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# Unified Non-Local Relativistic Theory of Transport Processes

## Descrizione

*Unified Non-Local Relativistic Theory of Transport Processes* highlights the most significant features of non-local relativistic theory, which is a highly effective tool for solving many physical problems in areas where the classical local theory runs into difficulties. The book provides the fundamental science behind new non-local physics – generalized for relativistic cases and applied in a range of scales – from transport phenomena in massless physical systems to unified theory of dissipative structures.

The book complements the author’s previous monograph on *Unified Non-Local Theory of Transport Processes* (Elsevier, 2015), which is mainly devoted to non-relativistic non-local physics. Nevertheless, the theory as handled in this new work is outlined independently so the book can be studied on its own.

- Comprehensive collection of non-local relativistic theory with examples that could previously only be found scattered in the literature
- Provides applications in quantum non-local relativistic hydrodynamics, quantum solitons in solid matter, and plasmas
- Uses generalized non-local kinetic theory as a highly effective tool for solving many physical problems beyond classical physics
- Presents non-local relativistic physics in many related problems of hydrodynamics, gravity, nonlinear optics, time quantization, and applied mathematics
- Includes concrete mathematical problems that are physically consistent and can be solved and studied both analytically and numerically

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### Unified Non-Local Relativistic Theory of Transport Processes - Boris V. Alexeev

**Unified Non-Local Relativistic Theory of Transport Processes **

First Edition

Boris V. Alexeev

*Moscow Technological University, Moscow, Russia *

**Table of Contents **

**Cover image **

**Title page **

**Copyright **

**Preface **

**Introduction: Review of the Main Principles of the Unified Nonlocal Theory of Transport Processes **

**I.1 The Principles of Nonlocal Physics **

**I.2 On the Solution of Fundamental Problems of Nonlocal Statistical Theory of Dissipative Processes **

**I.3 Fundamental Postulates of the Special Theory of Relativity **

**Chapter 1: Hydrodynamic Form of the Dirac Quantum Relativistic Equation **

**Abstract **

**1.1 Derivation of the Dirac Equation **

**1.2 Hydrodynamic Form of Dirac Equation in the Absence of an External Field **

**1.3 Hydrodynamic Form of the Dirac Equation in an External Electromagnetic Field **

**Chapter 2: Generalized Relativistic Nonlocal Kinetic Equation Without Taking Into Account the External Forces **

**Abstract **

**2.1 The Collision Integral **

**2.2 Nonlocal Relativistic Kinetic Equation **

**2.3 Model Generalized Relativistic Kinetic Equation **

**Chapter 3: Classical Relativistic Equilibrium Distribution Function and Computation of Equilibrium Values of Some Macroscopic Quantities **

**Abstract **

**3.1 The Derivation of the Formula for the Classical Equilibrium Distribution Function **

**3.2 The Calculation of the Number Density **

**3.3 The Calculation of the Energy Density and Pressure **

**3.4 The Calculation of the Density of Entropy **

**Chapter 4: Generalized Relativistic Hydrodynamic Enskog Equations Without Regard to External Forces **

**Abstract **

**4.1 Derivation of the Continuity Equation **

**4.2 Derivation of the Motion Equation **

**4.3 Derivation of the Energy Equation **

**4.4 Generalized Enskog System of Relativistic Hydrodynamic Equations **

**Chapter 5: Generalized Relativistic Hydrodynamic Euler Equations Without Taking Into Account the External Forces **

**Abstract **

**5.1 Components of Tensor Physical Quantities in the Local Rest System **

**5.2 The Lorentz Transformation Law for Tensor Physical Quantities in One-Dimensional Case **

**5.3 Generalized Relativistic Euler Equations for One-Dimensional Motion **

**5.4 Generalized One-Dimensional Nonrelativistic Euler Equations as the Asymptotic Behavior of the Relativistic Equations **

**5.5 Generalized Relativistic Euler Equations for Arbitrary Motion **

**5.6 Generalized Nonrelativistic Euler Equations for an Arbitrary Motion as an Asymptotic Form of the Relativistic Equations **

**Chapter 6: The Solution of Some Physical Problems on the Basis of the Nonlocal Relativistic Equations Without Taking Into Account the External Forces **

**Abstract **

**6.1 The Propagation of Plane Harmonic Waves of Small Amplitude in the Ultra-Relativistic Medium **

**6.2 Shock Waves in Relativistic Gas **

**6.3 The Collision of Nucleons **

**Chapter 7: Nonlocal Relativistic Kinetic Equation and Hydrodynamic Enskog Equations Taking Into Account the External Forces **

**Abstract **

**7.1 Nonlocal Relativistic Kinetic Equation Taking Into Account the External Forces **

**7.2 The Derivation of the Continuity Equation **

**7.3 The Derivation of the Motion Equation **

**7.4 The Derivation of the Energy Equation **

**7.5 Generalized System of Relativistic Hydrodynamic Enskog Equations **

**7.6 Generalized System of Relativistic Hydrodynamic Enskog Equations for Multicomponent Mixture **

**Chapter 8: Generalized Relativistic Euler Equations Taking Into Account External Forces **

**Abstract **

**8.1 Components of Tensor Physical Quantities in the Local Rest System **

**8.2 The Lorentz Transformation Law for Tensor Physical Quantities in One-Dimensional Case **

**8.3 Generalized Relativistic Euler Equations for One-Dimensional Motion **

**8.4 Generalized One-Dimensional Nonrelativistic Euler Equations as the Asymptotic Behavior of the Relativistic Equations **

**Chapter 9: Application of the Generalized Relativistic Kinetic and Hydrodynamic Equations to the Study of Graphene **

**Abstract **

**9.1 Features of the Band Structure of Graphene **

**9.2 Generalized Kinetic and Hydrodynamic Equations for Graphene in an Electric Field **

**9.3 Wave Transfer in Graphene **

**9.4 The Hall Effect in the Relativistic Nonlocal Theory of Massless Particles **

**Chapter 10: Application of Relativistic Nonlocal Physics in the Theory of Gravitational Field Interaction With a Laser Beam **

**Abstract **

**10.1 Nonlocal Physics and Gravitational Waves **

**10.2 Basic Equations of Relativistic Nonlocal Physics Having Regard to External Forces **

**10.3 Calculation of the Tensor Moments for the Laser Beam Evolution **

**10.4 Nonlocal Relativistic Equations in the Explicit Form **

**10.5 Wave Solutions for GFR-Interaction **

**Chapter 11: Application of the Generalized Relativistic Hydrodynamic Equations to the Study of the Interaction of Planck Radiation With the Gravitational Field **

**Abstract **

**11.1 About the Influence of Gravitational Field on Radiation **

**11.2 Nonlocal Relativistic Hydrodynamic Equations for Equilibrium Radiation **

**11.3 Local Equilibrium Radiation in Gravitational Field for the One-Dimensional Stationary Case **

**11.4 Self-Similar Solutions of Hydrodynamic Equations for Planck Radiation in Gravitational Field **

**Chapter 12: Connection Between Time Quantization in the Frame of Nonlocal Relativistic Physics and Shannon-Nyquist-Kotelnikov Theorem **

**Abstract **

**12.1 About the Time Quantization **

**12.2 Systems of Generalized Relativistic Hydrodynamic Equations in the Shannon-Nyquist-Kotelnikov Theory **

**12.3 Shannon-Nyquist-Kotelnikov Theorem as a Consequence of Nonlocal Physics: Time Quantization **

**Appendices **

**Appendix 1 Elements of the Theory of Tensors **

**Appendix 2 Conservation of Phase Volume dx¹dx,2dx,3dt Under the Lorentz Transformations **

**Appendix 3 The Relativistic Invariance of the Substantial Derivative in One-Dimensional Motion **

**Appendix 4 Integration of Four-Dimensional Divergence in Momentum Space **

**Tensor **

**Index **

**Copyright **

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**Preface **

We are faced with a tremendous catastrophe in modern theoretical physics. Moreover, we have reached this revolutionary situation not only in physics but also in natural philosophy as a whole. Practically speaking, we have been facing this new challenge since Newton’s *Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy *was first published in 1687. It is almost impossible to believe that in more than 300 years since Newton’s time, we have a situation wherein 96% of matter and energy is of unknown origin. As shown in my monograph (Boris V. Alexeev, *Unified Non-Local Theory of Transport Processes, *Elsevier, 2015), the origin of difficulties consists in the total oversimplification inherent in local physics of the dissipative processes.

In the latter part of the 20th century, two very important results were obtained:

(1) The Irish physicist John Stewart Bell (1928–90) showed that all local statistical theories of dissipative processes are wrong in principle.

(2) The Russian physicist Boris V. Alexeev showed that the derivation of the kinetic equation with respect to one-particle distribution function from the BBGKY equations (prior to introducing any approximation destined to break the Bogolyubov chain) leads to additional terms of the nonlocal origin, generally of the same order of magnitude as those that appear in the Boltzmann equation. Then the transfer to the Boltzmann equation means the neglect of nonlocal effects. These additional terms cannot be omitted even in the limited cases of kinetic theory; therefore, the Boltzmann equation is only a plausible equation.

Therefore, the case in point is of unprecedented situation in physics, when the fundamental physical equation is revised.

The scientific community was convinced that the mentioned results could lead only to rather small corrections in the modern theoretical physics. So to speak—4% corrections compared to 96% of the known results, but not quite the reverse! Many scientists are aware that answers will be achieved after creation of the unified theory of transport processes working from the structure of so-called elementary particles to the universe’s evolution. This theory was developed in the aforementioned monograph *Unified Non-Local Theory of Transport Processes*. This monograph, *Unified Non-Local Relativistic Theory of Transport Processes*, can be considered as a natural prolongation of my previous monograph, which is mainly devoted to nonrelativistic nonlocal physics. Nevertheless, I tried to outline a theory independently without regard to *Unified Non-Local Theory of Transport Processes *as far as possible. With this aim, I included a vast "**Introduction." As a result, I had the opportunity to highlight the most significant features of nonlocal theory. It is safe to say—as the main result of the nonlocal physical kinetics—that this theory has proven to be a highly effective tool for solving many physical problems in areas where the classical theory runs into difficulties. **

I am deeply indebted to V.L. Ginzburg for his interest in this work and in the subject in general. I am thankful to V. Mikhailov, I. Ovchinnikova, and A. Fedoseyev for their cooperation.

**Boris V. Alexeev **

February 2016

**Introduction: Review of the Main Principles of the Unified Nonlocal Theory of Transport Processes **

Abstract

The main principles of the unified nonlocal theory of transport processes are considered from a qualitative point of view. But what does it mean—from the physical point of view—to create the unified theory (UT) of matter? It means:

(1) The concept of matter is the notion uniting the description of particles evolution, fields, and physical vacuum.

(2) Particles

can have masses of rest which are equal (or not equal) to zero.

(3) The mathematical description can be realized in the frame of a unified mathematical apparatus for the tremendous scale diapason from the structure of so-called elementary particles to the universe’s evolution.

In this section, the solution of fundamental problems of nonlocal statistical theory of dissipative processes including the problems of dark matter, dark energy, and the universe’s creation are considered. Fundamental postulates of the special theory of relativity are discussed.

Keywords: Unified nonlocal theory of transport processes, Dark matter, Dark energy, Big Bang, Special theory of relativity

**I.1 The Principles of Nonlocal Physics **

We are facing a tremendous catastrophe in modern theoretical physics. Moreover, we have reached this revolutionary situation not only in physics but also in natural philosophy as a whole. Practically, we have been facing this new challenge since Newton’s *Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy *was first published in 1687. It is impossible to believe that more than 300 years since Newton, we have a situation wherein 96% of matter and energy is of unknown origin. Recently, the scientific community was convinced that the following physics development could lead only to rather small corrections in the modern theoretical physics. So to speak—4% corrections compared to 96% of the known results, but not quite the reverse!

The situation puts us in mind of the beginning of the 20th century. On Friday, April 27, 1900, the British physicist Lord Kelvin gave a speech entitled Nineteenth-Century Clouds over the Dynamical Theory of Heat and Light

(see *The London, Edinburgh and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science*, Series 6, volume 2, page 1), which contained the affirmation: The beauty and clearness of the dynamical theory, which asserts heat and light to be modes of motion, is at present obscured by two clouds.

What are the clouds? Kelvin means two unexplained phenomena, which he portrayed as the final couple of holes that needed to be filled in before having a complete understanding of the thermodynamic and energy properties of the universe, explained in classical terms as the motion of particles. Namely:

1. The inability to detect the luminous ether, specifically the failure of the Michelson-Morley experiment.

2. The black body radiation known as the ultraviolet catastrophe.

, but begins to diverge with empirical observations as these frequencies reach the ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

An interesting story arose around Planck’s decision to study physics. He was advised by Philipp von Jolly in Munich against going into physics because in this field, almost everything is already discovered, and all that remains is to fill a few holes.

That was in 1874.

It would be interesting to listen to the Kelvin and Jolly reaction to the present-day situation. Now many scientists are aware that some way out will be achieved after creation of the unified theory of transport processes (UT) working from the structure of so-called elementary particles to the universe’s evolution.

This theory is created and presented particularly in Refs. **1–7. **

As is shown in these monographs and articles, the origin of difficulties consists in the total oversimplification inherent in local physics of the dissipative processes. In the latter part of the 20th century, two very important results were obtained:

(1) The Irish physicist John Stewart Bell (1928–90) showed that all local statistical theories of dissipative processes are wrong in principle.

(2) The Russian physicist Boris V. Alexeev showed that the derivation of the kinetic equation with respect to one-particle distribution function from the Bogolyubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon (BBGKY) equations (prior to introducing any approximation destined to break the Bogolyubov chain) leads to additional terms of the nonlocal origin, generally of the same order of magnitude as those that appear in the Boltzmann equation (BE). Then the transfer to the BE means the neglect of nonlocal effects. These additional terms cannot be omitted even in the limited cases of kinetic theory; therefore the BE is only a plausible equation.

Therefore, the case in point is of an unprecedented situation in physics, when the fundamental physical equation is revised. During my stay in Marseille as invited professor, A.J.A. Favre reminded me of Henri Poincaré’s statement after the death of the great Austrian physicist—Boltzmann was wrong, but his mistake is equal to zero.

It is a pity, but the situation in kinetic theory is much more serious.

Several extremely significant problems challenge modern fundamental physics, which can be titled as Nonsolved problems of the fundamental physics,

or more precisely, of *local physical kinetics *of dissipative processes, namely:

(1) Kinetic theory of entropy and the problem of the initial perturbation.

(2) Strict theory of turbulence.

(3) Quantum nonrelativistic and relativistic hydrodynamics, theory of charges separation in the atom structure.

(4) Theory of ball lightning.

(5) Theory of dark matter.

(6) Theory of dark energy, Hubble expansion of the universe.

(7) The destiny of antimatter after the Big Bang.

(8) A UT of dissipative structures from atom structure to cosmology.

(9) Cold nuclear fusion.

(10) Strict physical theory of levitation.

(11) Time quantization and physical sense of the Nyquist-Shennon-Kotelnikov theorem.

The solution of all problems given above can be found by methods of nonlocal physics.**⁷ **

But what does it mean from the physical point of view—the creation of the UT of matter? It means:

(1) The concept of matter is the notion uniting the description of particles evolution, fields, and physical vacuum.

(2) Particles

can have the masses of rest which are equal (or not equal) to zero.

(3) The mathematical description can be realized in the frame of a unified mathematical apparatus for the tremendous scale diapason from the structure of so-called elementary particles to the universe’s evolution.

It is well known that this problem was considered by Albert Einstein, without success. Let us consider the genesis and evolution of the mentioned UT from the position of nonlocal physics.

It is reasonable to divide the nonlocal theory evolution into two time periods.

**The first stage **(conventional speaking) corresponds to the years 1982 (see**⁶)–2004 (see⁷). The main ideas of this period can be formulated as follows. **

Transport processes in open dissipative systems are considered in physical kinetics. Therefore, the kinetic description is inevitably related to the system diagnostics. Such an element of diagnostics in the case of theoretical description in physical kinetics is the concept of the physically infinitely small volume (PhSV). The correlation between theoretical description and system diagnostics is well known in physics. Suffice it to recall the part played by test charge in electrostatics or by test circuit in the physics of magnetic phenomena.

The traditional definition of PhSV contains a statement to the effect that the PhSV contains a sufficient number of particles for introducing a statistical description; however, at the same time, the PhSV is much smaller than the volume *V *of the physical system under consideration.

In a first approximation, this leads to the local approach in investigating the transport processes. It is assumed in classical hydrodynamics that local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) is first established within the PhSV, and only after that the transition occurs to global thermodynamic equilibrium if it is at all possible for the system under study.

Let us consider the hydrodynamic description in more detail from this point of view. Assume that we have two neighboring physically infinitely small volumes PhSV1 and PhSV2 in a nonequilibrium system. The one-particle distribution function (DF) *fsm*,1(**r**1, **v**, *t*) corresponds to the volume PhSV1, and the function *fsm*,2(**r**2, **v**, *t*) to the volume PhSV2. It is assumed in a first approximation that *fsm*,1(**r**1, **v**, *t*) does not vary within PhSV1, just as *fsm*,2(**r**2, **v**, *t*) does not vary within the neighboring volume PhSV2. It is this assumption of locality that is implicitly contained in the Boltzmann equation (BE). *However, the assumption is too crude*.

Indeed, a particle on the boundary between two volumes, which experienced the last collision in PhSV1 and moves toward PhSV2, introduces information about the *fsm*,1(**r**1, **v**, *t*) into the neighboring volume PhSV2. Similarly, a particle on the boundary between two volumes, which experienced the last collision in PhSV2 and moves toward PhSV1, introduces information about the DF *fsm*,2(**r**2, **v**, *t*) into the neighboring volume PhSV1. The relaxation over translational degrees of freedom of particles of like masses occurs during several collisions. As a result, Knudsen layers

are formed on the boundary between neighboring physically infinitely small volumes, the characteristic dimension of which is of the order of path length.

Then a correction must be introduced into the DF in the PhSV, which is proportional to the mean time between collisions and to the substantive derivative of the DF being measured. Rigorous derivation is given, for example, in Refs. **2–7. **

Let a particle of finite radius be characterized as before by the position **r **at the instant of time *t *of its center of mass moving at velocity **v**. Then, the situation is possible where, at some instant of time *t*, the particle is located on the interface between two volumes. In so doing, the lead effect is possible (say, for PhSV2), when the center of mass of particle moving to the neighboring volume PhSV2 is still in PhSV1. However, the delay effect takes place as well, when the center of mass of the particle moving to the neighboring volume (say, PhSV2) is already located in PhSV2 but a part of the particle still belongs to PhSV1.

Moreover, even the point-like particles (starting after the last collision near the boundary between two mentioned volumes) can change the distribution functions in the neighboring volume. Adjusting of the particles dynamic characteristics for translational degrees of freedom takes several collisions. Therefore we experience a Knudsen layer

effect between adjacent small volumes. This leads to fluctuations in mass and hence also in other hydrodynamic quantities. The existence of such Knudsen layers

is not dependent on the choice of spatial nets and is fully defined by the reduced description for ensemble of particles of finite diameters in the conceptual framework of open physically small volumes, i.e., it depends on the chosen method of measurement.

The main mistake of local physical kinetics can be indicated as follows. This entire complex of the mentioned effects defines nonlocal effects in space and time. The physically infinitely small volume (PhSV) is an *open *thermodynamic system *for any division of macroscopic system by a set of PhSVs*.

However, the BE fully ignores nonlocal effects and contains only the local collision integral *JB*. The foregoing nonlocal effects are insignificant only in equilibrium systems, where the kinetic approach changes to methods of statistical mechanics.

This is what the difficulties of classical Boltzmann physical kinetics arise from. Nonlocal effects can be demonstrated with the help of animation of particles, which are considered as a neutral hard sphere gas. An animated film created at the Moscow State University of Fine Chemical Technologies (MITHT) by B.V. Alexeev and E. Mikhailova illustrates nonlocal effects. Refer to the animation picture. Let a certain volume contains a single-component rarefied gas with mainly paired collisions. Using the spatial grid, we divide the nonequilibrium physical system to the open subsystems that are considered as a set of physically infinitesimal volumes. Select one of these small volumes. To observe the evolution of the particles in the selected volume and its neighboring small volumes, we paint particles and follow their motion. In the selected physically small volume all particles are colored in blue; we have