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Reducing Energy for Urban Water and Wastewater: Prospects for China

Reducing Energy for Urban Water and Wastewater: Prospects for China

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Reducing Energy for Urban Water and Wastewater: Prospects for China

Lunghezza:
258 pagine
2 ore
Pubblicato:
Sep 15, 2019
ISBN:
9781780409955
Formato:
Libro

Descrizione

Cities use large amounts of costly energy to supply water and treat wastewater, especially in China, one of the world’s largest providers of urban water and sanitation services. Reducing Energy for Urban Water and Wastewater shows how cities can reduce energy use, cut costs and curb greenhouse gas emissions. First, it guides the reader through water supply and wastewater treatment, explaining how energy is used at each step. Then the authors:

• Outline the most effective ideas for reducing energy use in cities, using China as a case study.
• Provide a decision-making framework to help cities focus their efforts.
• Investigate an often-overlooked high energy user in dense cities and suggest a way to cut energy.
• Assess the unintended downside of stricter wastewater standards and how to optimise the upside.
• Provide suggestions for increasing water and energy recovery in water-scarce cities.

The focus throughout is China, the biggest greenhouse gas emitter in the world.
Pubblicato:
Sep 15, 2019
ISBN:
9781780409955
Formato:
Libro

Informazioni sull'autore

Kate Smith is Senior Lecturer in Eighteenth-Century History at the University of Birmingham. Kate specialises in material culture in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Britain. She published Material Goods, Moving Hands: Perceiving Production in England, 1700-1830 in 2014.

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Reducing Energy for Urban Water and Wastewater - Kate Smith

Reducing Energy for Urban Water and Wastewater

Reducing Energy for Urban Water and Wastewater

Prospects for China

Kate Smith and Shuming Liu

First published 2019

© 2019 IWA Publishing

Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act (1998), no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior permission in writing of the publisher, or, in the case of photographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licenses issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency in the UK, or in accordance with the terms of licenses issued by the appropriate reproduction rights organization outside the UK. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside the terms stated here should be sent to IWA Publishing at the address printed above.

The publisher makes no representation, express or implied, with regard to the accuracy of the information contained in this book and cannot accept any legal responsibility or liability for errors or omissions that may be made.

Disclaimer

The information provided and the opinions given in this publication are not necessarily those of IWA and should not be acted upon without independent consideration and professional advice. IWA and the Editors and Authors will not accept responsibility for any loss or damage suffered by any person acting or refraining from acting upon any material contained in this publication.

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

A CIP catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

ISBN: 9781780409931 (print)

ISBN: 9781780409948 (eBook)

ISBN: 9781780409955 (ePub)

Contents

About the Authors

Preface

Chapter 1

Introduction

1.1The Water–Energy Nexus

1.2China’s Urban Water System

1.3Scope

1.4Summary

Chapter 2

Energy for water supply

2.1Energy for Water Supply

2.2Sourcing Water

2.2.1Sourcing groundwater

2.2.2Sourcing surface water: Short and long distance

2.2.3Harvesting rainwater

2.3Treating Water

2.3.1Treating groundwater and surface water

2.3.2Treating seawater

2.4Distributing Water

2.4.1Distributing water in the central water distribution system

2.4.2Distributing water in high-rise buildings

2.5Chapter Summary

Chapter 3

Factors that may influence electricity use for water supply

3.1Data

3.2Correlation Analysis

3.3Electricity Use and Scope

3.4Relationship between Electricity Use and Population Supplied

3.5Relationship between Electricity Use and Pipe Length

3.6Relationship between Electricity Use and Water Loss

3.7Relationship between Electricity Use and Water Use

3.8Chapter Summary

Chapter 4

Comparison of electricity for water supply between water sources and countries

4.1Comparison of Electricity Use for Different Water Sources

4.2Comparison of Electricity Use and Emissions for Water Supply in Different Countries

4.2.1Electricity use

4.2.2Greenhouse gas emissions

4.3Chapter Summary

Chapter 5

Energy for wastewater treatment

5.1Wastewater Treatment in China

5.2Pretreatment and Primary Treatment

5.3Secondary Treatment

5.3.1Secondary treatment – removal of organics

5.3.2Secondary treatment – removal of nutrients

5.4Tertiary Treatment

5.5Sludge Treatment and Disposal

5.6Chapter Summary

Chapter 6

Evaluating the environmental benefit and energy footprint of stricter wastewater standards

6.1Evolution in Wastewater Treatment Standards

6.2Recent Changes to Chinese Urban Wastewater Discharge Standards

6.3Estimating Difference in Electricity for Two Standards

6.3.1Method

6.3.2Case study results

6.4Estimating Total Change in Electricity Use Due to Change in Standard

6.4.1Method

6.4.2Case study results

6.5Assessing Environmental Benefit and How to Increase It

6.5.1Method

6.5.2Case study results

6.6Chapter Summary

Chapter 7

Reducing net energy use for water supply

7.1Save Energy by Reducing Leakage

7.2Minimise Energy Used for Desalination

7.2.1Use energy recovery devices in reverse osmosis

7.2.2Further investigate coupling of solar energy and desalination

7.2.3Capture waste heat or electricity for use in distillation

7.3Use Energy Efficient Pumping Systems in High-rise Buildings

7.3.1Be aware of the increasing need for high-rise pumping

7.3.2Save energy through efficient high-rise pumping systems

7.4Chapter Summary

Chapter 8

Reducing energy for water distribution through pressure management and building layout

8.1Key Points to Remember When Designing for Low Energy Intensity Water Distribution

8.1.1Energy for on-site pumping can have a major impact on total energy for water supply

8.1.2There is an energy trade-off when setting pressure within water distribution systems

8.1.3Bigger cities tend to use more energy per cubic metre for water supply

8.1.4Spatial layout of demand has a major influence on energy for central water distribution

8.2Case Study of Four Asian Cities

8.2.1City size

8.2.2Energy for centralised water supply

8.2.3Energy for high-rise pumping

8.2.4Policy implications

8.3Chapter Summary

Chapter 9

Reducing net energy use for wastewater treatment

9.1Increase Organic Energy Recovered through Anaerobic Sludge Digestion

9.1.1Increase the number of plants using anaerobic sludge digestion

9.1.2Improve the quality of sludge by increasing primary sludge collection

9.1.3Improve the quality of sludge through co-digestion and pretreatment

9.2Recover Thermal Energy from Wastewater

9.3Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Applying Sludge to Land

9.4Produce Solar Power Using Wastewater Treatment Plant Surface Area

9.5Increase Efficiency of Aerobic Wastewater Treatment

9.6Build Larger Plants Where Appropriate and Maximise Use of Plant Capacity

9.7Choose a Suitable Discharge Standard

9.8Chapter Summary

Chapter 10

Reducing energy use for water in water-scarce cities

10.1Use Energy Recovery in Wastewater Treatment and Consider Offsets

10.2Consider Non-energy Benefits of Reclaimed Wastewater

10.3Steps to Increasing Reclamation

10.3.1Increase reuse by enforcing reuse

10.3.2Keep price low

10.3.3Incorporate reclaimed wastewater networks into new urban developments

10.4Chapter Summary

Chapter 11

A road map for reducing energy use in urban water supply

11.1Introduction

11.2Road Map for Conventional Urban Water Systems

11.3Road Map for Water-scarce Cities

11.4Chapter Summary

References

Index

About the Authors

Dr Kate Smith received her PhD from the School of Environment, Tsinghua University, in 2019. She is originally from Australia and specialises in water and energy management.

School of Environment, Tsinghua University, No. 1 Tsinghua Park, Beijing, 100084, China.

Email: skt15@tsinghua.org.cn

Professor Shuming Liu is Director of the Smart Water Research Centre and Vice Dean of the School of Environment, Tsinghua University.

School of Environment, Tsinghua University, No. 1 Tsinghua Park, Beijing, 100084, China.

Email: shumingliu@tsinghua.edu.cn

© IWA Publishing 2019. Kate Smith and Shuming Liu Reducing Energy for Urban Water and Wastewater: Prospects for China DOI: 10.2166/9781780409948_xiii

Preface

This book is the culmination of five and a half years of research on energy use for water supply and wastewater treatment, conducted in China. The research began in 2013, a year before the US-China Joint Announcement on Climate Change, a few months after one of the most severe and persistent air pollution episodes in eastern China, and two years after the country's most severe drought in six decades. That was the year I arrived at Tsinghua University with a particular interest in researching water, a subject that would be of value to both my host country and my home country, Australia. The latter had also just emerged from one of the worst droughts in its history.

Initially, I came as a Masters student, joining the team of my current supervisor, Professor Shuming Liu, and together we searched for a suitable research topic. The issue of the water–energy nexus – which is the connection between water and energy – was already of interest in a number of countries. One part of this broad scope – the energy use and greenhouse gas emissions associated with the water sector – had been highlighted in 2011 by an article in the journal Nature Climate Change. The conclusion of the article was that this part of the nexus was under-recognised and lacked research.

After reading up on the subject, it became clear this was particularly true for the case of China – the world's largest greenhouse gas emitter, second largest economy and one of the largest providers of urban water and sanitation services. Thus started my investigation of the energy use required for water supply in China, which expanded to include wastewater treatment once I moved from Masters to PhD in 2015.

The topic makes sense for an Australian researching in China. There are similarities between these two countries that increase both the energy required for water supply and the importance of reducing emissions associated with this energy use. Water resources in both countries are scarce, prompting the use of wastewater reclamation, desalination and water transfer, which generally increases the energy cost of water supply. Both countries rely largely on fossil fuels to generate electricity, which means reducing electricity use curbs greenhouse gas emissions.

Focusing on the energy use associated with water supply and wastewater treatment is not just relevant to countries like China and Australia, with their scarce water resources and fossil-fuel-dependent electricity generation. Energy is one of the main costs and main causes of greenhouse gas emissions in the water sector in many countries. As such, although the focus is China – which is our area of expertise and differentiates this publication from others available – the general information provided is likely to be of relevance to other countries.

This book starts by guiding the reader through the water supply and wastewater treatment process and explains how energy is used at each step. It outlines the most effective ideas for reducing energy use in cities and provides a decision-making framework to help cities focus their efforts in this area. The book investigates an often-overlooked high energy user in dense cities and suggests a way to tackle the problem. It assesses the unintended downside of stricter wastewater standards and how to optimise the upside. And it provides suggestions for increasing water and energy recovery in water-scarce cities.

This work has had input from many people, directly or indirectly, for which I am grateful. Firstly, Professor Shuming Liu took me on as his Masters and PhD student and guided me in the steps that culminated in this book, which was his idea. The book has also benefited from the research ideas, data, facts, analysis and comments from our co-authors on the topic of the water–energy nexus: Shengjie Guo, Ying Liu, Qinhan Zhu, Tian Chang, Xue Wu, Yipeng Wu and Professors Xin Dong, Yi Liu, Dragan Savic, Gustaf Olsson, Tao Wang, Hong-ying Hu and Xianghua Wen. Other team members who provided information are Xiaohua Lin, Xuyi Zhan, Guancheng Guo, Junyu Li and Xiyan Xu.

My Masters and PhD research and study in China that led to this book has been supported at different times by the China Scholarship Council, General Sir John Monash Foundation of Australia and Foundation of Australian Studies in China, and has been continually facilitated by Tsinghua University, which I greatly appreciate.

The content of the research also benefited on many occasions from the work of anonymous reviewers and editing was a collaborative effort between our research team, IWA Publishing's Niall Cunniffe and Mark Hammond, freelance copyeditor Vicki Harley and my dad.

Kate Smith

School of Environment

Tsinghua University

China

© IWA Publishing 2019. Kate Smith and Shuming Liu Reducing Energy for Urban Water and Wastewater: Prospects for China DOI: 10.2166/9781780409948_0001

Chapter 1

Introduction

1.1  THE WATER–ENERGY NEXUS

Water and energy resources are inherently linked and this connection is referred to as the water–energy nexus (Smith et al., 2016b). Energy is needed to abstract, pump, treat, distribute, heat, cool and recycle water (Klein et al., 2005), and water is a critical component in the production of electricity and the extraction of oil, gas, coal and uranium. For example, for every cubic metre of water supplied to urban areas in China, about 0.3 kWh is required (Smith et al., 2016b) and, for every 1000 kWh of electricity generated in the Shanghai area, 60 m³ of water is consumed (Gu et al., 2016; Smith & Liu, 2017).

This book covers one element of the water–energy nexus – energy use for water supply and wastewater in urban areas – with a main focus on China.

Electricity use is one of the major contributors to emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollution by the water sector,

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