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Wearables, Smart Textiles & Smart Apparel

Wearables, Smart Textiles & Smart Apparel

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Wearables, Smart Textiles & Smart Apparel

575 pagine
5 ore
Nov 27, 2018


Wearables, Smart Textiles & Smart Apparel, the first book of its kind on the topic, is divided into two major themes, wearables that are part of the large textile family and those that are not. It provides a broad overview of topics, markets, applications, benefits, fears and technologies, also emphasizing the industrial economics and costs, etc. As the wearables market continues to grow, making inroads in classic clothing, luxury, medical and professional use, and in protection and accessories like sports bracelets, watches, glasses, fashion or sports shoes, etc., this book helps users understand the technology and its future in industry.

  • Helps define which wearables are part of the textile family
  • Presents both the negative and positive aspects of wearables
  • Demonstrates the connection and intelligence of wearables
Nov 27, 2018

Informazioni sull'autore

Dominique Paret is the CEO and founder of "dp-Consulting" for 10 years. he is dealing on leading edge subjects as a technical expertise. Graduated in electronics engineering (Breguet / ESIEE), Sciences at the University Paris VI, He began his career in 1968 as a TV Group Consumer Applications Labs leader within RTC-Compelec (several patents in the analog and digital domains) . Before creating "dp-Consulting - Consultant & Training" in May 2006, he spent 40 years at "NXP / Philips Semiconductors France" as Technical Support Mgr in the "Innovation and Emerging Business" division. He is also a national delegate in standardization organizations and a Senior Lecturer.

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Wearables, Smart Textiles & Smart Apparel - Paret Dominique

Wearables, Smart Textiles & Smart Apparel

Dominique Paret

Pierre Crégo

Table of Contents

Cover image

Title page





Why this book?

How this book is constructed

Who this book concerns

The technical level


Note to Readers


Part 1: Introduction to the World of Wearables

Introduction to Part 1

1: Definitions and Position


1.1 A few definitions

1.2 The position of this book

2: Non-textile and Textile Wearables


2.1 Non-textile Wearables or accessories

2.2 Textile Wearables

2.3 Smart textiles

2.4 Materials

2.5 Smart textile systems and their typologies

3: The Market – the Applications


3.1 The world of the Internet of Things

3.2 The world of Wearables

3.3 A view of the market from the consumer side

Part 2: Constraints of a Wearable Project

Introduction to Part 2

4: Aspects to Take into Consideration for Wearables, Smart Textiles and Smart Apparel


4.1 Financial and marketing aspects

4.2 Ergonomic aspects

4.3 Technical aspects

4.4 Energy aspects

4.5 Industrial aspects

4.6 Regulatory aspects and recommendations

4.7 Normative aspects

4.8 Applicative aspects

4.9 Security aspects

4.10 Cost aspects

Part 3: Examples of Non-textile Wearables and Smart Textiles and Apparel

Introduction to Part 3

5: Examples of Non-textile Wearables


5.1 General public (consumer) type

5.2 The Luxury Style type

5.3 The sports type

5.4 The automobile type

5.5 The medical types

5.6 The security type – PPE

6: Examples of Smart Fibers and Smart Textiles


6.1 A few words of introduction

6.2 Fibers

6.3 Textile/fabric/cloth

6.4 A few words on technologies

7: The Future of Smart Fibers and Smart Textiles


7.1 Wellbeing

7.2 Smart fibers

8: Examples of Smart Apparel


8.1 Fashion

Part 4: The Technologies Behind Wearables

Introduction to Part 4

9: Components


9.1 Sensors

9.2 CPU¹ and power consumption

9.3 Actuators

9.4 Printed circuit boards, connectors and electrodes

Part 5: Wearables: Smart Apparel, RF Connectivity and Big Data

Introduction to Part 5

10: RF Connectivity in Wearables


10.1 RF connectivity in Wearables

10.2 From Wearables to a whole connected world

11: Global Architecture of Wearables: Connected Textiles


11.1 Communication models in the IoT and Wearables

11.2 Architectures of Wearable solutions

11.3 The very numerous protocols in use

Part 6: Description of the Wearables and Connected Textiles Chain

12: Chain for a Connected Wearable


12.1 From the gateway to the server

12.2 The server

12.3 The broker

12.4 Return from Cloud server to end users

12.5 Cloud

12.6 Big data

Part 7: Concrete Realization of a Wearables/Smart Textiles Solution: Examples and Costs

Introduction to Part 7

13: Examples of Concrete Realization of Wearables: Smart Connected Apparel


13.1 General electronic architecture of a Wearable

13.2 Physical architecture of a communicating Wearable

14: Cost Aspects


14.1 CAPEX and OPEX

14.2 In conclusion


Appendix: Reputable Players




First published 2019 in Great Britain and the United States by ISTE Press Ltd and Elsevier Ltd

Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, this publication may only be reproduced, stored or transmitted, in any form or by any means, with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction in accordance with the terms and licenses issued by the CLA. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside these terms should be sent to the publishers at the undermentioned address:

ISTE Press Ltd

27–37 St George’s Road

London SW19 4EU


Elsevier Ltd

The Boulevard, Langford Lane

Kidlington, Oxford, OX5 1GB



Knowledge and best practice in this field are constantly changing. As new research and experience broaden our understanding, changes in research methods, professional practices, or medical treatment may become necessary.

Practitioners and researchers must always rely on their own experience and knowledge in evaluating and using any information, methods, compounds, or experiments described herein. In using such information or methods they should be mindful of their own safety and the safety of others, including parties for whom they have a professional responsibility.

To the fullest extent of the law, neither the Publisher nor the authors, contributors, or editors, assume any liability for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions, or ideas contained in the material herein.

For information on all our publications visit our website at

© ISTE Press Ltd 2019

The rights of Dominique Paret and Pierre Crégo to be identified as the authors of this work have been asserted by them in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.

British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data

A CIP record for this book is available from the British Library

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data

A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress

ISBN 978-1-78548-293-9

Printed and bound in the UK and US


Emmanuelle Butaud-Stubbs, Delegate General UIT, (Textile Industries Union)

First of all, I would like to congratulate Dominique Paret and Pierre Crégo for their excellent initiative in completing this book describing, in detail, the many regulatory, normative, applicative, technical, technological and economic aspects of the world of Wearables, for Smart Textiles and Apparel in particular. There is very little technical literature on these subjects despite the apparent daily arrival of new applications in health, sport, protection and security services, for example. Moreover, France has positioned itself very well in these emerging markets and the 2030 horizon is an opportunity that cannot be missed! SMEs, textile ETIs and their applicative market clients are preparing themselves, as can be seen through many recent initiatives (BPI, Techtera, Up-Tex, etc.).

This comprehensive book is addressed to new readers aiming to discern the complexity of Wearables of today and tomorrow (for all sorts of applications) and their connected – or not – utilization, as well as to those who design them.

This book has several qualities: it repositions the fundamental roles that are simultaneously functional, hardware and software, and the technological building blocks for describing the possible architectures; it captures the different radiofrequency communication protocols used to ensure connectivity; it informs designers on regulations and standardizations, on the handling of sensitive data and, finally, it addresses the crucial subject of security at all stages, all from an excellent technical base.

Other aspects are emphasized through numerous examples that help to make Wearables much more concrete for the reader and aid in understanding the overall design for the chain of connected, also referred to as secured, Wearables and their techno-economic development.

Furthermore, Dominique and Pierre have, for many years, been technical experts from the EESTEL association recognized in many RFID, contactless smart card, NFC, IoT and software development technologies, allowing them to bring a high level of technicality compared with news publications.

I sincerely thank them for investing their expertise into this growing field of smart textiles and apparel to which the Textile Industry Union dedicated a white paper in March 2017, and I also thank them for offering such a comprehensive guided tour of this emerging industry to all readers – an industry that will accelerate the blending of textiles and electronics to respond to societal needs.

Happy reading!


Dominique Paret, Meudon October 2018

As usual, there are many people to thank for their kindness, their attention, their constructive observations and comments. So, to all those who will easily recognize themselves: a huge and gracious Thank You! And now some gratitude for more specific friends:

In textiles:

−Mrs Emmanuelle Butaud-Stubbs, Delegate General of the Union des Industries Textiles (Textile Industry Union) (UIT), for her gracious cooperation and authorization to use many passages from the White Paper on smart textiles ( and the unfailing friendship she brought to a little newbie of the textile world;

−Mrs Florence Bost, Director of the Sable Chaud society, for her valuable advice, comments, notes and support with knowledge of the wide world of textiles;

−Mr Laurent Houillon, from IFTH – Institut Français du textile et de l’habillement (French Textile and Clothing Institute) – and secretary of the BNITH – Bureau de Normalisation des Industries du textile et de l’Habillement (Textile and Clothing Industries Standardization Bureau), for his availability.

In the industrial world:

−Olivier Levy, Director General of Parrot Shmates, for the years of technical steps taken together through ups and downs…

For this book:

We would also like to thank two members from the RGPD – Associates group of experts co-founded by the co-writers for their constant help:

−Gaëlle Kermorgant, Lawyer at the Court of Paris, for her valuable help and her involvement in the field of Personal Data, GDPR and its scope;

−Mr Jean-Paul Huon, director of the Z#bre company, old friend and my co-writer of the book Secure Connected Objects (published in French and in English by ISTE) from which we borrowed some extracts to build and ensure coherence in this one.

…As well as many friends who, each at their own level, gave me some wonderful moments… and shared good humor with me.


Dominique Paret

Pierre Crégo October 2018

Why this book?

Following the completion of a general technical book detailing the subject of secure connected objects, we tried to find an easily accessible, clear, simple and precise summary at an appropriate level that addressed both the totality of Wearables in their broad sense and, more particularly, textile Wearables and smart apparel, their properties and so on – and we were left wanting more! We found books that were either very simplistic or highly specialized, or postgraduate theses with a focus on a specific detail within this domain. With the exception of certain books and white papers quoted in bibliographies, it is a desert! Moreover, after much circulation of the field, we realized that there was a lack of knowledge surrounding the potential of the real world of electronics and the things that closely affect their radiofrequency connectivity based on their application in the world of textiles, materials, smart apparel, etc.; which is completely understandable, to each their own role! However, this intellectual status did not satisfy us, and after many discussions with a few professional colleagues and friends, we once again gathered up our courage in both hands to search this field and, hoping that it would cover a modest part of this emptiness, we opted to write this essentially technical book designed around the specific IoT plan of Wearables – smart materials and apparel whose arrival to the general public is now imminent.

How this book is constructed

Like Penelope, after having reviewed the entirety of this book on the trade (weaving of course!) a good dozen times, and to ensure its coherent, agreeable and easy-to-follow readability, we opted for a design divided into three big parts:

1)To begin with, a first part including:

−a general introduction to the vast world of Wearables and smart apparel including definitions of terms, the market and future trends (Chapters 1, 2 and 3);

−a detailed description of the many normative and regulatory constraints, aspects and problems to which these Wearables and smart apparel are subject and which, at first glance, often appear as ancillary, but which must be taken into account regardless of the Wearables and smart apparel project (Chapter 4).

2)Next, a second part that we have broken down into three large sub-sections illustrated with many application examples:

−non-textile Wearables, the majority of which are considered in a non-pejorative way as accessories (Chapter 5);

−textile and cloth materials used in the manufacture of Wearables and clothes with technical, optical, electrical, electronic, thermal features, etc. (Chapters 6 and 7);

−fashion, sport, professional, EPI security, medical devices, smart apparel, etc. (Chapter 8).

3)Finally, to complete and finish this book, a third more technical and technological part concerning (Chapters 9 to 12):

−the components encountered (sensors, displays, etc.);

−the tricky problem of Wearables’ radiofrequency connection (NFC, RFID, BLE, SigFox, Lora, UHF, etc.);

−a detailed technical description of the different design elements in a chain of connected Wearables/clothes:

-from the outside world to the Wearable;

-from the Wearable to the Cloud;

-from the Cloud to the host;

-return from the host to the outside world;

−and finally, the economic/cost aspects of the concretization of a Wearable solution (Chapter 13 to the end).

Who this book concerns

This book is addressed to people who are curious about this (nearly) new field, which covers broad and varied physical, technological, technical, industrial, marketing aspects, etc., and, of course, to students and the many professionals of this branch who are more often than not in textiles rather than electronics or the opposite! This book voluntarily carries out a relatively deep mix of these last two things, allowing members from each clan to overcome the chasm between them!

The technical level

There is no specific technical level. Everyone is welcome but, throughout the book, the spirit of satisfying the reader’s curiosity and a relatively quick raising of the reader’s level of understanding will be found.


Having also, on top of my long purely professional and industrial activities, simultaneously exercised teaching (in Engineering School level Bac + 5) and expert training activities for many long years, on the one hand, the language and the tone are intended to be current and pleasant, but beware, still very precise, and to picture the whole thing, many examples of industrial application are presented. On the other hand, there is also a constant educational intent in this book since, for us at least, writing for ourselves does not really accomplish much. In addition, for the curious and/or the brave, we have prepared many summary tables, small secrets and anecdotes throughout the text.

In one word, this book is for you, for the pleasure of understanding, of learning, to treat you and to remain Wearably and Textilely yours!

Important Note.–

Of course, in this book there will be, and it cannot be avoided, many common, identical, similar points to those described in the IoT connectivity of one of our previous books, since Wearables and Smart Apparel are in fact a sub-group of Secure Connected Objects. In this context, some repetition is obligatory in this book, but alas, that is the price to pay if we want this book to represent a body of this new field.

We therefore ask our loyal and diligent readers to indulge us and not to hold it against us too much!

Note to Readers

Throughout this book, several worlds cross each other, clash with each other and collide with each other, mainly in the wide world of textiles and their derivatives, and the world of electronics. Both have their own specific vocabulary, their ways of being, of reacting and of interacting, their design, marketing and advertising methods, etc., that are generally very different! And, once again, this is normal!

Often, the way of thinking in electronics is considered as linear, Cartesian, where things work step by step, whereas the textile and clothing world is much more tangled since everything reacts with everything and it is often necessary to consider the whole thing as achieving what the end client wants!


As a preamble to this book, let us begin immediately by showing our hand.

First of all, this book does not attempt to be, is not and will not be an encyclopedia of Wearables – Textiles – smart and connected apparel. There are hundreds of more or less well-made articles on this subject on the Net, making grand theoretical claims of the future and of giant markets to come of all varieties, of outrageous and fabulous commercial figures, etc. From our side, since we are not amateurs of unproductive redundancies, we concentrated solely on subjects, for which we found fewer articles by far, which is to say the grounded side, the daily side of this domain, to concretely and technically process the broad field of Applications and Designs of all sorts, in order to provide you with a guide, and to not forget anything such as to avoid the false turns, which can occur during the design and realization of Wearables and Textiles – smart and secured and connected apparel because this is the aim and the hidden core of this book. Talking, making pretty speeches, fancy conferences and great demonstrations are all fine (how many times have we seen and heard that), but concretely, physically completing a Wearable or connected clothing with a commercial objective, and managing to sell it in bulk at a reasoned and reasonable price is even better, otherwise, we might as well do nothing, with no inconsiderate fuss! As such, at the end of this book we will describe the steps to follow and respect for your project in order to avoid the usual pitfalls and to ease the passage from the virtual world to the real, blatantly concrete world, and we suggest a reasonable path of wisdom, based on a realistic awareness of the world of technical, economic, ergonomic norms, etc., and not free trims tomorrow!

So there is the admitted aim of this book, and it is largely sufficient as it is!

Part 1

Introduction to the World of Wearables

Introduction to Part 1

This first part of the book is divided into several chapters, all directly linked with Wearables and, underlying these, connected Wearables.

As a general introduction and to ensure that we understand each other, Chapter 1 gives a brief reminder of the vocabulary in order to avoid too many of the confusions that often exist in the field, and to avoid mixing up terms that are often used under the designation of Wearables and smart textiles.

As for Chapter 2, it covers that vast world of Wearables, the prevailing catch-all, the media echoes of the more or less specialized general press, etc., and the concrete reality that consists of defining, designing, making, achieving and manufacturing a product and, most of all, successfully selling it!


Definitions and Position


In order to launch directly into the core of the subject and to give context to our words, let us begin by carrying out a little reminder of the vocabulary with a series of definitions around the terms Wearables and C°.


Accessories; Automobile type Wearable; Connected Wearables; Mobile applications; Smart Wearables; Wearable; Wireless connections

1.1 A few definitions

In order to launch directly into the core of the subject and to give context to our words, let us begin by carrying out a little reminder of the vocabulary with a series of definitions around the terms Wearables and C°.

1.1.1 Wearables

The barbaric word Wearables comes from the English verb to wear = to carry or have on the body. Wearables is therefore a generic word encompassing a multitude of elements that can be worn, the very varied elements that we wear, or that we can wear on ourselves or in ourselves (for example, clothes, accessories, watches, shoes, pair of glasses, medical devices (heart, prostheses, implants, etc.), elements that have a role in the wellbeing of an individual, etc.).

Wearables – in the broad sense of the term – are an enormous sub-group of Objects that can be connected (or not), endowed with an intelligence (or not), communicating (or not) through associated (or not) radio connections to networks (the Internet, for example). We do not write in this repetitive way above with a series of or not for comic effects, but because, by conflation, many people make too many shortcuts, as we will see throughout this book.

Connected Wearables are in fact a specific sub-group of connected Objects that can be linked to the Internet (or not). Since each word requires several explanations, let us look at each of these terms.

1.1.2 Objects

In this book, under the term Objects with a capital O, we will include all that we find in the daily literature under the terms devices, elements, nodes, end devices, endpoints, terminals, etc., in short, all things", big or small, that act as starting points for information that we should or would like to exploit.

Here, in this book, the Object will itself be Wearable!

1.1.3 Connected

Yes, certainly, but connected to what, how, why and so on, at what price. These days, uni/bi-directional, Wireless or so-called contactless connections are in style. This being said, we should remain simple and keep our eyes open. It has been several (dozen) years since people began building radiofrequency identification systems (RFID), contactless smart cards, NFC, Zigbee, BT & BLE Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, etc., and, just like Mr Jourdain speaking prose all his life without knowing it, made connected Objects, even secured – sometimes very secured – Wireless!

A General Public automobile-type example:

For 15 years, an electronic valve has been a connected Object (in UHF) in car electronics and it is not an IoT!

So, this current trend really is not a scoop except for a certain crowd and its followers or geeks who are hungry for new words, even if they express the same thing as the old ones! Moreover, if they simply connect with each other through any type of simple link and they become simple Connected Objects or via a specific Internet link (which very much complicates matters), then we refer to IoT or IoE, but this is not an end in itself.

1.1.4 IoT

IoT – Internet of Things, so an Internet network connection must be available to use this term! IoT is often defined as a network of Objects generally incorporating an "embedded"(integrated, onboard) type of technology of sensors, electronics, software and connectivity in order to detect, to communicate or to interact with their internal states and/or the external environment and to exchange data with a manufacturer, a maker, a service provider or other connected elements.

It should be noted that the IoT functions under the auspices of the ITU – International Telecommunications Union – Global Standards Initiative (IoT-GSI) via multiple communication protocols connecting them with each other such as Bluetooth, ZigBee, Long Range Wide Area Network, LoRa and SIGFOX.

Often, and through the abuse of language, for many people, the Internet of Things covers all so-called connected products that are followed by mobile applications (watches, scales, bracelets, toothbrushes, fridges, etc.) that often do not need the Internet at all and only use other methods of communication such as NFC, BLE or Wi-Fi, for example!

1.1.5 Secured

A well-designed connected Wearable must be secure and the security must be strictly established from the beginning to the end of the chain, Cloud included if applicable, otherwise it is not worth it! (Watch out, 35 years of bank transactions and high-level industry security support this statement!) This is not a luxury but an obligation, at the functional level of the whole and at private life level, now and in the future because the risk from piracy, hacking, phishing, etc., of the data provided to us is very high.

1.1.6 Smart Wearables

To finish this first vocabulary list, the Smart Wearables or smart Wearables are Wearables equipped with intelligence. If the latter allows them to connect to other elements, then they are often connected Objects.


A very official ISO notice based on existing technology and the market simply says that a smart device is an element that possesses electronic connectivity and/or an embedded computational power.

1.2 The position of this book

After these few generic words about Wearables in the broad sense of the term, in the context of this book we have deliberately chosen to divide the totality of the Wearables mentioned above according to two large sub-groups:

–the Wearables that are not purely textile and clothing, that we will generally refer to in this book in a non-pejorative way as "accessories"; examples: watches, bracelets, glasses, shoes, etc.;

–the Wearables that are in the categories of textiles and clothing; examples: material, fibers, fabric clothes, etc., and their applicative features (comfort, EPI, sport, medical, etc.).

With these introductory words invoking our near future, let us now begin to focus on this wide world by detailing it a little.


Non-textile and Textile Wearables


As we said, we will immediately distinguish between non-textile Wearables, accessories and textile Wearables that go into smart textiles and apparel.


Electronics in textiles; Non-textile Wearable; Smart textile system; Textile material; Textile Wearable; intelligent textiles; fibertronics

As we said, we will immediately distinguish between non-textile Wearables, accessories and textile Wearables that go into smart textiles and apparel.

2.1 Non-textile Wearables or accessories

Among the very long list of non-textile Wearables, there are also different non-limiting categories:

–those geared towards health applications (trackers, fitness, etc.);

–those geared towards gadgets/geeks (Christmas hats, event bracelets, presents, etc.);

–those dedicated to Fashion (watches, shoes, scarves, etc.).

We will look at these in detail in Chapter 5.

2.2 Textile Wearables

We will now move once more onto a few definitions, terms and vocabulary specific to the part on textile Wearables.

Taking into account the developments and growth of the textile Wearables market, and the appetite of designers, start-ups, journalists, etc., the terms used to designate sophisticated textile products have multiplied willy-nilly: "smart textiles, intelligent textiles, e-textiles, fibertronics, electronic textiles" and so on. This profusion of terms contributes to maintaining and/or propagating numerous misunderstandings because some of them define textiles that integrate new technologies born out of technoscience, although this sector actually includes:

–all textile products, which means those with more than 80% of their weight made up of textile fibers according to the 2008/121/CE directive, at the semi-finished stage or as completed articles (clothes, sheets, carpets);

–textiles whose functions are very varied and not necessarily limited to communication functions, in the form of data storage and exchange;

–the smart textiles sector, which does not only cover textile materials that include electric and electronic components.

In this context, a normative working group of the CEN dedicated to smart textiles (that is to say, smart textiles that are able to interact with their environment) wrote a technical report in 2011 (under revision in 2018), which we will look at in detail in Chapter 6.

Knowing that the vocabulary constantly evolves and that the most current terms are smart textiles or intelligent textiles, let us now attempt to define a few other terms and encourage their use.

2.3 Smart textiles

After having carried out this mini-tour of the landscape of textiles in general, we will begin by characterizing what is implied in the level of intelligence of textiles.

2.3.1 Definitions

According to the European Standard CEN/TR 16298

"Smart textiles are the textile materials or textile systems that possess supplementary intrinsic and functional properties that are not normally associated with

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