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# Brief Solutions to the Big Problems

## Descrizione

From the beginning of physics, there have been those who imagined they would be the last generation to face the unknown. In 1900, the British physicist Lord Kelvin is said to have pronounced: "There is nothing new to be discovered in physics now. All that remains is more and more precise measurement." The problems that physicists must solve today are, to a large extent, questions that remain unanswered because of the incompleteness of the 20th century's scientific revolution. It is believed that, if a large number of people have worked on a problem for many years and the solution remains unknown, it may mean that the answer is not easy or obvious or this may be a question that has no answer. To differ from others, who get tired while thinking, Balungi locks himself up, in his room alone, in quite and solves some of the fundamental problems in physics. Balungi not only provides a brilliant layman’s overview of current research as he attempts to build a ‘theory of everything’, but also questions many of the assumptions that lie behind physical theories in an attempt to provide new approaches and solutions to the current unsolved problems in physics. In doing so, he describes some of the daring, outlandish ideas that will propel research in years to come. Some of the problems that Balungi solves include;

1.The problem of quantum gravity. In which he solves the information paradox problem and also resolve the singularities that plague the General relativity theory

2.The Irreducible Anomaly in the Observations of the Deflection of Light by the Sun

3. Is there a Classical Formula of the Force of the Cosmological constant?

4. Is There a Limit To How Small Black Holes Can Become?

5. What is the Origin of Mass?

6. How can we derive the Bekenstein-Hawking Area-Entropy Law from first Principles?

7. Can we Quantize Gravity?

8. The Wave Particle Duality

9. What is Semi-Classical Gravity?

10.The Extra Dimension Problem

11. The Theory of Everything

12. How can the Laws of Physics be derived from one Underlying Principle?

13.Is Gravity and the Laws of Physics Emergent?

14. The Galaxy Rotation Problem

15. The Cosmological Constant Problem

A percentage of all royalties will go to charity.

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## Anteprima del libro

### Brief Solutions to the Big Problems - Balungi Francis

**INDEX **

*Dedication *

*Dedication*

*To my wife W. Ritah for his constant feedback throughout and many long hours of editing, *

*To my sons Odhran and Leander, *

*To Carlo Rovelli, Neil deGrasse Tyson and Sabine Hossenfielder, I say thank you. *

*Preface *

*Preface*

In 1900, the British physicist Lord Kelvin declared There is nothing new to discover in physics. All that remains is to more accurately measure its quantities

today, hardly anyone would dare say that our knowledge of the universe and everything in it is almost complete.

There are still some deficiencies in the standard model of physics, such as the origin of mass, the strong CP problem, neutrino oscillatiobs, matter-antimatter asymmetry and the nature of dark matter and dark energy. Another problem lies within the mathematical framework of the standard model itself.

Some of the major problems in physics are theoretical, meaning that existing theories seem incapable of explaining a certain observed phenomena or experimental result. The others are experimental meaning that there is difficulty in creating an experiment to test a proposed theory.

In what follows, there is given a discussion of what are arguably the most unsolved problems in physics, astrophysics and cosmology. And this book sets to solve them living none untouched. The form of the discussion is not negative: formulating a problem succinctly is essential to a solution. Perhaps the most remarkable aspect of what follows is that many of the problems are interrelated, so the solution of one or a few opens the prospect of widespread advancement.

An excerpt from Lee Smolin’s book the trouble with physics

explains in detail what this book is all about as given below in Lee’s original words.

To be fair we’ve made two experimental discoveries in the past few decades, that neutrinos have mass and that the universe is dominated by a mysterious dark energy that seems to be accelerating its expansion. But we have no idea why neutrinos (or any other particles) have mass or what explains their mass values. As for dark energy, its not explained in terms of any existing theory. Its discovery cannot then be counted as a success, for it suggests that there is some major fact we are all missing. And except for dark energy, no new particle has been discovered, no new force found, no new phenomenon encountered that was not known and understood twenty-five years ago.

Don’t get me wrong. For the past 25years we have certainly been very busy. There has been enormous progress in applying established theories to diverse subjects; the properties of materials, the molecular physics underlying biology, the dynamics of vast clusters of stars. But when it comes to extending our knowledge of the laws of nature we have made no real head way. Many beautiful ideas have been explored, and there have been remarkable particle aaccelerator experiments and cosmological observations, but these have mainly served to confirm exisiting theory. There have been few leaps forward, and none as definitive or important as those of the previous 200years. When something like this happens in sports or business, it’s called hitting the wall.

What are the major unsolved problems in physics? And what can we do to solve them? These are the central questions of my book.

*1. The Problem of Quantum Gravity *

*1. The Problem of Quantum Gravity*

Today we are blessed with two extraordinarily successful theories of physics. The first is the General theory of relativity, which describe the large scale behavior of matter in a curved space time. This theory is the basis for the standard model of big bang cosmology. The discovery of gravitational waves at LIGO observatory in the US (and then Virgo, in it Italy) is only the most recent of this theory’s many triumphs.

The second is quantum mechanics. This theory describes the properties and behavior of matter and radiation at their smallest scales. It is the basis for the standard model of particle physics, which builds up all the visible constituents of the universe out of collections of quarks, electrons and force-carrying particles such as photons. The discovery of the Higgs boson at CERN in Geneva is only the most recent of this theory’s many truiphs.

But, while they are both highly successful, those two structures leave a lot of important questions unanswered. They are also based on two different interpretations of space and time, and are therefore fundamentally incompatible. We have two descriptions but, as far as we know, we’ve only ever had one universe. What we need is a quantum theory of gravity.

The need for the theory of quantum gravity is crucial in understanding nature, from the smallest to the biggest particle ever known in the universe. For example, we can describe the behavior of flowing water with the long- known classical theory of hydrodynamics, but if we advance to smaller and smaller scales and eventually come across individual atoms, it no longer applies. Then we need quantum physics just as a liquid consists of atoms

. Daniel Oriti in this case imagines space to be made up of tiny cells or atoms of space and a new theory of quantum gravity is required to describe them fully.

The demand for consistency between a quantum description of matter and a geometric description of spacetime, as well as the appearance of singularities and the black hole information paradox indicate the need for a full theory of quantum gravity. For example; for a full description of the interior of black holes, and of the very early universe, a theory is required in which gravity and the associated geometry of space-time are described in the language of quantum physics. Despite major efforts, no complete and consistent theory of quantum gravity is currently known, even though a number of promising candidates exist.

For us to solve the problem of quantum gravity (QG) we need to address and understand in detail the situations where the general theory of relativity (GR) fails. That is; General relativity fails to account for dark matter, GR fails to explain details near or beyond space-time singularities. That is, for high or infinite densities where matter is enclosed in a very small volume of space. Abhay Ashtekar says that; when you reach the singularity in general relativity, physics just stops, the equations break down. In this chapter, we shall spend a big deal of our time discussing the resolution of classical singularities that plague General relativity.

The two approaches to formulation of quantum gravity leads to string theory, a theory which is problematic and still debatable. In what follows, we modify the uncertainity principle to create a structure called Loop quantum gravity which in turn provides a solution to the information paradox problem and the resolution of classical singularities which plague the General theory of relativity.

**(a)Quantum geometry **

To reconcile quanum mechanics with general relativity, we develop a quantum geometry in relativistic phase space (Rindler space) in which the maximal (proper) acceleration of a particle is modified to read,

––––––––

Where, c is the constant speed of light, r is the linear dimension of a particle , is the coupling constant and n is a positive number.

This acceleration is based on an assumption, that particles are extended objects, never to be identified with mathematical points in ordinary space. This acceleration is important because it cures strong singularities that plague general relativity. This acceleration is also a straight forward consequence of our modified uncertainty relation given as,

**, **

Where r represents the size of a star, in this case-horizon radius, p is the momentum of a particle approaching or falling into the hole of a star, α is the coupling constant and n is positive.

and finally n=1/2. We get the planck length as the minimum length of space-time as,

**(b) Resolution of black hole singularity and the information paradox problem **

The appearance of singularities in any physical theory is an indication that either something is wrong or we need to reformulate the theory itself. Singularities are like dividing something by zero. One such theory plagued by singularities is the General theory of relativity (GR) and the problems in GR arise from trying to deal with a universe that is zero in size (infinite densities). However, quantum mechanics suggests that there may be no such thing in nature as a point in space-time, implying that space-time is always smeared out, occupying some minimum region. The minimum smeared-out volume of space-time is a profound property in any quantized theory