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Joy of Gardening

Joy of Gardening

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Joy of Gardening

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8 ore
Dec 10, 2012


The perennial classic—one of the bestselling gardening books of all time and the companion to the TV series of the same name.

Full of useful tips and practical garden wisdom, this straightforward guide shows you everything you need to know to grow a more bountiful harvest with less work. Stressing the utility of raised beds and wide rows, gardening expert Dick Raymond shares his time-tested techniques for preparing the soil, starting plants, and controlling weeds. With helpful photographs, clear charts, and profiles of reliable garden vegetables, Joy of Gardening will inspire you to grow your best crop ever.

“Considered by many readers to be the best of the gardening books out there.” —Lake News Online
Dec 10, 2012

Informazioni sull'autore

Most gardeners are grateful that internationally known garden expert Dick Raymond has compiled the vast knowledge shared in his popular Garden Way television program, Joy of Gardening, into book form. He's also written Down-to-Earth Gardening Know-How for the 90's, among other books. Dick was head vegetable gardening specialist at Garden Way Gardens in Vermont for 15 years where the Joy of Gardening television series was filmed. He also gardened and cared for plots in Texas, Florida, Georgia, and on the West Coast for Garden Way. Over 40 years of hands-on experience have made Dick a very respected gardener and teacher.

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Joy of Gardening - Dick Raymond


I promise you more production in less space with less work! Up to three times the harvest from your same garden. And my wide row gardening system works with more than 30 vegetables, in all soils, and in all climates, too!

During the past 30 years I have tested almost every gardening technique. I’ve spent most of my gardening life trying to perfect the easiest and most rewarding techniques for growing a satisfying home garden.

The way I grow my garden now — using my wide row method whenever I can — is tops by far. I get more food and enjoy longer harvests than with any other system. And I spend only about one-third the time planting, thinning, weeding and caring for my garden.

Each year, gardening with the wide row method simply gets easier, more enjoyable, and more productive.

What do I mean by a wide row?

Single row — skimpy harvest! Wide row — double, even triple the harvest

Look at the wide row of carrots on the right. On the left, planted in the traditional way, is a single straight-line row. It’s easy to notice the main features of wide row growing — thick wide rows, more plants in the row, and much more garden soil being used to grow food. The result is more food for you and your family.

Plant 144 onions in 1 square foot

I love scallions and I pull well over 100 from each square foot of my onion wide rows, leaving a dozen or so to grow into keeping-size bulbs. When thinning single rows of onions, however, I get only a handful of scallions. By planting onion sets 1 inch apart and harvesting most of them for scallions I can easily get 10 times the harvest of a single row of the same length.

I doubled my chard harvest

I planted these chard rows on the same day. Both rows were 10 feet long. The single row (left) yielded 17 pounds, 8 ounces through the season. The 15-inch wide row (right) produced 34 pounds, 4 ounces. It takes the same amount of time to get the soil ready and sow the seeds, so why not try the wide row?

In my wide row system I broadcast the seeds in wide bands

The easy way to plant a wide row is by broadcasting seeds … scattering them evenly the entire length and width of the row. The plants come up quite close together, but with my thinning and harvesting techniques they never get too close.

Here’s why I love wide rows so much!

In this 30-foot by 40-foot garden I planted 8 of 13 rows wide!

I grew this backyard vegetable garden as an experiment. I used wide rows whenever possible. There were 13 rows of crops and 8 of them were planted wide. Only the pole beans, tomatoes (two rows), broccoli, and summer squash were in straight-line narrow rows.

Even cabbage and cauliflower are great in wide rows

I fit many more cauliflower, cabbage and head lettuce plants into my garden by using the wide row method, and I harvest much more over a longer period of time. There are other benefits, too — see how the leaves of these plants shade the ground. The sun can hardly hit the soil in this row. The soil stays cool and moist, and weeds are rarely a problem.

The best way to grow head lettuce

Better than supermarket lettuce, that’s for sure! Most people can grow two wide row crops of firmhead Iceberg lettuce — one in the spring and one in the fall. Head lettuce does not do well in hot weather, but growing in wide rows keeps the soil cool so the plants will head up well even if you get some unexpected warm weather. The leaves grow out, touch those of neighboring plants, and together they protect the ground from the sun.

A 3-foot-long wide row of leaf lettuce yields all a family can eat

It’s simply amazing how much fresh leaf lettuce you can harvest from a short wide row. I get basket after basket by cutting the plants in a short swath right down to an inch above the ground. This encourages them to bounce back with tender new leaves while I harvest the rest of the row.

A wide row 3 feet across!

Wide rows can be planted to whatever width suits you best. This wide row of kale is 3 feet across. I’ve grown crops in wide rows from 10 inches across, all the way up to 25 feet wide. A 3-foot width is very manageable. I can reach any plant from one side or the other, so I never have to step in the row and compact the soil.

Block planting — just plant and pick!

Jan and I are looking over a large block of peas in our experimental garden. This is quite a pea patch — it’s 12 × 24 feet. To plant it, I sprinkle the seeds over the entire area and run my roto-tiller over them, mixing them into the top of the soil. Some seeds wind up too shallow, others are too deep to germinate, but most are at the right depth for sprouting well. By using a little extra seed I insure a good stand of plants. I never have to weed in a square like this — it’s a plant and pick crop.

We used 3 or 4 pounds of seeds and we picked 150 pounds of fresh peas. It’s easy to harvest a square of peas like this — we take stools right into the patch, sit down and pick plenty, then move to another spot.

From the very same row I harvest five different vegetables

The most interesting and colorful wide rows in the garden are my new multicrop rows. Here I grow up to five different vegetables in the same row. They are all planted on the same day, but the harvest from the row extends for weeks. (More about multicrops on page 60.)

Planting a wide row is as easy as scattering grass seed

With all the plants I have in my wide rows you might think I spend a lot of time planting. Well, I don’t.

Planting a wide row takes only a few seconds because I broadcast seeds, scattering them fairly close together the entire width and length of the row. I never bend over to space seeds exactly. With my way of seeding, I probably spend more time opening the seed packet than sowing the seeds. There’s very little bending and kneeling on the ground for me. Whenever I plant, I try to do it standing up.

Wide rows provide a continual harvest!

Now harvest earlier and longer than ever

Perhaps what I like most about my method is the continual harvest possible from wide rows.

With more plants in the row there’s obviously going to be a bigger harvest. But the nice thing about wide rows is that this larger harvest comes over a much longer period of time than conventional single rows. With many crops, the harvest can easily be stretched out 5 or 6 weeks longer than usual.

In a wide row there’s a natural competitiveness among plants growing near each other. They are all trying to get as much sun, water, and food as possible. But, just as in uncultivated woods or meadows, not every plant can win.

The strongest plants get an edge over the others and dominate for a short period of time. That’s okay. These plants are the first ones to get to the eating stage, so I pick them first.

In a row of carrots, beets, lettuce, cabbages, or whatever, I always start the harvest with the largest. Because there are so many plants in the row I don’t have to wait like other gardeners for the crop to get big — I can enjoy plenty of vegetables when they are tender and small.

I can start harvesting earlier, take the best of the row, and still look forward to much more to come. With each early harvest, I end some of the competition between plants, and more plants receive their full dose of sun and food.

With this harvesting style I multiply the days when I can go out into the garden and bring back some produce for a meal. As a backyard gardener, this is the ultimate — a steady, extra-long harvest.


1st Cutting

When the plants are 4 or 5 inches tall they are in prime shape for a first cut. I slice them only 1 inch above the soil. They are so tasty at this stage.

2nd Cutting

A few weeks later the plants have produced a new set of tender leaves ready to cut again. While waiting for these leaves to grow I’ve made first cuttings on other sections of the row.

3rd Cutting

After another 3 or 4 weeks the chard leaves have reached eating size again. Chard can be cut like this all season long, but I usually get only three cuttings of leaf lettuce before the quality peters out.

Wide rows save hours of weeding and watering

The living mulch formed by close-growing plants stops weeds

The most amazing aspect of my wide row growing method is how little weeding has to be done. The secret is in growing plants close together. As long as the vegetable seeds sprout and grow ahead of the weeds (and the planting and thinning techniques I’ll show you later will guarantee this), their leaves will work to block out the sun. And weeds cannot last long or grow far without sun.

I like to seed my rows thickly so that this living mulch over the soil is created early, when plants are small. Then in succeeding weeks I thin out the crowded row so that the plants get room to grow. But I always keep enough plants in the row to maintain the important shade mulch over small weeds struggling to grow.

Saves water three ways

First, the leaf canopy over the row keeps the sun from hitting the soil and drying it out. In effect, the plants in the row create a mulch to slow down water loss due to evaporation.

Second, the plants on the edges of the row act as windbreaks for the others in the micro-climate of the row. When a plant is sitting all by itself it is terribly vulnerable to drying winds. The winds may cause the plant to release water into the air faster than it can take water up through the roots.

In a wide row, however, most of the plants are inside the boundaries of the row. They do not take the full brunt of the winds; in fact, they’re pretty well protected and lose moisture at a much slower rate. In my test gardens I can spot this important difference easily on a hot windy day.

Third, the leaf canopy of wide rows can trap the dew which forms on the soil under the row and on the undersides of the plant leaves. In a single row, this valuable moisture is quickly lost to morning evaporation because there’s nothing there to hold it back. But in a wide row, the canopy of leaves slows this evaporation, allowing some of the moisture to be absorbed into the soil to help the plants.

I stumbled onto the benefits of wide row growing by accident 30 years ago.

It was the spring after Jan and I were married and we were starting our garden together.

We decided to grow some extra fresh peas to sell at the market because the price was good—$8 or $9 a bushel. I bought 10 pounds of pea seed.

On planting day I prepared the area that I had set aside in my plan for peas. I planted the seeds in straight-line rows, one after another, with lots of walkspace between them just as my father and I had always done. When I finished seeding the rows, I had about 3 pounds of seed left over.

To use them up I sprinkled the seeds by the handful over another patch of ground in the corner of the garden and mixed them into the soil with a spading fork.

This was my first wide row — a 10-foot by 20-foot section of garden that was solid peas with no walkways.

Watching the peas grow, I was amazed. They grew so close together that they actually held themselves up. I didn’t have to fiddle with any brush or fencing to stake them up as I had to do with my other rows.

The plants grew close enough together to shade the soil underneath them. I noticed that the soil was always moist and cool under that canopy of shade — and peas like that environment.

To my delight, the plants also blocked the sun from reaching any tiny weeds. So, I didn’t do any weeding.

The harvest was a big surprise. The wide row pea patch was much more abundant than we expected. Though it was thick, Jan and I had no problem picking all the peas. Actually it was fun because we discovered we could just take stools into the pea patch, sit down and pick a peck of peas before having to move.

Many years of experimenting

That was 30 years ago, and ever since I’ve planted peas in wide rows. I’ve planted them in rows from 10 inches wide, all the way up to big blocks 25 feet on each side.

After my first success with wide rows, I experimented with other crops to see if they could be as easy and productive to grow as the wide row peas.

How would beets, onions, and carrots grow in wide rows? How much seed should I use? How wide could I make the rows? How could I weed easily in a row with plants growing so closely together? Before long I found the answers, and I was able to double the profits from our little market garden (which grew after a few years to 1 acre in size) just by switching most crops to wide rows. I found that wide rows took a lot less time for weeding and watering. Even though I was growing more food, harvesting took less time. I appreciated this because I had a full-time job and had to make my time in the garden really count.

My wide row method works in all kinds of soil and climates. I know — from experience!

When I travel around the country and give slide shows on gardening, I always hear this question: "Sure looks good, Dick. But will your wide row method work here where we live?"

This is a question that I’ve been answering Yes to for a long time, both in the lecture hall and out in the garden.

I began experimenting with wide row growing at my home market garden in Vermont. Later, as more and more people became interested in my techniques and as I started to do consulting for garden-related companies, I was able to plant and supervise wide row demonstrations in other parts of the country.

I saw for myself in Georgia, in Florida and on the West Coast, that my wide row method not only produced more food in less space but had special benefits for hot-climate gardens. The water, mulch and time-saving aspects of wide rows are especially helpful to southern gardeners.

I’ve also had the chance to visit many different states — Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Iowa, New York, California, and others for a few days at a time — to help individuals and groups plant successful demonstration gardens featuring wide rows.

I also hear by mail from gardeners all over the country who report they are growing vegetables in wide rows and liking it. These are folks who may have heard a lecture or a radio talk or read about wide rows in my earlier books.

Just how much more productive are wide rows?

Here are typical results from my test plots

Gardeners from across the country say they love my wide row gardening techniques

Here are some of the letters I’ve received:

"A few years ago I tried some wide rows in my garden. The results stopped neighbors in their tracks. They couldn’t believe how nice those rows looked.

"I started with beans, carrots, and beets, but now I do most of my planting in wide rows. I use half a row where I used to use a whole row.

I had more produce in ¼ acre with wide rows than I had in ½ acre the other years. It’s the most practical way to garden.

Henry Carty

Elkton, MI 48731

"We studied your wide row planting chart during the winter and changed our whole garden. Last year, thanks to the wide row method, we grew all our own food. We didn’t buy any vegetables at all.

The wide row method is super. I wouldn’t garden any other way. I do the rake thinning bit — I drag it across the row just like you say. It works well, but I was afraid to use it at first. It’s casual for me now.

Richard Kirchner

New Fairfield, CT 06810

I tried your wide row method with lettuce, carrots and radishes. I am very well pleased with the results. I have told people of this better system, but if they don’t listen it’s their hard luck.

Leland Klukkent

Prineville, OR 97544

Wide row gardening as inspired by Dick Raymond is the greatest! My fall garden is started and I am looking forward to fresh vegetables all winter, including kale, cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, green peas, onions, Swiss chard, spinach, turnips, beets, carrots and lettuce.

Frederick H. Myers Jr.

Augusta, GA 30906

I’m experimenting this year with your wide row idea. I’m planting peas, carrots, beets and lettuce in 15-inch wide rows. I like the results very much so far.

Walter Hinkley, Sr.

Sabbattus, ME 12601

Let me express my thanks for introducing me to wide row planting — it’s the only way to fly! I’ve got most of my friends doing it also and the results have been superb.

Don Hollis

Rapid City, SD 57701

I have read a great deal about your wide row planting method in several publications and have used it to a limited extent with great success. This year I plan to use it for cabbage, cauliflower, and broccoli, in addition to beans, peas, beets, carrots, etc.

Robert J. Dolansky

Poughkeepsie, NY 04280

Popular crops I now plant using my wide row method


Wide rows of vegetables fit in any garden plan. To help you come up with your own wide row garden I’ve included three of the simple, but amazingly productive wide row gardens I’ve designed for the backyard garden. I’ve grown each of these gardens, the Salad Garden (6 by 8 feet), the Summer Garden (30 by 40 feet) and the Eat ’N Store Garden (60 by 80 feet). They feature wide rows of vegetables wherever possible, and cut down on the open, unproductive walkspace.

All the plans allow for succession crops in rows where early planted vegetables will be finished before the season is over. The cabbage and greens family crops are excellent for succession planting because they perform very well in the cool weather of fall. I’ve included plenty of them in my plans. Growing succession crops is a great way to get more production from a garden without making it bigger.

Salad Garden

Beautiful variety-packed design for a small garden. For a beginning gardener or perhaps a busy person with only a few spare minutes a day. There’s a host of salad items here, and the easy way I grow them assures a long harvest.

Summer Garden

Designed to get high production from a wide variety of vegetables — over 25 of them. Plenty of succession crops included so you can stretch summer’s good eating into the fall months.

Eat ’N Store Garden

This garden is big. But it emphasizes best-to-store crops such as potatoes, carrots, winter squash, and onions, along with easy-to-freeze broccoli, beans and peas. The way to make a garden pay off is to store or preserve some of the harvest. With an Eat ’N Store Garden like this, you can chop hundreds of dollars from your food bill.


A lush Salad Garden to last all season long!

All the mixings for salads are included in this compact Salad Garden — lettuce, cucumbers, onions, tomatoes, peppers, and more. Choose a sunny spot for this garden, one that’s not too far from the kitchen. With its wide row design, this Salad Garden is made to order for regular harvesting, especially the multicrop row (Row 1 in plan). Steady harvesting will keep the greens young and tender, the carrots and onions properly thinned, and the cucumbers, tomatoes and peppers blossoming and producing new fruit.

You won’t see any miniature varieties of lettuce, spinach or other vegetables in my garden plan. Seed catalogs sometimes advertise them as space savers, but I find they don’t yield anywhere near enough produce for the space they take up.

Salad Garden Plan

This is a super-productive small space garden — and it’s easy to plant and care for. My vegetable selections for this garden are further explained on the next pages, but don’t limit yourself to them. If you don’t like the chives and parsley in Row 1, for example, fill in with something different. Be sure to plant in wide rows — that’s what makes this garden so good.

Salad Garden planting tips

Row 1

2 ft. chives and parsley

4 ft. multicrop sections using three varieties of lettuce with radishes, onion sets, and spinach

Follow up: sprinkle lettuce seeds or plant late onion sets after spinach is harvested.

Lettuce and three other vegetables in one row!

What a wonderful variety of food you can grow in a small space! Along with spinach and lettuce leaves, I have crisp radishes and scallions in the row. It’s perfectly okay to mix and match your favorite greens in a multirow. However, it’s a good idea to include radishes, onions and perhaps a few carrots in every section.

Row 2

3 ft. carrots, Nantes or Danvers (include sprinkling of White Icicle radishes)

3 ft. onion sets for scallions

Follow up: plant more sets as you harvest. Carrots will last all season.

Plant onions and carrots thick and harvest early

The onion sets here are planted very closely together — no more than 1 or 2 inches apart. I plan to harvest at least two out of every three onions when they are at the young, delicious scallion stage.

It’s important to go after the carrots early, too. Start pulling them when they get as long and as thick as your little finger.

Row 3

3 ft. chard (two varieties, Swiss and Ruby)

3 ft. beets, Detroit Dark Red or Lutz Green Leaf (include sprinkling of radishes)

Beet greens and chard for tasty salads

I start crew-cutting my chard when it’s only a few inches high. Like tiny spinach leaves, at this small stage chard tastes great and mixes well in a fresh salad with lettuce. I’m a big chard fan; you might want to plant another green more to your liking, such as mustard or spinach.

Row 4

3 ft. trellised cucumbers, variety such as Spacemaster or Bush Champion

3 ft. of staked or caged tomatoes (3 or 4 plants)

Big climbing cukes and tomatoes

I try to set out two early tomato plants, such as Pixie or Early Girl, and two of a later variety such as Better Boy. I stake or cage them so they’ll grow up instead of out.

To save even more space I use a trellis to grow my cukes in this garden. Once I install the trellis it’s not much work to maintain. I train the cucumbers up the wire and tie the vines to the mesh.

In just 3 feet of row you can have plenty of peppers, if you want to substitute for cucumbers. Plant your peppers in a staggered wide row.

You can grow a Salad Garden anywhere

I know you can grow a Salad Garden with your favorite vegetables just about anywhere … even in a driveway.

I planted a little driveway garden (top) after a friend heard me say that people could garden just about anywhere — even in a driveway. He challenged me to prove it, so I did. I used a roto-tiller to slowly loosen the hard-packed gravel and soil, mixed in a cartful of compost, and planted. Left: Tomatoes and onions can be prolific in small containers or tubs set out on the back patio. They need sun and a steady supply of water.


My most popular garden — I designed it for The National Association for Gardening

I planned this high-yield garden a few years ago at the request of The National Association for Gardening. Each year I’ve been amazed at how much top-quality food comes out of it.

This Summer Garden can keep a family in fresh produce all season long, plus provide some extra for entertaining or to store or preserve. With my wide rows I get extra beets, carrots, potatoes, and onions for the root cellar, and ample broccoli, beans, and peas for freezing.

Summer Garden Plan

Row 1

15 ft. multicrop: 1 pkt. lettuce for each 3-ft. section; ½ pkt. spinach; ½ pkt. carrots; ½ pkt. beets; ½ pkt. radishes. 15 ft. head lettuce: 60 plants (fall turnips and rutabagas: 1¼ oz. each)

Start cutting some heads of lettuce early — well before they make firm heads. With 60 plants in the row there’s plenty to eat, so don’t wait.

Row 2

15 ft. beets: ½ oz.; 10 ft. carrots: ½ oz.; 5 ft. kohlrabi: 1 pkt.

Pull some early beets for greens. If there’s a little beet on the bottom, toss it into the pot with the greensdelicious. Many gardeners will have enough time to make a second sowing of kohlrabi.

Row 3

3 ft. dill: 1 pkt.; 5 ft. Ruby chard: 1 pkt.; 5 ft. Swiss chard: 1 pkt.; 2 ft. basil: 1 pkt.; 5 ft. shallots: 2½ lb. of sets; 5 ft. parsley: 1 pkt.; 5 ft. garlic: 8 bulbs (separate into cloves before planting)

Plant dill very early so that if you want to pickle some of your own cucumbers you can use your own fresh dill. Keep soil lightly moist until parsley seeds come up.

Summer Garden planning tips

Row 7

30 ft. peas: ½ lb. (followed with 15 ft. green beans: ¼ lb.; and 15 ft. yellow beans: ¼ lb.)

When you seed a wide row of either peas or beans the seeds should land 2 or 3 inches apart. Peas are easiest to roto-till or dig into the soil after the harvest when they are still quite green. Pea vines decompose fast so it’s okay to plant beans right away.

Row 8

30 ft. potatoes: 30 sets or 5 lb. seed potatoes; (15 ft. fall head lettuce: 60 plants; 15 ft. turnips or mustard: 1¼ oz.)

Choose an early variety of potatoes, such as Red Norland, and plant early. This will leave you ample time to grow good fall succession crops. Start harvesting potatoes early by reaching into the hills for small new potatoes.

Row 9

15 ft. broccoli: 16 plants; (15 ft. fall kale: 2 pkts.); 15 ft. peppers: 25-30 plants (fewer if you plant high number of bell peppers).

Set out broccoli plants about 2 weeks before the expected last spring frost and peppers 1 week after the frost date. Keep broccoli going as long as possible by picking all side shoots which grow after you cut the main head.

Row 4

10 ft. onion plants; 180 plants; 20 ft. onion sets: 9 lb.

Put your onion sets 2 inches apartplanted to their full depth — so you can pull every other one as they reach a nice scallion size — 8 to 12 inches tall and as thick as your finger.

Row 5

10 ft. cauliflower: 30 plants; (fall spinach: ¼ oz.); 10 ft. cabbage: 30 plants; 10 ft. eggplant: 20 plants

Plant cabbage and cauliflower 2 or 3 weeks before the average last frost date, but set out eggplants when cold weather has passed. Cut biggest heads of cabbage and cauliflower first for a continual harvest.

Row 6

30 ft. spinach: ¾ oz.; fall 15 ft. kale: 2 pkts.; 7 ft. collards: 2 pkts.; 8 ft. broccoli: 10 plants; or 8 ft. Chinese cabbage: 1 pkt.

Plant spinach as early as you can and you may get two productive cuttings before it goes to seed. Be sure to thin fall kale and collards to 6 or 8 inches between plants by the time they reach a foot in height.

Row-by-row ideas on how much to plant, succession crops, saving space, and harvesting

Row 10

7 ft. zucchini: 1 pkt.; 8 ft. summer squash: 1 pkt.; 15 ft. bush winter squash: 1 pkt.

Plant squash seeds 6 inches apart but then thin all plants in this row to a foot or two apart after 3 weeks of growth. The small zucchini and squash (under 6-8 inches long) are best. Use winter squash any time after they’ve reached full size.

Row 11

30 ft. tomatoes: 18 plants

To get more plants in the row I cage or stake tomatoes in the Summer Garden. Of 18 plants, try to get at least three or four varieties. You’ll have a longer harvest, different tastes, and less chance of disease hurting your harvest.

Row 12

15 ft. pole beans: 3 oz.; 15 ft. cucumbers: 1 pkt. slicing variety, 1 pkt. pickling

Tepees are the best supports for pole beans. They are sturdy and easy to erect. With more time on your hands you can try a string trellis system. You can grow more plants and the picking is easy.


Three varieties of sweet corn plus 12 months of home-grown produce

This 60- by 80-foot Eat ’N Store Garden has plenty of long wide rows of peas, cabbage family crops, beets, carrots, onions and more! These vegetables are easy to freeze or store in the root cellar. The great advantage of putting storage crops in wide rows is that there is always plenty to eat during the season as well. In fact, you have to harvest beets, carrots and onions along the way in order to have some good-sized keepers in the fall.

With the Eat ’N Store plan, there’s room for lots of cucumbers, potatoes, and a dozen 30-foot rows of sweet corn. I’ve got three varieties of sweet corn planned for the longest possible harvest: early, mid-season and late. If you’re using up valuable garden space for sweet corn, there’s no sense in having too much all at once. The later varieties are usually

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