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Alcoholic Beverages: Volume 7: The Science of Beverages

Alcoholic Beverages: Volume 7: The Science of Beverages

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Alcoholic Beverages: Volume 7: The Science of Beverages

Lunghezza:
1,036 pagine
11 ore
Pubblicato:
Mar 30, 2019
ISBN:
9780128157015
Formato:
Libro

Descrizione

Alcoholic Beverages, Volume Seven in The Science of Beverages series, is a multidisciplinary resource for anyone who needs deeper knowledge on the most recent approaches in beverage development, technology, and engineering, along with their effects on beverage composition, quality, sensory and nutritional features. The book discusses main alcoholic beverages, such as spirits and wines that are thoroughly analyzed in terms of production, sustainability, and future perspectives. It offers examples of the new trends and the most recent technologies and approaches in the industry of alcoholic drinks.

  • Includes a variety of trending ingredients for novel beverage production
  • Provides different approaches for the identification of adulterations and contaminants in alcoholic beverages
  • Includes research examples and applications of different products, such as beer, wine, and spirits
Pubblicato:
Mar 30, 2019
ISBN:
9780128157015
Formato:
Libro

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Alcoholic Beverages - Elsevier Science

Alcoholic Beverages

Volume 7: The Science of Beverages

First Edition

Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu

Alina Maria Holban

Table of Contents

Cover image

Title page

Copyright

Contributors

Series Preface

Preface

1: The Threat to Quality of Alcoholic Beverages by Unrecorded Consumption

Abstract

Acknowledgments

1.1 Introduction

1.2 What Is Unrecorded Alcohol?

1.3 How Much and What Type of Unrecorded Alcohol Is Consumed Worldwide?

1.4 Why Are People Drinking Unrecorded Alcohol?

1.5 What Are the Risks of Drinking Unrecorded Alcohol?

1.6 What Can Be Done About the Problem?

1.7 Conclusions

2: Technology of Vermouth Wines

Abstract

Acknowledgments

2.1 Introduction and Global Importance

2.2 Composition

2.3 Yeasts Used for Base Wine Fermentation

2.4 Fortification

2.5 Botanicals Used in Vermouth

2.6 Pigments and Sugar

2.7 Aging

2.8 Stabilization

2.9 Quality Control

2.10 Sensory Profile and Vermouth Styles

2.11 Conclusions

3: New Trends in Spirit Beverages Production

Abstract

3.1 Organic Spirit Production Technology. Spirits From Malted and Unmalted Grains

3.2 Spirit Beverages With Plant-Derived Aromatic Components

3.3 Accelerated Ageing of Spirit Beverages

3.4 Undesirable Compounds in Spirit Beverages and Ways to Reduce Their Content

3.5 Methods of Improving the Quality of Spirit Beverages (Adsorbents, Freezing, and/or Filtration)

3.6 Conclusion

4: Mescal an Alcoholic Beverage From Agave spp. With Great Commercial Potential

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Conflict of Interest

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Production

4.3 Bioactive Compounds

4.4 Health Benefits

4.5 Changes in Microbial Population During Process

4.6 Product Quality and Regulation

4.7 Potential Applications

4.8 Conclusions

5: Sotol, an Alcoholic Beverage With Rising Importance in the Worldwide Commerce

Abstract

Acknowledgment

Conflict of interest

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Production

5.3 Bioactive Compounds

5.4 Health Effects

5.5 Changes in Microbial Population During Process

5.6 Product Quality and Regulation

5.7 Potential Applications

5.8 Conclusions

6: Medicinal Fungus Ganoderma lucidum as Raw Material for Alcohol Beverage Production

Abstract

Acknowledgments

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Ganoderma lucidum

6.3 Chemical Composition of G. lucidum

6.4 Therapeutic Application of Fungus G. lucidum

6.5 Alcohol Beverages Produced With Medicinal Fungus G. lucidum

6.6 Chemical Content of Alcohol Beverages With Addition of G. lucidum

6.7 Biological Activities of Alcohol Beverages With Fungus G. lucidum

6.8 Sensory Characteristics of Alcohol Beverages With G. lucidum

6.9 Conclusion

7: Application of a Two-Stage System With Pressurized Carbon Dioxide Microbubbles for Inactivating Enzymes and Microorganisms in Unpasteurized Sake and Unfiltered Beer

Abstract

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Two-Stage MBCO2 Equipment and the Procedure

7.3 Heat Treatment

7.4 Inactivation of Yeast in UFB, and hiochi Bacteria and Enzymes in UPS

7.5 Inactivation of S. pastorianus

7.6 Effect on Intracellular pH (pHin) and Cell Membrane of S. pastorianus

7.7 Effect of Ethanol on the Inactivation of S. pastorianus

7.8 Quality Evaluation of the Treated Beer and Sake

7.9 Conclusion

8: Electromagnetic Characterization of Beers: Methodology, Results, Limitations, and Applications

Abstract

8.1 Application

8.2 Electromagnetic Characterization Techniques

8.3 Experimental Work

8.4 Measurement Results

8.5 Analysis

8.6 Conclusion

9: Tapping Into Health: Wine as Functional Beverage

Abstract

Acknowledgments

9.1 Polyphenols in Wine

9.2 Soluble Acids, Flavonols, and Stilbenes: Wine Polyphenols With Biological Activity

9.3 Wine Polyphenol Mechanisms of Action Against Chronic Diseases

9.4 Polyphenol Bioavailability and Delivery

9.5 Synergism of Action of Wine Polyphenol

9.6 Men at Work: Winemaking Technologies to Increase the Polyphenols Content in Wine

9.7 Conclusions

10: The Evolution and the Development Phases of Wine

Abstract

10.1 General Considerations

10.2 Factors Determining the Quality and Quantity of Grapes and Wine

10.3 The Yeasts Involved in the Development Phases of the Wine

10.4 Microbiology of Grape Must

10.5 Molds Produce Several Defects in Wine

10.6 Influence of Environmental Factors on the Metabolism of Wine Yeasts

10.7 Multiplication and Development of Yeasts

10.8 Yeast Strains Used

10.9 Yeas Strains Used for Vinification

10.10 The Metabolic Processes of Yeasts

10.11 Alcoholic Fermentation

10.12 Malolactic Fermentation

10.13 Evolution of Wine

10.14 Wine Maintenance, Conditioning, and Bottling

10.15 Technologies for Stabilization and Clarification of Wine

10.16 Wine Cleansing

10.17 Evolution and Development Phases of Wine

10.18 Conclusions and Recommendations

11: New Trends in Sparkling Wine Production: Yeast Rational Selection

Abstract

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Sparkling Wine Production

11.3 Specialized Yeasts for Sparkling Wine Production

11.4 New Trends in Sparkling Wines Research

11.5 Conclusions

12: Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Lachancea thermotolerans: Joint Use as an Alternative to the Traditional Fermentations by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Oenococcus oeni in Oenology

Abstract

12.1 Introduction: Non-Saccharomyces in Modern Winemaking

12.2 Schizosaccharomyces

12.3 L. thermotolerans

12.4 O. oeni

12.5 Traditional Malolactic Fermentation

12.6 S. pombe and L. thermotolerans Combined Fermentation

12.7 Conclusions

13: Emerging Trends in Fortified Wines: A Scientific Perspective

Abstract

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Sherry

13.3 Port

13.4 Madeira

13.5 Marsala and Other Fortified Wines

13.6 Conclusion

14: Emerging Functional Beverages: Fruit Wines and Transgenic Wines

Abstract

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Total Phenolic in Wines

14.3 Phenolic Profiles of Fruit Wines

14.4 Total Anthocyanin Content

14.5 Antioxidant Activity in Fruit Wines

14.6 Clinical Evidences and in vitro Studies on Wine in the Treatment of Human Diseases

14.7 Transgenic Wines

14.8 Market Potential of Functional Beverages

14.9 Conclusion

Index

Copyright

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Contributors

Giuseppe Arfelli     Faculty of BioScience and Technology for Food, Agriculture and Environment, University of Teramo, Teramo, Italy

Maria Balcerek     Department of Spirit and Yeast Technology, Institute of Fermentation Technology and Microbiology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Lodz University of Technology, Lodz, Poland

M.A. Bañuelos     EnotecUPM, Technical University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain

Ángel Benito     Department of Chemistry and Food Technology, Polytechnic University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain

Santiago Benito     Department of Chemistry and Food Technology, Polytechnic University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain

Monica Butnariu     Banat’s University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine King Michael I of Romania from Timisoara, Timisoara, Romania

Alina Butu     National Institute of Research and Development for Biological Sciences, Bucharest, Romania

Fernando Calderón     Department of Chemistry and Food Technology, Polytechnic University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain

F. Castillo-Reyes     National Research Institute for Agriculture, Livestock and Forest (INIFAP), Saltillo, Mexico

M. Cruz-Requena     School of Chemistry, Autonomous University of Coahuila, Saltillo, Mexico

Alejandro Cuevas     Department Teoría do Sinal e Comunicacións, Universidade de Vigo, Vigo, Spain

Iñigo Cuiñas     Department Teoría do Sinal e Comunicacións, Universidade de Vigo, Vigo, Spain

Tom De Paepe

Department Teoría do Sinal e Comunicacións, Universidade de Vigo, Vigo, Spain

Department of Information Technology, Ghent Universit—IMEC, Ghent, Belgium

Gargi Dey     School of Biotechnology, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar, India

Paola Di Gianvito     Faculty of BioScience and Technology for Food, Agriculture and Environment, University of Teramo, Teramo, Italy

Isabel Expósito     Department Teoría do Sinal e Comunicacións, Universidade de Vigo, Vigo, Spain

A.C. Flores-Gallegos     School of Chemistry, Autonomous University of Coahuila, Saltillo, Mexico

Giovanna Giovinazzo     National Research Council—Institute of Sciences of Food Production (ISPA), Lecce, Italy

Francesco Grieco     National Research Council—Institute of Sciences of Food Production (ISPA), Lecce, Italy

J.N. Gurrola-Reyes     National Polytechnic Institute-CIIDIR, Durango, Mexico

Fumiyuki Kobayashi     Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University, Tokyo, Japan

Thomas Kuballa     Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany

Dirk W. Lachenmeier     Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany

I. Loira     EnotecUPM, Technical University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain

José C. Marques

Faculty of Exact Sciences and Engineering, University of Madeira, Funchal

Institute of Nanostructures, Nanomodelling and Nanofabrication (I3N), University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal

S. Martínez     National Polytechnic Institute-CIIDIR, Durango, Mexico

A. Morata     EnotecUPM, Technical University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain

Ninoslav Nikićević     University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia

Miomir Nikšić     University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia

M. Nuñez-Guerrero     Chemistry-Biochemistry Department, National Technological of Mexico-Durango Technological Institute, Durango, Mexico

Sachiko Odake     Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University, Tokyo, Japan

Alex O. Okaru

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya

Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany

F. Palomero     EnotecUPM, Technical University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain

A. Paredes-Ortíz     Chemistry-Biochemistry Department, National Technological of Mexico-Durango Technological Institute, Durango, Mexico

Adanely Paredes-Ortíz     Chemistry-Biochemistry Department, National Technological of Mexico-Durango Technological Institute, Durango, Mexico

Vanda Pereira

Faculty of Exact Sciences and Engineering, University of Madeira, Funchal

Institute of Nanostructures, Nanomodelling and Nanofabrication (I3N), University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal

Ana C. Pereira

Faculty of Exact Sciences and Engineering, University of Madeira, Funchal

CIEPQPF, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal

Katarzyna Pielech-Przybylska     Department of Spirit and Yeast Technology, Institute of Fermentation Technology and Microbiology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Lodz University of Technology, Lodz, Poland

Jürgen Rehm

Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, Canada

Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany

R. Rodriguez-Herrera     School of Chemistry, Autonomous University of Coahuila, Saltillo, Mexico

Rutiaga-Quiñones     Chemistry-Biochemistry Department, National Technological of Mexico-Durango Technological Institute, Durango, Mexico

Srijita Sireswar     School of Biotechnology, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar, India

Katharina Sommerfeld     Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany

Oscar N. Soto     Chemistry-Biochemistry Department, National Technological of Mexico-Durango Technological Institute, Durango, Mexico

J.A. Suárez-Lepe     EnotecUPM, Technical University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain

Giovanna Suzzi     Faculty of BioScience and Technology for Food, Agriculture and Environment, University of Teramo, Teramo, Italy

Rosanna Tofalo     Faculty of BioScience and Technology for Food, Agriculture and Environment, University of Teramo, Teramo, Italy

Leonardo Sepulveda Torre     School of Chemistry, Autonomous University of Coahuila, Saltillo, Mexico

C. Vaquero     EnotecUPM, Technical University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain

Sonja Veljović

Institute of General and Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade

University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia

Jo Verhaevert     Department of Information Technology, Ghent Universit—IMEC, Ghent, Belgium

Stephan G. Walch     Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany

Series Preface

Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu; Alina Maria Holban

Food and beverage industry accounts among the most developed sectors, being constantly changing. Even though a basic beverage industry could be found in every area of the globe, particular aspects in beverage production, processing, and consumption are identified in some geographic zones. An impressive progress has recently been observed in both traditional and modern beverage industries and these advances are leading beverages to a new era. Along with the cutting-edge technologies, developed to bring innovation and improve beverage industry, some other human-related changes also have a great impact on the development of such products. Emerging diseases with a high prevalence in the present, as well as a completely different lifestyle of the population in recent years have led to particular needs and preferences in terms of food and beverages. Advances in the production and processing of beverages have allowed for the development of personalized products to serve for a better health of overall population or for a particular class of individuals. Also, recent advances in the management of beverages offer the possibility to decrease any side effects associated with such an important industry, such as decreased pollution rates and improved recycling of all materials involved in beverage design and processing, while providing better quality products.

Beverages engineering has emerged in such way that we are now able to obtain specifically designed content beverages, such as nutritive products for children, decreased sugar content juices, energy drinks, and beverages with additionally added health-promoting factors. However, with the immense development of beverage processing technologies and because of their wide versatility, numerous products with questionable quality and unknown health impact have been also produced. Such products, despite their damaging health effect, gained a great success in particular population groups (i.e., children) because of some attractive properties, such as taste, smell, and color.

Nonetheless, engineering offered the possibility to obtain not only the innovative beverages but also packaging materials and contamination sensors useful in food and beverages quality and security sectors. Smart materials able to detect contamination or temperature differences which could impact food quality and even pose a hazardous situation for the consumer were recently developed and some are already utilized in packaging and food preservation.

This 20-volume series has emerged from the need to reveal the current situation in beverage industry and to highlight the progress of the last years, bringing together most recent technological innovations while discussing present and future trends. The series aims to increase awareness of the great variety of new tools developed for traditional and modern beverage products and also to discuss their potential health effects.

All volumes are clearly illustrated and contain chapters contributed by highly reputed authors, working in the field of beverage science, engineering, or biotechnology. Manuscripts are designed to provide necessary basic information in order to understand specific processes and novel technologies presented within the thematic volumes.

Volume 1, entitled Production and management of beverages, offers a recent perspective regarding the production of main types of alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages. Current management approaches in traditional and industrial beverages are also dissected within this volume.

In Volume 2, Processing and sustainability of beverages, novel information regarding the processing technologies and perspectives for a sustainable beverage industry are given.

Third volume, entitled Engineering tools in beverage industry dissects the newest advances made in beverage engineering, highlighting cutting-edge tools and recently developed processes to obtain modern and improved beverages.

Volume 4 presents updated information regarding Bottled and packaged waters. In this volume are discussed some wide interest problems, such as drinking water processing and security, contaminants, pollution and quality control of bottled waters, and advances made to obtain innovative water packaging.

Volume 5, Fermented beverages, deals with the description of traditional and recent technologies utilized in the industry of fermented beverages, highlighting the high impact of such products on consumer health. Because of their great beneficial effects, fermented products still represent an important industrial and research domain.

Volume 6 discusses recent progress in the industry of Nonalcoholic beverages. Teas and functional nonalcoholic beverages, as well as their impact on current beverage industry and traditional medicine are discussed.

In Volume 7, entitled Alcoholic beverages, recent tools and technologies in the manufacturing of alcoholic drinks are presented. Updated information is given about traditional and industrial spirits production and examples of current technologies in wine and beer industry are dissected.

Volume 8 deals with recent progress made in the field of Caffeinated and cocoa-based beverages. This volume presents the great variety of such popular products and offers new information regarding recent technologies, safety, and quality aspects as well as their impact on health. Also, recent data regarding the molecular technologies and genetic aspects in coffee useful for the development of high-quality raw materials could be found here.

In Volume 9, entitled Milk-based beverages, current status, developments, and consumers trends in milk-related products are discussed. Milk-based products represent an important industry and tools are constantly been developed to fit the versatile preferences of consumers and also nutritional and medical needs.

Volume 10, Sports and energy drinks, deals with the recent advances and health impact of sports and energy beverages, which became a flourishing industry in the recent years.

In Volume 11, main novelties in the field of Functional and medicinal beverages, as well as perspective of their use for future personalized medicine are given.

Volume 12 gives an updated overview regarding Nutrients in beverages. Types, production, intake, and health impact of nutrients in various beverage formulations are dissected through this volume.

In Volume 13, advances in the field of Natural beverages are provided, along with their great variety, impact on consumer health, and current and future beverage industry developments.

Volume 14, Value-added Ingredients and enrichments of beverages, talks about a relatively recently developed field which is currently widely investigated, namely the food and beverage enrichments. Novel technologies of extraction and production of enrichments, their variety, as well as their impact on product quality and consumers effects are dissected here.

Volume 15, Preservatives and preservation approaches in beverages, offers a wide perspective regarding conventional and innovative preservation methods in beverages, as well as main preservatives developed in recent years.

In Volume 16, Trends in beverage packaging, the most recent advances in the design of beverage packaging and novel materials designed to promote the content quality and freshness are presented.

Volume 17 is entitled Quality control in beverage industry. In this volume are discussed the newest tools and approaches in quality monitoring and product development in order to obtain advanced beverages.

Volume 18, Safety issues in beverage production, presents general aspects in safety control of beverages. Here, the readers can find not only the updated information regarding contaminants and risk factors in beverage production, but also novel tools for accurate detection and control.

Volume 19, Biotechnological progress and beverage consumption, reveals novel tools used for advanced biotechnology in beverage industry production.

Finally, Volume 20 entitled Nanoengineering in beverage industry take the readers into the nanotechnology world, while highlighting important progress made in the field of nanosized materials science aiming to obtain tools for a future beverage industry.

This 20-volume series is intended especially for researchers in the field of food and beverages, and also biotechnologists, industrial representatives interested in innovation, academic staff and students in food science, engineering, biology, and chemistry-related fields, pharmacology and medicine, and is a useful and updated resource for any reader interested to find the basics and recent innovations in the most investigated fields in beverage engineering.

Preface

Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu, University Politehnica of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania

Alina Maria Holban, Faculty of Biology, University of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania

Alcoholic beverages represent a growing industry, with large number of consumers, production, and commercialization strategies. Spirits, wines, and beers are the most important sectors in alcoholic beverage industry. In this book, we aimed to present recent technologies developed for alcoholic beverages production and processing, emphasizing on spirits, wines, and beers, together with some traditional approaches, which were recently standardized or included in industrial production. The future trends and developments in this popular industry are also dissected here.

This volume contains 14 chapters prepared by outstanding authors from Kenya, Spain, Poland, México, Serbia, Japan, Italy, Romania, Portugal, and India.

The selected manuscripts are clearly illustrated and contain accessible information for a wide audience, especially food and beverage scientists, engineers, biotechnologists, biochemists, industrial companies, students, and also any reader interested in learning about the most interesting and recent advances in the field of beverage science.

In Chapter 1, The threat to quality of alcoholic beverages by unrecorded consumption, Alex Okaru et al., review the epidemiology, chemical composition, health consequences, and also suggest plausible policy interventions to address the challenges posed by unrecorded alcohol consumption, discussing a case study from Kenya. It is estimated that about 25% of the consumed alcohol is not recorded. Since the production, distribution, and consumption of unrecorded alcohol is not under official quality control and regulation, the risk of unrecorded alcohol containing potentially hazardous substances [e.g., methanol, acetaldehyde, aflatoxins, heavy metals, toxic denaturants (e.g., diethyl phthalate) may be higher than that of the recorded alcoholic beverages].

Chapter 2, Technology of vermouth wines, by Morata Antonio et al., presents the technology and processes used in vermouth highlighting the repercussion on the sensory quality. Vermouth is a wine derivative produced from a base wine, usually white, fortified with wine spirit, colored by caramel with residual sugar level frequently about or higher than 100 g/L and aromatized with several dried herbs and extracts to get a typical bitter taste. The effect of traditional herbs and spices on its sensory profile, the effect of base wine on the aromatic complexity and stability, together with the impact of caramel used as a dye in the process, is analyzed within this work.

Chapter 3, New trends in spirit beverages production, by Katarzyna Pielech-Przybylska et al., dissects new trends in the spirits industry, such as the production of organic spirit beverages (from malted and unmalted cereals) and nonstandard spirit beverages (e.g., with plant-derived aromatic components). Manufacture of these spirits should respect the use of high-quality plant raw materials, enzymes, and microorganisms, with limitation of undesirable compounds. Also the new solutions are introduced into ageing technology, for example, an accelerated ageing by using oak wood fragments (charred or toasted) and/or by using physical methods (ultrasonic waves, gamma irradiation, electric field, and nanogold photocatalysis). The high competitiveness and consumer awareness requires more attention from the producers of spirits that should be focused on the quality of spirit beverages, which are currently in the market as well as the newly introduced.

Chapter 4, Mescal: An alcoholic beverage from Agave spp. with great commercial potential, by S. Martínez et al., reviews all the mescal production process and discusses its chemical and physical properties and the microorganisms involved in mescal fermentation. Mescal is a regional alcoholic beverage with denomination of origin; this category has been granted to the beverage produced in three states of the Mexican Republic. However, this beverage is gaining increased interest and has a great commercial potential.

Chapter 5, Sotol, an alcoholic beverage with rising importance in the worldwide commerce, by A.C. Flores-Gallegos et al., addresses the chemical and physical properties of sotol, its elaboration process, and the microbial populations present in the sotol fermentation.

Chapter 6, Medicinal fungus Ganoderma lucidum as raw material for alcohol beverage production, by Sonja Veljović et al., summarizes the data about production processes, physicochemical characteristics, bioactivity, and sensory characteristics of alcohol beverages produced with G. lucidum and also in combination with other plants. Scientific data show that this fungus improves the functional properties of alcoholic beverages, such as antioxidant and antiaging. Moreover, G. lucidum changes the color of alcoholic beverages and accelerates a long period of maturation in wooden casks.

Chapter 7, Application of a two-stage system with pressurized carbon dioxide microbubbles for inactivating enzymes and microorganisms in unpasteurized sake and unfiltered beer, by Fumiyuki Kobayashi et al., describes a newly developed system for the inactivation of enzymes and microorganisms in unpasteurized and unfiltered alcoholic beverages. The authors have devised a two-stage system that was additionally pressurized and heated after carbon dioxide microbubbles (MBCO2) were mixed with liquid food at a low temperature and pressure (two-stage MBCO2), as a novel technique for inactivating enzymes and microorganism in liquid food. Therefore, enzymes and hiochi bacteria in unpasteurized sake (UPS) and yeast in unfiltered beer (UFB) were inactivated by the two-stage MBCO2, and the quality of the sake and beer were evaluated. Enzymes and Hiochi bacteria in UPS and yeast in UFB could be completely inactivated by the two-stage MBCO2. In sensory evaluation, sake and beer treated with two-stage MBCO2 were better than those treated with heat as usual and analyzed the components. These results suggested that two-stage MBCO2 promised as a practical technique for inactivating enzymes and microorganisms in UFB and UPS.

In Chapter 8, Electromagnetic characterization of beers: Methodology, results, limitations and applications, by Tom De Paepe et al., the probe reflection method is described and applied to characterize different kinds of beers, in a variety of conditions of temperature and of times after opening. A precise electromagnetic characterization of liquids can be useful to beverage producers, as its variations can provide information about the quality of the beverages. Finally, a way to take advantage of those gathered data is also proposed: we could transmit a radio wave across tubes of liquids (i.e., beer) within factories (i.e., breweries) and then detect the received signals in the opposite side. This setup would allow detecting changes in quality or production parameters related to modifications in the electromagnetic behavior of the liquid itself.

Chapter 9, Tapping into healthy: Wine as functional beverage, by Giovanna Giovinazzo et al., presents the latest results regarding the effects of specific classes of polyphenol (soluble acids, flavonols, and stilbenes) on human health and propose novel perspectives for research to enhance the quantity of these healthy compounds in wine. The various polyphenol families present in wine are important for a number of technological properties of wine such as clarity, hue, and palatal taste. The dietary polyphenols are correlated with several health benefits, protecting against chronic diseases and promoting healthy aging.

Chapter 10, The evolution and the development phases of wine, by Monica Butnariu et al., describes the organoleptic characteristics and chemical composition of the raw wine distillates that have received multiple uses over the time are described. The bioprocesses occurring throughout the evolution and the development phases of distillates of wine make it to be the least harmful for human health compared with the distillates of different origins. The technology for producing wines require rapid processing of the grapes, avoiding oxidation, and maceration, the total fermentation of sugars at relatively low temperatures, and the temporary preservation of the wines on yeast.

Chapter 11, New trends in sparkling wine production, by Paola Di Gianvito et al., discusses the sparkling wines production steps, which starts from a still wine that undergoes to a secondary fermentation. This step, also known by the French term prise de mousse, occurs after the addition of the liqueur de tirage, a mix of yeasts, sucrose nutrient, and adjuvants. Depending on the used technology, this secondary fermentation can occur inside the same bottle that reaches the consumer (traditional method) or in a pressurized tank (Charmat method). During the sparkling wine production, yeasts are subjected to particular stress conditions and for this reason they have to possess some additional technological features with respect to starters for still wines, such as autolytic ability and flocculation capacity. The growing diffusion of this wine brought researchers to evaluate new biotechnological approaches to improve sparkling wine quality.

Chapter 12, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Lachancea thermotolerans: Joint use as an alternative to the traditional fermentations by Saccharomyces cerevisae and Oenococus oeni in oenology, by Ángel Benito et al., explains a modern red winemaking method based on the use of S. pombe and L. thermotolerans nonSaccharomyces species to reduce traditional malolactic fermentation possible problems. In this methodology, L. thermotolerans produces lactic acid that increases the acidity of low acidity musts while malic acid is removed by S. pombe. The influence in parameters such as ethanol, amino acids, and volatile compounds is properly reported according to the last studies.

Chapter 13, Emerging trends in fortified wines: A scientific perspective, by Vanda Pereira et al., comprehensively describes the most recent scientific knowledge reported in the last 10 years, essentially about the volatile compounds that characterize and define the aroma of each wine and the polyphenolic composition that defines and influences their chromatic characteristics, as well as how they contribute to the technological advances of each fortified wine. Also, the occurrence of compounds that can affect their quality is also addressed.

Chapter 14, Emerging functional beverages: Fruit wines and transgenic wines, by Gargi Dey et al., describes in detail the phenolic composition, antioxidant capacity, and biological in vitro and in vivo activity of nontraditional fruit wines and compare them with those found for grape wines. The chapter also gives an overview of the state of the art research and innovations in this field.

1

The Threat to Quality of Alcoholic Beverages by Unrecorded Consumption

Alex O. Okaru⁎,†; Jürgen Rehm‡,§; Katharina Sommerfeld†; Thomas Kuballa†; Stephan G. Walch†; Dirk W. Lachenmeier†    ⁎ Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya

† Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany

‡ Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, Canada

§ Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany

Abstract

The World Health Organization estimates that globally out of the 6.2 L of pure alcohol consumed per person (15 + years), 25% is unrecorded alcohol. Unrecorded alcohol is defined as alcohol not registered in the legislation where it is consumed and includes homemade, surrogate, and counterfeit alcohols. Since the production, distribution, and consumption of unrecorded alcohol is not under official quality control and regulation, the risk of unrecorded alcohol containing potentially hazardous substances [e.g., methanol, acetaldehyde, aflatoxins, heavy metals, toxic denaturants such as diethyl phthalate (DEP)] may be higher than that for recorded alcoholic beverages. Consequently, the consumption of such beverages may expose drinkers to morbidity and mortality. For example, research conducted in 2017 on Kenyan artisanal beers collected from slums found 50% aflatoxin contamination. In this chapter we extensively review the epidemiology, chemical composition, health consequences citing a case story of the problem of unrecorded alcohol from Kenya, and also suggest plausible policy interventions to address the challenges posed by unrecorded alcohol.

Keywords

Unrecorded alcohol; Risk assessment; Health policy; Methanol; Ethanol; Contamination

Acknowledgments

This chapter is mainly based on two previous reviews on unrecorded alcohol (Lachenmeier et al., 2013; Rehm et al., 2014). The original material from Lachenmeier et al. (2013) is reused and updated with permission from Oxford University Press, while the original material from Rehm et al. (2014) is reused and updated with permission from John Wiley and Sons.

1.1 Introduction

Alcohol consumption can be broadly classified into recorded and unrecorded consumption, based on whether the alcohol consumed is officially registered or not. In the last decade unrecorded alcohol consumption has become the focus of increasing attention, as World Health Organization (WHO) estimations have shown that about one-fourth of global consumption is unrecorded (WHO, 2014). As the major ingredient of unrecorded alcohol is most typically ethanol, similar to recorded alcohol, all of the health consequences of alcohol consumption in general also apply to unrecorded alcohol (Lachenmeier et al., 2013). Nevertheless, unrecorded alcohol poses some specific problems apart from recorded alcohol, which are reviewed in this chapter.

1.2 What Is Unrecorded Alcohol?

Unrecorded alcohol comprises homemade, illegally produced or smuggled alcohol products as well as surrogate alcohol that is not officially intended for human consumption (e.g., mouthwash, perfumes, and eau-de-colognes) (Fig. 1.1). Unrecorded alcohol consumption is highest in Eastern Europe and Africa (Rehm et al., 2016; Rehm and Poznyak, 2015; WHO, 2014). Its major economic impacts are losses due to smuggling and tax fraud. The level of illegal trade and smuggling predominantly depends on the level of governmental enforcement. The implementation of Europe-wide tax stamps and mechanisms to track the movement of all alcohol products in the distribution chain were suggested to combat illegal trade. Especially in settings with higher levels of unrecorded production and consumption, increasing the proportion of consumption that is taxed may represent a more effective pricing policy than simple increase in excise tax.

Fig. 1.1 Categories of unrecorded alcohol. Reproduced from Rehm, J., Kailasapillai, S., Larsen, E., Rehm, M.X., Samokhvalov, A.V., Shield, K.D., Roerecke, M., Lachenmeier, D.W., 2014. A systematic review of the epidemiology of unrecorded alcohol consumption and the chemical composition of unrecorded alcohol. Addiction 109, 880–893 with permission from John Wiley and Sons.

The health effects and toxicity of unrecorded alcohol were found to be very similar to commercial alcohol, predominantly caused by ethanol itself (Rehm et al., 2014, 2010b). The major problem is certainly that unrecorded spirits are often sold at higher alcoholic strength (> 45% vol) but in some cases for half the price of legal beverages, possibly leading to more detrimental patterns of drinking and overproportional health hazards. Health effects beyond ethanol are seen in exceptional cases where methanol is intentionally added to the alcohol or when surrogate alcohol contains highly toxic ingredients (such as methanol in denatured alcohol, coumarin in cosmetic alcohol or polyhexamethylene guanidine in disinfectant alcohol).

To improve the knowledge base about unrecorded alcohol, better estimates of the size of the market and the amount of consumption need to be provided. Insight into the distribution of consumption between the categories of unrecorded alcohol would be also required to provide a targeted country- or region-specific policy response.

Unrecorded alcohol denotes alcoholic drinks produced and/or consumed that are not recorded in official statistics of sales, production, or trade. In some countries, unrecorded drinks account for the majority of alcohol consumption (Rehm et al., 2004). Unrecorded alcohol stems from a variety of sources (Giesbrecht et al., 2000; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010): home production, illegal production and sales, illegal (smuggling) and legal imports (cross-border shopping), and other production of alcoholic drinks that are not taxed and/or are not included in official production and sales statistics. A portion of unrecorded alcoholic drinks derive from different local or traditional drinks that are produced and consumed in the community or homes (Lachenmeier et al., 2013). The production may be legal or illegal, depending on the jurisdiction and in some cases on the strength of the drink. Worldwide, information on these alcoholic drinks and their production or consumption volumes is scarce (IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010). Due to the wide diversity of products that may fall under unrecorded alcohol, there has been no consistent definition or usage of this term in the literature. Some authors use the terms illegal, informal, artisanal, homeproduced, nonbeverage, or surrogate alcohol; however, these terms often only describe subgroups of unrecorded alcohol (Lachenmeier et al., 2013). The industry prefers the term noncommercial alcohol (Adelekan, 2008). The WHO provided the following nomenclature and classification (Fig. 1.1; see also the Global Information System on Alcohol and Health—GISAH—at: http://www.who.int). The term unrecorded alcohol comprises four major categories: (1) illegally produced or smuggled alcohol; (2) surrogate alcohol, that is, alcohol not officially intended for human consumption, such as perfume; (3) alcohol not registered in the country where it is consumed; and (4) legal unregistered alcohol (e.g., homemade alcohol in countries where it is legal) (Lachenmeier et al., 2013). There are various subcategories within these broad categories. For instance, illegally produced alcohol can stem from the same factory as legal alcohol (i.e., beer factories, distilleries, wineries), but a proportion of the alcohol produced is not declared to the authorities in order to evade taxation. It should be noted that homemade alcohols are usually illegally produced but there are exceptions such as in countries where home production is not illegal but would still be part of unrecorded consumption (Lachenmeier et al., 2013). Some common examples of surrogate alcohols include mouthwash, perfumes, and eau de cologne, which are alcohol products manufactured on a large scale (Lachenmeier et al., 2007, 2009b). Such alcohols may be produced with human consumption in mind but to evade taxation may be officially classified as shaving water or mouthwash (Lachenmeier et al., 2011b). In Russia (e.g., Savchuk et al., 2006), surrogate alcohols are differentiated based on the type of alcohol that the liquid contains: true surrogate alcohols (i.e., solutions and liquids manufactured from ethanol or containing large amounts of ethanol) and false surrogate alcohols (i.e., ethanol-free liquids, such as methanol, propanol, and ethylene glycol). In some instances, alcohols illegally produced for human consumption contain nonbeverage alcohols, that is, to increase alcohol concentration (Lachenmeier et al., 2013). Thus, beverage alcohol that is offered for consumption on the illegal market could be adulterated by nondrinkable alcohol and consumers may not be aware of the potential risks. Quantitative estimations of the degree of contamination of unrecorded alcohol are currently not available (Lachenmeier et al., 2013). It is important to note that consumers cannot assumed to be self-responsible when consuming counterfeit alcohol because there is no general ability to organoleptically detect counterfeit alcohol (Kuballa et al., 2018).

1.3 How Much and What Type of Unrecorded Alcohol Is Consumed Worldwide?

While per capita consumption of recorded alcohol is traceable via official statistics based on production, sales, and/or trade data (Rehm et al., 2007), no such data are available for unrecorded alcohol (Lachenmeier et al., 2013). Therefore, the currently available data are estimates, mainly based on expert opinion (Rehm et al., 2007), which carry substantial uncertainty (Rehm et al., 2007, 2003, 2004), and have many open questions. Only recently, monitoring systems such as the WHO noncommunicable disease monitoring system have included the empirical assessment of unrecorded alcohol as part of risk factor surveillance (http://www.who.int/chp/steps/en/) (Lachenmeier et al., 2013).

Thus, the regional distribution of the four subcategories of unrecorded alcohol cannot be quantified. Overall, 25%–30% of global alcohol consumption was estimated to be unrecorded in the early twenty-first century (Rehm et al., 2003; Room et al., 2005) with a higher proportion in low- and middle-income countries (Rehm et al., 2016) and in the former Soviet Union, but there are huge regional differences (Table 1.1 and Fig. 1.2). As much of the unrecorded alcohol consumption occurs in countries such as India, China, Brazil, Russia, or on the African continent. Category iii (alcohol not registered in the country where it is consumed), including cross-border shopping, is not relevant on a global level, but it may still constitute a sizeable portion in some parts of world such as in the Nordic countries (Asplund et al., 2007).

Table 1.1

Modified from Lachenmeier, D.W., Taylor, B.J., Rehm, J., 2011b. Alcohol under the radar: do we have policy options regarding unrecorded alcohol? Int. J. Drug Policy 22, 153–160 with permission from Elsevier.

Fig. 1.2 Unrecorded adult per capita consumption in litres of pure ethanol 2005. Reproduced from Lachenmeier, D.W., Taylor, B.J., Rehm, J., 2011b. Alcohol under the radar: do we have policy options regarding unrecorded alcohol? Int. J. Drug Policy 22, 153–160 with permission from Elsevier.

Fig. 1.3 provides a global overview of types of unrecorded alcohol. Artisanal illegal spirits and surrogate alcohol seem to be the most prevalent forms of unrecorded alcohol. Both forms can be found in high-income as well as in middle- and low-income countries (Rehm et al., 2014).

Fig. 1.3 Main categories of unrecorded alcohol by country. Reproduced from Rehm, J., Kailasapillai, S., Larsen, E., Rehm, M.X., Samokhvalov, A.V., Shield, K.D., Roerecke, M., Lachenmeier, D.W., 2014. A systematic review of the epidemiology of unrecorded alcohol consumption and the chemical composition of unrecorded alcohol. Addiction 109, 880–893 with permission from John Wiley and Sons.

The relative importance of artisanal illegal spirits over other types of beverages (e.g., artisanal illegal fermented beverages) is not surprising, as spirits are globally also the most consumed recorded beverage type (Gmel et al., 2013). These artisanal spirits are made of locally available ingredients such as sugar, fruits, vegetables, plants, and residues of wine production (Rehm et al., 2014). It seems that artisanal illegal spirits are more widespread than industrially produced illegal spirits, which play a major role in India and some surrounding Asian countries (Rehm et al., 2014). Surrogate alcohol is also widespread in a variety of locally available substances such as medicinal products (rubbing alcohol, tinctures), products of daily life containing alcohol (mouthwash, flagrances, windshield wipers) or denatured alcohol for industrial purposes (Rehm et al., 2014). In some countries such as Russia, there is an industry producing pseudo-surrogate alcohols, that is, products officially intended not for human consumption for taxation purposes, but in reality clearly intended for consumption (such as eau de cologne without any scent; see Lachenmeier et al., 2013). Artisanal fermented beverages play a major role in African countries (such as palm wine or traditional beers such as sorghum (Gordeuk, 2002; Gordeuk et al., 1986; Haworth, 2004; Kasvosve et al., 2000; Kilonzo et al., 2004; Mosha et al., 1996; Mutisya and Willis, 2009; Nikander et al., 1991; Papas et al., 2010; Pires et al., 2012; Willis, 2003), see also: Rehm et al., 2014; Room et al., 2002; WHO, 2004), in parts of Asia including India (Rehm et al., 2014), and in some European countries [e.g., fruit wines in Poland (Lachenmeier et al., 2009a)]. Also, there tends to be some under-declaration and local selling of this undeclared wine in wine-producing countries, including those in Europe (Leifman, 2001). The same is true for artisanal distilled spirits based on residues of the wine production (see: Leifman, 2001; Rehm et al., 2014). Cross-border shopping is a problem in only a small part of the world, primarily in high-income countries, with Nordic countries and the United Kingdom being prime examples (Bygvrå, 2009; Grittner and Bloomfield, 2009; HM Revenue and Customs, 2012; Leifman, 2001; Österberg, 2000); however, cross-border shopping at US borders is also relevant, particularly for the US population below the legal drinking age (Clapp et al., 2001; Lange and Voas, 2000; Lange et al., 2002; Room and West, 1998). Cross-border shopping appears to be the only form of unrecorded alcohol which has been associated with higher socioeconomic status (Clapp et al., 2001; Svensson, 2009). Relatively little is known about the smuggling of alcohol (Rehm et al., 2014). Two different areas of research relating to alcohol smuggling were described (Rehm et al., 2014): measuring individual smuggling over and above the legal limits for imports [e.g., in Nordic countries, before legal limits were abolished for European Union (EU) countries (Lindström, 2005; Natvig and Aarø, 1998; Österberg, 2000; Romelsjö and Branting, 2000)], or as part of research conducted on organized smuggling between countries (Bruns and Miggelbrink, 2012); see also: (MacDonald et al., 1999; Room and West, 1998). However, some data outside of scientific publications point to a sizable problem, and include countries that have a prohibition or a partial prohibition against alcohol because of religious reasons, such as Afghanistan, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Maldives, Mauritania, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, and Yemen (Rehm et al., 2014).

1.4 Why Are People Drinking Unrecorded Alcohol?

In the latest report of WHO based on validated data (WHO, 2014), there is a steep gradient between economic wealth of countries and the proportion of alcohol which was unrecorded: for high-income countries: 9% of all alcohol consumed was estimated to be unrecorded; for upper middle-income countries: 24%; for lower middle-income countries: 42%; and for lower-income countries: 44% (Fig. 1.4).

Fig. 1.4 Total (recorded and unrecorded) alcohol per capita (APC) consumption (15 + years) in liters of pure alcohol by WHO region and the world, 2010. Reproduced with permission from WHO, 2014. Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health—2014 ed. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

One of the main reasons is that in lower middle-income and low-income countries locally produced traditional alcoholic beverages tend to be considerably less expensive than their Western-style, commercially produced counterparts (Lachenmeier et al., 2013). Local production consists mostly of the fermentation of seeds, grains, fruits, vegetables, sugarcane, and parts of palm trees, and is a fairly simple process (Lachenmeier et al., 2013). The alcohol content is quite low and the shelf life is usually short—1 or 2 days before the drink is spoiled (IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010). For this reason, the fermented products are often distilled to produce spirits, which is also possible using simplistic means, for example, by heating in oil drums over an open fire and applying automobile piping for condensation (Fellows and Hampton, 1992; Kanteres et al., 2009). In many regions of the world, unrecorded alcoholic drinks are approximately 2–6 times less expensive than commercial alcoholic drinks (Lachenmeier et al., 2009a, 2011a; Lang et al., 2006; McKee et al., 2005) and, thus, are most likely to be consumed by those with lower socioeconomic status. An important group in many countries are very heavy drinkers or alcohol-dependent persons, all of whom are commonly underrepresented in surveys (IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010). Alcohol that is offered for consumption on the illegal market may be adulterated by nondrinkable alcohol such as methanol, and, thus, consumers may not be aware of the potential risks (IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010). While there are methanol poisonings reported in every year, such events still are very rare (see below and Rehm et al., 2014). However, there is also evidence that some economically disadvantaged heavy drinkers mix drinking alcohol with industrial denatured alcohol (IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010).

These reasons explain why the fraction of unrecorded consumption is higher in low- and middle-income countries, and is highest in the poorest regions of Africa, Asia, and South America (Lachenmeier et al., 2013). In addition, in many countries of the Eastern Mediterranean region with predominantly Islamic countries, where alcohol is legally forbidden, all alcohol consumed is unrecorded, although the level of overall consumption is very low (IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010).

1.5 What Are the Risks of Drinking Unrecorded Alcohol?

Overall, about 3.3 million deaths in 2012 are estimated to have been caused by alcohol consumption. This corresponds to 5.9% of all deaths, or one in every 20 deaths in the world (7.6% for men, 4.0% for women; WHO, 2014). This number assumes that both recorded and unrecorded alcohol consumption incur the same health burden per liter of pure alcohol (Lim et al., 2012). The overwhelming majority of these deaths are due to ethanol. Deaths due to methanol poisoning as reported in the published literature account for fewer than 1000 deaths in any given year (estimation in Rehm et al., 2014). Publications on methanol deaths stem from three sources: case studies (e.g., Epker and Bakker, 2010; Gee and Martin, 2012; Magnusdottir et al., 2010; Mervis, 2009), studies about outbreaks (e.g., European Commission, 2013; Gururaj et al., 2011; Hovda et al., 2005; Naraqi et al., 1979; Seng, 1978), and systematic analyses of all deaths to intoxication in a region (e.g., Bjornaas et al., 2010; Duman et al., 2003; Gülmen et al., 2006; Liu et al., 2009). In other words, without huge measurement error, fewer than 0.1% of the global alcohol-attributable deaths are due to methanol (0.1% of all alcohol-attributable deaths corresponds to 2740 deaths based on the Global Burden of Disease estimate cited above) (Rehm et al., 2014). Even if it is assumed that deaths due to methanol poisoning are underreported, and even if these deaths continue to occur at different times in almost all parts of the world, including high-income countries (see Davanzo et al., 2009; European Commission, 2013; Hovda et al., 2005 for outbreaks in the EU and Norway), unless proven differently by empirical data, methanol deaths seem to be primarily individual or regional tragedies rather than a global public health problem (Rehm et al., 2014). Deaths caused by methanol poisoning were the most severe health consequence of the consumption of unrecorded alcohols published due to ingredients other than ethanol (Hausler et al., 2016; Rehm et al., 2014).

Other than methanol, two other potential health threats of unrecorded alcohol due to ingredients other than ethanol were identified in a systematic review (Rehm et al., 2014): moonshine in the United States and associated lead poisoning, and disinfecting agents in surrogate alcohol. First, due to the overall proportion of scientific papers stemming from the United States, a sizable portion of published literature concerns moonshine in the United States and associated lead poisoning and its consequences (Anon, 1992; Asokan et al., 1974; Ellis and Lacy, 1998; Gerhardt et al., 1980; Gonzalez et al., 1979; Holstege et al., 2004; Hughes Jr. and Davis, 1983; Kaufmann et al., 2003; Morgan et al., 2003, 2001; Pegues et al., 1993; Peitzman et al., 1985; Perneger et al., 1999; Reynolds et al., 1983); however, many of these publications appeared before 1990, and moonshine production appears to have since then decreased in the United States (Rehm et al., 2014). In addition, cases of lead poisoning in recent years seem to be quite low (Kaufmann et al., 2003; Rehm and Lachenmeier, 2013). Between 1979 and 1998, 200 lead poisoning fatalities were registered, about 28% with an additional alcohol-related ICD-9 code, and with a decreasing frequency (Abeyasinghe and Gunnell, 2008). The yearly number of alcohol-attributable deaths in the United States has been estimated to amount to 56,000 premature (defined as deaths before age 65 years) adult deaths for 2005 (Shield et al., 2013), and 88,000 adult deaths of all ages in 2010 (Lim et al., 2012). Given these numbers, lead poisoning fatalities are minimal compared to the overall number of alcohol-attributable deaths (Rehm et al., 2014). Second, the use of polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG), a disinfecting agent (now banned), in surrogate alcohol in Russia (Ostapenko et al., 2011; Solodun et al., 2011), was implicated in causing a form of cholestatic hepatitis, which is histologically different from the one typically observed in alcohol-related liver injury (Rehm et al., 2014). In this case, the causality between the toxic effects of the compound in unrecorded alcohol and health outcomes is not as clear as in the case of methanol, especially as data are lacking on the toxicity of PHMG in humans (Rehm et al., 2014). Furthermore, the disinfectant agent consumed by humans was a multicomponent mixture containing extreme levels of ethanol (93%) as well as diethyl phthalate (DEP) (0.08%–0.15%) used to denature the alcohol (Rehm et al., 2014). Nevertheless, it was found to be plausible that PHMG may cause effects which differ from chronic hepatitis induced by long-term ethanol consumption, because exposure to PHMG may reach levels found to cause injury in animal experiments (Lachenmeier et al., 2012; Rehm et al., 2014). The number of fatalities is not clear, as before it was banned PHMG was quite present in surrogate alcohol in Russia, which had been estimated to comprise 30% of all alcohol in 2004 in this country (Rehm et al., 2014; WHO, 2014).

Besides methanol, lead, or PHMG-related poisonings, there may be further epidemiological evidence that seems to contradict the general conclusion that unrecorded alcohol is not typically linked to health consequences aside from those consequences due to ethanol (Rehm et al., 2014). For instance, Leon's research in Russia (Leon et al., 2007; Tomkins et al., 2012) established a higher mortality risk for people who consumed surrogate alcohol. The mortality risk associated with drinking nonbeverage alcohol in the past year relative to nondrinkers (yes vs no) was 9.2 (95% CI = 7.2–11.7) after adjustment for age. Adjustment for volume of ethanol consumed from recorded consumption (beverage alcohol) lowered the risk estimate to 8.3 (95% CI = 6.5–10.7), and further adjustment for education and smoking reduced it to 7.0 (95% CI = 5.5–9.0); however, the underlying causal pathways were not clear (Rehm et al., 2014). It may be that people who consumed surrogate alcohol consumed more ethanol than those who consumed beverage alcohol (i.e., more heavy drinking occasions resulting in a higher average consumption) (for the relationship between heavy drinking and surrogate consumption, see Cook et al., 2013; Ringmets et al., 2012), or that people who drank surrogate alcohol did so in a more detrimental pattern of irregular heavy drinking (for definitions see: Rehm et al., 1996; Rehm et al., 2003; for the relationship between surrogate drinking in Russia and detrimental drinking patterns see: Cook et al., 2013). Both regular and irregular heavy drinking have been linked to higher mortality and burden of disease (Gmel et al., 2011; Rehm et al., 2010a, 2006, 2004, 2013). Thus, the most important public health concern with respect to surrogate alcohol in Russia and surrounding countries may be that it is usually less expensive than recorded alcohol (Gil et al., 2009; Neufeld et al., 2017; Pärna et al., 2007), thereby enabling more heavy drinking occasions, especially for people with alcohol dependence who are already marginalized (Pärna et al., 2007; Rehm et al., 2014; Tomkins et al., 2007).

Finally, there may be specific differences in risk of unrecorded alcohol compared to recorded alcohol with respect to ethanol (Rehm et al., 2014). First, unrecorded alcohol is less expensive than recorded alcohol, with very few exceptions (Rehm et al., 2014), thereby enabling people to maintain higher levels of average alcohol consumption as well as more pronounced irregular heavy drinking occasions. In particular, unrecorded alcohol plays a role in heavy drinking by people in low socioeconomic strata, including but not limited to marginalized groups such as people with alcohol dependence (Rehm et al., 2014). For example, in India (Benegal et al., 2003; Chowdhury et al., 2006; Gupta et al., 2003), country liquor and artisanal fermented beverages were linked to heavy consumption among the poor, especially in rural and tribal populations, and in Russia and other countries of the former Soviet Union, there was a clear link between people with alcohol dependence and consumption of unrecorded alcohol, both surrogate alcohol and artisanal spirits (Bobrova et al., 2007, 2009; Neufeld et al., 2016; Pärna et al., 2007; Razvodovsky, 2011, 2013a; Rehm et al., 2014; Saburova et al., 2011). For other compounds that were found most regularly in unrecorded alcohol (from 50 analyzed substances in total), a detailed population-based risk assessment was provided for ethanol, ethyl carbamate, acetaldehyde, methanol, copper, lead, nickel, manganese, boron, and aluminum. By calculating the margin of exposure, ethanol was found to be the compound posing the highest risk, greatly above toxicological thresholds, while average scenarios for all other substances did not exceed thresholds (Lachenmeier and Rehm, 2012; Rehm et al., 2014).

1.5.1 Case Study From Kenya

Local production of unrecorded alcohol products in Kenya consists of artisanal opaque beers and distilled spirits (Okaru et al., 2017b). The opaque drinks are prepared by fermentation of grains, sugarcane, parts of palm, cashew nut, and Kigelia Africana trees. The alcohol content of the artisanal beers is usually low and the shelf life is short typically 2–3 days before becoming spoilt while the alcohol content of the spirits is in the range 10%–20 vol% (Papas et al., 2010). An excellent description of the production process is described in literature (Carey et al., 2015; Aka et al., 2014). The locally produced traditional beverages tend to be considerably less expensive—3–10-fold—in comparison to the recorded alcoholic beverages. The WHO estimates that out of the 4.3 L of pure alcohol consumed per person (15 + years) in Kenya, 58% is unrecorded (WHO, 2016).

There is a general lack of knowledge on the contribution of the individual constituents of unrecorded consumption of alcohol besides ethanol to health especially in the low- and medium-income countries where the proportion consumed is high. In a large study conducted in 2016 to characterize the composition of unrecorded alcoholic beverages (n = 221) comprising artisanal beers (n = 83) and the artisanal spirit, chang’aa (n = 148), sampled from 26 counties in Kenya where production and consumption is high, aflatoxins were found to be of concern besides ethanol. Heavy contamination of the grain-based artisanal beer, busaa, with aflatoxins was observed in samples collected from the Kibera slums (range 1.8–6.8 μg/L; mean 4.3 μg/L) and in all instances the levels of aflatoxins B1 a class I carcinogen where higher than the rest of the aflatoxins (B2, G1, and G2) (Okaru et al., 2017a). This was attributed to use of toxigenic grains in the fermentation of the drink. While the possibility of deliberate use of unsuitable grains for fermentation cannot be underestimated, producer education on the danger of aflatoxins is a plausible intervention so as to protect the consumers since this is an additional risk for cancer to that of ethanol and this may further negatively affect the already unsatisfactory health indicators of slum residents (Kyobutungi et al., 2008; Oti et al., 2014).

Methanol was also the other element of public health concern in the study. However, methanol was only observed in an isolated seven samples of recorded alcohol products collected during a methanol poisoning outbreak reported in 2014 and as such cannot be considered to have a significant contribution to health in regular unrecorded consumption. Similar to other incidences of methanol poisoning, the samples were found to be pure admixtures of methanol and water traced to a cottage industry in Nairobi, the capital of Kenya. The extreme

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