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Diet For Diabetics

Diet For Diabetics

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Diet For Diabetics

Lunghezza:
255 pagine
1 ora
Pubblicato:
Jul 1, 2016
ISBN:
9788172241520
Formato:
Libro

Descrizione

Diabeties is a common disease, with diet playing a major role in its control. Any diet for diabetics usually conjures up a vision of bland, unappetizing food. This book reassures the diabetic that delicious food is certainly not a thing of the past. With a variety of mouth-watering, nutritious and easy-to-make recipes, it is enough to tease the taste buds of every diabetic. The book also gives important information about diabeties, its signs and symptoms, the proportion of carbohydrates, fats and proteins to be taken, precautions and an obesity chart to check the danger level.
Pubblicato:
Jul 1, 2016
ISBN:
9788172241520
Formato:
Libro

Informazioni sull'autore


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Anteprima del libro

Diet For Diabetics - Vijay

India

PREFACE

It gives me immense pleasure to write these few words of encouragement and appreciation for the splendid work done by Mrs. G. Padma Vijay. As a practising doctor and a regular speaker in medical forums, questions about diet is common. As doctors we are normally short of time and perhaps short of knowledge about cookery. Our advice is restricted to negative instructions. Do not eat sugar, sweets etc. But this is not enough.

We are now living longer. Our style of living has becoming westernized and a large segment of our Indian population is suffering from the disease of affluence. Diabetes is increasing in incidence. It causes increase in mortality and morbidity. With proper care the danger can be kept under control.

Diet and exercise forms the fulcrum of long term management of diabetic persons. It is not enough to give a vague order. He/she has to eat four times a day and like every normal person his diet should be nutritive, varied and appetising.

This aspect will be well served by this book. It gives a good background of diabetes-its signs and symptoms, caloric value and mouth-watering dishes, both vegetarian and non-vegetarian. Mrs. Padma Vijay has very efficiently dealt with the topic. Her style is good and the contents are accurate.

I hope the book will receive the good response it rightly deserves. In the end, I must mention thanks to Dr. C. V. Talwalkar, my teacher and revered diabetologist of Bombay, for his foreword.

Dr. M. A. CHITNIS

Ex-President, Indian Medical Association,

New Bombay.

Industrial Health Physician

PART

I

WHAT IS DIABETES ?

Diabetes mellitus as it is called, is common in human beings, although it occurs in other species too. The term diabetes means an excessive discharge of urine. The term mellitus (sweet) indicates that the urine in this condition contains excess sugar.

MECHANISM OF DIGESTIVE PROCESS IN

NORMAL HUMAN BEINGS

Fats, minerals, vitamins, proteins and carbohydrates make a wholesome diet. Of these, fats, proteins and carbohydrates are the three main constituents of food. The deficiency or absorption of any of the above, affects the body. In diabetes, due to lack or non-availability of insulin, carbohydrates cannot be utilised for energy and get accumulated.

We get carbohydrates from cereals, fruits, vegetables like potatoes, cakes, sugar, sweets etc. These carbohydrates in normal people is first broken down into glucose by the saliva in the mouth and then in the stomach and the small intestine. This glucose, distributed by the blood to all parts of the body, is burned down to provide energy for the body and also releases carbondioxide and water, which are excreted through exhalation and the kidney. The remaining glucose is stored in the liver muscle cells in the form of glycogen, which is later used, when energy is required. The glucose also reaches the adipose tissue and is converted into triglyserides which is stored in the form of fat. So people who consume an excess of carbohydrates tend to become fat. Thus, in every human body, a blood-glucose level is maintained for proper brain and heart functions.

ISLETS OF LANGERHANS

Islets of Langerhans is a special group of cells in the pancreas. There are four types of cells in the Islets of Langerhans. 'A' cells secrete a hormone called glucagon, 'B' cells secrete insulin, 'D' cells secrete somatostanin and the 'F' cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide. Of these hormones, glucagon, insulin and somatostanin, plan an important role in balancing blood-sugar level. Excess or deficiency of any of these three hormones causes diabetes mellitus and other blood-sugar level complications. Insulin deficiency, either absolute or relative, causes diabetes mellitus, which is a complex disease and if untreated, is eventually fatal. Insulin in excess causes hypoglycaemia. Hypoglycaemia is a condition, in which the blood-sugar level is present below the normal level i.e. below 80 mg per 100 ml blood. Hypoglycaemia may lead to the person developing convulsions and coma.

However, hypoglycaemic symptoms are relieved by the administration of glucose. But occassional hypoglycaemic episodes is the price of good diabetic control.

The reverse is the effect of the hormone glucagon. Somatostanin, if secreted in excess leads to hyperglycaemia and other manifestations of diabetes.

INSULIN

Insulin is a polypeptide, containing 2 chains of amino-acids, linked by di-sulphide bridges. It iS synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum of the B cells of the islets of Langerhans. The gene for insulin is located on chromosome 11 in human beings. Insulin is a hypoglycaemic anti-diabetic factor and the protein hormone which regulates the blood glucose level. It increases the deposition of glucose in the liver and muscles as glycogen. It also increases the oxidation of glucose to carbondioxide in the tissues and depresses formation of glucose from sources other than carbohydrates.

Therefore insulin plays an important role in the transfer of glucose from the blood to cells for storage. But, in diabetics, due to deficiency of insulin hormone, this transport is affected, as a result of which glucose gets accumulated in the blood. So, insulin in the form of injections is given to diabetic patients to keep them healthy.

TYPES OF DIABETES

There are two common types spontaneous diabetes in human beings: Maturity-onset diabetes and Juvenile-onset diabetes.

MATURITY-ONSET DIABETES

Half of the diabetic cases are maturity onset diabetes. It is also known as non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). It usually develops after the age of 40. Almost all patients, with this form of diabetes are obese. It has been hypothesized that, the individuals who develop maturity-onset diabetes, overeat.

JUVENILE-ONSET DIABETES

Less than ten per cent cases are juvenile onset diabetes. It is also known as insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Juvenile-onset diabetes develops before the age of 40. It is not associated with obesity and is often complicated by ketosis and acidosis (refer to symptoms of diabetes). It is an auto-immune disease and a significant number of patients treated with immuno-suppressive drugs early in the course of their disease have shown marked improvement. It has been hypothesized that juvenile-onset diabetes does not have a family history of diabetes, but is due to viral infection which leads to the destruction of 'B' cells of the islets of Langerhans by the COXSACK1E VIRUSES.

Though heredity is one of the main reasons for diabetes it has been proved that it is not directly passed on to all the children, although the tendency to develop it is high. So, in at least a quarter of the cases, there is a family history of some person having diabetes. In children, where both parents are diabetic or at least one of the parents is diabetic, the chances of getting it is high, compared to children with normal parents. This also includes children who are born of mothers already on insulin. It is not diabetes, that is passed on to the next generation, but the lack of the gene that prevents it. So it is the genetic make-up that promotes or prevents diabetes.

People who are obese are more prone to getting the disease, because overeating throws an excess strain on the pancreas, resulting in the abnormality of insulin receptors or reduction of insulin secretion. This is also due to a pancreatic disease called pancreatitis or hyporsecretion of somatostanin by the 'D' cells of the islets of Langerhans.

In some cases, diabetes has been diagnosed after a prolonged period of stress in their lives. It has been hypothesized that on the excessive secretion of adrenaline and cortisone-the stress hormones, there is an occurrence of diabetes.

Glandular disorders are also the cause of diabetes. If the growth hormone produced by the pituitary gland is overactive, there is a chance of the occurrence of diabetes. Diabetes has been diagnosed among those children who are overgrown compared to

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