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Value-Added Ingredients and Enrichments of Beverages: Volume 14: The Science of Beverages

Value-Added Ingredients and Enrichments of Beverages: Volume 14: The Science of Beverages

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Value-Added Ingredients and Enrichments of Beverages: Volume 14: The Science of Beverages

Lunghezza:
1,064 pagine
12 ore
Pubblicato:
Jun 22, 2019
ISBN:
9780128166888
Formato:
Libro

Descrizione

Value-Added Ingredients and Enrichment of Beverages, Volume Fourteen in The Science of Beverages series, takes a multidisciplinary approach in addressing what consumers demand in natural beverages. This in-depth reference covers both natural and unnatural ingredients and explains their impact on consumer health and nutrition. Sweeteners, vitamins, oils and other natural ingredients to improve beverages are included. The book addresses some of the most common enrichments used in the industry, including those with biomedical and nutritional applications. This volume will be useful to anyone in the beverages industry who needs a better understanding of advances in the industry.

  • Discusses health-related benefits and risks, along with the potential harmful effects of additives and preservatives
  • Provides research examples of health promoting ingredients in beverages to further research and development
  • Presents key steps in designing formulations of enriched beverages, analysis, product development, shelf life, cost-benefit ratio and compliance with WHO regulations
Pubblicato:
Jun 22, 2019
ISBN:
9780128166888
Formato:
Libro

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Anteprima del libro

Value-Added Ingredients and Enrichments of Beverages - Academic Press

Value-Added Ingredients and Enrichments of Beverages

Volume 14: The Science of Beverages

First Edition

Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu

Alina Maria Holban

Table of Contents

Cover image

Title page

Copyright

Contributors

Series Preface

Preface

1: Additionally Added Ingredients and Enrichment of Beverages: An Overview

Abstract

1.1 Introduction

1.2 A Detail View on Fortified Beverages and Its Ingredients

1.3 Commercially Available Functional Beverages and Their Fortification

1.4 Functional Beverages and Role of Research

1.5 Conclusion

2: Health-Promoting Ingredients in Beverages

Abstract

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Characteristics of Beverages

2.3 Types of Beverages

2.4 Health-Promoting Ingredients

2.5 Mixed Beverages

2.6 Role of Probiotics in Beverages

2.7 Conclusion

3: Enrichment of Beverages With Health Beneficial Ingredients

Abstract

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Phytochemicals

3.3 Probiotics

3.4 Dietary Fibers

3.5 Fatty Acids

3.6 Plant Sterols

3.7 Proteins and Peptides

3.8 Vitamins

3.9 Minerals

4: Functional and Nutraceutical Ingredients From Marine Resources

Abstract

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Major Bioactive Compounds From Marine Biota

4.3 Current Scenario and Key Issues in Nutraceutical Industry

5: Potential Health-Promoting Effects of Probiotics in Dairy Beverages

Abstract

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Functional Beverages

5.3 Fermentation in the Past, Present, and Future

5.4 Fermentation Process

5.5 Fermentation of Lactic Acid

5.6 Probiotics

5.7 Manufacture of Fermented Milk Beverages

5.8 Fermented Milk as a Functional Beverage

5.9 Dairy Fermented Beverages

5.10 Whey-Based Cultured Dairy Beverages

5.11 Health Benefits of Fermented Milk

5.12 Conclusion and Recommendations

6: Novel Strategies to Supplement Probiotics to Nondairy Beverages

Abstract

Acknowledgments

6.1 Introduction

6.2 C. moschata Tissue as Raw Material for Functional Food and Ingredient Development

6.3 Suplement Preparation and Characterization

6.4 Beverages Supplementation and Characterization

6.5 Results and Discussion

6.6 Conclusion

7: Probiotics in Nondairy Matrixes: A Potential Combination for the Enrichment and Elaboration of Dual Functionality Beverages

Abstract

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Probiotic Microorganisms

7.3 Probiotic Beverages Obtained From Vegetables, Oilseeds, and Fruits: Research and Development

7.4 Challenges of the Production of Probiotic Nondairy Beverages: Microencapsulation and Other Technologies

7.5 Counting Techniques, Viability Assessment, and the Identification of Probiotic Bacteria in Beverages

7.6 In Vitro and In Vivo Studies

7.7 Conclusions

8: Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Consumption and Long-Term Side Effects on Nutrition and Health Outcomes in Pediatric Age Group

Abstract

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Sugar-Sweetened Beverages

8.3 Trends in Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Consumption

8.4 Determinants of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption

8.5 Unhealthy Effects of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Consumption

8.6 Cardio-Metabolic Effect of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Consumption

8.7 Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, Metabolic Syndrome, and Diabetes

8.8 Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Consumption, Uric Acid, and Blood Pressure

8.9 Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Consumption and NAFLD

8.10 Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Consumption and Dental Caries

8.11 Development of Taste Preference

8.12 Mechanisms

8.13 Conclusion

9: Phenolic Compounds as Functional Ingredients in Beverages

Abstract

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Various Phenolic Compounds

9.3 Summary and conclusion

10: Potential of Antioxidants for Functional Beverages to Improve Health Through Good Business

Abstract

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Polyphenolic Compounds

10.3 Influence of Polyphenolic Compounds on Beverages

10.4 Polyphenolic Compounds Extraction

10.5 Results and Discussions

10.6 Conclusions

11: Omega-3 Beverages

Abstract

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Functional Food Market

11.3 Regulatory Guidelines Important Landmarks

11.4 Functional Beverages

11.5 Omega-3 FAs and Their Health Benefits

11.6 Fortification of Beverages With Omega-3 FAs

11.7 Clinical Studies

11.8 Future Perspectives and Opportunities

12: Anthocyanins as Natural Pigments in Beverages

Abstract

12.1 Relevance of Anthocyanins

12.2 Anthocyanin Properties

12.3 Polymerization of Anthocyanins

12.4 Copigmentation

12.5 Pyranoanthocyanins

12.6 Applications in Beverages

12.7 Conclusions

13: High-Pressure Carbon Dioxide Treatment of Fresh Fruit Juices

Abstract

13.1 High-Pressure Carbon Dioxide Technology

13.2 HPCD Treatment of Liquid Food

13.3 HPCD Plants and Their Potentialities in the Treatment of Fruit Juices

13.4 Conclusions: Hurdles and Opportunities in the Industrial Application of HPCD Systems for Liquid Food Treatment

14: Quality Performance Assessment of Gas Injection During Juice Processing and Conventional Preservation Technologies

Abstract

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Processes Used to Stabilize Commercial Juices

14.3 Impact of Gases on Microbial Stabilization of Juices

14.4 Impact of Gases on Nutritional and Sensorial Quality of Juices

14.5 Systems for Adjustment of Gases in Liquid Media

14.6 Conclusion

15: Self-Assembled Systems Based on Surfactants and Polymers as Stabilizers for Citral in Beverages

Abstract

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Steps Toward Citral Stabilization in Acidic Media

15.3 Conclusions

Index

Copyright

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Notices

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Contributors

Shahab-Aldin Akbarian     Department of Community nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

Duried Alwazeer     Research Center for Redox Applications in Foods (RCRAF), Iğdır University, Iğdır, Turkey

Carlos Eduardo Orrego Álzate     Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Biotechnology and Agroindustry, National University of Colombia Manizales campus, Manizales, Colombia

Carlos Ariel Cardona Álzate     Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Biotechnology and Agroindustry, National University of Colombia Manizales campus, Manizales, Colombia

Ahmad Salihin Baba     Biomolecular Research Group, Division of Biochemistry, Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Parvaiz Ahmad Bhat

Physical Chemistry Division, Department of Chemistry, University of Kashmir, Srinagar

Department of Chemistry, Government Degree College, Pulwama, Jammu and Kashmir, India

P.K. Binsi     ICAR-Central Institute of Fisheries Technology, Cochin, India

Rémy Cachon     UMR A-02.102 PAM, AgroSup Dijon-Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, Dijon, France

Renata Cristina de Almeida B. Campos     Food Science and Technology Department, Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Southeast of Minas Gerais, Rio Pomba, Brazil

Oyais Ahmad Chat

Physical Chemistry Division, Department of Chemistry, University of Kashmir, Srinagar

Department of Chemistry, Government Degree College, Pulwama, Jammu and Kashmir, India

Aijaz Ahmad Dar     Physical Chemistry Division, Department of Chemistry, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India

Amit Baran Das

Department of Food Engineering and Technology, Tezpur University, Tezpur

Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati, India

Chandan Das     Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati, India

Ceren Daşkaya-Dikmen

Istanbul Technical University, Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty, Food Engineering Department

Istanbul Gedik University, Department of Gastronomy and Culinary Arts, Istanbul, Turkey

Marina F. de-Escalada-Pla

Departamento de Industrias, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA)

CONICET-Universidad de Buenos Aires, Instituto de Tecnología de Alimentos y Procesos Químicos (ITAPROQ), Buenos Aires, Argentina

Aurélia Dornelas de Oliveira Martins     Food Science and Technology Department, Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Southeast of Minas Gerais, Rio Pomba, Brazil

C. Escott     Technical University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain

Silvia K. Flores

Departamento de Industrias, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA)

CONICET-Universidad de Buenos Aires, Instituto de Tecnología de Alimentos y Procesos Químicos (ITAPROQ), Buenos Aires, Argentina

Adriana P. Castellanos-Fuentes

Departamento de Industrias, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA)

CONICET-Universidad de Buenos Aires, Instituto de Tecnología de Alimentos y Procesos Químicos (ITAPROQ), Buenos Aires, Argentina

Ashley Sthefanía Caballero Galván     Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Biotechnology and Agroindustry, National University of Colombia Manizales campus, Manizales, Colombia

Carolina E. Genevois     Facultad de Bromatología, Universidad Nacional de Entre Ríos (UNER), Gualeguaychú, Entre Ríos; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires, Argentina

C. González     Technical University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain

V.V. Goud     Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati, India

Motahar Heidari-Beni     Department of Pediatrics, Child Growth and Development Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non Communicable Disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

Aslı Can Karaça     Istanbul Technical University, Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty, Food Engineering Department, Istanbul, Turkey

Kadriye Nur Kasapoğlu     Istanbul Technical University, Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty, Food Engineering Department, Istanbul, Turkey

Roya Kelishadi     Department of Pediatrics, Child Growth and Development Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non Communicable Disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

Santram Lodhi     Department of Pharmacognosy, Smt. Sharadchandrika Suresh Patil College of Pharmacy, Chopda, India

C. López     Technical University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain

Lara Manzocco     Department of Agricultural, Food, Environmental and Animal Sciences, University of Udine, Udine, Italy

Maurilio Lopes Martins     Food Science and Technology Department, Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Southeast of Minas Gerais, Rio Pomba, Brazil

Eliane Maurício Furtado Martins     Food Science and Technology Department, Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Southeast of Minas Gerais, Rio Pomba, Brazil

Shimeny Ramos Montanary     Food Science and Technology Department, Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Southeast of Minas Gerais, Rio Pomba, Brazil

A. Morata     Technical University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain

Premalatha Muniandy     Biomolecular Research Group, Division of Biochemistry, Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Nighat Nazir     Department of Chemistry, Islamia College of Science and Commerce, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India

Beraat Özçelik

Istanbul Technical University, Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty, Food Engineering Department, Istanbul, Turkey

BIOACTIVE Research & Innovation Food Manufacturing Industry Trade LTD Co., Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey

Manohar L. Panse     Real World Nutrition Laboratory Foundation, Bharati Vidyapeeth University, Pune, India

Shital D. Phalke     Interactive Research school for health Affairs, Bharati Vidyapeeth University, Pune, India

Bruno Andrade Pires     Food Science and Technology Department, Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Southeast of Minas Gerais, Rio Pomba, Brazil

Stella Plazzotta     Department of Agricultural, Food, Environmental and Animal Sciences, University of Udine, Udine, Italy

Nahid Rafie     Department of Community nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

Virendra K. Rathod     Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai, India

Mariana Ortiz Sánchez     Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Biotechnology and Agroindustry, National University of Colombia Manizales campus, Manizales, Colombia

Amal Bakr Shori     Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

W. Tesfaye     Technical University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain

Prerana D. Tomke     Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai, India

Gautam P. Vadnere     Department of Pharmacognosy, Smt. Sharadchandrika Suresh Patil College of Pharmacy, Chopda, India

Merve Yavuz-Düzgün     Istanbul Technical University, Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty, Food Engineering Department, Istanbul, Turkey

A.A. Zynudheen     ICAR-Central Institute of Fisheries Technology, Cochin, India

Series Preface

Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu; Alina Maria Holban

Food and beverage industry accounts among the most developed sectors, being constantly changing. Even though a basic beverage industry could be found in every area of the globe, particular aspects in beverage production, processing, and consumption are identified in some geographic zones. An impressive progress has recently been observed in both traditional and modern beverage industries and these advances are leading beverages to a new era. Along with the cutting-edge technologies, developed to bring innovation and improve beverage industry, some other human-related changes also have a great impact on the development of such products. Emerging diseases with a high prevalence in the present, as well as a completely different lifestyle of the population in recent years have led to particular needs and preferences in terms of food and beverages. Advances in the production and processing of beverages have allowed for the development of personalized products to serve for a better health of overall population or for a particular class of individuals. Also, recent advances in the management of beverages offer the possibility to decrease any side effects associated with such an important industry, such as decreased pollution rates and improved recycling of all materials involved in beverage design and processing, while providing better quality products.

Beverages engineering has emerged in such way that we are now able to obtain specifically designed content beverages, such as nutritive products for children, decreased sugar content juices, energy drinks, and beverages with additionally added health-promoting factors. However, with the immense development of beverage processing technologies and because of their wide versatility, numerous products with questionable quality and unknown health impact have been also produced. Such products, despite their damaging health effect, gained a great success in particular population groups (i.e., children) because of some attractive properties, such as taste, smell, and color.

Nonetheless, engineering offered the possibility to obtain not only the innovative beverages but also packaging materials and contamination sensors useful in food and beverages quality and security sectors. Smart materials able to detect contamination or temperature differences which could impact food quality and even pose a hazardous situation for the consumer were recently developed and some are already utilized in packaging and food preservation.

This 20-volume series has emerged from the need to reveal the current situation in beverage industry and to highlight the progress of the last years, bringing together most recent technological innovations while discussing present and future trends. The series aims to increase awareness of the great variety of new tools developed for traditional and modern beverage products and also to discuss their potential health effects.

All volumes are clearly illustrated and contain chapters contributed by highly reputed authors, working in the field of beverage science, engineering, or biotechnology. Manuscripts are designed to provide necessary basic information in order to understand specific processes and novel technologies presented within the thematic volumes.

Volume 1, entitled Production and management of beverages, offers a recent perspective regarding the production of main types of alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages. Current management approaches in traditional and industrial beverages are also dissected within this volume.

In Volume 2, Processing and sustainability of beverages, novel information regarding the processing technologies and perspectives for a sustainable beverage industry are given.

Third volume, entitled Engineering tools in beverage industry dissects the newest advances made in beverage engineering, highlighting cutting-edge tools and recently developed processes to obtain modern and improved beverages.

Volume 4 presents updated information regarding Bottled and packaged waters. In this volume are discussed some wide interest problems, such as drinking water processing and security, contaminants, pollution and quality control of bottled waters, and advances made to obtain innovative water packaging.

Volume 5, Fermented beverages, deals with the description of traditional and recent technologies utilized in the industry of fermented beverages, highlighting the high impact of such products on consumer health. Because of their great beneficial effects, fermented products still represent an important industrial and research domain.

Volume 6 discusses recent progress in the industry of Nonalcoholic beverages. Teas and functional nonalcoholic beverages, as well as their impact on current beverage industry and traditional medicine are discussed.

In Volume 7, entitled Alcoholic beverages, recent tools and technologies in the manufacturing of alcoholic drinks are presented. Updated information is given about traditional and industrial spirits production and examples of current technologies in wine and beer industry are dissected.

Volume 8 deals with recent progress made in the field of Caffeinated and cocoa-based beverages. This volume presents the great variety of such popular products and offers new information regarding recent technologies, safety, and quality aspects as well as their impact on health. Also, recent data regarding the molecular technologies and genetic aspects in coffee useful for the development of high-quality raw materials could be found here.

In Volume 9, entitled Milk-based beverages, current status, developments, and consumers trends in milk-related products are discussed. Milk-based products represent an important industry and tools are constantly been developed to fit the versatile preferences of consumers and also nutritional and medical needs.

Volume 10, Sports and energy drinks, deals with the recent advances and health impact of sports and energy beverages, which became a flourishing industry in the recent years.

In Volume 11, main novelties in the field of Functional and medicinal beverages, as well as perspective of their use for future personalized medicine are given.

Volume 12 gives an updated overview regarding Nutrients in beverages. Types, production, intake, and health impact of nutrients in various beverage formulations are dissected through this volume.

In Volume 13, advances in the field of Natural beverages are provided, along with their great variety, impact on consumer health, and current and future beverage industry developments.

Volume 14, Value-added Ingredients and enrichments of beverages, talks about a relatively recently developed field which is currently widely investigated, namely the food and beverage enrichments. Novel technologies of extraction and production of enrichments, their variety, as well as their impact on product quality and consumers effects are dissected here.

Volume 15, Preservatives and preservation approaches in beverages, offers a wide perspective regarding conventional and innovative preservation methods in beverages, as well as main preservatives developed in recent years.

In Volume 16, Trends in beverage packaging, the most recent advances in the design of beverage packaging and novel materials designed to promote the content quality and freshness are presented.

Volume 17 is entitled Quality control in the beverage industry. In this volume are discussed the newest tools and approaches in quality monitoring and product development in order to obtain advanced beverages.

Volume 18, Safety issues in beverage production, presents general aspects in safety control of beverages. Here, the readers can find not only the updated information regarding contaminants and risk factors in beverage production, but also novel tools for accurate detection and control.

Volume 19, Biotechnological progress and beverage consumption, reveals novel tools used for advanced biotechnology in beverage industry production.

Finally, Volume 20 entitled Nanoengineering in the beverage industry take the readers into the nanotechnology world, while highlighting important progress made in the field of nanosized materials science aiming to obtain tools for a future beverage industry.

This 20-volume series is intended especially for researchers in the field of food and beverages, and also biotechnologists, industrial representatives interested in innovation, academic staff and students in food science, engineering, biology, and chemistry-related fields, pharmacology and medicine, and is a useful and updated resource for any reader interested to find the basics and recent innovations in the most investigated fields in beverage engineering.

Preface

Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu, University Politehnica of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania

Alina Maria Holban, Faculty of Biology, University of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania

Beverages are considered the energy-centered vehicle of the food industry. Usually, they are not an essential food source, but may be an important energy source and also may provide special nutrients. In recent years, beverages science has allowed for the development of improved beverages, which contain special ingredients and enrichments. Such products are usually improved by the addition of probiotics and prebiotic ingredients, sugars, flavors, syrups, natural juices, antioxidants, polyphenols, proteins, fatty acids, and dyes. The resulting drinks present improved aspect, taste, or bring additional nutritive or energy components. Some of the value-added ingredients may provide significant health benefits for the consumers. However, numerous enrichments may have some detrimental health effects, especially if the respective beverages are used in high amounts or with an increased frequency.

This volume aims to offer an updated perspective regarding enrichments and value-added ingredients utilized in the development of beverages, highlighting their potential impact on consumers’ health.

The volume contains 15 chapters prepared by outstanding authors from India, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Argentina, Brazil, Iran, Colombia, Spain, Italy, and France.

The selected manuscripts are clearly illustrated and contain accessible information for a wide audience, especially food and beverage scientists, engineers, biotechnologists, biochemists, industrial companies, students but also any reader interested in learning about the most interesting and recent advances in beverage science.

Chapter 1, Additionally added ingredients and enrichment of beverages: An overview, prepared by Prerana D. Tomke et al., provides a holistic approach toward value addition of ingredients and fortification with covering technical need of major beverages covering a wide range of products such as instant flavored drinks, fruit juices, milk and milk drinks, syrups-supplements for the target populations, sports drinks, energy drinks, probiotic-prebiotic-symbiotic drinks, and others. In this chapter, the required quality control systems influencing chemical and physical properties and realistic stability studies during product development are also discussed.

Chapter 2, Health Promoting Ingredients in beverages, by Santram Lodhi et al., offers significant details about various ingredients present in beverages and their beneficial role in several chronic diseases. There are varieties of ingredients including vitamins, minerals, soluble dietary fiber, and bioactive compounds like organic acids, phytosterols, and polyphenols, which possess health benefit as well as may reduce risk of some chronic disorders. The chapter strongly highlights the use of natural ingredients containing different beverages with low sugar or no-added-sugar drinks, rich in polyphenols and with antioxidant properties, which may also confer additional health benefits.

Chapter 3, Enrichment of Beverages with Health Beneficial Ingredients, by Kadriye Nur Kasapoğlu et al., reviews the nutritional characteristics, health effects, related regulations, sources, and extraction techniques of some value-added ingredients (such as antioxidants, minerals, vitamins, dietary fiber, plant sterols and stanols, super fruit extracts, herbal extracts and seed extracts, amino acids, peptides and proteins, nutraceuticals such as omega-3 fatty acids, resveratrol, Coenzyme Q10, pro and prebiotics such as inulin, fructooligosaccharides, lactulose, Lactobacillus, and Bifidobacterium) which are used or could be potentially used as fortificants in beverages.

Chapter 4, Functional and nutraceutical ingredients from marine resources, by Binsi P.K. et al., offers a comprehensive note on several bioactive ingredients from marine ecosystem, such as fish oil, proteins and peptides, chitins, pigments, taurine, squalene, proteoglycans, polyphenols, probiotics, polysaccharides, and vitamins and minerals, highlighting their nutraceutical role and impact in beverage industry.

Chapter 5, Potential health-promoting effects of probiotics in dairy beverages, by Amal Bakr Shori et al., aims to describe the health benefits of probiotics and their role in fermented dairy beverages. Fermented milk beverages not only provide refreshment and hydration but it also plays an important role in the human diet and can be used as a potential source of probiotics with beneficial health effects.

Chapter 6, Novel strategies to supplement probiotics to nondairy beverages, by Marina de Escalada Pla et al., describes new trends for the diversification of tastes by developing new matrices for probiotic vehicles. For example, pumpkin by-products (peel and pulp) may be used as substrate/support of Lactobacillus. Therefore, a new ingredient was developed containing Lactobacillus casei immobilized in a pumpkin matrix. This new product was incorporated as a supplement to two different beverages: chocolate milk and soy milk containing apple juice. The two commercial beverages, supplemented with the L. casei cells immobilized in the pumpkin tissue, present a high percentage of the probiotic cell survival (≈ 80%) after simulated gastrointestinal digestion conditions compared to free L. casei cells. Properties of such beverages are presented in this work.

Chapter 7, Probiotics in nondairy matrixes: a potential combination for the enrichment and elaboration of dual functionality beverages, by Maurilio Lopes Martins et al., reviews the use of probiotics to enrich beverages from plant matrices, as well as the challenges of its addition, the methods to count and detect these microorganisms, and the in vitro and in vivo studies used to demonstrate the survival of probiotic bacteria in these functional foods.

Chapter 8, Sugar-sweetened beverages consumption and long-term side effects on nutrition and health outcomes in pediatric age group, by Motahar Heidari-Beni et al., discusses the implication of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) intake in the development of some disorders including obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. SSBs contain some added or naturally derived caloric sweeteners including sucrose or high-fructose corn syrup that they might lead to metabolic disorders and this condition has an increased impact in children.

Chapter 9, Phenolic Compounds as Functional Ingredients in Beverages, by Amit Baran Das et al., deals with the chemistry of phenolic compounds, their nutritional characteristics, and health benefit of the various ingredient as well as their application in the various beverages. The phenolic compounds are generally natural plant extracts which are associated with a high antioxidant capacity and thus with benefits to human health. The phenolic compounds are mainly secondary metabolites which include anthocyanins, coumarins, flavonoids, phenolic acid, and others. The phenolic compounds are also used in beverages for positioning strategies linked, such as athletic performance, digestion, aging, weight management, cardiovascular health, cancer, diabetes, and fatigue, stamina, and many others.

Chapter 10, Potential of antioxidants for functional beverages to improve health through good business, by Ashley Sthefanía Caballero Galván et al., describes the extraction methods, addition procedures, and impact of some general use of antioxidants in the development of value-added beverages.

Chapter 11, entitled Omega 3 Beverages, by Manohar L. Panse et al., discusses the properties of omega-3 fatty acids added in beverages as a value-added ingredient. Omega-3 fatty acids are essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) as they cannot be synthesized in the human body. The increase in incidences, severity, and early occurrence of degenerative diseases like diabetes, cardiovascular disease, arthritis, cancer, mental disorders, etc. are attributed to the deficiency of omega 3 in the modern diet. Omega-3 fatty acids are emerging as some of the most widely beneficial compounds in human health. All over the world food and beverages manufacturing companies are using omega 3 fortification as a means to increase their products’ sale while offering health benefits to the consumers.

Chapter 12, Anthocyanins as natural pigments in beverages, by Morata Antonio et al., describes the nature and properties of anthocyanins detailing the main natural sources and how these molecules can be used as pigments in beverages. The use of natural pigments as colorants is a trend in food technology because of the safety hazard and long-term repercussions on health from the chemically synthetized pigments.

Chapter 13, High-pressure carbon dioxide treatment of fresh fruit juices, by Stella Plazzotta et al., describes the potential of high-pressure carbon dioxide (HPCD) treatment as a promising nonthermal technology for the stabilization of fresh juices. Microbial growth and enzymatic activity, as well as physical and chemical changes, can contribute to quality depletion of these juices. In this chapter, a description of the technology followed by its effects on microorganisms, enzymes and sensory, physicochemical and physical properties of fruit juices is presented.

Chapter 14, Quality performance assessment of gas injection during juice processing and conventional preservation technologies, by Rémy Cachon et al., presents some essential technologies useful for preservation and properties protection of beverages, including value-added ingredient containing products. Despite the numerous processes proposed as alternatives to heat pasteurization, thermally treated juices produced by full or flash pasteurization are still the most widely marketed product. It is well known that the flavor of fruit juices is influenced by heat treatment used for microbial stabilization; as an example, volatile compounds such as alpha-terpineol and the terpinen-4-ol synthesized during heat treatments are responsible for the oxidized and cooked flavors of the orange juice. In addition, between the setting out of the bottle and the consumption of the fruit juice, it can occur several days even several weeks. All food is subjected to the laws of aging, chemical additives are often used to stabilize fruit drinks, and in such objective gases may offer new perspectives; in this chapter, the use of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen are investigated.

Chapter 15, Self-assembled systems based on surfactants and polymers as stabilizers for citral in beverages, by Oyais Ahmad Chat et al., describes the methods recently investigated for the stabilization of some intensively utilized flavoring agents, such as citral. Inhibition of citral degradation has been a long-standing industrial issue and challenging task for decades. The conventional ways to retard citral degradation like decreasing temperature, neutralizing pH, and removing oxygen have one or other limitation. Use of antioxidants to prevent citral degradation is also limited due to their noncommercial availability, high cost, and extensive extraction process. Some antioxidants add undesirable taste and color to the food products. Instead, self-assemblies of surfactants and polymers provide a promising method to enhance the aqueous stability of citral at low pH by compartmentalization due to its isolation from protons and free radicals. This chapter highlights the prospects of self-assembly designs to enhance citral stability under acidic environments commonly employed in beverages.

1

Additionally Added Ingredients and Enrichment of Beverages: An Overview

Prerana D. Tomke; Virendra K. Rathod    Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai, India

Abstract

Beverages are the energy centered vehicle of the food industry. They are not consumed for their food value but many are taken up as a source of energy. Today, it became diet fashion and need of all generations to get more nutrition from simplified ways of diet. A wide range of nutrient carriers have been designed to date. Numerous objectives and aspects were taken into consideration to promise a successful fortification to accept technological challenges with respect to its chemistry. It ropes up to restore loss of nutrients during processing or it may add up some component which may not be naturally present in beverages before processing. Fortification also standardizes the contents with bioavailability of nutrients. Sometimes preservatives and colouring agents are added in beverages for technical purpose. This chapter will provide holistic approach toward value addition of ingredients and fortification covering technical need of major beverages covering a wide range of products such as instant flavored drinks, fruit juices, milk and milk drinks, syrups supplements for the target populations, sports drinks, energy drinks, probiotic-prebiotic-synbiotic drinks, and others. We will also discuss the required quality control systems influencing chemical and physical properties and realistic stability studies during product development.

Keywords

Functional beverages; Fortification; Probiotics; Symbiotic; Sports drinks; Vitamins

1.1 Introduction

Over the past few decades, worldwide thirst for the healthy beverages and nutritional drinks has been rising that results in a sudden boom in functional beverages market bringing pharma and beverages industry much closer to work as collaboration platform (Ozen et al., 2012; Eussen et al., 2011). The idea of health-promoting food beverages and drinks is not a recent one, since from ancient time Asians are utilizing this kind of concept in liquid drinks such as herbal tea (Valls et al., 2013; Otles and Cagindi, 2012). Today, new steps in the world of scientific research are backing up the idea of functional beverages which help to accomplish the need of nutrition for healthy human body and also perform a favorable role in controlling various diseases (Otles and Cagindi, 2012). There are some critical aspects known as the key factors which play an important role in the rising demand of fortified beverages such as continuous busy and hectic lifestyle, health conscious society, absence of exercise, low intake of healthy diet, frequent self-medication and growth of aging population (Granato et al., 2010). This results in the realization of economic and potential strength of the fortified beverage products market being a significant part of common man’s health strategies. As reported by many authors nearly 20% decrease in pharmaceutical market per year can be observed by regular consumption of nutritionally fortified functional products (Sun-Waterhouse, 2011). Currently, a range of different fortified foods are available in the market consisting of products such as cereals, baked goods, baby foods, confectionery, meat products, dairy foods, snacks, ready meals, and beverages (Ofori and Hsieh, 2013). Precisely, beverages by far holds the crown of being the most active fortified food product category, because (i) it provides an opportunity to incorporate various bioactive compounds as well as desirable nutrients (Sanguansri and Augustin, 2009); (ii) it offers on the go product solution in terms of easy accessibility, handling, and appearance (Wootton-Beard and Ryan, 2011); (iii) it gives shelf-stable product option with better storage at refrigerated conditions (Kausar et al., 2012). The commercially accessible products can be segregated as (1) drinking water incorporated with various nutrients and vitamins like iron, magnesium, and flavors, (2) dairy-based beverages like mineral fortified drinks and probiotics (Ozen et al., 2012), (3) fruits and vegetable extract containing beverages (Bigliardi and Galati, 2013), and (4) sports drinks and energy drinks (Bigliardi and Galati, 2013). Many review articles have discussed the fundamental aspects dealing with functional beverages based on fermentation, probiotic-based beverages, fruit-based beverages, energy drinks, synbiotic-based beverages, and sport drinks which affect mood, obesity, boost energy, and prevent a number of diseases or disorders (Marsh et al., 2014; Ozer and Kirmaci, 2010; Sun-Waterhouse, 2011; Prado et al., 2008; Granato et al., 2010). This chapter provides a thorough insight on the impact of various additionally added ingredients on beverages and also, the recent achievements in the area of specially fortified functional beverages. Details of the scientific advances in the current research, quality control system, and application of novel technology for the development of additionally added ingredients for the fortification of various beverages are presented here, with a focus on the examples of commercially available products and potential health benefits due to their consumption.

1.2 A Detail View on Fortified Beverages and Its Ingredients

1.2.1 Definitions of Functional Food/Beverages

Since long time, various terms have been put forward to describe foods which supply nutrient to prevent diseases. Designer food drink is the first term invented in 1989 to describe the beverages which are naturally enriched with biologically active, nonnutritive, anticancerous chemical constituents of plants (Otles and Cagindi, 2012). Further, the US Foundation for Innovation in Medicine termed the liquid product holding medicinal value as a nutraceutical drink in 1990. On the other hand, the idea of complete fortified food drinks was first presented in Japan for those drinks that contain ingredients with health benefit (FOSHU, liquid drink for health benefit) (Rodriguez et al., 2016; Lau et al., 2013). FOSHU is described by the Japanese Ministry of Health as foods which are expected to provide certain health benefits through its consumption. Generally, functional food drinks are those beverages that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrient value and which can consumed as a part of a usual diet, and also have particular physiological benefits to reduce the chronic disease but will not adversely affect human body (Lau et al., 2013; Bigliardi and Galati, 2013). Fortified foods are also able to provide minerals or vitamins for special groups of people but it is normally not used for therapeutic purposes (Yang, 2008). As specified by an European Commission, a beverage product can only be described as a fortified food if it fulfills basic nutritional demand as well as helps to control the risk of the development of diseases. Therefore, fortified drinks can be an unmodified natural food drink enriched through the special biotechnological, breeding, and growing conditions, it can be (i) natural juice or any kind of beverages in which an external nutrient component has been added to provide health benefits; (ii) a health drink from which some component has been removed by biotechnological means so that it offers those benefits which are not available before; (iii) a health drink in which some constituent has been replaced by other alternative component; (iv) a beverages in which an ingredient has been reformed/improved by chemical, enzymatic, or technological means to deliver a special benefits; (v) a beverage in which the bioavailability of a component has been modified; or a combination of any of the above (Bigliardi and Galati, 2013; Pravst, 2012).

1.2.2 Functional Beverages and Its Market

Additional momentous product category within the functional food segment is nonalcoholic beverages specially fortified with various vitamins or other similar functional ingredients. Although, there is a moderately great number of products available in this segment still the market is small. In 1999, Germany was the only country in Europe with sufficient functional beverages market such as ACE drinks, when this drink entered market, its volume of 15 million US$ expanded to 89 million US$ within a year (Hilliam, 2000). It was noted that more than 117 million liters of vitaminized nonalcoholic beverages were consumed in Germany only (Menrad, 2003). Other types of functional drinks include cholesterol lowering drinks fortified with omega-3 fatty acids and soy proteins. Also drinks incorporated with lutein are beneficial for eye health. Health drinks for bone strength are incorporated with calcium and inulin (Kotler and Keller, 2016). In Europe, fortified juices are created under the trade name Largo, containing inulin, l-carnitine, vitamins, calcium, and magnesium as functional ingredients (Tammsaar, 2007). The functional drinks and beverages market was estimated to be around 9% of the total food market in 2010, which increased to 14% in 2015. According to the predictions the consumption will reach 21 billion by 2020, which corresponds to a 48% increase compared to that in 2010 (Kotler and Keller, 2016).

1.2.3 Regulatory Framework for Fortified Beverages

In a regulatory sense, fortified beverages are not classified clearly as the term fortified beverage. Also, they are not recognized as a separate product category by any regulatory authority. Hence, it is uncertain whether a new product should be labeled as drink, supplement, or syrup (Sun-Waterhouse, 2011; Binnis and Howlett, 2009; Brown and Chan, 2009). Nutrition and health claims made on beverages are regulated by European Council Regulation 1924/2016. Nutritional claim suggests that all these drinks have specific beneficial nutritional properties, whereas health claims are based on relationship that exists between a beverage or one of its components and health effects and the role of an externally added nutrient on behavioral and psychological functions such as energy boosting, weight-control, disease control, etc. (Nocella and Kennedy, 2012; Dolan, 2011; Brown and Chan, 2009; and Binnis and Howlett, 2009). These products generally fall under the regulations for conventional food drink. They should be safe to be marketed as food products, and all the ingredients must be generally recognized as safe (GRAS) or approved as food additives and are not capable of causing any disease. On the subject of product claims, these products can be categorized into (1) health claims, (2) nutrient content claims, and (3) structure/function claims (Hasler, 2008; Jackson and Paliyath, 2011; Dolan, 2011).

1.2.4 Rationale for Multiple Fortification of Beverages

Nearly each and every fortified processed food beverage contains more than one externally added micronutrient. Milk products are usually fortified with vitamins A and D only. As milk naturally contains huge amounts of nutrients. Also milk is suitable to get incorporated without any side effects with vitamins A and D which can help to provide strong bones, normal muscle function, and aids in healthy immune system. If the milk products are fortified with iron, it will cause change in the color of milk and color is one of the quality checking parameters in milk. Therefore, multiple ingredients fortification is carried out on the basis of interaction of additionally added ingredient with the original product. On the other hand, many beverages are often fortified using different vitamins and minerals using various fortification methods and justified for a number of reasons (Ofori and Hsieh, 2013). Many surveys have reported that specific micronutrient deficiencies are rarely detected, since majority of natural products like milk, fruit juices are promising natural sources of numerous micronutrients. Wrong food habits and financial limitations result in uneven diet plans, which are doubtful to provide sufficient levels of all required micronutrients (Lau et al., 2013). Many times, the actual and extent of the deficiencies of particular micronutrients remains unknown due to the absence of easily measurable, sensitive, and specific indicators of micronutrient and partly because of the lack of adequate survey data (Heckman et al., 2010). Although the number of nutritional status indicators has permitted deficiencies related to iron, iodine, and vitamin A (for certain extent). This will not be case for other key micronutrients, such as zinc and calcium. Deficiencies of these two minerals are widespread and costly to treat compared to documented deficiencies of iron, vitamin A, and iodine (Nocella and Kennedy, 2012). Finally, multiple micronutrient supplementation has been shown to have a greater impact on nutritional status than deficient single micronutrient status. Liquid food products like milk, juices, and other water-based products can become a suitable media to carry a number of nutrients in a single product, if added carefully on exact rationale. For example, a study (double blind) carried out on 7-year old Chinese children suffering from deficiency of zinc shows that multiple micronutrient supplementation through a milk supplementation resulted in greater improvement in linear growth than zinc supplementation alone (Brown and Chan, 2009; Jackson and Paliyath, 2011).

1.2.5 Appropriate Fortification of Beverages

Although there are good arguments in favor of multiple fortification, a number of factors must be taken into account before taking any decision on the multiple fortification of a particular beverage product (Binnis and Howlett, 2009). The fundamental factor is the nature of beverages/drink and its behavior toward additionally added ingredients, another one is the path of fortification with their particular levels of addition which depend on the nutritional requirements and deficiencies as well as the dietary habits of the targeted population or consumer group (Kotler and Keller, 2016). As a general rule, and in order to provide balanced nutrition through fortification, appropriate amounts of nutrients and additives must be added without creating either any excess or imbalance. Also, it should be considered that one single portion of the diet should not provide excess of nutrients at one time, it should be as per the requirements of the targeted consumer (Hilliam, 2000).

1.2.6 Vitamin Stability in Various Beverages

A number of factors should be considered while studying the stability of vitamins mainly moisture, oxygen, temperature, pH, light, and interactions of minerals and vitamins with other food components (Binnis and Howlett, 2009). Vitamin losses depend on the processing and storage conditions of the final product. The most unstable of all are vitamins C, A, D, B1, and B12. As they possess several states of oxidation and also presence of some metal ions (copper and iron) which speed up the rate of degradation of vitamins, especially in the case of vitamins C, A, and B1 (Ozen et al., 2012; Jarvenpaa et al., 2007). Fortification by using more than one vitamins may result in the interaction of vitamin ± vitamin that may speed up the breakdown rate of one vitamin, the best-known interactions are those among vitamins C, B1, B2, and B12 which may alter the properties of original vitamins (Heribert, 2008). The degree of vitamin interactions usually depends on the nature of the beverages in which they will be incorporated and also other physical factors such as temperature, moisture, pH, light, etc., applied during processing and storage. Also, amount of vitamin added is another critical factor considered during its stability study. The permitted level of these vitamins should be maintained till the point of its consumption. It was scientifically proved that during the formulation the amount of vitamins added must be quite higher than the declared level on its label (Nagpal et al., 2012). This difference between the actual formulated and the declared vitamin amount is termed as overage which varies according to the product and its application. Vitamin overages are generally deliberated in terms of percentage of the declared level:

For example, the powder prepared for milk-based drink which is fortified by dry mixing of vitamin, in this mix overage ranges from 8% to 10% for vitamin E and niacin. For some other liquid beverage product, overage range for vitamins C, A, and D varies up to 30% (Nionelli et al., 2014). For canned beverages, the overages can vary as high as 100% for ascorbic acid and other sensitive vitamins.

1.2.7 Micronutrient Availability and Organoleptic Quality of Fortified Beverages

The nature or media of beverage product to be fortified has important role in the process of fortification, since organoleptic alterations could occur due to the addition of certain micronutrients. On the other hand, the bioavailability of added micronutrients, particularly trace elements and minerals, should also be taken into consideration. With respect to these two parameters, the most difficult micronutrient to add in any kind of beverage product is iron. In today’s situation majority of the people in the entire world suffers from deficiency of iron. An iron fortification in any compound depends basically on the nature of the drink and beverage itself which is approximately always a compromise between minimal organoleptic alteration in basic food and maximal bioavailability of iron (Prado et al., 2008). On the other hand, bioavailability can be covered up by using alternative compounds like ferrous sulfate (a soluble iron-containing compounds) which can be easily absorbed by human body but it can generate various unacceptable color and taste changes in some sensitive beverage products. For example, controlled addition of ferrous sulphate is one of the successful fortification technique for most of the dairy and soya based beverages. On the other side use of ferrous sulphate in special foods like energy drinks can affect quality of product by changing its colour and flavour due to presence of easily oxidizable compounds like polyphenol in case of carbonated cocoa drinks (Leong and Oey, 2012). In most of the cases, through the direct absorption from the beverages, it is possible to expand the bioavailability of minerals. For example, normally, iron absorption can be enhanced by the addition of ascorbic acid in to iron (2:1), but the exact optimal ratio depends on the nature of the beverage and amount of inhibitor of iron absorption in the product.

1.2.8 Interactions of Mineral in Fortified Beverages

Interactions between two different minerals can be affected by the presence of other nutrients and bioavailability of minerals in multiple fortified product. Iron, zinc, and calcium are the most studied minerals in all respect (Nagpal et al., 2012). For example, in the absence of phytic acid the amount of calcium or zinc adsorption is low. However, calcium considerably affects zinc absorption when phytic acid is present in the medium. Similarly, supplement of iron as liquid drinks can considerably prevent retention of inorganic zinc in the liquid when consumed concurrently at zinc to iron ratios as low as 1:1 (Jackson and Paliyath, 2011; Higgins et al., 2010). To determine the nutritional applicability of this type of interaction between liquid food beverages, studies of zinc bioavailability have been performed in adults by using permissible food-fortification levels of iron and zinc, the results indicates that the normal levels of external iron fortification do not affect zinc absorption (Ofori and Hsieh, 2013; Mollov et al., 2007). Another report of extensive study on interaction between iron and calcium shows that calcium possesses an inhibitory effect on amount of iron absorption in human body. For example, it was reported that 165 mg of calcium given through the milk can decrease the total amount of iron absorption by about 60% (Ottaway, 2009). Also, it was stated that the supply of the plain single-meal approach can become overstressing due to direct effect of iron absorption inhibitors and enhancers. Further studies were performed on whole-diet supplement approach to estimate the long-term effects of iron absorption inhibitors and enhancers. In human body the stronger effects of enhancers as well as inhibitors on iron absorption was observed in acute single-meal approach as compared to whole-diet studies (Rathore et al., 2012; Renuka et al., 2009). Moreover, in a chronic dietary classification study over several weeks, neither any inhibitory effect of dietary calcium was seen on iron absorption nor any kind of enhancing effect was observed through the addition of vitamin C (Reddy, 2010). The only dietary constituents that were observed by numerous regression techniques which directly affect iron absorption were polyphenols (inhibiting) (Talwalkar and Kailasapathy, 2004; Tarazona et al., 2013). In various adult diet studies, the effects of individual enhancers and inhibitors of iron absorption are of much less nutritional significance as compared to whole-diet supplements (Saarela, 2009). In the long-term effect study there is a low to mild inhibition of calcium absorption due to iron from iron-fortified milk beverages, still the amount of iron supplied is sufficient to overcome iron requirement by human body (Sloan, 2012). These types of beverages allowed to provide nutritionally appropriate amounts of iron and other required micronutrients, depending on other factors like (i) age group of consumer, (ii) amount of naturally present micronutrient, (iii) estimated processing as well as storage losses, and (iv) mixing capacity of liquid beverages with added nutrients. During the fortification process of any beverages with both vitamins and minerals, two premixes are normally utilized, one for minerals and another for vitamins, it will minimize metal-catalyzed degradation of vitamins during storage of compound (Valls et al., 2013). Also, a small quantity of the premixes are specially kept for supplier of micronutrients and considered during the calculation the final specifications of the premixes before application.

1.3 Commercially Available Functional Beverages and Their Fortification

1.3.1 Fortification of Drinking Water

In last decade, consumer’s approach toward healthy diet has been changed dramatically. Each human being needs to drink a lot of water on daily basis as an essential component of usual diet. Instead of spending on various nutritious drinks, why not drinking water can become a supplier of nutrient as well? Mineral water, fortified with vitamins is a stable, ready to drink, and safe drinking water which can be consumed directly without any processing. Also, it can be applied as health drink in the tube feedings for direct nutrient supply through tube to the small children’s who cannot obtain nutrition from mouth. It also can be applied in the reframing of food drink as well as beverages (Semba, 2012). On the downside, fruit-based or any sugar-based fortified functional drinks/beverages can effectively enhance the amount of calories whereas fortified drinking water contains negligible amount of calories (0 − 10) per serving which can become an effective way for avoiding consumption of calories (weight loss) with an appropriate delivery of nutrients (Bygbjerg, 2012). In fact, all types of fortified beverages and health drinks may not be preferred by all ages/categories of people, whereas water being a key component of life is consumed by each and every one. Some beverages are overprocessed or fermented, some may possess some kind of allergens which are not as such suitable for all age groups of people. All these drawbacks can be overcome by the usage of fortified drinking water. People suffering from flu or those who engage in strong physical activities such as tough workouts may prefer selecting up a bottle of fortified water as it contains electrolytes (Schlaudecker et al., 2011). Minerals present inside the drinking water will not affect during normal water processing, but they can be combined easily with co-nutrients or nonfood components. Therefore, they may become unavailable during digestion due to these interactions. Various methods of processing like boiling, heat treatments, blanching, soaking, milling, canning, steaming, pasteurization, sterilization, baking, frying, drying, freezing, fermentation, germination, extrusion, packaging, and storage can lead to major losses of minerals like Ca, Zn, and Fe (Polaki and Yarla, 2014). As micronutrient fortified water involves no heat treatment and undergoes cold fill processing, there will be no loss of nutrients and mineral in the water. It was reported that along with vitamins and minerals drinking water can act as a good carrier of calcium as well (Shenkin et al., 2003).

1.3.2 Bioavailability-Based Fortification of Drinking Water

The advantageous effects of water on human health due to additionally added vitamins and minerals are particularly helpful for the person suffering from malnutrition and other high-risk populations. The use of this kind of fortified water is being increasingly encouraged by industrial research experts and health professionals from nutrition industry (Jarvenpaa et al., 2007). It has been reported that micronutrients supplied through the drinking water play a significant role in maintaining inner body tissue function and also sustain metabolism of cells (Shenkin et al., 2003). However, some health benefits of fortified mineral water help to improve folate status in biomarker and reduce plasma homocysteine concentrations in the pregnant women resulting in lowering down of the number of birth of underdeveloped baby (Jarvenpaa et al., 2007; Tapola et al., 2014). One of the researchers from Finland has reported that water fortified with vitamins B6, B12, and D as wells as calcium can help to recover from various nutrients deficiencies. Calcium fortified mineral water is generally bioavailable (Liao and Seib, 1988). The drinking of mineral water fortified with bicarbonates and magnesium results in promising changes in the pH of urine, excretion of citrate, inhibition of calcium oxalate stone formation, and balance of excretion of calcium (Tapola et al., 2014). Another approach like encapsulation technique can be applied on lipid-soluble as well as water-soluble vitamins. The basic concept behind the encapsulation of these micro-ingredients is to extend the shelf life to protect them against environmental factors (Sherer et al., 2007). Water-soluble vitamins are hard to encapsulate compared to lipid-soluble vitamins such as vitamins A, D, E, and K. A commonly used technique for encapsulation is spray drying of liquid emulsions (Heribert, 2008). Ascorbic acid oxidation is a free radical-dependent process which results in a series of reactive intermediates (Shenkin et al., 2003). In drinking water, the new way to prevent water-soluble constituents is encapsulation in liposomes. Liposomes consist of single or multilayered different vesicles of phospholipids enclosing aqua-based lipophilic mixes which help to extend the shelf life of externally added nutrient (Schlaudecker et al., 2011).

1.3.3 Dairy-Based Beverages and Their Fortification

Milk is an excellent vehicle for various micro-ingredients which become base for fortification of dairy beverages. Probiotics one of the most complex additionally added ingredients contains live microbes (bacteria and yeast) especially Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium. In fermented dairy products such as liquid yogurt drinks, these probiotics are added in adequate amounts to provide health benefits like boosting immune system, preventing and treating urinary tract infections, improving digestive function, etc. (Gurakan et al., 2010; Bradford and Awad, 2010). The probiotics also helps in recovering major deficiencies like lactose-intolerance symptoms and reduction in antibiotic treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection (Saarela, 2009; Boroski et al., 2012). Dairy industries producing numerous types of drinks and beverages have realized the market potential developed through the positive health benefits of application of probiotic bacteria (Talwalkar and Kailasapathy, 2004; Chen et al., 2010). Table 1.1 demonstrates a list of the commercially available probiotic beverages and nutraceutical drinks. Some examples of the commercially available dairy beverages using probiotics which profoundly help to develop health benefits are: Actimel is a product of France-based company called Danone, they successfully incorporated milk with Lactobacillus casei; another Japanese company Yakult Honsha developed fortified milk beverage namely Yakult which was also fortified with L. casei; a France-based company, Nestle introduced a fortified milk beverages called Shirota, and Chamytor prepared by using Lactobacillus johnsonii and Lactobacillus helveticus, respectively (Talwalkar and Kailasapathy, 2004). On the other hand, Table 1.1 also demonstrates many commercial dairy beverages which are enriched with a variety of bioactive components, such as α-linoleic acid, ω-3 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Recently it was reported that ω-3 acids can be successfully used in the prevention and treatment of epilepsy. Examples of these types of commercially available beverages are: a product called Natrel developed by a Canadian dairy Natrel is fortified with omega-3 fatty acids which is beneficial for heart and brain health; another product developed by Australian company PB Foods is Heart Plus, fortified with specific food proteins (caseins) that hold the potential to actas a precursor for biologically active peptide molecules with numerous physiological effects. These composites can effectively inhibit the activity of enzyme angiotensin which plays a major role in converting angiotensin-I to angiotensin-II and help in degrading bradykinin (a peptide that causes blood vessels to dilate), resulting in increased blood pressure, while the inhibition of angiotensin helps in reducing the pressure (Ozer and Kirmaci, 2010; Granato et al., 2010). A commercial example of marketed beverage fortified with bioactive peptides is a product from Valio Ltd. (Finland) called Evolus, its valuable effect is particularly due to the bioactive peptides which is synthetized by using Lactobacillus helveticus and its application on milk protein such as casein (Prado et al., 2008; Granato et al., 2010). Specific plant sterols such as phytostanols and phytosterols are the group of steroids with promising health potential. As per the recent emerging evidence, consumption of the phytosterols holds potential in preventing the risk of cancers of lung, stomach, ovaries, and breasts. Plant stanols, when consumed through any dairy-based drinks like coffee, tea, will effectively reduce the absorption of sterols from digestive tract which directly results in the reduction of serum cholesterol levels (Woyengo et al., 2009; Grattan, 2013; Ozer and Kirmaci, 2010). Tall oil, a by-product of wood pulp industry or vegetable oil processing units, is the main source of plant stanols which can be used in the fortification of dairy-based drinks such as nutrient supplements which deal with the issues like moderate hypercholesterolemia (Alemany-Costa, 2012); Benecol, another product produced by Raisio Benecol Ltd. (Finland), is the leading trademark in dairy drink containing plant stanol; conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been confirmed to have anti-oxidative and anticancer effects, a Spanish company Corporacion Alimentaria Penanata produces a dairy drink called Natural Linea, fortified with CLA product; one of the naturally occurring hormones namely, melatonin that found in animals and algae. It controls the body’s day-and-night rhythm with special effect toward sleeplessness (Ozer and Kirmachi, 2010; Gurakan et al., 2010). Melatonin is extracted and added to a commercial product called Night-Time Milk developed by Cricketer Farm (UK) to help overcome sleeping disorders. Apart from the above-mentioned food additive and special ingredients, a range of vitamins, minerals and nutraceuticals is also added to dairy beverages to compensate for vitamin and mineral losses during processing. Dairyland’s commercial product called Milk-2-Go, produced by Saputo, Canada is an example of a dairy beverage with externally added vitamins. Also, for the essential role in the human organism various minerals like calcium, magnesium, and iron are commonly added to fortify dairy beverages. Some examples of specially added mineral products are Meiji Love from Meiji Milk, Japan and Zen from Danone, Belgium (Soccol et al., 2012).

Table 1.1

1.3.4 Vegetable-, Fruit-, and Cereal-Based Beverages and Their Fortification

Milk is a complete food containing a number of essential nutrients. However, certain researcher have shown that high dosage of estrogen, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and pesticides becomes probable harmful link between dairy products and cancers have attracted much attention of researchers (Davoodi et al., 2013; Soccol et al., 2012). Moreover, lactose intolerance and cholesterol content are the major drawbacks associated with dairy products, up to 70% of the world population has lactose intolerance (Zannini et al., 2013; Prado et al., 2008). Considering all these drawbacks of dairy drinks, new products have been launched, principally in beverages based on fruits, vegetables, soybeans, and cereals. Table 1.2 describes some examples of these types of products. Fruit juices can become an

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