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Trends in Wheat and Bread Making

Trends in Wheat and Bread Making

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Trends in Wheat and Bread Making

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Nov 19, 2020


Trends in Wheat and Bread Making provides a comprehensive look at the state-of-the-art in bread making from ingredient to shelf-life, with a focus on the impact of processing on the nutritional value and consumer acceptability of this global staple. The book also includes chapters on new breads and bakery products fortified with plant-processing-by-products and/or natural antioxidants, and explores efforts to improve biotechnological processes and fermentation for bread making. It is an excellent resource for researchers, industry professionals and enterprises hoping to produce enhanced bread products through processing-related nutritional and quality improvements.
  • Addresses gluten free products, organic farming and production techniques, enzymatic and biotechnological techniques, fortification of breads with plant by-products, and phenol-rich substrates
  • Fills the gap in current resources, focusing on the application of new technologies for processing practices
  • Provides a guide to industrial and commercialized applications of innovative breadmaking
Nov 19, 2020

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Trends in Wheat and Bread Making - Academic Press



Charis M. Galanakis, Research & Innovation Department, Galanakis Laboratories, Chania, Greece, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, Food Waste Recovery Group, ISEKI Food Association, Vienna, Austria

Wheat is an extensively cultivated crop, whereas bread is a well-known staple food with long-lasting history in many countries around the world. Over the last years, bread making is facing a new state-of-the-art forced by the need of industries to develop innovative and tailor-made products for consumers. Besides, sustainability and the need for clean label products have forced food industries to fortify bakery products with plant processing by-products and/or natural antioxidants. Besides, the efforts to improve fermentation processes for bread making have been accelerated. Modern food technologists and bakers often deal with new product development (e.g., gluten-free bakery products) and functional foods, and thus there is a need for a new reference covering all these new trends.

Food Waste Recovery Group provides insights into the food and environmental science and technology sectors, and this line has published numerous books. The latest deal with sustainable food systems, food waste recovery technologies, the valorization of food processing by-products (e.g., from olive, grape, cereals, coffee, and meat), bio-based products, and industries, saving food efforts, innovations in traditional foods, nutraceuticals, and nonthermal processing, and innovations strategies in the food and environmental science. The group has also provided guides into nonalcoholic drinks, shelf-life and food quality, innovative food analysis, personalized nutrition, and customized textbooks for target food components such as carotenoids, polyphenols, lipids, glucosinolates, dietary fiber, and proteins.

Following the above considerations, the current book covers innovations and trends in wheat and bread making. It particularly addresses new product developers and manufacturers to meet consumer needs and expectations. The ultimate goal is to support the scientific community, professionals, and enterprises that aspire to develop industrial and commercialized applications of innovative bread making.

The book consists of 15 chapters. Chapter 1 introduces the topics of wheat and bread making by providing information about wheat composition, bread-making steps, and processes. The chapter also highlights the potential of including wheat in healthy diets.

Chapter 2 deals with the role of ancient wheat genetic resources that have a marginal use in agriculture and sustainable cultivation. Ancient wheat cultivars show huge variability that could be used in breeding programs to enhance the resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, as well as to improve nutritional and qualitative properties of grains.

Both organic farming of wheat and sourdough bread production has gained market during past years due to the new wave of consumers that are concerned about natural foods, health, and life quality. However, the organic planting of wheat normally results in lower yields and kernels with inferior physical properties (test weight, thousand kernel weight, and wheat grade), lower protein content, and more damaged starch estimated with the falling number apparatus. Chapter 3 reviews scientific information regarding the organic farming of wheat and the main factors affecting yield and kernel quality especially in terms of end-use for sour bread making.

Chapter 4 summarizes scientific information related to the physiological, functional, nutritional, and phytochemical effects of unintentional field sprouting and the comparison with wheat sprouted intentionally under controlled conditions to produce flours with improved nutritional properties. The impact on flour and bread quality is also discussed.

Ground cereals mixed with water yields dough which, after standing some time and owing to the spontaneous fermentation by the adventitious microorganisms present therein, becomes a sourdough characterized by a typical acid taste and increased volume. Sourdough in bread making has been used since ancient times and it appears as one of the oldest food biotechnological processes employed by human beings. Chapter 5 deals with the composition and activity of microbiota in sourdough and their effect on bread quality and safety. Chapter 6 deals with the role of enzymes in improving the functionality of proteins in nonwheat dough systems. In particular, different strategies to develop viscoelastic matrices through the action of protein-modifying enzymes are pointed out, since the latest play a key role in gluten-free batter expansion.

Chapter 7 presents the current innovations in bread and bakery production. Trends include the development of new bakery products using different functional ingredients able to satisfy consumers’ demands for healthier products diet as well as the application of using conventional and innovative processing and preservation techniques that promise to prolong the shelf life of these products by inhibiting microbial degradation (mold inhibition), retarding and staling process retardation. Chapter 8 analyzes the effect of the most common hydrocolloids (exudate gums, seaweed gums, modified celluloses, pectins, galactomannans, and exopolysaccharides synthesized by microorganisms) on bread quality and technological aspects of bread production and storage. Hydrocolloids are not only added to improve dough rheology and bread characteristics but also to minimize nondesired changes in crumb texture due to moisture losses and retrogradation during storage (staling).

Chapter 9 presents the applications of dietary fiber in flour products by examining the quality characteristics of fortified bread, biscuits, noodles, and cakes. Aspects such as the effects of dough properties (mixing properties, pasting properties, and elastic properties) and the gluten network as well as dietary fiber–induced changes in water migration and protein structure in the dough are also analyzed. Oat represents an important agricultural resource whose potential use in the bakery industry is insufficiently exploited. Oat flour contains no gluten but provides significant amounts of lipids and fibers with important nutritional and health value, for example, β-glucans from oat lower blood cholesterol and decrease blood glucose level. Therefore Chapter 10 deals with the application of oat flour in bread manufacturing.

Chapter 11 describes in detail phenolics found in the wheat grain as well as the antioxidant capacity that wheat could offer. In addition, it focuses on other natural raw materials rich in phenolics, which are used to enhance the antioxidant activity of bread. Finally, it discusses how processing techniques and bread making affect the antioxidant activity of added raw materials. Chapter 12 presents the latest techniques for using wheat processing by-products in bakery products and different approaches that have been assessed up to now to prevent the undesirable effects of these materials in bread making.

Chapter 13 deals with gluten-free bakery products by providing insights about the respective diet, market, production approaches used to improve their quality, ingredients, and nutrition facts of commercially available products, as well as consumer opinions and expectations about these important food products. Current trends in science and innovative gluten-free bread making are also described, wrapped up with some suggestions for narrowing the knowledge gap between academia and industry. With the growing interest in gluten-free bakery products, several efforts have been made to replace wheat with rice flour to reduce wheat flour imports into nonproducing countries. Chapter 14 presents a critical discussion on the studies carried out on rice flour to improve its baking behavior and the quality characteristics of the resulting bread.

Chapter 15 presents the factors that affect consumer behavior regarding the consumption of bread and bakery products. It also looks at respective consumer perceptions in Europe, analyzing consumer studies published between 2010 and 2019 in the scientific literature in the field. It presents the case of low salt content bread and a description of levels of sodium in grain food with functions of salt, taste, and flavor of these products and strategies for reducing salt content is provided.

Conclusively, the current book is assisting food scientists, technologists, engineers, and chemists working in the whole food science field, as well as new product developers, wheat breeders, and agronomists, researchers, academics, and professionals working in the food sector. It could be used as a textbook and/or ancillary reading in undergraduate and postgraduate-level multidiscipline courses dealing with nutritional chemistry and food science and technology.

At this point, I would like to acknowledge all authors for their collaboration and thank them for their dedication to this book. I am fortunate to have had the opportunity to work together with many international experts from Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, Croatia, Ecuador, Greece, Mexico, Portugal, Romania, and Spain. I would also like to thank the acquisition editors Nancy Maragioglio and Nina Bandeira, the book manager Laura Okidi, and all colleagues from Elsevier’s production team for their assistance during the preparation of this book. Please also note that these collaborative editing projects are comprised of hundreds of thousands of words and the final manuscript is possible to contain errors or gaps. Comments, suggestions, and even criticism are always welcome. In that case please do not hesitate to contact me to discuss any relevant issues at

Chapter 1

Introduction in wheat and breadmaking

Adriana Skendi¹, ² and Maria Papageorgiou²,    ¹1Department of Agricultural Biotechnology and Oenology, International Hellenic University, Thessaloniki, Greece,    ²2Department of Food Science and Technology, International Hellenic University, Thessaloniki, Greece


Cereal grains comprise part of the traditional eating habits of different cultures. Wheat alone accounts for 20% of the daily protein and the food calories of 4.5 billion people worldwide. Wheat quality, in the wider sense, involves carbohydrate, protein, and micronutrient composition, grain processing, and food safety. Wheat seed components, both those that contribute to the energy required from the human body and those with a positive activity, such as phenolic compounds with antioxidant capacity, have to be considered in an introduction to wheat and breadmaking. This chapter will address the potential for including wheat in the human diet as a means of promoting health. Processing of wheat represents another significant aspect of the food production chain, because of the great variation in the composition of the different anatomic parts of the wheat kernel and their functionality. This chapter provides an introduction to wheat kernel composition, breadmaking steps, and processes. It will also introduce to the reader the content and the aims to be achieved by this book and briefly highlight the topics that are going to be covered.


Refined wheat flour; breadmaking; cereals; milling; fermentation; nongluten flours

1.1 Introduction to wheat (Triticum)

Wheat belongs to the Graminae family of plants, extensively cultivated since it comprises a worldwide staple food. The world’s annual production of wheat in 2017 was about 772 million tons, representing 25.9% of the world’s cereal production (Fig. 1.1). A continuous increase in the world’s annual production of wheat was observed during the last 10 years, with six world regions, European Union, China, Russian Federation, United States of America, Canada, and Pakistan covering 60% of the world production.

Figure 1.1 Production data for wheat and cereal during period 2007–17. Source: FAOSTAT, 2019. FAO Statistics Division. (last updated: 18.01.19).

Wheat species are classified under the genus Triticum. Cultivated species are classified as diploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid forms. Among the wheat (Triticum) species only two are grown to a great extent; Triticum aestivum (genetically hexaploid) recognized as common wheat or bread wheat, and Triticum durum (genetically tetraploid) commonly known as durum wheat.

Within a species, wheat cultivars are further classified depending on the growing season (winter wheat, spring wheat). Moreover, classification is made depending on characteristics such as the kernel color, length, and endosperm texture. Most of the time these classifications are made in order to discriminate the quality of the wheat depending on the nutritional value, processing performance, end-use, as well as the market price.

Generally, the color of wheat kernels of breeding cultivars varies from light yellow to red-brown, but for grading, purposes are classified as white or red. The perceived final color of wheat is a result of genetic factors (pigments developed in the kernel), the texture of the endosperm (modifies the perceived color), and growing conditions. Classification and grading of wheat are linked with indicators of purity and quality of the grains as determined by quality control guidelines.

The wheat kernel consists of three main parts: endosperm, bran, and germ. The bran represents the outer shell that protects the seed. It is made of pericarp, testa, nucellar layers, and aleurone layer. The endosperm represents the biggest part of the kernel and is the source of refined wheat flour. The aleurone layer surrounds the endosperm tissue of wheat seeds. The germ is the nutrient-rich embryo that will grow into a new wheat plant.

1.2 Wheat kernels composition

1.2.1 Starch

Starch represents the main component of the wheat grain weight (65%–75%) exceeding 80% of the endosperm weight (Hurkman et al., 2003). Starch is composed mainly of two large glucan polymers, amylose and amylopectin comprising 25%–30% and 70%–75% of the wheat starch, respectively. Amylose has an almost linear chain structure where glucose units are linked with α-1-4 glycosidic linkage, while amylopectin is a much larger and highly branched polymer with α-1-6-glycosidic linkage at branch points. The ratio, as well as their fine molecular structure, affects starch behavior during baking (Blazek and Copeland, 2008; Chiotelli and Le Meste, 2002). Amylose and amylopectin are in compressed form in the starch granules. The granule is made of amylose and amylopectin molecules organized in alternating amorphous and semicrystalline growth circles that start from the hilum (Cameron and Donald, 1992).

Each granule of wheat starch exhibit bimodal size distribution containing two types of granules one large disk-shaped (lenticular) granules (A-type granule with diameters greater than 16 μm) and small round granules (B-type granule with diameter 5–16 μm) (Bechtel et al., 1990; Chiotelli and Le Meste, 2002; Parker, 1985). The granule size distribution is an essential criterion in the baking process. The A-type granule contains generally higher amylose content than the B-type granules. Park et al. (2004) have reported amylose content that ranges from 23.4% to 30.8% in the A-type granules and 18.3% to 26.8% in B-type granules of the starch from 12 wheat flours. Polysaccharide chains are found in a less ordered arrangement in the smaller starch granules compared to the larger ones (Chiotelli and Le Meste, 2002). It was observed that the B-type starch granules had slightly higher gelatinization temperature and lower gelatinization enthalpy than did the A-type granules (Chiotelli and Le Meste, 2002). Moreover, the small B-type granules exhibit higher swelling power, that is, the ability to absorb water at 92.5°C than A-type granules (Park et al., 2004). The size of the starch granule influences the appearance of bread crumb grain. Factors such as the granule size, swelling ability of the granules, and interactions with the gluten matrix associated with granule sizes could be responsible for bread quality. The literature recommends an optimum range of weight percentage (around 20%–23% of small granules) in wheat cultivars in order to produce bread with the best crumb characteristics (Park et al., 2004). It was speculated that this amount of small granules could stiffen the dough matrix, which entraps the gas cells, thus preventing coalescence. This is due to the higher water absorption capacity at ambient temperature that small wheat starch granules have compared to the large granules. However, presence of small granules at levels higher than 24% decreases the rate of amylose release from the gelatinized granules, which results in the weakening and/or disruption of the gas cell deteriorating both the volume of the bread and its crumb.

The amount of A- to B-type granule varies depending on the temperature that the wheat kernels are subjected during growth (Hurkman et al., 2003; Liu et al., 2011). Hurkman et al. (2003) reported that when the elevated temperature was applied in the period between anthesis and maturity, less starch was formed in the kernel. The latter results in a reduction of approximately 19% and 58% of the starch content in wheat kernel cultivated under the 37/17°C and 37/28°C (day/night) regimen, respectively. On the other hand, there was observed that larger type A granules were predominant in grain produced under high temperatures, whereas the smaller type B starch granules under low growing temperatures. Liu et al. (2011) observed that the morphology of starch granules in cultivars exposed to heat shock (at 40°C) differed in the morphology from that of the control treatments (Fig. 1.2). They noted that in wheat cultivar (Yangmai 9) with weak gluten, starch granules were ellipsoid, smaller in size, and not tightly bound with the protein network when compared to wheat kernel grown under normal environmental conditions. On the other hand, in a wheat cultivar with medium gluten (Yangmai 12), the granules of the starch appear squeezed with visible slits in the mature kernel.

Figure 1.2 Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) micrographs of starch granules from two wheat cultivars (Yangmai 9, Yangmai 12) revealing the effect of heat shock on the morphology of granules from 25 to 27 DAA (days after anthesis). Column 25–27 DAA depicts micrographs of starch granules 1 day after treatment, whereas under the Mature column are shown those obtained during harvest when the kernel was mature. In the columns Starch granule, the figures are enlarged three times from the ones in their left, to emphasize changes in the morphology of the granules. Rows correspond to different heat treatments performed at 30°C and 40°C. Normal indicates the kernels exposed to normal conditions. Arrows show fissures on the surface of the starch granules. Bars correspond to 20 μm (Liu et al., 2011).

Panozzo and Eagles (1998) stated that the amount of amylose increases under high temperatures but was not affected to the same degree as the morphology of the granule. In the study of Lin and Czuchajowska (1997), it was reported that the starch content was not influenced by the crop year and/or varietal differences, while the amount of amylose and damaged starch, as well as peak viscosities of flour and starch, was largely affected.

Starch has the ability to absorb water and swell and if the temperature is applied in the presence of an excess of water, the granules are broken releasing amylose and amylopectin in the solution (starch gelatinization). Thus starch has the ability to change the viscosity of highly hydrated systems such as doughs and batters during baking or other processing that involves heating (Atwell et al., 1988). The viscosity is not only a function of the starch concentration but depends on the quality of the granular starch (Loney et al., 1975). Considerable variation in the pasting behavior of wheat flours has been observed among cultivars (Morris et al., 1997). In addition to genotype, environmental factors during crop growth influence the swelling and pasting properties of wheat starch (Geera et al., 2006; Lin and Czuchajowska, 1997; Morris et al., 1997).

Flours with high amylose content have gained nutritional interest due to their unique functional properties. During heat treatment, high amylose starch can retain its crystallinity that resists to the amylase degradation contributing to the slow digestibility of starch and release of glucose (Li et al., 2019). The starch that escapes the digestion in the small intestine is recognized as resistant starch (RS) and can be fermented only in the colon, producing short-chain fatty acids (Li, 2018). Thus the use of high-amylose wheat for breadmaking results not only in a high level of RS in the final bread but also in an increase of the quantity of RS that is formed on storage (Hung et al., 2005). In addition, the high content of amylose was found responsible for altering the pasting properties of wheat flour, that is, decreased the peak and final viscosities, breakdown, and setback temperatures compared to the normal flour (Blazek and Copeland, 2008; Hung et al., 2005; Hung et al., 2007).

The high-amylose wheat flour doughs were able to absorb more water and were weaker and less elastic than those made of normal-amylose wheat flour. These negative effects on the dough quality are reflected in the production of bread with low-quality parameters such as a decreased loaf volume, increased crumb firmness, and inferior appearance (Hung et al., 2005). Inconsistency exists in the literature related to the effect that high amylose has on the gelatinization temperature of the wheat starches. Hung et al. (2008) reported that high-amylose starches showed higher gelatinization temperature than that of the normal-amylose wheat starch, whereas the opposite was reported by Hung et al. (2007). Inconsistencies could be due to structural differences that amylose and amylopectin show among high-amylose wheat cultivars. Although the shape of high-amylose wheat starch granules was similar to that of normal wheat starch, the surface appearance of the granules was damaged and cracks were observed especially on the surface of large granules (Hung et al., 2008; Yamamori et al., 2000). High-amylose wheat cultivars exhibited unchanged internal structure of the starch granule but these starches have amylose chains with more monomers and amylopectin entities with a smaller degree of polymerization (Hung et al., 2008). Although the reported range for average degree of polymerization (DPn) of amylose and amylopectin molecules was 854–1155 and 1278–3841 glucose molecules, respectively, the amylose molecules have longer average chain length than that of the amylopectin molecules (Hung et al., 2008).

The starch of waxy wheat cultivars is essentially amylopectin, containing only ~1.2%–2.0% amylose (Yasui et al., 1996), although it has been reported even a 4% amylose content of a waxy wheat cultivar (Blazek et al., 2009). Although there were not observed obvious morphological differences between the starch granules of waxy and of amylose-rich varieties (Fig. 1.3), starch from the waxy wheat contained 48% of A-type granules, whereas those of increased amylose content showed higher than 53% content of A-type size granules (Blazek et al., 2009).

Figure 1.3 Scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs of waxy wheat starch granules (A) and high-amylose wheat starch granules (B) (Blazek et al., 2009).

Generally, the waxy starch is more crystalline than nonwaxy starch (Hung et al., 2007; Kim et al., 2003) and waxy starch flour exhibits higher water retention, peak viscosity at a lower temperature, and lower final viscosity during pasting than normal wheat flour (Garimella Purna et al., 2015; Geera et al., 2006; Hung et al., 2007; Kim et al., 2003; Morita et al., 2002). Moreover, the peak gelatinization temperature and gelatinization enthalpy are higher than that of the nonwaxy starch or high-amylose starch (Blazek et al., 2009; Hung et al., 2007). The nearly identical gelatinization enthalpy of waxy starch to that of nonwaxy starch reported in one study (Yasui et al., 1996) may be due to the different factors that affect the lamellar starch structure. According to the Blazek et al. (2009), the nanostructural parameters of starch granules in their native form are influenced by the following main factors: the amylose imperfections in the crystalline region of the lamellae, the amount of amylose within the amorphous regions of the lamellae, and chain length distribution of amylopectin chains.

The use of waxy starch in breadmaking is associated with delay of staling (antistaling ingredient) and prolonged shelf life of bread. Upon storage, the crumb of waxy starch wheat flour becomes softer than that of the nonwaxy bread (Hayakawa et al., 2004; Morita et al., 2002), and the effectiveness of bread reheating is more pronounced (Morita et al., 2002). When excessive waxy wheat flour is added to total wheat flour (>20%), sticky, lumpy, or less crispy textures of the crumb were observed (Hayakawa et al., 2004).

1.2.2 Protein

According to Osborne in the wheat, there are identified four protein fractions: albumins that are soluble in water, globulins soluble in dilute saline, prolamins soluble in 60%–70% alcohol, and glutelins extracted in dilute acid or alkali (Osborne, 1924). Albumins and globulins represent 20%–25% of the total wheat grain proteins (Merlino et al., 2009). In wheat grain, glutenin and gliadin represent the main protein fractions, are considered storage proteins, and together they form gluten. Gluten is classically recognized as the rubbery-sticky mass that remains after removing starch and soluble material from the wheat dough. It comprises about 75%–80% of total wheat protein on a dry matter basis. Gliadins and glutenins have been associated with gluten strength and extensibility and bread end-use quality.

Glutenin (glutelin) is a protein aggregate that imparts elasticity to a dough. It is made of subunits that are linked primarily by disulfide bonds forming polymer aggregates with a very high molecular weight ranging from about 500 kDa to more than 10 million (Wieser, 2007). Disulfide bonds are created between the sulfhydryl groups of cysteine residues present in other subunits (interchain) or within the individual subunits (intra-chain) (Shewry and Tatham, 1997). The subunits are classified based on their mobilities during sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in high (HMWG of molecular weight varying from 67 to 88 kDa) and low molecular weight subunits (LMWG of molecular weight varying from 32 to 35 kDa) (Jackson et al., 1983; Shewry et al., 1999; Wieser, 2007).

Gliadins (prolamins) account for about 40%–50% of the total proteins in wheat seeds and could be divided into α-, β-, γ-, and ω-groups based on the separation by electrophoresis at low pH (Qi et al., 2006). Due to their structural homology α- and β-gliadins have been considered as α-type gliadins (Zilić et al., 2011). There are considered mainly monomeric proteins showing molecular weights around 28–55 kDa (Wieser, 2007). The only α- and γ-gliadins could form disulfide bonds as intra-chain crosslinks, whereas the ω-gliadins lack this possibility due to the absence of the cysteine (Shewry and Tatham, 1997). The α/β-gliadins show compact globular structures, whereas γ- and ω-gliadins exhibit an extended rod-like structure (Barak et al., 2015).

According to the distribution of the cysteine residues, the gluten proteins are classified in sulfur-rich prolamins, sulfur-poor and high molecular weight groups. The sulfur-rich prolamins comprise the α-type gliadins (α/β), the γ-type gliadins, and the LMWG. They have between 250 and 300 residues with 33%–50% of the whole proteins consisting largely of repeated peptides that are rich in proline and glutamine residues (Shewry and Tatham, 1997). Due to the presence of six and eight cysteines in the C-terminal domain, the α/β- and γ-gliadins are able to form three and four homologous intrachain crosslinks, respectively (Grosch and Wieser, 1999).

In gluten, glutenins are mixed in a random fashion with monomeric gliadins forming aggregates. The presence of noncovalent bonds (hydrophobic bonds, hydrogen bonds, van der Waals’, ionic bonds between the gliadins and glutenins) is responsible for the aggregation of gluten proteins affecting dough physical properties (Wieser, 2007). Glutenin and gliadin proteins play diverse roles in the structural formation of the gluten matrix during breadmaking. In the dough structure, HMWG chains form a network in which the LMWGs create aggregated branch structures, whereas gliadins are distributed in a random fashion filling the space created within the glutenin macropolymer network (Lindsay and Skerritt, 2000).

Factors such as the size, polarity, and the number of cysteine residues of glutenin subunits affect the number of disulfide bonds and thus the formation of the glutenin polymer network structure. Disulfide bonds affect the viscoelastic properties of wheat dough (Müller et al., 1998). The viscoelastic character of the gluten network is a combination of the viscous component related to the noncovalent bonds forming by the gliadins and the elastic component being a contribution of inter and intra-disulfide bonds of the glutenins polymers (Xu et al., 2007). Both gluten polymers are accountable for the characteristics of the dough network formed during hydration and mixing of the wheat flour dough.

The gluten network is capable to retain the air because it forms an impermeable membrane around gas cells, resulting in the formation of an aerated network in the bread (Delcour and Hoseney, 2010). Breadmaking properties of the wheat flour are affected by factors such as the type and the quantity of the gluten proteins. The strength of the dough is attributed to the HMWG (Lawrence et al., 1988), whereas gliadin induces a decrease in the dough strength and maximum elongational viscosity of the dough and an increase in rupture strain (Uthayakumaran et al., 2000). Among gliadins, ω-gliadins interact with other proteins only noncovalently and thus their influence on viscoelastic properties and breadmaking quality is less drastic than that of α-, β- and γ-gliadins (Khatkar et al., 2002).

Differences in the breadmaking quality between wheat cultivars are strongly dependent upon the amount and the composition of gluten proteins present in the endosperm. The variation observed in the grain protein content is mainly a response of the genetic variation (Charmet et al., 2005; Groos et al., 2003). According to Turchetta et al. (1995), almost 78% of the variation in gluten properties is explained from genetic variation in the protein composition. They observed that LMWG subunits have the largest contribution to the variation. A relationship between gliadin composition and the botanical and geographical classification was also discovered (Aguiriano et al., 2008). Slightly higher gliadin/total glutenin ratio are expressed for durum wheat genotypes (0.57–1.06) as compared to the bread wheat genotype (0.49–1.01) (Zilić et al., 2011). On the other hand, bread wheat genotypes have a higher concentration of α-, β-, and γ- gliadin subunits than durum wheat (on average 61.54% vs 55.32% of extractable proteins).

Despite genetic, other factors such as climate and fertilization affect the amount and the composition of the wheat proteins. Although the synthesis of protein in wheat is less affected by the heat shock than the formation of starch (Bhullar and Jenner, 1985), under heat shock, gliadin synthesis is increased and glutenin synthesis is decreased (Viswanathan and Khanna-Chopra, 2001).

Increasing uptake of nitrogen after anthesis is associated with increases in protein content (Bogard et al., 2011). Although soil nitrogen availability has a strong influence on grain protein content, not all genotypes respond similarly to nitrogen variation (Miezan et al., 1977). Also, sulfur fertilization during wheat growth strongly influences the amounts and proportions of single protein types (gliadin/glutenin ratio increased), whereas the content of flour was little affected (Wieser et al., 2004). In the case of sulfur deficiency, it was observed an increase in the amount of sulfur-free ω-gliadins and sulfur-poor HMWG subunits, whereas there was reduced the amount of sulfur-rich γ-gliadins and LMWG subunits (Wieser et al., 2004; Zhao et al., 1999). Sulfur deficiency during plant growth changes the protein functional properties forming a stronger and less extensible dough with increased mixing requirements that result in reduced loaf volume (Naeem and MacRitchie, 2003).

1.2.3 Lipids

Although present in very small amounts in bread wheat (6.9–12.8 µg/g dry matter) (Hammann et al., 2019), lipids constitute a very complex mixture of compounds (Prinsen et al., 2014). The wheat bran contains higher amounts of lipids than the endosperm. According to Prinsen et al. (2014) the lipid fraction of the wheat bran is made of 40% free fatty acids, 40% acylglycerols, 13% alkylresorcinols, and 7% of steroid compounds a mixture of hydrocarbons, ketones, free sterols, sterol glycosides, sterol esters, and sterol ferulates.

Lipids are categorized based on their molecular structure (polar, nonpolar lipids) or/and on the type of bonding with the starch (starch lipids, starch surface lipids, and nonstarch lipids). The category of nonpolar lipids includes several compounds that have attracted the interest of the consumers due to the health benefits for humans. These compounds are sterols, sterol esters, tocopherols, and triacylglycerols (Hammann et al., 2019). Starch lipids are the lipids inside native starch granules (starch-lipid complexes), starch surface lipids are those lipids located in the gluten matrix that surrounds the starch granules in the endosperm, and the nonstarch lipids are membrane and spherosome lipids from the starchy endosperm, aleurone, and germ. Starch lipids are mostly monoacyl lipids (i.e., lysophospholipids, free fatty acids), whereas the surface lipids comprise mostly triglycerides then free fatty acids, phospholipids, and glycolipids in lower levels (Morrison, 1988; Vasanthan and Hoover, 1992). According to Vasanthan and Hoover (1992), the amount of nonstarch lipids reaches 19.9 mg/100 g dry starch, and it contains mainly free fatty acids (8.5 mg/100 g dry starch), diacylglycerol (5.8 mg/100 g dry starch), and free sterol (3.2 mg/100 g dry starch).

The functionality of starch is modified by both starch lipids and proteins (Appelqvist and Debet, 1997). It is reported that the fraction of amylose-lipid complexes may retard the starch swelling and increases in gelatinization temperature (Jane et al., 1994).

1.2.4 Nonstarch polysaccharides and phytochemicals

Several molecules of nutritional interest were reported to occur in the wheat including nonstarch polysaccharides, vitamins, and phytochemicals being associated mainly with aleurone cell walls or other peripheral tissues of the kernel.

According to Stone (1996), the nonstarch polysaccharides found in the wheat account for 3%–8% of the kernel and consist of 7.6% arabinoxylans, 2.7% cellulose, and 1% glucans on a dry weight basis.

Arabinoxylan comprises a linear backbone of (1→4)-β-D-xylopyranosyl residues mainly substituted with α-L-arabinofuranosyl residues at the O-2 and/or the O-3 position (Izydorczyk and Biliaderis, 1995). The distribution of arabinose along the xylose backbone is different in the endosperm compared with the outer layers where glucuronic acid (or its 4-O methyl ester) and galactose are also present (recognized as glucuronoarabinoxylan or heteroxylan) (Saulnier et al., 2007). In wheat, 66% of the xylosyl residues are unsubstituted, 21% are substituted at O-3 position, and 13% are di-substituted at O-2 and O-3 positions. The presence of α-L-arabinofuranosyl residues on the O-2 position is occasional. Some of the O-5 of the arabinofuranosyl residues are linked with esteric bonds to ferulic acid. In addition to the ferulic acid other compounds can be linked to the arabinofuranosyl units such as coumaric acid.

Arabinoxylans are classified based on their water solubilization as water-extractable (WE-AX) and water-unextractable (WU-AX) fractions. The average amount of arabinoxylans in wheat flour is 0.5% for WE-AX and 1.7% for WU-AX, respectively. These fractions contain linked ferulic acid at a very low level varying from 0.2% to 0.4% of WE-AX and 0.6% to 0.9% of WU-AX (Saulnier et al., 2007). Genetic factors play an important role in the variation of the structure and molecular weight of arabinoxylans. In Greek bread wheat cultivars, the molecular weight of water-soluble arabinoxylans ranges from 146,500 to 397,000, and arabinose/xylose ratio varies between 0.57 and 0.71 (Skendi et al., 2011). Compared to the starchy endosperm, the arabinoxylans of the aleurone layer are heavily esterified.

Although the arabinoxylans represent a minor component of the wheat kernel compared to the main components (starch and protein), they play a significant role in breadmaking due to their hydration properties and ability to form viscous solutions. Arabinoxylans have the ability to gel in the presence of free radical-forming agents such as enzymatic systems or chemicals (Skendi and Biliaderis, 2016). Chain–chain interactions of arabinoxylans with different other polymers present in the cell walls can occur. Different interactions with β-glucans are possible (Izydorczyk and MacGregor, 2000; Skendi and Biliaderis, 2016).

Ferulic acid has the ability to cross-link arabinoxylans, or arabinoxylans and lignin. In durum and bread wheat detection of the presence of 8-O-4’ and 5–8’ benzofuran dehydrodimers mainly, and other forms (5-5’, 8-5’, and 8-8’) confirms the importance of the ferulic acid residues in the arabinoxylan molecules (Peyron et al., 2001). In addition to the ferulic acid other acids are found as esters in the wheat (acetic acid, hydroxycinnamic acids, p-coumaric). Differences in the composition of tissues of the wheat kernel are observed. Coumaric acid can be found mostly in the aleurone whereas its dehydrotrimer is found exclusively in the pericarp of wheat (Antoine et al., 2004).

Ferulic acid as the main phenolic compound present in the wheat kernel is followed by p-coumaric, caffeic acid, and synaptic acid. It is mainly distributed in the cell walls of aleurone, pericarp, and embryo, and found only in trace amounts in the endosperm. Adom et al. (2005) reported 50–70-fold higher content of ferulic acid and 10–15-fold greater quantity of flavonoids in bran/germ fractions than in the endosperm fraction (Fig. 1.4). Zhou and Yu (2004) studied how the growing environment affected phenolics and antioxidant activity of the bran extracts. Moreover, bran and germ fractions are a source of vitamin E, carotenoids, and vitamins of B-group (Fardet, 2010).

Figure 1.4 Milled wheat fraction contributions to total phytochemicals in whole wheat flours from three wheat varieties based on the naturally occurring proportions of bran/germ and endosperm in the whole wheat samples (mean±SD, n=5) (Adom et al., 2005).

1.2.5 Enzymes

Several enzymes are found in the wheat kernel, for example, amylases, proteases, lipoxygenase (LOX), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and peroxidase (POD). Located mainly the wheat pericarp, the α-amylase has great importance for the breadmaking. Small quantities are present in the aleurone layer and the seed coat (Rani et al., 2001). High levels of α-amylase in wheat flour are linked with the course and sticky bread crumb. The Falling Number test is an international standard method that measures the level of α-amylase in wheat. Low values of falling numbers indicate high α-amylase activity and poor end-use quality (Shao et al., 2019). Literature reports that the activity of α-amylase is highly correlated with flour falling numbers above 62 (Moot and Every, 1990). Normally, the levels of α-amylase are very low but environmental conditions during harvest causing sprouting such as the wet harvest years largely affect these levels. Sprout-damage wheat kernels show about 1.5 times higher α-amylase activity in the fractions rich with material from aleurone and scutellum than in the flour fraction (Moot and Every, 1990). Generally, α-amylase penetrates inside the wheat kernel with increasing in sprouting severity. β-Amylase, on the other hand, is more evenly distributed in this grain tissue since it is synthesized in the endosperm during kernel development (Kruger, 1981). Protease is present in the endosperm, germ, and aleurone layer (Evers and Redman, 1973), whereas the lipoxygenase is located in the embryo (Blain and Todd, 1955; Rani et al., 2001). Proteases are responsible for the degradation of the storage proteins.

Polyphenol oxidase is located mainly in the bran layer and its activity was linearly correlated with ash content of wheat and flour color (Hatcher and Kruger, 1993; Park et al., 1997). Although, inactive during storage, the presence of water activates them affecting significantly the flour quality (Rani et al., 2001). The presence of high PPO level in flour is mainly due to the bran contamination but both presence and the distribution of the enzyme can be highly increased upon germination and is dependent on the severity of sprouting. Polyphenol oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of polyphenol compounds to quinones. These compounds under storage undergo self-polymerization or condensation with other compounds resulting in undesirable brown-colored complexes present in the final product (Hatcher and Kruger, 1993). The PPO activity is mostly affected by the genotype, and this may be affected by seasonal factors. Moreover, the variability in PPO activities was altered by the growing location of wheat (Park et al., 1997). According to Park et al. (1997), in hard red wheat PPO activities were affected more by growing location than by genotypes. It was observed that some phenolic acids present in the bran of wheat kernel can inhibit PPO activity (Okot-Kotber et al., 2001).

1.3 Wheat quality—genetic and agronomic practices

Wheat quality depends on parameters such as environment, genotype, as well as their interaction. Wheat breeding programs focus on the development of high-yielding varieties and high yield components, enhanced micronutrient content, provides new genes for resistance to major biotic and abiotic stresses, and improves the processing quality of elite varieties (Ogbonnaya et al., 2013). Modern wheat varieties have lost diversity in grain morphology and quality during the long selection processes performed in order to obtain a certain quality that comprises uniform grain shape (Gegas et al., 2010). In contrary, the wheat primitive species (landraces and wild forms) exhibit broad variation being a tool of great importance for the breeding programs. Domestication of wheat was associated with a trend toward larger nonshattering grains forms because of its effect on yield (Fuller, 2007) and the resulted grains are wider and shorter (Gegas et al., 2010). From the genetic information present in landraces, past and/or elite cultivars and breeding lines were created the genes for dwarfing and disease resistance. These genes were used for the improvement of important traits of wheat (Bordes et al., 2008). Due to the increased consumer attention to the health benefits of foods the interest in ancient grains has been raised partly also due to the beneficial effects for environment and biodiversity (De Santis et al., 2017; Dinelli et al., 2009). Moreover, the creation of a sustainable and wholesome food supply represents another important incentive that has led to an extended interest in ancient grains during the past few decades. Extensively, the incentives of the current research and the benefits related to the cultivation of the ancient wheat are being discussed in Chapter 2 (Ancient wheats in sustainable wheat cultivation).

A strong genotype-environment interaction is generally recognized along with the fact that dissimilar developmental environments may cause changes in quantitative traits (Greveniotis et al., 2018; Martini et al., 2015; Nurmi et al., 2010; Shamloo et al., 2017). Moreover, there is a negative impact of heat stress in wheat production due to global climate change. Different studies monitoring yield performance under heat stress conditions in order to identify heat-tolerant wheat genotypes resulted in the discovery of heat-tolerant wheat genotypes (Dias and Lidon, 2009; Mason et al., 2010; Sharma et al., 2016; Vishwakarma et al., 2018). Triticum dicoccoides and Triticum monococcum can be used to enhance heat tolerance in bread wheat (Ni et al., 2018). Increasing public concern on mycotoxins and other contaminants linked with wheat safety and security resulted in the breeding and selection and production of cultivars that combine high resistance against Fusarium with high yield (Mergoum et al., 2007).

The presence of at least 12.8% protein content in wheat flour is required from mills and bakeries. The build-up of this protein amount is related to the use of high fertilizer rates in the field. On the other hand, an inverse relationship exists between yield and protein concentration that forces farmers to cultivate high-yielding genotypes or high-quality ones. For bread production, the use of varieties with high baking potential and high raw protein content is generally needed. Nowadays, breeding focuses on the protein fractions of wheat that contribute to grain quality, instead of the increase of raw protein concentration (Michel et al., 2017). The genetic control of durum wheat landraces showed higher genetic variation in the LMWG subunit (Aguiriano et al., 2008) than that found in other germplasm collections (Nieto-Taladriz et al., 1997).

Wheat cultivars with high amylose content are considered of nutritional interest. The high presence of amylose is associated with beneficial physiological due to the slow digestibility in the human intestine. It is still considered very challenging the finding of combining mutations in genes in order to achieve high amylose content (Kozlov et al., 2006; Morell and Myers, 2005). On the other hand, not always the high amylose content obtained by applying different breeding strategies results in increased crystallinity of starch, the factor that is related to the beneficial effect on human health. High amylose content wheat varieties obtained with different breeding strategies have shown comparable crystallinity with that of normal amylose content (Hung et al., 2007) or even lower crystallinity (Hung et al., 2008). The reduction of amylose in wheat starch was achieved by different techniques that involve synthase enzymes accountable for amylose biosynthesis. The specific mutations resulted in a very low amount of amylose from <2.0% to no amylose during starch formation (Kim et al., 2003; Kiribuchi-Otobe et al., 1997; Sasaki et al., 2000; Yasui et al., 1996). By genetically modifying wheat starch the production of a waxy (amylose-free) wheat was achieved (Nakamura et al., 1995).

The physical and chemical composition of wheat differs among varieties and kernel size within the same wheat variety. Kernel dimensions contribute greatly to agronomic parameters such as thousand-kernel weight in wheat (Cui et al., 2011). The size of the wheat kernel and its hardness should be controlled before milling since they have high significance for the millers. The hardness of the kernel is strongly connected with the end-use quality of wheat. Although the flour quality is not negatively affected by the small kernels, the milling yield does (Acar et al., 2019). Kernel size and shape affect flour yield, end-use quality and market price (Breseghello and Sorrells, 2007; Cui et al., 2011; Tsilo et al., 2010). The contribution of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and sulfur in grain yield, as well as interactions between them, improved the yield. On the other hand, the quantity of protein was not decreased when the grain yield was improved from nutrient interactions, implying the advantages of balanced nutrition against protein reduction as yield increases (Duncan et al., 2018).

Preharvest sprouting is precocious germination of grain before harvest that leads to the production of enzymes responsible for starch and protein degradation. Considered as the most serious quality defects of grains, enzymes affect the quality of wheat flour and the resulting bread quality. Chapter 14 provides a summary of the current findings on field preharvest sprouting of wheat comparing it with existing knowledge on controlled sprouting techniques. Also, the effect of these techniques on wheat and bread quality is discussed.

1.4 Breadmaking procedure

Plain bread is produced utilizing wheat flour, water, salt, and yeast. However, consumer preferences can vary significantly geographically contributing highly to the demand and the supply of the bread markets. More aspects related to the consumer preferences and expectations with a contribution to the relevant bread markets that have different geographic origins will be explored in Chapter 18.

There is a need for innovation in breadmaking in order to attract more people that are reluctant to consume this traditional product. Fortification of bread, that is, bread with an increased level of bioactive compounds related to health claims (e.g., cholesterol reduction, glycemic control) represents a new trend. The new trends in breadmaking will be scrutinized in Chapter 3.

1.4.1 Milling

Milling quality is considered an important selection criterion of a wheat cultivar. Prior to milling, the wheat kernels must be water tempered till a certain moisture content is reached in order to enable the production of good quality flour. Moistening of the kernels allows easy separation of the outer layers of the kernel during the milling and release of the endosperm. This tempering reduces the milling cost and increases the milling yield. In general, factors such as moisture content of the kernels, temperature, and storage time affect the final flour quality (Meneghetti et al., 2019).

Different types of mills have been used to reduce the particle sizes (i.e., roller, hammer, disc, stone) utilizing different types of force (compression, impact, or shear) according to the end-use product. Accordingly, the final physicochemical, technological, and nutritional properties of the flour and bread are influenced by the chosen milling process. Wheat kernels are usually milled by roller milling. During conventional milling, the kernel breaks up and then the endosperm is removed from the bran (embryo, aleurone cells, other bran layers) forming a large number of milling streams of different compositions and breadmaking quality. The whole wheat flour contains a much higher quantity of fibers (comprising nonstarch polysaccharides), minerals, and bioactive compounds (such as phenolics, vitamins, and carotenoids) than the refined flour (Jonnalagadda et al., 2011).

There is growing consumer interest for bakery products made with unrefined flours due to the presence of these bioactive compounds able to provide various health benefits against several chronic diseases including diabetes, obesity, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases (Tebben et al., 2018). Despite attempts to increase awareness about the benefits of whole grain, the consumption of whole-grain bread is limited because it is often associated with low bread quality attributes, that is, low loaf volume, dark and rough crust and crumb, high firmness and gritty texture, and unpleasant sensory characteristics. Wheat bran represents a by-product of the industrial wheat milling that has attracted increased interest due to its nutritional profile and physiological effects. Chapter 16 will explain more in detail the impact of wheat bran and other cereal processing by-products on breadmaking and bread quality.

In order to increase bread quality and to boost consumer demand, the inclusion of various ingredients in the recipe was tested. Different additives are used in the bread recipe with the aim to improve the quality of the final product. Hydrocolloids such as pectins, exudate gums, gums from seaweeds, galactomannans from leguminous seeds, modified celluloses, and exopolysaccharides from microbial fermentation are used as additives in breadmaking. They are usually added in order to increase the shelf life acting as antistaling agents or increase bread quality characteristics when added to compensate for the low breadmaking quality of flours. Utilization of old varieties due to the claims about their nutritional profile, as well as ecological issues, has led to the need for technological improvements. Hydrocolloids are used for the enhancement of the rheological performance of the old wheat varieties (Farbo et al., 2020). The role of hydrocolloids in breadmaking is the topic of Chapter 12.

Besides hydrocolloids, other additives such as emulsifiers, enzymes, and antioxidants affect the properties of the bread. Added mainly in whole wheat flour, these ingredients improve the dough rheological behavior and increase loaf volume reducing at the same time the crumb hardness. Their effect on the quality of the dough and bread from whole wheat flour is discussed in Chapter 7.

Enzymes, used in breadmaking for decades, represent one of the most efficient methods to improve the quality of bread. Enzymes such as α-amylases, xylanases, lipases, glucose-oxidases, gluco-amylases, and maltogenic amylases are the most commonly used in bakery and milling industry. Their application in breadmaking offers flexibility in the performance that in turn makes possible optimization of flour quality and stabilization of the process parameters ensuring high quality of the final products. Different modern biological solutions and enzymes for the production of high-quality bread are presented in Chapter 6.

1.4.2 Mixing of ingredients

In addition to the wheat flour, other ingredients such as lipids, water, salt, and yeast are used during breadmaking. Lipids (fats or oils) used in breadmaking as additives are referred to as shortenings and are optional ingredients. Their use was related to dough handling and contributes to bread flavor and texture introducing softness, and moistness. Lipids affect protein network formation and the viscoelastic properties of the dough during dough mixing. Lipids also play an important role in stabilizing gas cells, thus inducing an increased loaf volume and retarded bread staling (Autio and Laurikainen, 1997). Especially polar lipids such as fatty acids and their monoglyceride esters represent excellent additives from the technological point of view since they reduce the stickiness, improve freeze-thaw stability, and retard starch retrogradation (Mercier et al., 1980). Added at levels 1.5%–2.0% on flour basis, salt is considered of great importance in breadmaking since it affects both gluten strength and yeast activity. It increases the capacity of the gluten network to retain gas cells produced during dough fermentation. Literature reports that salt increased the temperature of starch gelatinization but the effect was dependent on the salt concentration of the used salt (Chiotelli et al., 2002). In response to regulation or consumer pressure (sodium reduction strategies), the application of lower levels of salt in the bread recipe brings about changes in the rheology of the dough.

Water is necessary for the formation of the gluten network and is responsible for dough handling and its viscoelastic properties as well as the activity of the yeast. It is crucial for the swelling and the gelatinization of starch granules during baking. It represents the medium in which solubilized salt and/or sugar and yeast cells and other flour components are dispersed. The appropriate level of water addition is related to several factors (i.e., moisture, protein, damaged starch, nonstarch polysaccharides, etc.). Fig. 1.5 comprises an array of micrographs starting from the flour as the main ingredient, passing to the developed dough system at the beginning and the end of the fermentation process and finally to the crumb of the final product that is going to be discussed in the pertinent sections.

Figure 1.5 Scanning electron micrographs of wheat flour 5000×, LS: large starch granule; SS: small starch granule ( Millar et al., 2019) (A); of dough during S. cerevisiae fermentation at the beginning of fermentation stage (B), and at the end of fermentation stage (C) (Zhang et al., 2018); wheat bread crumb. Starch granules are evidenced (S=starch) (D) (Messia et al., 2016).

The micrograph reveals the presence of highly compact structures of starch in wheat flour (Fig. 1.5A). The starch granules have smooth surfaces but vary in size and shape (spherical and oval). Mixing of ingredients such as flour, lipid, salt, and yeast with water results in the development of dough with specific structure and strength. Rheological properties of a fully mixed dough structure depend predominantly on the formation of the gluten matrix. Gliadin and glutenin that absorb water and interact with each other to form the continuous gluten network with the starch granules dispersed in the continuous matrix. Fig. 1.5B shows the structure of yeasted dough at the beginning of fermentation where starch granules continue to have a smooth and uniform surfaces although entrapped in the protein network (Zhang et al., 2018).

1.4.3 Fermentation—proofing

During fermentation, the gluten matrix that surrounds soluble solids with dispersed starch granules is reinforced and their distribution is improved (Rojas et al., 2000). At the end of the fermentation process (Fig. 1.5C), some of the starch granules are deformed and have ditches on the surface. These changes may be due to the activity of yeast on damaged starch and endogenous α-amylase present in the flour since it is known that Saccharomyces cerevisiae does not produce starch-degrading enzymes (Zhang et al., 2018).

S. cerevisiae represents the yeast that is mainly used in breadmaking. During fermentation, yeast metabolizes fermentable sugars under anaerobic conditions releasing carbon dioxide that helps the dough to expand to the required volume. With increasing the fermentation time, more carbon dioxide is produced and the pH decreases. In addition, during fermentation aromatic compounds are produced that are responsible for bread flavor. Normally, 3% yeast on flour basis is used but its amount depends on the bulk fermentation time; the longer the fermentation time the lower the yeast level. Moreover, increased temperature is related to the increased rate of gas production.

Different breadmaking procedures are applied for breadmaking depending on the desired product quality. In the straight-dough procedure, all the ingredients are first mixed till optimum development, allowed to ferment (fermentation step interrupted by punching of the dough), divided into the molds and proofed before baking. The dough could be made utilizing a much higher quantity of yeast than that used in straight dough procedure in order to decrease the preparation time (no-time straight-dough). During this procedure, all the ingredients are removed from the mixer and given only a few minutes rest before being transferred to the dough divider. An addition of about 60–120 ppm ascorbic acid is needed to compensate changes that bulk fermentation brings to the dough structure. Shortening of the procedure has an adverse effect on the flavor as well as the shelf life of bread this is the reason that this process is usually used only in case of emergency. On the other hand, long fermentation techniques of doughs may also be applied. In these cases, doughs are fermented for more than 5 h at a lower temperature (less than 24°C vs 32°C) in order to retard fermentation. Usually, these fermentations are done inside refrigerators or special ovens under controlled high humidity. This procedure is applied with the aim to enhance the flavor of the product but especially care should be taken to avoid overfermentation (Hsi-Mei and Tze-Ching, 2006).

Sponge-and-dough procedure is another way to produce bread. During this procedure, a part of ingredients (flour, water, and yeast) is mixed to a loose not developed dough (sponge) and are left to undergo the fermentation process. Following this first fermentation step, the remaining part of ingredients are added and mixed with the sponge dough till development. Next, the dough is proofed, divided, and molded as reported for the straight-dough procedure in order to produce bread with a soft texture and fine cell structure (Hoseney, 1994). The sponge has low pH, a loose structure, and a more extensible gluten network after the second mixing compared to the straight-dough procedure. Generally, in the sponge-and-dough procedure flours with protein higher than 12% and high falling number are used since high amylase activity could cause excessive softening (Cauvain, 2001). Depending upon the baking procedure during the fermentation process it is normal to punch the dough, in order to subdivide the formed gas cells and produce a greater number of smaller cells as well as to redistribute the fermentable. The use of sourdough for dough fermentation has regained the baker’s interest since it is considered as a cost-effective and ecologically friendly method. There is well-documented evidence in the literature for its benefits in bakery products (Arendt et al., 2011; Calasso et al., 2012; Hüttner and Arendt, 2010). It basically consists of a mixture of flour and water that is fermented with lactic acid bacteria (mostly heterofermentative strains) and yeasts (Zannini et al., 2012). Lactic acid bacterium can enhance the textural characteristics, enrich the aroma volatile compounds, and extend the shelf life of whole wheat bread. A prolongation of shelf life from 3 to 6 days compared to the control group was observed (Sun et al., 2020). Although traditional sourdoughs are made from lactic acid bacteria and yeasts, their composition varies based on the ecological parameters. Moreover, flour and house microbiota affect the microbial stability of traditional sourdough causing variations of sourdough performance over time. The factors that affect microbial diversity and stability of traditional sourdough breadmaking are discussed in Chapter 15.

Organic farming is recognized worldwide as a viable and sustainable system. It uses only organic fertilizer and pesticides resulting in products that differ not only in chemical composition but also in the flour microbiota compared to conventional farming. Chapter 10 deals with the composition of wheat flours as affected by organic farming and explains how this farming method influences sourdough fermentation and breadmaking. In general, the sourdough microbiota and cereal enzymes interact. During microbial metabolism, the pH and the oxygen content of the dough are altered and at the same time, a great number of metabolites are produced. All these changes alter the activity of enzymes present in the flour that in their turn provide the substrate for bacterial growth. Chapter 4 highlights the role that lactic acid bacteria and cereal enzymes play in the conversion of carbohydrates, proteins, phenolic compounds, and lipids.

1.4.4 Baking

Baking temperatures are in the range of 220°C–250°C but they vary depending on oven type and the bread type produced. To ensure good bread structure a core temperature of about 92°C–96°C is needed. As the dough temperature increases a great number of complex physical, chemical and biochemical changes are happening. The yeast activity ceases by 55°C and the trapped gases expand maintaining the structural stability. During baking, all the flour constituents undergo complex transformations. Under 60°C, starch absorbs more water and swells and an initial amylose leaching is observed. Amylopectin fraction of the starch is suggested to be responsible for granule swelling (Jane et al., 1994). In the temperature range 60°C–90°C, crystals of amylopectin are melting and more amylose is leached from the starch granules. Both, granule swelling and amylose leaching increase the dough viscosity. The gelatinization of starch granules starts at about 65°C and contemporary oxidative cross-linking of glutenin starts (Lagrain et al., 2005), resulting in the solidification of the gluten-starch matrix that creates the crumb structure (Babin et al., 2006).

Bread crumb immediately after baking shows a complex microstructure (Fig. 1.5D). Bread shows an aerated-crumb filled with medium to small pores that are formed from the air released during fermentation and trapped during baking (Messia et al., 2016). A continuous veil-like film that surrounds the gas cells is formed but at the same time, large interconnecting cavities are observed inside the gas cells, the characteristic of an open very complex matrix structure with a rough and irregular appearance (Rojas et al.,

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