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Microbial Wastewater Treatment

Microbial Wastewater Treatment

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Microbial Wastewater Treatment

Lunghezza:
611 pagine
7 ore
Pubblicato:
Jun 12, 2019
ISBN:
9780128168103
Formato:
Libro

Descrizione

Microbial Wastewater Treatment focuses on the exploitation of microorganisms as decontaminating tools to treat polluted wastewater, a worldwide concern. Microorganism-based processes are seen as promising technologies to treat the ever-increasing problem of polluted wastewater. The book covers recently developed process technologies to solve five major trends in the field of wastewater treatment, including nutrient removal and recovery, trace organic compounds, energy saving and production, sustainability and community involvement.

  • Illustrates the importance of microorganisms in wastewater treatment
  • Points out the reuse of the treated wastewater
  • Highlights the recovery of resources from wastewater
  • Pays attention to the occurrence of novel micro-pollutants
  • Introduces new trends in wastewater technology
Pubblicato:
Jun 12, 2019
ISBN:
9780128168103
Formato:
Libro

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Microbial Wastewater Treatment - Elsevier Science

Microbial Wastewater Treatment

Edited by

Maulin P. Shah

Chief Scientist & Head, Industrial Waste Water Research Lab, Division of Applied & Environmental Microbiology, Enviro Technology Limited, Ankleshwar, Gujarat, India

Susana Rodriguez-Couto

Ikerbasque Research Professor, Ikerbasque, Basque Foundation for Science, Bilbao, Spain

Table of Contents

Cover image

Title page

Copyright

Contributors

Preface

Chapter 1. Effects of Microbiological and Non-Microbiological Treatments of Sewage Sludge on Antibiotics as Emerging Pollutants Present in Wastewater: A Review

1. Introduction

2. Antibiotic Concentrations in Sewage Sludge and Soils Where Sewage Sludge Was Spread

3. Efficacy of Different Treatments to Remove Antibiotics From Sewage Sludge

4. Future Research Needs in This Field

Chapter 2. Modeling Microbial Activity in Wastewater Treatment

1. Introduction

2. Mathematical Modeling of Anaerobic Treatment Systems

3. Anaerobic Wastewater Treatment Model Applications

4. Future Trends, Recommendations, and Conclusion

Chapter 3. Electroactive Filter Technology for Water Treatment

1. Introduction

2. Electroactive Filter Based on Anodic Oxidation

3. Electroactive Filter Based on Cathodic Reduction

4. Challenges and Future Perspectives

Chapter 4. Aerobic Granulation in Wastewater Treatment: A General Overview

1. Introduction: Aerobic Granules

2. Physiochemical Properties and Granule Formation

3. Microbial Community

4. Types of Bioreactors

5. Operational Parameters

6. Role of Aerobic Granules in Wastewater Treatment

7. Application of Aerobic Granulation Technology

8. Summary

Chapter 5. Microbes: A Key Player in Industrial Wastewater Treatment

1. Introduction

2. Microbial Diversity in Wastewater Treatment

3. Techniques in Wastewater Treatment

4. Role of Microbes in Treating Waste in Different Industries

5. Conclusions

Chapter 6. Bioremediation of Azo Dye

1. Introduction

2. Conclusion

Chapter 7. Potential of Fungal Laccase in Decolorization of Synthetic Dyes

1. Laccase Production Studies

2. Decolorization of Synthetic Dyes by Laccase

3. Concluding Remarks

Chapter 8. Oleaginous Microorganisms for Simultaneous Biodiesel Production and Wastewater Treatment: A Review

1. Introduction

2. Lipid-Accumulating Microorganisms

3. Nutrient-Rich Byproducts and Wastewaters for Microbial Lipid Production

4. Oleaginous Microorganisms Used for Simultaneous Lipid Production and Wastewater Treatment

5. Biodiesel Predicted Properties Based on the Fatty Acid Composition of Microbial Lipids

6. Industrial Application of Oleaginous Microorganisms: Issues and Outlooks

7. Conclusion

Chapter 9. Microbial Fuel Cell: A Boon in Bioremediation of Wastes

1. Introduction

2. Application of MFC for Treatment of Various Organic and Inorganic Wastes

3. Limitations, Future Prospects, and Conclusion

Abbreviations

Chapter 10. Cyanobacteria/Microalgae for Distillery Wastewater Treatment- Past, Present and the Future

1. Introduction

2. Current Practices of Distillery Wastewater Treatment

3. DWW Treatment by Algae

4. Phycoremediation of Distillery Wastewater

5. Research Challenges and Future Research Goals in DWW Treatment by Algae

6. Conclusions

Chapter 11. Perspectives, Scope, Advancements, and Challenges of Microbial Technologies Treating Textile Industry Effluents

1. Introduction

2. Legislative Acts and Regulations on Water Pollution in India

3. Intellectual Property Rights (IPR), Transfer of Technology From Lab to On-Sites

4. Textile Effluent Treatment Technologies and Approaches

5. Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Treatment Process

6. Integrated Biotechnological Interventions for Wastewater Treatment

7. Cell Factories and Whole Cell Biocatalysts (WCBs)

8. Microbial Fuel Cell Technology

9. Biomembrane Filtration and Nanotechnology Applications

10. Functional Metagenomics and Gene-Editing Technologies

11. Challenges of Microbial Technologies

12. Conclusion

Abbreviations

Index

Copyright

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Notices

Knowledge and best practice in this field are constantly changing. As new research and experience broaden our understanding, changes in research methods, professional practices, or medical treatment may become necessary.

Practitioners and researchers must always rely on their own experience and knowledge in evaluating and using any information, methods, compounds, or experiments described herein. In using such information or methods they should be mindful of their own safety and the safety of others, including parties for whom they have a professional responsibility.

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Contributors

Komal Agrawal,     Bioprocess and Bioenergy Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Central University of Rajasthan, Kishangarh, Ajmer Rajasthan, India

Esperanza Álvarez-Rodríguez,     Department Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Engineering Polytechnic School, University of Santiago de Compostela, Lugo, Spain

Manuel Arias-Estévez,     Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Vigo, Ourense, Spain

Fatma Arous,     Laboratory of Microorganisms and Active Biomolecules, Faculty of Sciences of Tunis, Institut Supérieur des Sciences Biologiques Appliquées de Tunis, University of Tunis El Manar, Tunis, Tunisia

Kiran Bala,     Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India

Shivarudrappa B. Bhairappanavar,     Gujarat Biotechnology Research Centre (GBRC), Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of Gujarat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India

Nisha Bhardwaj,     Bioprocess and Bioenergy Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Central University of Rajasthan, Kishangarh, Ajmer Rajasthan, India

Aditi Bhatnagar,     Biomolecular Engg Laboratory, School of Biochemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (BHU), Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India

Venkatesh Chaturvedi,     SMW College, MG Kashi Vidyapeeth, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India

Manuel Conde-Cid,     Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Vigo, Ourense, Spain

Jayashankar Das,     Gujarat Biotechnology Research Centre (GBRC), Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of Gujarat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India

María J. Fernández-Sanjurjo,     Department Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Engineering Polytechnic School, University of Santiago de Compostela, Lugo, Spain

Atef Jaouani,     Laboratory of Microorganisms and Active Biomolecules, Faculty of Sciences of Tunis, Institut Supérieur des Sciences Biologiques Appliquées de Tunis, University of Tunis El Manar, Tunis, Tunisia

Inigo Johnson,     Environmental and Water Resource Engineering Division, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Madras, Chennai, India

Madhavi Joshi,     Department of Bio Sciences, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India

Dinesh Kumar,     Gujarat Biotechnology Research Centre (GBRC), Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of Gujarat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India

Sudhir Kumar,     Biomolecular Engg Laboratory, School of Biochemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (BHU), Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India

Bikash Kumar,     Bioprocess and Bioenergy Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Central University of Rajasthan, Kishangarh, Ajmer Rajasthan, India

Mathava Kumar,     Environmental and Water Resource Engineering Division, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Madras, Chennai, India

Fang Li

Textile Pollution Controlling Engineering Center of Ministry of Environmental Protection, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai, China

Shanghai Institute of Pollution Control and Ecological Security, Shanghai, China

Yanbiao Liu

Textile Pollution Controlling Engineering Center of Ministry of Environmental Protection, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai, China

Shanghai Institute of Pollution Control and Ecological Security, Shanghai, China

Jianshe Liu

Textile Pollution Controlling Engineering Center of Ministry of Environmental Protection, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai, China

Shanghai Institute of Pollution Control and Ecological Security, Shanghai, China

Tahar Mechichi,     Laboratoire de Biochimie et Genie enzymatique des lipases, University of Sfax, Sfax, Tunisia

Abha Mishra,     Biomolecular Engg Laboratory, School of Biochemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (BHU), Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India

Juan Carlos Nóvoa-Muñoz,     Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Vigo, Ourense, Spain

Avelino Núñez-Delgado,     Department Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Engineering Polytechnic School, University of Santiago de Compostela, Lugo, Spain

Prabhakar D. Pandit,     Gujarat Biotechnology Research Centre (GBRC), Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of Gujarat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India

Zarna Patel,     Gujarat Biotechnology Research Centre (GBRC), Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of Gujarat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India

Yudani Pousada-Ferradás,     Department Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Engineering Polytechnic School, University of Santiago de Compostela, Lugo, Spain

Nisha Rani,     Department of Bio Sciences, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India

Anand Sagar,     Department of Bio Sciences, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India

Wolfgang Sand

Textile Pollution Controlling Engineering Center of Ministry of Environmental Protection, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai, China

Institute of Biosciences, Freiberg University of Mining and Technology, Freiberg Germany

Pritam Sangwan,     Centre for Fire, Explosive and Environment Safety, Defence Research & Development Organization, New Delhi, India

Saurabh Jyoti Sarma,     Department of Biotechnology, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Bennett University, Greater Noida, India

S.S. Şengör,     Southern Methodist University, Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Dallas, TX, United States

Maulin P. Shah,     Industrial Waste Water Research Lab, Division of Applied & Environmental Microbiology, Ankleshwar, India

Sumit Sharma,     Department of Biotechnology, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Bennett University, Greater Noida, India

Chensi Shen

Textile Pollution Controlling Engineering Center of Ministry of Environmental Protection, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai, China

Shanghai Institute of Pollution Control and Ecological Security, Shanghai, China

Mohamed Abubakar Sithik Ali,     Environmental and Water Resource Engineering Division, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Madras, Chennai, India

Joo-Hwa Tay,     Department of Civil Engineering, Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada

Pradeep Verma,     Bioprocess and Bioenergy Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Central University of Rajasthan, Kishangarh, Ajmer Rajasthan, India

Shengnan Yang,     Textile Pollution Controlling Engineering Center of Ministry of Environmental Protection, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai, China

Preface

The study of wastewater microbiology is progressing rapidly, thanks to improved methodologies that are underpinned by new molecular techniques. This helps environmental microbiologists, molecular biologists, and environmental engineers to get more information about what is inside the black box of wastewater.

Wastewater treatment has been an important issue for several decades, not only for industrial plants but also for society in general. The subject will continue to be significant because the issue of wastewater treatment can have a positive impact on industrial and social levels, especially in developing countries. Only one-fifth of the world's wastewater is currently in good use. This book will make an important contribution toward achieving this ambitious goal. There is no exaggerated claim that the future of the chemical industry is closely related to the efficiency with which industrial wastewater is treated. This great need, therefore, requires coordinated efforts, in particular through the dissemination of knowledge on basic and practical wastewater treatment practices.

This book tries to do so by providing information on existing methods and technologies, the graduation of existing technologies, the emergence of new technologies, and the areas of focus on new developments. It also highlights the opportunities in existing technologies, together with industrial practice and real-case studies. It is intended to provide an adequate mix of academic research and industrial information necessary to translate ideas into practice. The book deals with the development of wastewater treatment methodologies for effective separation through new adsorbents/newcomers, ion exchange process, coagulation/formulations, separations, and biological methods. Emphasis is placed on industrial applications and the elimination of toxic pollutants from wastewater through wastewater treatment. Advanced computing tools and modeling methodologies have great potential to optimize the treatment of industrial wastewater. More recently, wastewater has also been considered as a renewable source to produce various useful energy products. A sustainable hybrid wastewater treatment methodology, capable of eliminating multiple contaminants and refractories along with generations of renewable energy, has immense potential in future industrial operations. This book tries to focus on these and other aspects to perform processes and environmentally benign and competitive technologies worldwide.

The principle user of this book is a chemical, biochemical, and environmental engineer who works in chemical and industrial research and development laboratories as well as chemists/chemical engineers who work in the field of wastewater treatment. The material contained in this book can be used in various ways and at different stages of designing sewage treatment plants, as well as in basic research of various sewage treatment technologies. It can also be used as a basic source of wastewater treatment methodologies. Its content can also be useful as study material for internal courses, operation, and optimization of wastewater treatment plants. This book tries to overcome this issue because it wants to improve dialogue and collaboration between scientists and professionals. Researchers are encouraged to address practical problems with scientific methods, while professionals are encouraged to understand the scientific basis of all processes related to optimization of the treatment plant. Although the conventional operation of sewage treatment plants has been supported by wastewater quality and cost minimization, this book fully encompasses a shift in the paradigm toward the recovery of materials and energy from wastewater. In this respect, the book is also very important for developed countries, as the new paradigm will strongly influence the future development of wastewater management worldwide.

Maulin P. Shah-India

Susana Rodriguez Couto-Spain

Chapter 1

Effects of Microbiological and Non-Microbiological Treatments of Sewage Sludge on Antibiotics as Emerging Pollutants Present in Wastewater

A Review

Avelino Núñez-Delgado ¹ , Yudani Pousada-Ferradás ¹ , Esperanza Álvarez-Rodríguez ¹ , María J. Fernández-Sanjurjo ¹ , Manuel Conde-Cid ² , Juan Carlos Nóvoa-Muñoz ² , and Manuel Arias-Estévez ²       ¹ Department Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Engineering Polytechnic School, University of Santiago de Compostela, Lugo, Spain      ² Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Vigo, Ourense, Spain

Abstract

Antibiotics reaching water and wastewater are insufficiently removed and/or inactivated in treatment plants, causing a substantial fraction to be directly released to the environment contained in the effluent waters. A part of these is retained in the sludge, which accumulates these compounds. Bearing in mind that a very high percentage of the sludge generated in the treatment plants is applied as fertilizer in agricultural soils, both the evolution of the levels of antibiotics in the sludge and the effectiveness of the possible treatments to eliminate these contaminants are of enormous importance. In this chapter we review publications which included data on the occurrence and specific concentrations of antibiotics in sewage sludge and soils where sludge was spread. Likewise, we review publications showing results on effectiveness in antibiotics removal achieved by means of different treatments applied to sewage sludge. Finally, we comment on future research needs in this field.

Keywords

Antibiotics; Microbiological treatments; Removal efficacy; Sewage sludge

1. Introduction

Antibiotics that are discharged into water and other environmental areas are included within the so-called emerging pollutants. Overall, these pollutants are generating growing concern and acquiring great prominence, even reaching some public administrations (Official Journal of the European Union, 2013, 2015). For this reason, it is clear that more research should be carried out in this field.

In this way, Geissen et al. (2015) warn that, given the potential impact of emerging pollutants on aquatic life and human health, as well as the lack of knowledge about their behavior in the environment (terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems), and the shortcomings that currently affect analytical techniques and sampling procedures dealing with these substances, it is necessary to act urgently at multiple levels. It should be taken into account that water treatment plants currently in operation have not been designed to retain and inactivate antibiotics or many other emerging pollutants, so that a significant proportion will leave the plants, while other fractions may accumulate in the residual sludge.

Petrović et al. (2003) remarked that pharmaceutical products are of special concern among emerging pollutants, but its elimination during the treatment of wastewater and drinking water is not satisfactory, so more research is needed to evaluate the fate of such pollutants and its effects on the environment. Fifteen years after that study, the situation has not improved in a substantial manner. In fact, Homem and Santos (2011) even indicate that, for some treatments, the eco-toxicity of the treated effluents remains practically unchanged, or it can be even worse, with metabolites that are more toxic than the parent compounds. Similarly, Michael et al. (2013) commented that urban wastewater treatment plants are one of the main sources of antibiotics released to the environment, whereas Rivera-Utrilla et al. (2013) found that conventional treatment systems are not able to completely remove many pharmaceuticals present in urban wastewaters, causing that centralized municipal wastewater treatment plants act as relevant point sources of micropollutants in the environment. In a similar way, Ahmed et al. (2015) indicate that current wastewater treatment technology cannot sufficiently remove antibiotics, and they suggest that low-cost technologies are needed, while Wang and Wang (2016) comment that these pollutants are becoming ubiquitous in the environments because they cannot be effectively removed by conventional wastewater treatment plants. Yang et al. (2017) concluded that conventional treatment plants are insufficient for pharmaceuticals removal, and also the excreted metabolites may become secondary pollutants which could be further modified in receiving water-bodies. Finally, Gogoi et al. (2018) found that, despite the advances in treatment technologies, existing treatment plants are not effective to remove these emerging pollutants.

Certainly, most publications on emerging pollutants (including antibiotics) are predominantly focused on water. However, it is necessary to take into account its accumulation in sewage sludge, which is the main objective of revision in this chapter. In this regard, Díaz-Cruz et al. (2009) pointed out that pharmaceutical products and other emerging contaminants of particular concern enter the sewage network and, due to their physicochemical properties, tend to accumulate in sludge during plant treatment, giving that the common practice of spreading sludge on agricultural soils can constitute a very relevant source of contribution of dangerous xenobiotics. In this way, a part of these pollutants or their metabolites can persist in the soil, another part can reach surface or groundwater bodies, or suffer plant uptake, even entering the food chain. Díaz-Cruz et al. (2009) also indicate that the behavior of emerging pollutants in sewage sludge requires more research.

It should be noted that studies about the persistence and impact of antibiotics on soil microorganisms are of special relevance, since these natural, semisynthetic, and synthetic compounds can kill or inhibit growth of bacteria, which is one of the main decompose groups of soil organic matter and, hence, of soil functioning (Brandt et al., 2015; Larsson et al., 2018). However, research concerning this topic is very scarce, probably due to the lack of an appropriate methodology to detect the direct inhibitory or toxic effect of one specific antibiotic on soil bacteria growth. In the last decade, investigations made by several authors have shown that the pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) of soil bacteria to antibiotics (for example tolerance measurements by means of the incorporation of labeled substrates to the microbial components, such as ³H-thymidine incorporation in DNA, or ³H-Leucine incorporation to proteins) can be very usefully to detect the toxicity of antibiotics on soil bacteria (Demoling and Bååth, 2008; Demoling et al., 2009; Rousk et al., 2008). These techniques have been shown to be a rapid, simple, and sensitive technology for determining both the metal and the antibiotic tolerance of soil bacterial communities extracted from soil using homogenization-centrifugation (Díaz-Raviña and Bååth, 1996; Demoling and Bååth, 2008). Despite its interest, investigations on this topic are not frequent, and they are focused on the presence or absence of antibiotics in different soil types, their retention in these soils and, finally, on the potential of diverse materials added to these soils for their decontamination. The results obtained with these microbiological techniques (PICT) are very promising, since they allow to detect the toxic effect of the antibiotics as well as the co-tolerance with other pollutants present in sewage sludge, such as heavy metals (Fernández-Calviño and Bååth, 2013), and even differentiate bacteriostatic and bactericidal antibiotics (Demoling et al., 2009). Thus, it is expected that future research on this topic could allow a more deeply understanding of the role that the presence of antibiotics can have in soil, their dynamics and their impacts on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, as well as to explore the mechanisms and drivers involved, quantify risks and identify suitable interventions to diminish their negative impact on the environment (Larsson et al., 2018). Likewise, the use of microbial communities toxicity test, such as the tolerance measurements by means of the ³H-Leucine method, pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT), can also be of great interest to perform risk assessments due to the presence of antibiotics in soils (Brandt et al., 2015).

In this review, we include data on the occurrence and concentrations of antibiotics in sewage sludge, as well as in soils where sludge was applied. We also review publications dealing with effectiveness in antibiotics removal treatments applied to sewage sludge. Finally, we include suggestions regarding future research needs in this field.

2. Antibiotic Concentrations in Sewage Sludge and Soils Where Sewage Sludge Was Spread

2.1. Antibiotic Concentrations in Sewage Sludge

Table 1.1 shows data corresponding to concentrations of different antibiotics detected in sewage sludge from different countries, covering a range of years from 2003 to 2018.

Table 1.1

a  Data from raw, digested and dewatered sludge.

b  Values estimated for treated sludge from a graph included in the referred paper.

c  Raw sludge/Bio-slurry reactor with the fungus Trametes versicolor.

d  From domestic wastewater.

In addition to that shown in Table 1.1, García-Galán et al. (2013) also determined Sulfadoxine, Sulfacetamide, N⁴-acetylsulfamethazine, N⁴-acetylsulfadiazine, N⁴-acetylsulfamethoxazole, N⁴-acetylsulfapyridine and N⁴-acetylsulfamerazine in sludge samples, detecting just N⁴-acetylsulfadiazine (0.08175   mg/kg), N⁴-acetylsulfamethoxazole (0.00981   mg/kg), and N⁴-acetylsulfapyridine (0.00176   mg/kg).

2.2. Antibiotic Concentrations in Soils Where Sewage Sludge Was Spread

Table 1.2 shows data referring to concentrations of various antibiotics in soils amended with sewage sludge.

Furthermore, García-Galán et al. (2013) also determined Sulfameracine, Sulfadoxine, Sulfacetamide, Sulfamethizole, N⁴-acetylsulfamethazine, N⁴-acetylsulfadiazine, N⁴-acetylsulfamethoxazole, N⁴-acetylsulfapyridine, and N⁴-acetylsulfamerazine in soils, detecting just N⁴-acetylsulfamethoxazole (1.38   ng/g), and N⁴-acetylsulfapyridine (0.77   ng/g).

Table 1.2

3. Efficacy of Different Treatments to Remove Antibiotics From Sewage Sludge

Table 1.3A shows quantitative data corresponding to percentage removal for different antibiotics present in sewage sludge, due to various treatments.

Table 1.3B shows information derived from data published by Martín et al. (2015), who studied the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in sewage sludge subjected to various kinds of treatments.

Table 1.3A

a  Bioslurry/solid-phase treatment, both with the fungus Trametes versicolor.

b  Biopiles with the fungus Trametes versicolor.

Table 1.3B

AeD, aerobically digested dehydrated sludge; AnD, anaerobically digested dehydrated sludge; Cip, ciprofloxacin; D.M., dry matter; Nor, norfloxacin; Ofl, ofloxacin; Sul, sulfamethoxazole; Tri, trimethoprim.

Percentage removals for treatments included in Table 1.3B were calculated for this chapter by comparing to concentrations found in secondary sludge (the most contaminated among those studied by Martín et al., 2015). These authors reported that, following to secondary sludge, the most contaminated was primary sludge, then mixed sludge, aerobically digested sludge, lagoon sludge, composted sludge, and anaerobically digested sludge, indicating a higher degradation of antibiotics under anaerobic conditions. In fact, the studied antibiotics were not detected in anaerobically digested and dehydrated sludge, suggesting that degradation took place during the sludge stabilization process. Also relevant, all antibiotics (except ofloxacin) were detected in composted sludge at similar or significantly higher concentration than in anaerobically digested sludge, which Martín et al. (2015) interpreted as an effect of the loss of weight of sludge by degradation of the organic matter during composting.

In addition to that shown in Tables 1.3A and B, other papers have presented interesting complementary information. In this regard, Xia et al. (2005) made one of the first reviews on the potential fate of pharmaceuticals and other emerging pollutants in biosolids and biosolids-applied soils, and on composting as a potential treatment for their removal. These authors commented that at the year of publication (2005), no information was available on how closely the concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the environmental media were related to the land application of biosolids, but they considered that there were some promising results related to composting, although no quantitative data was shown for antibiotics.

Wu et al. (2009) studied how sorption and degradation affected to ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, doxycycline, sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole, and clindamycin in an aerobically digested biosolid. A decrease in antibiotics was found just in nonsterile biosolids, showing that biodegradation was a primary elimination mechanism. These authors indicate that the stable phase found for some of the antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, and clindamycin) after a preliminary degradation can be attributed to nonreversible sorption, bearing in mind that sorbed compounds are less bioavailable, and considering that the nondegradable residuals are nondesorbable portions of sorbed antibiotics. Finally, these authors highlight that most studied antibiotics can be introduced into the environment following biosolids application on soils, even after suffering storage periods.

Jelic et al. (2011) calculated total removal capacity for different emerging pollutants (including antibiotics) in various wastewater treatment plants, taking into account concentrations in influents, effluents, and sludge. These authors indicate that no significant removal was found for the antibiotics trimethoprim and metronidazole (overall removal was <30%). For the macrolide clarithromycin (as for some other emerging pollutants), removal was even negative, with release from the treatment plant taking place when compared to concentrations in the influent waters. The authors also reported that antibiotics accounted for 16%–21% of the whole emerging pollutants detected in the studied sludge samples.

Martín et al. (2012a) performed an environmental risk assessment of pharmaceutical compounds present in sludge, showing potential risks in the case of the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole and some other emerging pollutants in digested sludge and compost, due to their high concentrations or toxicity. However, these authors consider that usual dosage of sludge applied to soils would drastically reduce concentrations, at the point of allowing disappearance of ecotoxicological risk in the case of compost. Furthermore, these authors did not find trimethoprim in the studied sludge samples. In another study, Martín et al. (2012b) did not find sulfamethoxazole or trimethoprim in primary, secondary, or digested sludge.

Li et al. (2013) studied the occurrence of 8 quinolones, 9 sulfonamides, and 5 macrolides in sewage sludge from 45 treatment plants in China, finding that quinolones were dominant (accounted in average for 98.8% of the total antibiotics, and showed total concentrations up to 8.905   mg/kg, dry weight), followed by macrolides (up to 0.0851   mg/kg), and sulfonamides (up to 0.0227   mg/kg). These authors also studied how wastewater treatment techniques affected to antibiotics concentrations in sludge, finding that the average total concentrations of antibiotics in the sludge samples were in the order: oxidation ditch (15.089   mg/kg)   >   sequencing batch reactor (11.217   mg/kg)   >   anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (7.453   mg/kg)   >   anoxic/oxic (4.510   mg/kg) for activated sludge processes. It must be taken into account that quinolones removal during wastewater treatment is most probably due to sorption on sludge rather than to degradation. Any case, these authors did not make research on treatments specifically applied to sludge.

Focusing on antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes, Pruden et al. (2013) indicate that some studies suggest that antibiotic-resistant bacteria present in sludge suffer quick attenuation after spreading on soil, although other research using culture-independent techniques gave different results. These authors also comment on four-month duration studies showing high levels of tetracycline and sulfonamide antibiotic-resistant-genes in biosolids-amended soils, as well as on studies showing that the mass   ×   concentration rate of tetracycline and sulfonamide antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes produced in biosolids was around 1000 times higher than in wastewater effluent. The authors also reported on studies from East Asia, North America, and Europe, where 17 antibiotics

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