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Sweet Potato Processing Technology

Sweet Potato Processing Technology

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Sweet Potato Processing Technology

Lunghezza:
759 pagine
Pubblicato:
Apr 13, 2017
ISBN:
9780128129371
Formato:
Libro

Descrizione

Sweet Potato Processing Technology systematically introduces processing technologies of sweet potato starch and its series products including sweet potato protein, dietary fibers, pectin, granules, anthocyanins and chlorogenic acids. The book provides a detailed and comprehensive account of physicochemical and functional properties of sweet potato products, the nutritional components extracted from sweet potato, as well as their utilization in food, medicine and cosmetic fields.

This book can provide the scientific basis and technical support for virtuous circle promotion and structure upgrade of sweet potato processing industry. This book will be a valuable reference for undergraduate and graduate students, as well as specialists and enterprise research staff in the field of food technology.

  • Introduces processing technologies for sweet potato starch and related products
  • Covers utilization of nutritional components extracted from sweet potato in various products
  • Provides the scientific basis and technical support for virtuous circle promotion and structure upgrade of the sweet potato processing industry
Pubblicato:
Apr 13, 2017
ISBN:
9780128129371
Formato:
Libro

Informazioni sull'autore

Prof. Mu’s research expertise includes physicochemical, functional and nutritional properties of potato and sweet potato components; comprehensive utilization of potato and sweet potato byproducts; application and industrialization of ultra-high pressure food processing technology for food protein; application of bioactive peptides produced from potato and sweet potato. Prof. Mu has presided over and participated in more than 50 projects in National High-tech Research and Development Program (863 Program), National Scientific and Technological Support Project, scientific and technological achievements transformation for Ministry of Science and Technology, and corporate cross-cutting project, etc. He has obtained 10 CN patents, and published 86 peer-reviewed journal articles and 12 books. His projects ‘Study on recovery technology and functional properties of sweet potato protein from starch processing wastewater’ and ‘Study and demonstration of recycling technology of sweet potato starch processing residues ’ won the prize of achievement from Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science and Technology in 2010 and 2013, respectively.

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Sweet Potato Processing Technology - Taihua Mu

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Chapter 1

Sweet Potato Starch and its Series Products

Abstract

This chapter introduces the overview, production technology, physicochemical properties, and applications of sweet potato starch and its series products. It starts by presenting the structure and morphology, chemical composition, and characteristics of sweet potato starch, as well as the research on sweet potato starch noodles and vermicelli and resistant starch. It then explains production technology of sweet potato starch, starch noodles and vermicelli, and resistant starch and followed a briefly introduction on physicochemical properties of sweet potato starch, starch noodles, and vermicelli. By the end of the chapter, the applications of sweet potato starch and resistant starch are explained, suggesting the deep-processing products of sweet potato starch can play important roles in wide areas and industries.

Keywords

Sweet potato starch; resistant starch; sweet potato starch noodles; production technology; structure; physicochemical properties; quality; applications

Outline

Section 1: Overview of Sweet Potato Starch and its Series Products

1.1 Sweet Potato and its Starch

1.2 The Structure and Morphology of Sweet Potato Starch

1.2.1 Amylose and Amylopectin

1.2.2 X-Ray Diffraction Type

1.2.3 Morphology and Size of Sweet Potato Starch

1.3 Chemical Composition of Sweet Potato Starch

1.3.1 Amylose Content

1.3.2 Lipid Content

1.3.3 Phosphorus Content

1.3.4 Moisture Content

1.4 Characteristics of Sweet Potato Starch

1.4.1 Gelatinization Temperature

1.4.2 Gelatinization Enthalpy

1.4.3 Swelling Power

1.4.4 Solubility

1.4.5 Retrogradation Rate

1.4.6 Viscosity

1.5 Sweet Potato Starch Noodles and Vermicelli

1.5.1 Brief Introduction to Starch Noodles and Vermicelli

1.5.2 Research on Starch Noodles and Vermicelli

1.6 Sweet Potato Resistant Starch

Section 2: Production Technology of Sweet Potato Starch and its Series Products

2.1 Production Technology of Sweet Potato Starch

2.2 The Production Process of Sweet Potato Starch Noodles and Vermicelli

2.2 1 Brief Introduction of the Production Process of Sweet Potato Starch Noodles and Vermicelli

2.2.2 The Sweet Potato Starch Noodle and Vermicelli Production Process without Alum

2.3 The Sweet Potato Resistant Starch Production Process

2.3.1 Sweet Potato Esterified Starch

2.3.2 Sweet Potato Acetylated Starch

2.3.3 Sweet Potato Microporous Starch

2.3.4 Sweet Potato Starch-based Super Absorbent Resin

Section 3: Physicochemical Properties of Sweet Potato Starch and its Products

3.1 The Structure and Physicochemical Properties of SLPS and CFS

3.1.1 Proximate Composition

3.1.2 Structural Analysis

3.1.3 Physicochemical Characteristics Analysis

3.2 Comparison of the Quality of SLPS and CFS

3.2.1 Color of the Sweet Potato Starches and Noodles

3.2.2 Retrogradation of Starch and Noodles

3.2.3 Cooking Quality

3.2.4 Textural Properties

3.2.5 Microstructure

Section 4: Applications of Sweet Potato Starch

4.1 Application of Sweet Potato Starch in Food

4.2 Applications of Sweet Potato Resistant Starch

4.2.1 Applications of Sweet Potato Esterified Starch

4.2.2 Application of Sweet Potato Acetylated Starch

4.2.3 Application of Sweet Potato Starch-Based Superabsorbent Resin

References

Further Reading

Section 1: Overview of Sweet Potato Starch and its Series Products

1.1 Sweet Potato and its Starch

Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam) is an annual herb of the family Convolvulaceae. According to the FAO statistics, as of 2010, there were more than 100 countries planting sweet potato worldwide. The production in Asia is the greatest, accounting for 91.4%; Africa is second, accounting for 5.1%, followed by Latin America, and then Europe. In Asia, the countries with large growing areas are China, Japan, South Korea, Vietnam, and Indonesia (Zhu et al., 2011). Since the 16th century (Ming Dynasty), sweet potato has become an important crop in China, with a large planting area that runs from the southern part of Hainan Province to the northern part of Heilongjiang Province (Zhu et al., 2011). Presently, China’s annual sweet potato production is 70.96 million tonnes, accounting for about 68% of the world’s sweet potato production and genetic resources (FAOSTAT, 2016). Starch is the main component of sweet potato, accounting for about 50% to 80% of its dry weight (Aina et al., 2009; Zhu et al., 2011). Therefore, sweet potato is an ideal starch resource and energy crop.

Sweet potato starch plays an important role in the food, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries. Raw materials can produce natural starch and modified starch by primary processing. After the deep processing of natural starch and modified starch, varied starch products can be produced, such as glucose, maltogenic amylase, sugar substitutes, citric acid, sorbitol, vitamin C, and so on (Cai et al., 2008). In the food industry, sweet potato starch cannot only be used as a processing material, in addition to being used in the manufacturing of vermicelli, jelly, and other consumable products, but also as a food additive, which can be used in food as a thickener, stabilizer, or tissue reinforcing agent to improve foods to retain water, control water flow, and maintain food storage quality (Cai et al., 2008; Aina et al., 2009). Dutch Rabobank published an international food and agricultural research report on starch production in the world in 2003 (Chang, 1993), which pointed out that starch had become an important way for grain consumption. Among the numerous processed agricultural products, starch has the widest range of applications. Starch and its products are not only used for soups, meats, flavorings, breads, and drinks, but they can also be used for the production of textiles, paper, fuel, adhesives, plastics, and paints. The structure, composition, and characteristics of starch are important indices that determine its application (Chen et al., 2003).

1.2 The Structure and Morphology of Sweet Potato Starch

1.2.1 Amylose and Amylopectin

Starch is a kind of high molecular polysaccharide that is composed of a single type of sugar unit. The basic structure of starch is D-glucose, and the starch molecules form covalent polymers through the linkage of the glycosides after the D-glucose excises the water molecules. The structure of sweet potato starch is mainly composed of two kinds of polymers, amylose, and amylopectin, which are found in starch from other plant species.

1.2.1.1 The Structure of Amylose

The structure of amylose is usually expressed by the average degree of polymerization (DP), and the number-average DP (DPn) and the weight-average DP (DPw) are the most common representational methods used for DP. In addition, the range of DP is called the apparent polymerization degree distribution. The DPn of sweet potato amylose is between 4400 and 3025, DPw is 5400, and the distribution range of DP is between 19,100 and 840 (Gao, 2001). The DPw/DPn ratio of sweet potato starch is 1.3, which indicates that the molecular weight distribution of sweet potato starch is narrow, the homogeneous degree of DP distribution is high, and most sweet potato starch has a molecular weight less than the DPn (Gao, 2001).

There are many reports on the molecular weight of sweet potato amylose. Namutebi (2003) found that the average molecular weight of sweet potato starch amylose is from 367,000 to 521,000, which was much higher than that of 83,000 to 141,000 reported by Zhang and Oates (1999). These differences may be due to the different varieties of sweet potato and also may be caused by different determination methods.

1.2.1.2 The Structure of Amylopectin

The structural model of amylopectin indicates that starch molecules have complex branches. To facilitate the structural analysis, the structures of the starch molecules were divided into three types, A, B, and C, and associated characteristics were determined, including the A chain’s reducing end is connected through α-1,6 linkages with the B or C chain; the B chain is connected with one or a plurality of A chains, its reducing end is connected through α-1,6 linkages with the C chain; the C chain is the main chain containing reducing ends. Amylopectin molecules have one C chain; therefore, one end of the C chain is the reducing end, and the other end is the nonreducing end. The chain length of amylopectin is generally reported as the average chain length. Chain length refers to the number of glucose residues in each of the nonreducing ends. Fig. 1.1 shows the structure of sweet potato amylopectin. The sweet potato amylopectin is mainly composed of three kinds of branched chains, A, B, and C, which is similar to the structure in other starches. The C chain, as the main chain, is located at the reducing end of the amylopectin molecule, the reducing end group is connected through −1,6 linkage, and the B chain is connected with one or a plurality of A chains. Sweet potato amylopectin is generally dominated by its B chain (>11 glucose residues per long chain), and the A chain (≤11 glucose residues per short chain) is shorter than the B chain. The average chain length of sweet potato amylopectin was between 6 and 45 glucose residues/chain, where the proportion of average chain length from 6 to 10, from 11 to 15, from 16 to 20, from 21 to 30, and from 30 to 45 glucose residues/chain out of the total average chain length distribution of amylopectin were 12.4%–15.2%, 33.2%–33.8%, 22.9%–24.6%, 21.1%–23.0%, and 6.3%–7.1%, respectively (Namutebi et al., 2003).

Figure 1.1 Structural schematic diagram of sweet potato amylopectin (Aina et al., 2009).

1.2.2 X-Ray Diffraction Type

Starch has a stable crystal region, which is considered to be an ordered arrangement of amylopectin molecules in the starch granule. Different starches can be divided into A, B, or C, with C being a hybrid between A and B types. Sweet potato starch is mainly A type (Cai, 2008) but also has some C type (Zhu et al., 2011) or CA type, which is between the A and C types (Ahmed et al., 2010; Noda et al., 1996, 2001). Fig. 1.2 shows the X-ray diffraction patterns of three kinds of sweet potato starch (Namutebi et al., 2003). These three kinds of sweet potato starch showed diffraction peaks at 15.0, 17.0, 17.8, and 23 (2), which are the typical of A-type starch (Noda et al., 1996). The crystal type of sweet potato starch might also change under certain conditions. Thus, the A type of sweet potato starch could be transformed into the B-type after being treated by high hydrostatic pressure technology (Ong et al., 1994; Gao et al., 2001). The C-type of sweet potato starch can also be gradually transformed into the B type by decreasing the cultivation temperature to an ambient temperature for sweet potato (Noda et al., 2001). The crystallinity of sweet potato starch was usually 38%, which was higher than that of cassava (37%) or potato (28%) (Gao et al., 2001).

Figure 1.2 X-ray diffraction patterns of three types of sweet potato starches.

1.2.3 Morphology and Size of Sweet Potato Starch

The morphologies and sizes of natural starch granules are mainly determined by the starches’ origin, and the differences in these properties can be determined by optical or electron microscopy. The granule shape of sweet potato starch is polygonal or circular, partly oval, and bell shaped. The particle size distribution ranges from 3.4 to 27.5 μm, and the average particle size is between 8.4 and 15.6 μm. Different sweet potato starches have different particle sizes, and the particle sizes for the same kinds of sweet potato starches can also increase gradually with the growth and maturation of the sweet potato (Kitahara et al., 2002). However, the soils’ fertility, and the sweet potato planting and harvesting dates, have little effect on the particle size (Noda et al., 1996, 1997). In addition, the swelling power, solubility, and digestibility characteristics were affected by the granule size of sweet potato starch. These starch granules are larger; therefore, the swelling power and solubility are greater, but the digestibility decreases significantly (Zhang et al., 2001).

1.3 Chemical Composition of Sweet Potato Starch

1.3.1 Amylose Content

Starches from most crops contain ~25% amylose (Chen et al., 2003). The amylose content of sweet potato starch is between 15.3% and 28.8% (Table 1.1). The amylose content of sweet potato is affected by the variety and the processing method. Heat treatments slightly increase the sweet potato amylose content (Lilia et al., 1999), while α-amylase treatments significantly reduce the amylose content, suggesting that amylose is susceptible to enzymatic attack and then degradation (Rocha et al., 2010). However, the amylose contents in the same sweet potato varieties grown in different areas did not change significantly (Garcia et al., 1998), and sweet potato planting and harvesting times, as well as the fertilization status, also have no significant effects on the sweet potato amylose content (Noda et al., 1997). The amylose level also directly affects the retrogradation rate, gelatinization temperature, and swelling property of the sweet potato starch. Generally, the higher the amylose content, the faster the retrogradation rate, the higher the gelatinization temperature, and the lower the swelling power (Noda et al., 1996).

Table 1.1

Chemical Composition of Sweet Potato Starch

1.3.2 Lipid Content

Lipids influence the properties of sweet potato starch. The formation of a starch–lipid complex can improve the textural properties of various foods (Chen et al., 2003). Compared with the lipid content of cereal starch, the lipid content in sweet potato starch is low, so the effect of the starch–lipid interaction on the starch properties is not significant (Gao et al., 2001). The lipid content in sweet potato starch ranges from 0.14% to 0.21% (Table 1.1), but its content is also different in the starch of different sweet potato varieties (Collado et al., 1999). The presence of a high lipid content inhibits the swelling and dissolution of sweet potato starch granules, increases the opacity of the starch paste and membrane, influences the thickening and adhesive abilities, and leads to the oxidative rancidity of starch (Chen et al., 2003). However, the appropriate addition of lipids can also reduce the viscosity of sweet potato starch and improve the stability of the starch paste (Gao et al., 2008).

1.3.3 Phosphorus Content

There was a large difference in the phosphorus content of different sweet potato varieties, and the phosphorus content in sweet potato starch ranged from 0.014% to 0.022% (Table 1.1). Most of the phosphorus in the sweet potato starch bound with starch molecules through covalent bonds. The phosphorus content ranged from 290 to 320 g/g, and its content in amylose (3–6 μg/g) is lower than that in amylopectin (117–144 μg/g; Chen et al., 2003). There are no significant effects of different fertilizer levels on the phosphorus content of sweet potato starch (Noda et al., 1996). Usually, phosphorus increases the viscosity and improves the gel strength of sweet potato starch. At the same time, phosphorus reduces the gelatinization temperature of sweet potato starch, accelerates the hydration and swelling, and increases the transparency (Chen et al., 2003). Thus, sweet potato starch with high a phosphorus content is suitable for the production of starch noodles/vermicelli.

1.3.4 Moisture Content

The moisture content of sweet potato starch ranges from 8% to 11.8% (Table 1.1). The moisture level of sweet potato starch mainly depends on the degree of starch dryness and also depends on the starch and water-binding capacity (Chen et al., 2003). The higher the moisture content of starch, the easier microbes grow, resulting in a lower quality. For most of the starch production areas, the safe storage moisture content is below 13% (Gao, 2001). China’s national standards for the moisture content of starch indicates that the desired moisture contents of potato starch and cassava starch were less than 14% and 18%, respectively, and the maximum moisture contents should not exceed 15% and 20%, respectively. However, there are no national standards for the moisture content of sweet potato starch.

1.4 Characteristics of Sweet Potato Starch

1.4.1 Gelatinization Temperature

Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) determined the pasting parameters, Tonset (To), Tpeak (Tp), and Tend, of sweet potato starch as being 66.2–71.3°C, 69.5–79.78°C, and 80.4–88.5°C, respectively, with Tend rarely decreasing to 75.29°C (Table 1.2), whereas the gelatinization temperature range of sweet potato starch, as determined by rapid viscosity analyzer, mostly ranged from 65.9 to 79.9°C, with a small peak at 87.7°C (Table 1.3). The differences in the pasting temperature values were obtained by DSC and the rapid viscosity. In addition, the gelatinization temperatures of sweet potato starch from different varieties and regions are also different. During sweet potato cultivation, earlier planting times can significantly improve the To, while later harvest times can reduce the To (Noda et al., 1997). However, the fertilizer concentration has little effect on the gelatinization temperature of sweet potato starch (Noda et al., 1996).

Table 1.2

DSC Properties, Swelling Power and Solubility of Sweet Potato Starch

Note: ToTonset, initial pasting temperature; Tp—Tpeak, peak pasting temperature; TH—gelatinization enthalpy.

Table 1.3

Paste Parameters of Sweet Potato Starches

1.4.2 Gelatinization Enthalpy

The gelatinization enthalpy of sweet potato starch is related to its amylopectin, intramolecular bonds, genes, and environmental factors (Gao, 2001). The enthalpy value of sweet potato starch is between 7.8 and 15.5 J/g (Table 1.2). Because sweet potato amylopectin is the main component of its crystalline region, the higher the amylopectin content, the greater the enthalpy (Zhang and Oates, 1999). The gelatinization enthalpy is also significantly affected by the different varieties and the different planting conditions (Noda et al., 1996; Garcia et al., 1998). In addition, the gelatinization enthalpy of starch from sweet potato during the early growth period is low, between 11.8 and 13.4 J/g (Kitahara et al., 2002), whereas postponing the harvest date increases the gelatinization enthalpy of sweet potato starch (Noda et al., 1997).

1.4.3 Swelling Power

The swelling power of starch was determined at 85°C. The swelling power of sweet potato starch was between 32.5 and 50 mL/g (as shown in Table 1.2), showing strong intramolecular forces. Sweet potato starch has two section expansions, suggesting that there are two kinds of binding forces (Chen et al., 2003). The swelling power is different for sweet potato starch from different varieties and is also significantly different for starch from the same sweet potato varieties under different temperature conditions (Aina et al., 2009; Chen et al., 2003). Recent research showed that the swelling power of sweet potato starch is greatly influenced by amylose, which plays the role of diluent in the starch expansion process, especially when amylose and lipid compounds form complexes. Then, the swelling of starch granules can be significantly inhibited (Gao, 2001). However, some studies showed that there is no significant correlation between the amylose content and swelling power (Collado et al., 1999). In addition, the swelling power of sweet potato starch is also affected by the molecular weight and molecular shape of amylopectin. The more amylopectin with 6–9 glucose residues/chain, the greater the swelling power of starch, whereas the more amylopectin with 12–22 glucose residues/chain, the smaller the swelling power (Gao, 2001).

1.4.4 Solubility

The solubility of sweet potato starch is between 1.5% and 13.65% (as shown in Table 1.2). The lower solubility of sweet potato starch might be because of the smaller size of the starch granules, stronger internal binding capabilities, and less glucose containing phosphate groups. Starches from different sweet potato cultivars showed different solubility levels. The solubility of starch increased with the temperature increase, and the highest solubility reached 13.65% at temperatures above 85°C (Moorthya, 2010). The solubility of some of the commercial sweet potato starch produced in Peru reached 28% (Garcia et al., 1998). In addition, when the temperature was below 60°C, the solubility of starch from sweet potatoes of different regions showed no significant differences. However, when the temperature was higher than 60°C, the difference was significant (Nuwamanya et al., 2010). The greater the swelling power, the greater the solubility of the starch, but at the same temperature treatment, the dissolution rates of sweet potato starch from different varieties were not exactly the same (Gao, 2001).

1.4.5 Retrogradation Rate

During the short-term retrogradation after starch gelatinization, the amylose molecules can be rearranged into parallel straight lines, and further gelatinization requires temperatures of up to 130°C (Tan et al., 2008). In addition, during the long-term retrogradation after starch gelatinization, the external branches of amylopectin also slowly recrystallize, producing recrystallized amylopectin, which can also regelatinize to the gel state at temperatures below 55°C. Under the same conditions, compared with other starches, the retrogradation rate of corn starch is the fastest, which is mainly due to the higher content of amylose (28%) and lipids (0.8%) (Gao, 2001). The amylose and lipid contents of sweet potato starch are relatively low. By contrast, sweet potato starch shows a low-to-moderate retrogradation rate (Collado et al., 1999). The retrogradation rate and degree of retrogradation of sweet potato starch increase with the increase in the amylose content. An increase of short-branched chains (CL 12–14 glucose residues/chain) in amylopectin causes the retrogradation rate to accelerate, whereas an increase of short-branched chain (CL 9–11 glucose residues/chain) in amylopectin causes the retrogradation rate to decelerate (Miyazaki, 2000; Zhang and Oates, 1999). In addition, the retrogradation of sweet potato starch is also dependent on the concentration, storage temperature, pH value, and chemical compositions of starch. At high starch concentrations, low storage temperatures, and a suitable range of pH conditions, the retrogradation rate accelerates, whereas the retrogradation rate decreases significantly at higher ionic concentrations (Gao, 2001; Ishiguroa et al., 2003).

1.4.6 Viscosity

The peak, lowest, breakdown, final, and setback viscosity ranges of sweet potato starch (concentration of 10%, w/w) were from 143 to 469 Rapid Visco Unit (RVU), from 91 to 214 RVU, from 29.4 to 255 RVU, from 82.9 to 284 RVU, and from 15 to 78 RVU, respectively (Table 1.3). The viscosity properties of sweet potato starch are greatly influenced by the variety of sweet potato starch, the starch content, and the interactions between different components (Gao, 2001; Nuwamanya et al., 2010). There are significant differences between the peak viscosities and the peak times in different cultivars of sweet potato starch, and the peak viscosity and the amylose content have a significant negative correlation (Collado et al., 1999). However, other studies reported that the peak viscosity and the amylose content are irrelevant (Chen et al., 2003). In addition, the higher the starch concentration, the greater the viscosity (Yuan et al., 2008). The presence of lipid compounds in starch reduces the peak viscosity of the starch paste and improves its stability (Gao et al., 2008).

The breakdown viscosity of starch is an important parameter when measuring the stability of starch paste, which reflects the ability to resist mechanical shearing during heating. The lower the breakdown viscosity, the higher the shearing resistance. Similar to other starches, the breakdown value of sweet potato starch is not only affected by the various starch components but is also affected by the fine structure of sweet potato amylopectin. It is also affected by the fine structure of sweet potato starch. The higher the proportion of long chains in the amylopectin, the higher the stability. This was mainly because the amylopectin long chains can intertwine with other amylopectin molecules, reducing its decentralized trend, increasing the radius of gyration, and maintaining the starch viscosity at the same time (Zaidul et al., 2007; Yuan, 2008).

The retrogradation viscosity is different between the breakdown of viscosity and final viscosity, which is an index that measures the starch retrogradation rate. For different varieties of sweet potato starch, the retrogradation rate is different. This is mainly dependent on the amylose content and amylopectin properties of sweet potato starch. An ideal starch widely used in food should have characteristics that maintain its stability and form a smooth structure at low concentrations, keeping it soft and flowing at low temperatures and resistant to high shearing at high temperatures (Garcia et al., 1998).

1.5 Sweet Potato Starch Noodles and Vermicelli

1.5.1 Brief Introduction to Starch Noodles and Vermicelli

Starch noodles and vermicelli, with thousands of years of history, are traditional foods generally preferred in China and the majority of Asian countries and regions (Zhao et al., 2009). The noodles are made by sweet potato starches isolated during sour liquid processing (SLPS), the traditional technology in China. The starch and other impurities are separated by sour liquid produced by natural fermentation, but the method is complicated, highly empirical, and the extraction time relied on nature, including the season, climate (air humidity, temperature, etc.), geography, and bacteria. It was not suitable for mechanization or automation for continuous production. Therefore, the noodles and vermicelli have been made by sweet potato starches by centrifugation (CFS) in recent years.

1.5.2 Research on Starch Noodles and Vermicelli

Starch noodle and vermicelli have been produced for a long time, but relevant research reports on their production factors are limited and were mainly from China, Japan, and Southeast Asian countries. Wei (1987) studied mung bean dipping, the isolation and identification of Lactococcus lactis in the sour liquid, and the relationship between starch extraction and metal ions during Longkou vermicelli production. They then promoted a new method to improve the recovery rate of starch. Qian (1990) reported systematic research on the properties of raw starch and the physicochemical properties of vermicelli. Yuan (1991) studied the physicochemical properties, including X-ray diffraction, amylose and amylopectin content, relative molecular weight, starch swelling power, and the solubility and its related characteristics, of vermicelli made by the starches from mung bean, broad bean, potato, and sweet potato. Zhang (2001) introduced this Chinese specialty food in the German authoritative academic journal Starch, causing widespread concern. Chen et al. (2003) studied the physicochemical properties of starches from three sweet potato varieties found in China and the quality of the noodles they produced and found that sweet potato starch is not only suitable for producing starch noodles, but also that the sensory qualities of the starch noodles made by SuShu8 starch are better than those produced by mung bean starch. In addition, the smaller the sweet potato starch particles’ size, the better the starch noodles’ texture. Huang et al. (2008) found that the sweet potato amylose content and gel strength are significantly positively correlated with shear stress and deformation, and tensile strength and deformation and were significantly negatively correlated with the breaking rate of starch noodles. The lower the starch gelatinization temperature, the more obvious the long-term retrogradation and the better the noodles quality. Similar results were also found in the study of Zhao et al.

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