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Solution of Certain Problems in Quantum Mechanics

Solution of Certain Problems in Quantum Mechanics

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Solution of Certain Problems in Quantum Mechanics

Lunghezza:
115 pagine
38 minuti
Pubblicato:
Feb 28, 2018
ISBN:
9780486829616
Formato:
Libro

Descrizione

Intended for advanced undergraduates and graduate students in mathematics, physics, and chemistry, this work teaches problem-solving using the theory of special functions. The concise treatment presents the theory methodically and in detail to a wide variety of problems in atomic and molecular physics. The overall applicability of this method and its extension to solving these problems are discussed with attention to detail seldom found in textbooks of this level.
Starting with a brief introduction to the hypergeometric equations and their properties, a step-by-step method consisting of six distinct parts illustrates how to address typical problems in quantum physics in a simple and uniform fashion. This technique can also be applied to the solution of other problems, for which the Schrödinger equation can be reduced by some means to an equation of the hypergeometric type. Topics include the discrete spectrum eigenfunctions, linear harmonic oscillators, Kratzer molecular potential, and the rotational correction to the Morse formula. The text concludes with an Appendix that presents an original Fourier transform-based method for converting multicenter integrals to a single center.
Pubblicato:
Feb 28, 2018
ISBN:
9780486829616
Formato:
Libro

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Anteprima del libro

Solution of Certain Problems in Quantum Mechanics - A. Bolotin

manuscript.

Chapter 1

THE HYPERGEOMETRIC FUNCTION

Many basic problems of quantum mechanics, such as the motion of a particle in a centrally-symmetric field, the linear harmonic oscillator, solving the Schrödinger, Dirac and Klein-Gordon equations for a Coulomb potential, and the motion of a particle in a uniform electric and magnetic field, lead to the differential equation

where σ(x) is a polynomial of degree no higher than one.

A number of model problems in atomic, molecular, and nuclear physics, such as solving the Schrödinger equation with the Morse, Kratzer, Poschl-Teller potentials, etc., also result in equation (1.1). Later in the text we will show that the classical orthogonal polynomials (Jacoby, Lagguere, Hermite polynomials), spherical, cylindrical, and hypergeometric functions, often referred to as special functions, are all particular solutions of equation (1.1).

Throughout this book, we will assume that the variable x and the coefficients of the polynomials σ(x)can have either real or complex values.

Examples

1. The well-known Schrödinger equation for the linear harmonic oscillator has the form

We see that equation (1.2) is a special case of equation (1.1) with σ(x) = 1,

Indeed, after bringing (1.2) to file:///D:/_KURAL/E-Others/Courier/99/Silk/QC/OEBPS/img/12_3.jpga common denominator and multiplying it by −1, it becomes

2. The differential equation for the spherical harmonics resulting from the Schrödinger equation for a centrally-symmetric potential is

where x = cos θ. One can see that

3. It is known that the radial part of the Schrödinger equation for a particle in a Coulomb field is (assuming the elementary charge e = 1)

After bringing it to a common denominator and multiplying by −1, we have

It follows that

By making the substitution u = φ(x)y and choosing the function φ(x) in a certain way, one can simplify equation (1.1) to read

where τ(x) is a polynomial of degree no higher than one, and λ is a constant.

In particular, if we choose u = φ(x)y, then

and

After substituting these into (1.1), we arrive at

or, upon dividing this equation by φ(x),

For equation (1.6) to be no more complex than the initial equation (1.1), we require that the coefficient at y′ be of the form τ(x), where τ(x) is a polynomial of degree no higher than one:

Then

where π(x) is a polynomial of degree no higher than one. From (1.7) we find

Since

equation (1.6) becomes

Let us transform the coefficient of y in equation (1.9):

where

After substituting (1.10) into equation (1.9), we have

It follows from equations (is a polynomial of degree no higher than two. Therefore, (1.12) is an equation of the same type as (1.1). In other words, we have found a transformation class that does not alter the type of equation. Let us make use of the freedom of an arbitrary choice of the polynomial π(x) to maximally simplify the form of equation (1.12). To this end, we choose the coefficients of the polynomial π(x) from (1.12) is divisible (without remainder) by the polynomial σ(x), so

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