also known as the deep mixing methods, is the Mechanical blending of the In-situ soil, with cementitious materials (reagent binder) using a hollow steam anger & paddle arrangement - It application To improve comprehensive strength / shear strength (or) permeability.

INJECTION SYSTEM FOR EXPANSIVE SOIL:- Injection stabilization is an In-situ method of treating expansive clays by pressure injection of an aqueous soil of water, lime slurry or potassium chloride. DRAINAGE AND DEWATERING 1. Ground water is the most difficult problem that has to be tackled in any engineering construction. 2. Seepage pressure has to be eliminated. Dewatering and drains are two methods to improve the ground condition. Lowering the water tank and reducing the pore pressure are two important events of dewatering and drains. SEEPAGE Permeability of the soil plays a major role in seepage. Permeability depends a viscosity, unit weight, polarity & pore fluid, particle size, voids ratio, composition, fabric and degree of saturation. The analysis of flow through soil is done by using a flow net. Flow net is a graphical presentation of flow consisting of a net & flow lines and equipotential lines.

GROUND WATER AND SEEPAGE CONTROL Ground water and seepage 0control are considered to be important under following civil engineering works. 1. Stability of material slopes and cuts 2. Stability of dams 3. Stability of excavations for structures 4. Stability of open pit mines, tunnels 5. Stability of buried structures, pavements etc. THE CONTROLS REQUIRED DURING CONSTRUCTION ARE 1. Provide dry excavation Speedy construction 2. Reduce lateral loads on sheets & bracings 3. Stabilize quick bottom conditions Prevent heaving and piping 4. Improve supporting characteristics of foundation materials. 5. Increase stability of excavation slopes and side hill falls. 6. Cut off capillary rise To prevent piping and frost heaving 7. Reducing air pressure in tunneling operations. THE CONTROLS REQUIRED AFTER CONSTRUCTION 1. Reduce or eliminate uplift pressures on bottom slabs. 2. Reduce lateral pressure on retaining structures 3. Control embankment seepage in all dams. 4. Prevent surface and groundwater contamination from pollutants.

METHODS OF PREVENTING DEWATERING SYSTEMS Dewatering system or drains are provided to control ground water. The method of dewatering system is selected from the following factors. 1. Size and depth of excavation. 2. Geological conditions 3. Characteristics of soil.

EARLY METHODS OF DEWATERING SYSTEM 1. construction with controlled rate of excavation 2. Sheeting combined with pumps 3. Deep sheeted sumps dug outside the working area. NEW METHODS OF DEWATERING With improved equipment and techniques, the modern methods & drainage are as follows. 1. Open sumps and ditches 2. Well point systems 3. Deep well drainage 4. Vacuum dewatering system 5. Dewatering by electro osmosis.

CONCLUSION: Without ground treatment, on certain 'difficult' sites subject to new building loads, there could be an unacceptable amount of settlement or the risk of shear failure leading to cosmetic or even catastrophic damage to buildings. Thereafter, the probe is vibratory extracted and granular particles are passed downwardly through the probe with the adjustable closure means open. Desirably, the granular material is compacted, i.e., consolidated, thereby further enhancing the bearing strength of the area, either by introducing such material into the probe during vibratory extraction of the probe. Thus main techniques are discussed in this paper giving its advantages and effectiveness of usage in suitable site condition.