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The Stability and Shelf Life of Food

The Stability and Shelf Life of Food

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The Stability and Shelf Life of Food

valutazioni:
5/5 (2 valutazioni)
Lunghezza:
1,253 pagine
185 ore
Pubblicato:
May 24, 2016
ISBN:
9780081004364
Formato:
Libro

Descrizione

The second edition of The Stability and Shelf-life of Food is a fully revised and thoroughly updated edition of this highly-successful book. This new edition covers methods for shelf-life and stability evaluation, reviewing the modelling and testing of the deterioration of products as well as the use of sensory evaluation methods for testing food spoilage.

The first part of the book focuses on deteriorative processes and factors influencing shelf-life, covering aspects such as chemical deterioration, physical instability and microbiological spoilage. The effects of process and packaging on the stability and shelf-life of products are also covered in this part. Part Two reviews the methods for shelf life and stability evaluation. These include sensory evaluation methods and instrumental methods to determine food quality deterioration. The final section of the book covers stability of important ingredient categories, from oils and fats, to beverages such as beer, wine, coffee and fruit juices, in addition to bakery products and meats.

With updated chapters reflecting advances made in the field and with the addition of new chapters covering the stability and shelf-life a variety of products, this new edition will provide the latest research for both academics working in the field of food quality as well as providing essential information for food scientists working in industry.

  • Thoroughly revised and updated edition of a very popular and well regarded book
  • Includes dedicated chapters covering the shelf-life and stability of specific products making this book ideal for those working in industry
  • Presents a wide coverage of the processes and factors influencing shelf-life, the evaluation of stability and shelf-life and the stability and shelf-life of particular products makes this book valuable for both academics and those working in industry
Pubblicato:
May 24, 2016
ISBN:
9780081004364
Formato:
Libro

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The Stability and Shelf Life of Food - Elsevier Science

The Stability and Shelf Life of Food

Second Edition

Editor

Persis Subramaniam

Table of Contents

Cover image

Title page

Related titles

Copyright

Contributors

Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition

Part One. Deteriorative Processes and Factors Influencing Shelf Life

1. Microbiological Spoilage of Foods and Beverages

1.1. Introduction

1.2. Spoilage Microorganisms of Foods and Beverages

1.3. Factors Affecting Microbial Growth in Foods and Beverages

1.4. Assessment of Microbiological Spoilage of Foods and Beverages

1.5. Predicting Microbiological Spoilage of Foods and Beverages

1.6. Control of Microbiological Spoilage of Foods and Beverages

1.7. Future Trends

1.8. Sources of Further Information and Advice

2. Chemical Deterioration and Physical Instability of Foods and Beverages

2.1. Introduction

2.2. Chemical Deterioration and Physical Instability of Foods and Beverages

2.3. Factors Affecting the Rate of Quality Loss Due to Chemical Deterioration and Physical Instability

2.4. Measuring Chemical Deterioration and Physical Instability of Foods and Beverages

2.5. Predicting and Monitoring Chemical Deterioration and Physical Instability of Foods and Beverages

2.6. Preventing Chemical Deterioration and Physical Instability of Foods and Beverages

2.7. Future Trends

2.8. Sources of Further Information

3. Packaging and Food and Beverage Shelf Life

3.1. Introduction

3.2. Role of Packaging in Extending Food and Beverage Shelf Life

3.3. Major Packaging Materials

3.4. Key Package Properties Related to Shelf Life

3.5. Predicting Shelf Life of Packaged Foods and Beverages

3.6. Packaging Migrants and Food and Beverage Shelf Life

3.7. Future Trends

3.8. Sources of Further Information and Advice

4. Effects of Food and Beverage Storage, Distribution, Display, and Consumer Handling on Shelf Life

4.1. Introduction

4.2. Overview of the Cold Chain

4.3. Storage Life

4.4. Sectors of the Cold Chain and Their Influence on Food Quality and Safety

4.5. Future Trends

4.6. Sources of Further Information and Advice

5. Smart Packaging for Monitoring and Managing Food and Beverage Shelf Life

5.1. Introduction

5.2. Freshness Indicators

5.3. Leak Indicators

5.4. Time–Temperature Integrators

5.5. Future Trends

Part Two. Methods for Shelf Life and Stability Evaluation

6. Food Storage Trials

6.1. Introduction

6.2. Food Deterioration and Spoilage

6.3. Storage Trials

6.4. Future Trends

7. Sensory Evaluation Methods for Food and Beverage Shelf Life Assessment

7.1. Introduction

7.2. Background to Sensory Evaluation

7.3. Why Do We Measure Sensory Shelf Life?

7.4. Methods

7.5. Selection and Training of Assessors

7.6. References for Sensory Shelf Life Assessment

7.7. Ethical Considerations

7.8. Design of Sensory Shelf Life Tests

7.9. Analysis of Sensory Shelf Life Data

7.10. Accelerated Shelf Life Test

7.11. Future Trends

8. Advances in Instrumental Methods for Shelf Life Evaluation

8.1. Introduction

8.2. Assessing Food Appearance

8.3. Measurement of Relative Humidity, Moisture, and Water Activity

8.4. Texture Evaluation

8.5. Evaluation of Rheological Properties of Liquid and Semisolid Foods

8.6. Assessing Lipid Oxidation

8.7. Electronic Nose

8.8. Electronic Tongue

8.9. Infrared Spectroscopy

8.10. Microbiological Test

8.11. Future Trends

8.12. Sources of Further Information and Advice

9. Modeling the Microbiological Shelf Life of Foods and Beverages

9.1. Introduction

9.2. Predictive Models

9.3. Applying Predictive Models to Particular Foods

9.4. Additional Practical Considerations

Part Three. The Stability and Shelf Life of Particular Products

10. Beer Shelf Life and Stability

10.1. Introduction

10.2. Review of the Brewing Process

10.3. Biological Instability

10.4. Physical Instability

10.5. Flavor Stability

10.6. Foam Stability

10.7. Gushing

10.8. Light Stability

10.9. Conclusions

11. Shelf Life of Wine

11.1. Introduction

11.2. Factors Affecting Wine Stability and Shelf Life

11.3. Sensory Changes During In-Bottle Storage

11.4. Determining Shelf Life

11.5. Measures to Extend Shelf Life

11.6. Sensory Significance of Shelf Life Changes

11.7. Future Trends

11.8. Sources of Further Information and Advice

12. The Stability and Shelf Life of Fruit Juices and Soft Drinks

12.1. Introduction

12.2. Factors Influencing the Stability of Fruit Juices and Soft Drinks

12.3. Ensuring Product Stability and Extending Shelf Life

12.4. Shelf Life Determination

12.5. Future Trends

13. The Stability and Shelf Life of Coffee Products

13.1. Introduction

13.2. Main Critical Events Affecting the Stability and Shelf Life of Coffee Products

13.3. Ensuring Stability and Extending the Shelf Life of Coffee

13.4. Evaluating the Shelf Life of Coffee

13.5. Future Trends

14. Emerging Technologies to Extend the Shelf Life and Stability of Fruits and Vegetables

14.1. Introduction

14.2. Stability and Shelf Life of Fruits and Vegetables

14.3. Extending the Shelf Life of Fruit and Vegetables

14.4. Stability Through Integrated Postharvest Treatments

14.5. Controlled, Modified Atmosphere, and Active Packaging for Longer Shelf Life

14.6. Stability Through Nondestructive Quality Estimation

14.7. Future Trends

15. Bread and Other Bakery Products

15.1. Introduction

15.2. A Brief Overview of the Manufacture of Bakery Products

15.3. The Key Fresh Characteristics of Bakery Products

15.4. Factors Affecting the Stability of Bread and Other Bakery Products

15.5. Evaluating the Shelf Life of Bread and Other Bakery Products

15.6. Ensuring Stability and Extending the Shelf Life of Bread and Other Bakery Products

15.7. Future Trends

16. The Stability and Shelf Life of Fats and Oils

16.1. Introduction

16.2. Mechanisms of Oxidation and Hydrolysis in Fats and Oils

16.3. Factors Affecting the Stability and Shelf Life of Fats and Oils

16.4. Evaluating the Shelf Life of Fats and Oils

16.5. Ensuring Stability and Extending the Shelf Life of Fats and Oils

16.6. Effect of High-Temperature Storage and Use of Oils

16.7. Future Trends

16.8. Sources of Further Information and Advice

17. Seafood

17.1. Introduction

17.2. Factors Affecting the Stability and Shelf Life of Seafood

17.3. Fermented Fish Products

17.4. Microorganisms Involved in Seafood Spoilage

17.5. Microbiological Safety Issues

17.6. Evaluation of the Shelf Life of Seafood

17.7. Future Trends

17.8. Sources of Further Information and Advice

18. The Stability and Shelf Life of Meat and Poultry

18.1. Introduction

18.2. Factors Affecting the Stability and Shelf Life of Meat and Poultry

18.3. Evaluating the Shelf Life of Meat and Poultry

18.4. Ensuring Stability and Extending the Shelf Life of Meat and Poultry

18.5. Future Trends

18.6. Sources of Further Information and Advice

19. The Stability and Shelf Life of Confectionery Products

19.1. Introduction

19.2. Factors Affecting Shelf Life

19.3. Chocolate and Chocolate Products

19.4. Sugar Glass

19.5. Toffee

19.6. Gums and Jellies

19.7. Aerated Confectionery

19.8. Sources of Further Information and Advice

Index

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(ISBN 978-0-12394-601-0)

Food microstructures: Microscopy, Measurement and Modelling

(ISBN 978-0-85709-525-1)

Novel Thermal and Non-Thermal Technologies for Fluid Foods

(ISBN 978-0-12381-470-8)

Copyright

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No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Details on how to seek permission, further information about the Publisher’s permissions policies and our arrangements with organizations such as the Copyright Clearance Center and the Copyright Licensing Agency, can be found at our website: www.elsevier.com/permissions.

This book and the individual contributions contained in it are protected under copyright by the Publisher (other than as may be noted herein).

Notices

Knowledge and best practice in this field are constantly changing. As new research and experience broaden our understanding, changes in research methods, professional practices, or medical treatment may become necessary.

Practitioners and researchers must always rely on their own experience and knowledge in evaluating and using any information, methods, compounds, or experiments described herein. In using such information or methods they should be mindful of their own safety and the safety of others, including parties for whom they have a professional responsibility.

To the fullest extent of the law, neither the Publisher nor the authors, contributors, or editors, assume any liability for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions, or ideas contained in the material herein.

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A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress

ISBN: 978-0-08-100435-7 (print)

ISBN: 978-0-08-100436-4 (online)

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Contributors

M. Anese,     University of Udine, Udine, Italy

P. Ashurst,     Ashurst and Associates, Ludlow, United Kingdom

C.J.M. Beeren

S. Calligaris,     University of Udine, Udine, Italy

S.P. Cauvain,     BakeTran, Witney, United Kingdom

A.G. de Bouillé

J. Evans,     London South Bank University, London, United Kingdom

R. Jackson,     CCOVI, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON, Canada

F. Kong,     University of Georgia, Athens, GA, United States

A. Lianou,     Agricultural University of Athens, Athens, Greece

C.M.D. Man,     London South Bank University, London, United Kingdom

L. Manzocco,     University of Udine, Udine, Italy

M.C. Nicoli,     University of Udine, Udine, Italy

G.-J.E. Nychas,     Agricultural University of Athens, Athens, Greece

C. O'Mahony,     Creme Global, Dublin, Ireland

M.G. O'Sullivan,     University College Cork, UCC, Cork, Ireland

E.Z. Panagou,     Agricultural University of Athens, Athens, Greece

M. Reig,     Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Valencia, Spain

G.L. Robertson,     University of Queensland and Food•Packaging•Environment, Brisbane, Australia

D.L. Seman,     DL Seman Consulting LLC, Cottage Grove, WI, United States

R.P. Singh

University of California, Davis, CA, United States

Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

M.J. Sousa-Gallagher,     University College Cork, UCC, Cork, Ireland

R. Sousa,     University College Cork, UCC, Cork, Ireland

G.G. Stewart,     International Centre for Brewing and Distilling, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom

P. Subramaniam

G. Talbot,     The Fat Consultant, Bedford, United Kingdom

A. Tank,     University College Cork, UCC, Cork, Ireland

P. Taoukis,     National Technical University of Athens, Athens, Greece

F. Toldrá,     Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos (CSIC), Valencia, Spain

T. Tsironi,     National Technical University of Athens, Athens, Greece

Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition

1 Chilled foods: A comprehensive guide

Edited by C. Dennis and M. Stringer

2 Yoghurt: Science and technology

A. Y. Tamime and R. K. Robinson

3 Food processing technology: Principles and practice

P. J. Fellows

4 Bender’s dictionary of nutrition and food technology Sixth edition

D. A. Bender

5 Determination of veterinary residues in food

Edited by N. T. Crosby

6 Food contaminants: Sources and surveillance

Edited by C. Creaser and R. Purchase

7 Nitrates and nitrites in food and water

Edited by M. J. Hill

8 Pesticide chemistry and bioscience: The food-environment challenge

Edited by G. T. Brooks and T. Roberts

9 Pesticides: Developments, impacts and controls

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10 Dietary fibre: Chemical and biological aspects

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11 Vitamins and minerals in health and nutrition

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12 Technology of biscuits, crackers and cookies Second edition

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13 Instrumentation and sensors for the food industry

Edited by E. Kress-Rogers

14 Food and cancer prevention: Chemical and biological aspects

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15 Food colloids: Proteins, lipids and polysaccharides

Edited by E. Dickinson and B. Bergenstahl

16 Food emulsions and foams

Edited by E. Dickinson

17 Maillard reactions in chemistry, food and health

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18 The Maillard reaction in foods and medicine

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19 Encapsulation and controlled release

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20 Flavours and fragrances

Edited by A. D. Swift

21 Feta and related cheeses

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22 Biochemistry of milk products

Edited by A. T. Andrews and J. R. Varley

23 Physical properties of foods and food processing systems

M. J. Lewis

24 Food irradiation: A reference guide

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25 Kent’s technology of cereals: An introduction for students of food science and agriculture Fourth edition

N. L. Kent and A. D. Evers

26 Biosensors for food analysis

Edited by A. O. Scott

27 Separation processes in the food and biotechnology industries: Principles and applications

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28 Handbook of indices of food quality and authenticity

R. S. Singhal, P. K. Kulkarni and D. V. Rege

29 Principles and practices for the safe processing of foods

D. A. Shapton and N. F. Shapton

30 Biscuit, cookie and cracker manufacturing manuals Volume 1: Ingredients

D. Manley

31 Biscuit, cookie and cracker manufacturing manuals Volume 2: Biscuit doughs

D. Manley

32 Biscuit, cookie and cracker manufacturing manuals Volume 3: Biscuit dough piece forming

D. Manley

33 Biscuit, cookie and cracker manufacturing manuals Volume 4: Baking and cooling of biscuits

D. Manley

34 Biscuit, cookie and cracker manufacturing manuals Volume 5: Secondary processing in biscuit manufacturing

D. Manley

35 Biscuit, cookie and cracker manufacturing manuals Volume 6: Biscuit packaging and storage

D. Manley

36 Practical dehydration Second edition

M. Greensmith

37 Lawrie’s meat science Sixth edition

R. A. Lawrie

38 Yoghurt: Science and technology Second edition

A. Y. Tamime and R. K. Robinson

39 New ingredients in food processing: Biochemistry and agriculture

G. Linden and D. Lorient

40 Benders’ dictionary of nutrition and food technology Seventh edition

D. A. Bender and A. E. Bender

41 Technology of biscuits, crackers and cookies Third edition

D. Manley

42 Food processing technology: Principles and practice Second edition

P. J. Fellows

43 Managing frozen foods

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44 Handbook of hydrocolloids

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48 The stability and shelf-life of food

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49 Functional foods: Concept to product

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50 Chilled foods: A comprehensive guide Second edition

Edited by M. Stringer and C. Dennis

51 HACCP in the meat industry

Edited by M. Brown

52 Biscuit, cracker and cookie recipes for the food industry

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53 Cereals processing technology

Edited by G. Owens

54 Baking problems solved

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55 Thermal technologies in food processing

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56 Frying: Improving quality

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57 Food chemical safety Volume 1: Contaminants

Edited by D. Watson

58 Making the most of HACCP: Learning from others’ experience

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59 Food process modelling

Edited by L. M. M. Tijskens, M. L. A. T. M. Hertog and B. M. Nicolaï

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61 Extrusion cooking: Technologies and applications

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62 Auditing in the food industry: From safety and quality to environmental and other audits

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64 Food product development: Maximising success

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65 Instrumentation and sensors for the food industry Second edition

Edited by E. Kress-Rogers and C. J. B. Brimelow

66 Food chemical safety Volume 2: Additives

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67 Fruit and vegetable biotechnology

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68 Foodborne pathogens: Hazards, risk analysis and control

Edited by C. de W. Blackburn and P. J. McClure

69 Meat refrigeration

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70 Lockhart and Wiseman's crop husbandry Eighth edition

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71 Safety and quality issues in fish processing

Edited by H. A. Bremner

72 Minimal processing technologies in the food industries

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73 Fruit and vegetable processing: Improving quality

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74 The nutrition handbook for food processors

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75 Colour in food: Improving quality

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76 Meat processing: Improving quality

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77 Microbiological risk assessment in food processing

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78 Performance functional foods

Edited by D. Watson

79 Functional dairy products Volume 1

Edited by T. Mattila-Sandholm and M. Saarela

80 Taints and off-flavours in foods

Edited by B. Baigrie

81 Yeasts in food

Edited by T. Boekhout and V. Robert

82 Phytochemical functional foods

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83 Novel food packaging techniques

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84 Detecting pathogens in food

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85 Natural antimicrobials for the minimal processing of foods

Edited by S. Roller

86 Texture in food Volume 1: Semi-solid foods

Edited by B. M. McKenna

87 Dairy processing: Improving quality

Edited by G. Smit

88 Hygiene in food processing: Principles and practice

Edited by H. L. M. Lelieveld, M. A. Mostert, B. White and J. Holah

89 Rapid and on-line instrumentation for food quality assurance

Edited by I. Tothill

90 Sausage manufacture: Principles and practice

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91 Environmentally-friendly food processing

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92 Bread making: Improving quality

Edited by S. P. Cauvain

93 Food preservation techniques

Edited by P. Zeuthen and L. Bøgh-Sørensen

94 Food authenticity and traceability

Edited by M. Lees

95 Analytical methods for food additives

R. Wood, L. Foster, A. Damant and P. Key

96 Handbook of herbs and spices Volume 2

Edited by K. V. Peter

97 Texture in food Volume 2: Solid foods

Edited by D. Kilcast

98 Proteins in food processing

Edited by R. Yada

99 Detecting foreign bodies in food

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100 Understanding and measuring the shelf-life of food

Edited by R. Steele

101 Poultry meat processing and quality

Edited by G. Mead

102 Functional foods, ageing and degenerative disease

Edited by C. Remacle and B. Reusens

103 Mycotoxins in food: Detection and control

Edited by N. Magan and M. Olsen

104 Improving the thermal processing of foods

Edited by P. Richardson

105 Pesticide, veterinary and other residues in food

Edited by D. Watson

106 Starch in food: Structure, functions and applications

Edited by A.-C. Eliasson

107 Functional foods, cardiovascular disease and diabetes

Edited by A. Arnoldi

108 Brewing: Science and practice

D. E. Briggs, P. A. Brookes, R. Stevens and C. A. Boulton

109 Using cereal science and technology for the benefit of consumers: Proceedings of the 12PthInternational ICC Cereal and Bread Congress, 24 – 26PthMay, 2004, Harrogate, UK

Edited by S. P. Cauvain, L. S. Young and S. Salmon

110 Improving the safety of fresh meat

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111 Understanding pathogen behaviour: Virulence, stress response and resistance

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112 The microwave processing of foods

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113 Food safety control in the poultry industry

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114 Improving the safety of fresh fruit and vegetables

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115 Food, diet and obesity

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116 Handbook of hygiene control in the food industry

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117 Detecting allergens in food

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118 Improving the fat content of foods

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119 Improving traceability in food processing and distribution

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120 Flavour in food

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121 The Chorleywood bread process

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122 Food spoilage microorganisms

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123 Emerging foodborne pathogens

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124 Benders’ dictionary of nutrition and food technology Eighth edition

D. A. Bender

125 Optimising sweet taste in foods

Edited by W. J. Spillane

126 Brewing: New technologies

Edited by C. Bamforth

127 Handbook of herbs and spices Volume 3

Edited by K. V. Peter

128 Lawrie’s meat science Seventh edition

R. A. Lawrie in collaboration with D. A. Ledward

129 Modifying lipids for use in food

Edited by F. Gunstone

130 Meat products handbook: Practical science and technology

G. Feiner

131 Food consumption and disease risk: Consumer–pathogen interactions

Edited by M. Potter

132 Acrylamide and other hazardous compounds in heat-treated foods

Edited by K. Skog and J. Alexander

133 Managing allergens in food

Edited by C. Mills, H. Wichers and K. Hoffman-Sommergruber

134 Microbiological analysis of red meat, poultry and eggs

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135 Maximising the value of marine by-products

Edited by F. Shahidi

136 Chemical migration and food contact materials

Edited by K. Barnes, R. Sinclair and D. Watson

137 Understanding consumers of food products

Edited by L. Frewer and H. van Trijp

138 Reducing salt in foods: Practical strategies

Edited by D. Kilcast and F. Angus

139 Modelling microorganisms in food

Edited by S. Brul, S. Van Gerwen and M. Zwietering

140 Tamime and Robinson's Yoghurt: Science and technology Third edition

A. Y. Tamime and R. K. Robinson

141 Handbook of waste management and co-product recovery in food processing Volume 1

Edited by K. W. Waldron

142 Improving the flavour of cheese

Edited by B. Weimer

143 Novel food ingredients for weight control

Edited by C. J. K. Henry

144 Consumer-led food product development

Edited by H. MacFie

145 Functional dairy products Volume 2

Edited by M. Saarela

146 Modifying flavour in food

Edited by A. J. Taylor and J. Hort

147 Cheese problems solved

Edited by P. L. H. McSweeney

148 Handbook of organic food safety and quality

Edited by J. Cooper, C. Leifert and U. Niggli

149 Understanding and controlling the microstructure of complex foods

Edited by D. J. McClements

150 Novel enzyme technology for food applications

Edited by R. Rastall

151 Food preservation by pulsed electric fields: From research to application

Edited by H. L. M. Lelieveld and S. W. H. de Haan

152 Technology of functional cereal products

Edited by B. R. Hamaker

153 Case studies in food product development

Edited by M. Earle and R. Earle

154 Delivery and controlled release of bioactives in foods and nutraceuticals

Edited by N. Garti

155 Fruit and vegetable flavour: Recent advances and future prospects

Edited by B. Brückner and S. G. Wyllie

156 Food fortification and supplementation: Technological, safety and regulatory aspects

Edited by P. Berry Ottaway

157 Improving the health-promoting properties of fruit and vegetable products

Edited by F. A. Tomás-Barberán and M. I. Gil

158 Improving seafood products for the consumer

Edited by T. Børresen

159 In-pack processed foods: Improving quality

Edited by P. Richardson

160 Handbook of water and energy management in food processing

Edited by J. Klemeš, R. Smith and J.-K. Kim

161 Environmentally compatible food packaging

Edited by E. Chiellini

162 Improving farmed fish quality and safety

Edited by Ø. Lie

163 Carbohydrate-active enzymes

Edited by K.-H. Park

164 Chilled foods: A comprehensive guide Third edition

Edited by M. Brown

165 Food for the ageing population

Edited by M. M. Raats, C. P. G. M. de Groot and W. A. Van Staveren

166 Improving the sensory and nutritional quality of fresh meat

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167 Shellfish safety and quality

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168 Functional and speciality beverage technology

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169 Functional foods: Principles and technology

M. Guo

170 Endocrine-disrupting chemicals in food

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171 Meals in science and practice: Interdisciplinary research and business applications

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172 Food constituents and oral health: Current status and future prospects

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173 Handbook of hydrocolloids Second edition

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174 Food processing technology: Principles and practice Third edition

P. J. Fellows

175 Science and technology of enrobed and filled chocolate, confectionery and bakery products

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176 Foodborne pathogens: Hazards, risk analysis and control Second edition

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177 Designing functional foods: Measuring and controlling food structure breakdown and absorption

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178 New technologies in aquaculture: Improving production efficiency, quality and environmental management

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179 More baking problems solved

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180 Soft drink and fruit juice problems solved

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181 Biofilms in the food and beverage industries

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182 Dairy-derived ingredients: Food and neutraceutical uses

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183 Handbook of waste management and co-product recovery in food processing Volume 2

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184 Innovations in food labelling

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185 Delivering performance in food supply chains

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186 Chemical deterioration and physical instability of food and beverages

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187 Managing wine quality Volume 1: Viticulture and wine quality

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188 Improving the safety and quality of milk Volume 1: Milk production and processing

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189 Improving the safety and quality of milk Volume 2: Improving quality in milk products

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190 Cereal grains: Assessing and managing quality

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191 Sensory analysis for food and beverage quality control: A practical guide

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192 Managing wine quality Volume 2: Oenology and wine quality

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193 Winemaking problems solved

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194 Environmental assessment and management in the food industry

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195 Consumer-driven innovation in food and personal care products

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196 Tracing pathogens in the food chain

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197 Case studies in novel food processing technologies: Innovations in processing, packaging, and predictive modelling

Edited by C. J. Doona, K. Kustin and F. E. Feeherry

198 Freeze-drying of pharmaceutical and food products

T.-C. Hua, B.-L. Liu and H. Zhang

199 Oxidation in foods and beverages and antioxidant applications Volume 1: Understanding mechanisms of oxidation and antioxidant activity

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200 Oxidation in foods and beverages and antioxidant applications Volume 2: Management in different industry sectors

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201 Protective cultures, antimicrobial metabolites and bacteriophages for food and beverage biopreservation

Edited by C. Lacroix

202 Separation, extraction and concentration processes in the food, beverage and nutraceutical industries

Edited by S. S. H. Rizvi

203 Determining mycotoxins and mycotoxigenic fungi in food and feed

Edited by S. De Saeger

204 Developing children’s food products

Edited by D. Kilcast and F. Angus

205 Functional foods: Concept to product Second edition

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206 Postharvest biology and technology of tropical and subtropical fruits Volume 1: Fundamental issues

Edited by E. M. Yahia

207 Postharvest biology and technology of tropical and subtropical fruits Volume 2: Açai to citrus

Edited by E. M. Yahia

208 Postharvest biology and technology of tropical and subtropical fruits Volume 3: Cocona to mango

Edited by E. M. Yahia

209 Postharvest biology and technology of tropical and subtropical fruits Volume 4: Mangosteen to white sapote

Edited by E. M. Yahia

210 Food and beverage stability and shelf life

Edited by D. Kilcast and P. Subramaniam

211 Processed Meats: Improving safety, nutrition and quality

Edited by J. P. Kerry and J. F. Kerry

212 Food chain integrity: A holistic approach to food traceability, safety, quality and authenticity

Edited by J. Hoorfar, K. Jordan, F. Butler and R. Prugger

213 Improving the safety and quality of eggs and egg products Volume 1

Edited by Y. Nys, M. Bain and F. Van Immerseel

214 Improving the safety and quality of eggs and egg products Volume 2

Edited by F. Van Immerseel, Y. Nys and M. Bain

215 Animal feed contamination: Effects on livestock and food safety

Edited by J. Fink-Gremmels

216 Hygienic design of food factories

Edited by J. Holah and H. L. M. Lelieveld

217 Manley’s technology of biscuits, crackers and cookies Fourth edition

Edited by D. Manley

218 Nanotechnology in the food, beverage and nutraceutical industries

Edited by Q. Huang

219 Rice quality: A guide to rice properties and analysis

K. R. Bhattacharya

220 Advances in meat, poultry and seafood packaging

Edited by J. P. Kerry

221 Reducing saturated fats in foods

Edited by G. Talbot

222 Handbook of food proteins

Edited by G. O. Phillips and P. A. Williams

223 Lifetime nutritional influences on cognition, behaviour and psychiatric illness

Edited by D. Benton

224 Food machinery for the production of cereal foods, snack foods and confectionery

L.-M. Cheng

225 Alcoholic beverages: Sensory evaluation and consumer research

Edited by J. Piggott

226 Extrusion problems solved: Food, pet food and feed

M. N. Riaz and G. J. Rokey

227 Handbook of herbs and spices Second edition Volume 1

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228 Handbook of herbs and spices Second edition Volume 2

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229 Breadmaking: Improving quality Second edition

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230 Emerging food packaging technologies: Principles and practice

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231 Infectious disease in aquaculture: Prevention and control

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232 Diet, immunity and inflammation

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233 Natural food additives, ingredients and flavourings

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234 Microbial decontamination in the food industry: Novel methods and applications

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235 Chemical contaminants and residues in foods

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236 Robotics and automation in the food industry: Current and future technologies

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237 Fibre-rich and wholegrain foods: Improving quality

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238 Computer vision technology in the food and beverage industries

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239 Encapsulation technologies and delivery systems for food ingredients and nutraceuticals

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240 Case studies in food safety and authenticity

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241 Heat treatment for insect control: Developments and applications

D. Hammond

242 Advances in aquaculture hatchery technology

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243 Open innovation in the food and beverage industry

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244 Trends in packaging of food, beverages and other fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG)

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245 New analytical approaches for verifying the origin of food

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246 Microbial production of food ingredients, enzymes and nutraceuticals

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247 Persistent organic pollutants and toxic metals in foods

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248 Cereal grains for the food and beverage industries

E. Arendt and E. Zannini

249 Viruses in food and water: Risks, surveillance and control

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250 Improving the safety and quality of nuts

Edited by L. J. Harris

251 Metabolomics in food and nutrition

Edited by B. C. Weimer and C. Slupsky

252 Food enrichment with omega-3 fatty acids

Edited by C. Jacobsen, N. S. Nielsen, A. F. Horn and A.-D. M. Sørensen

253 Instrumental assessment of food sensory quality: A practical guide

Edited by D. Kilcast

254 Food microstructures: Microscopy, measurement and modelling

Edited by V. J. Morris and K. Groves

255 Handbook of food powders: Processes and properties

Edited by B. R. Bhandari, N. Bansal, M. Zhang and P. Schuck

256 Functional ingredients from algae for foods and nutraceuticals

Edited by H. Domínguez

257 Satiation, satiety and the control of food intake: Theory and practice

Edited by J. E. Blundell and F. Bellisle

258 Hygiene in food processing: Principles and practice Second edition

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259 Advances in microbial food safety Volume 1

Edited by J. Sofos

260 Global safety of fresh produce: A handbook of best practice, innovative commercial solutions and case studies

Edited by J. Hoorfar

261 Human milk biochemistry and infant formula manufacturing technology

Edited by M. Guo

262 High throughput screening for food safety assessment: Biosensor technologies, hyperspectral imaging and practical applications

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263 Foods, nutrients and food ingredients with authorised EU health claims: Volume 1

Edited by M. J. Sadler

264 Handbook of food allergen detection and control

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265 Advances in fermented foods and beverages: Improving quality, technologies and health benefits

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266 Metabolomics as a tool in nutrition research

Edited by J.-L. Sébédio and L. Brennan

267 Dietary supplements: Safety, efficacy and quality

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268 Grapevine breeding programs for the wine industry

Edited by A. G. Reynolds

269 Handbook of antimicrobials for food safety and quality

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270 Managing and preventing obesity: Behavioural factors and dietary interventions

Edited by T. P. Gill

271 Electron beam pasteurization and complementary food processing technologies

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272 Advances in food and beverage labelling: Information and regulations

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273 Flavour development, analysis and perception in food and beverages

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274 Rapid sensory profiling techniques and related methods: Applications in new product development and consumer research

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275 Advances in microbial food safety: Volume 2

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276 Handbook of antioxidants for food preservation

Edited by F. Shahidi

277 Lockhart and Wiseman’s crop husbandry including grassland: Ninth edition

H. J. S. Finch, A. M. Samuel and G. P. F. Lane

278 Global legislation for food contact materials

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279 Colour additives for food and beverages

Edited by M. Scotter

280 A complete course in canning and related processes 14th Edition: Volume 1

Revised by S. Featherstone

281 A complete course in canning and related processes 14th Edition: Volume 2

Revised by S. Featherstone

282 A complete course in canning and related processes 14th Edition: Volume 3

Revised by S. Featherstone

283 Modifying food texture: Volume 1: Novel ingredients and processing techniques

Edited by J. Chen and A. Rosenthal

284 Modifying food texture: Volume 2: Sensory analysis, consumer requirements and preferences

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285 Modeling food processing operations

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286 Foods, nutrients and food ingredients with authorised EU health claims Volume 2

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287 Feed and feeding practices in aquaculture

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288 Foodborne parasites in the food supply web: Occurrence and control

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289 Brewing microbiology: Design and technology applications for spoilage management, sensory quality and waste valorisation

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290 Specialty oils and fats in food and nutrition: Properties, processing and applications

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291 Improving and tailoring enzymes for food quality and functionality

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292 Emerging Technologies for Promoting Food Security: Overcoming the World Food Crisis

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293 Innovation and Future Trends in Food Manufacturing and Supply Chain Technologies

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294 Functional Dietary Lipids: Food Formulation, Consumer Issues and Innovation for Health

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295 Handbook on Natural Pigments in Food and Beverages: Industrial Applications for Improving Color

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296 Integrating the Packaging and Product Experience in Food and Beverages: A Road-Map to Consumer Satisfaction

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297 The Stability and Shelf Life of Food Second edition

Edited by P. Subramaniam

298 Multisensory Flavor Perception: From Fundamental Neuroscience through to the Marketplace

Edited by B. Piqueras-Fiszman and C. Spence

Part One

Deteriorative Processes and Factors Influencing Shelf Life

Outline

1. Microbiological Spoilage of Foods and Beverages

2. Chemical Deterioration and Physical Instability of Foods and Beverages

3. Packaging and Food and Beverage Shelf Life

4. Effects of Food and Beverage Storage, Distribution, Display, and Consumer Handling on Shelf Life

5. Smart Packaging for Monitoring and Managing Food and Beverage Shelf Life

1

Microbiological Spoilage of Foods and Beverages

A. Lianou, E.Z. Panagou,  and G.-J.E. Nychas     Agricultural University of Athens, Athens, Greece

Abstract

Food spoilage is a complex ecological phenomenon, caused mainly by the biochemical activity of specific groups of microorganisms. The present chapter provides information pertinent to microbiological spoilage of foods and beverages, the main cause of quality deterioration in these commodities. Microorganisms (ie, molds, yeasts, and bacteria) associated with spoilage as well as factors (intrinsic, extrinsic, implicit, and processing) affecting their growth and determining their eventual dominance in foods and beverages are presented. Additional aspects covered include a review of the existing knowledge and the recent advances in the assessment and prediction of microbiological spoilage. Potential control interventions aiming at its effective management within the food and beverage industries also are discussed.

Keywords

Chemometrics; Chill chain; Ephemeral spoilage organisms; Metabolomics; Microbial inhibition; Microbiological quality; Modified atmosphere packaging; Shelf life

1.1. Introduction

Despite the technological progress made in recent decades, changes in consumer lifestyles have made it necessary for the food industry to fulfill seemingly contradictory market demands. Nowadays, consumers expect food products of superior sensorial quality and increased functional and nutritional properties, combined with a traditional, wholesome image and guaranteed safety. However, there is also a demand for less heavily preserved or processed foods, for fewer additives and technological interventions, as well as for increasingly competitive prices. At the same time, consumers expect a high level of convenience in preparation and use and an extended product shelf life. Indeed, as demonstrated by consumer survey findings, price, fresh/not spoiled, and quality were the first, second, and third most important food purchase criteria mentioned by 66%, 37%, and 33% of the respondents, respectively (Röhr et al., 2005). This is certainly a straightforward message regarding the importance of the successful management of food spoilage.

Food spoilage may be defined as a process of change which renders a product undesirable or unacceptable for consumption. This complex ecological phenomenon is the outcome of the biochemical activity of specific groups of microorganisms (molds, yeasts, or bacteria) which will eventually dominate in foods and beverages, depending on various factors (intrinsic, extrinsic, implicit, and processing). Microbiological spoilage contributes greatly to the huge amount of food which is wasted and to the associated financial losses (Kantor et al., 1997). In contrast, the contribution of indigenous food enzymes to quality deterioration is negligible compared to that of the food's microflora, particularly in the case of food of animal origin (ie, meat, fish, and dairy products) (Nychas and Tassou, 1997; Tsigarida and Nychas, 2001). For instance, the postmortem glycolysis, caused by indigenous enzymes in meat and fish, ceases when the final pH reaches a value of 5.4–5.5. Similarly, the indigenous proteolytic and lipolytic enzymes are not sufficient to affect food quality, despite the fact that such enzymes, along with other chemical or mechanical means, are commonly utilized in the artificial tenderizing of meat (Nychas et al., 2007). As far as spoilage due to proteolysis is concerned, the soluble sarcoplasmic proteins probably form the initial substrate for subsequent proteolytic attack (Hasegawa et al., 1970a,b; Jay and Shelef, 1976). On the other hand, the proteolytic activity of bacteria and its impact on food (eg, poultry) spoilage have been clearly demonstrated (Nychas and Tassou, 1997; Schmitt and Schmidt–Lorenz, 1992a,b). Proteolytic bacteria may gain an ecological advantage against non- or less proteolytic bacteria, derived from their ability to access, through penetration, newly available nutrient resources (Nychas et al., 2007).

Overall, microbiological activity has been widely recognized as the most important factor influencing the changes which delineate what is referred to as spoilage in a food system (Nychas et al., 1998). Moreover, although it has been advocated that it is microbial activity per se (ie, microbial growth), rather than the activity of microbial enzymes and the accumulation of metabolic by-products, that identifies food spoilage (Braun and Sutherland, 2004), it may be important, in some cases (eg, in meat spoilage), to also take into account interactions between microbial growth and the respective enzymatic activity.

1.2. Spoilage Microorganisms of Foods and Beverages

1.2.1. Molds and Yeasts

Molds and yeasts can affect a wide range of products which have low pH or water activity (aw). Spoilage caused by molds and yeasts is often manifested by their visible growth on the surface of foods such as cheese and meat, as well as by fermentation of sugars in liquid and semiliquid products. Fungi frequently linked to spoilage of foods and beverages, and mainly fruits and fruit-based products, include Aspergillus, Mucor, Penicillium, and Rhizopus species (Table 1.1). With reference to yeasts, in view of the wide diversity of taxa and the frequently ambiguous character of yeast taxonomy, correct identification of species is often a challenge. Nevertheless, the yeast species that have primarily been associated with spoilage of products with low pH or a high sugar or salt content (ie, low aw), such as soft drinks, syrups, dips, salad dressings, and olives, are members of the genera Candida, Lachancea, Saccharomyces, Torulaspora, and Zygosaccharomyces (Table 1.1). Yeasts may also contribute to the spoilage of foods of animal origin such as meat and dairy products, albeit to a much lesser extent compared to bacteria (Table 1.2). In addition to the information provided in this and following chapters of this book, a comprehensive list of mold and yeast species, isolated from various food products and beverages, has been provided by Fleet (1992), and recent relevant reviews for specific food commodities also are available (Marvig et al., 2014).

1.2.2. Bacteria

The bacterial species most commonly associated with food and/or beverage spoilage are summarized in Table 1.2. As seen in this table and will be also discussed subsequently in this chapter, the bacterial species underlying food spoilage are strongly dependent on the applied storage conditions (ie, extrinsic factors affecting microbial growth), and particularly on temperature and packaging.

In most raw or fresh foods, a consortium of bacteria, commonly dominated by Pseudomonas spp., is in most cases responsible for spoilage during aerobic storage of these products at different temperatures. It is now well established that under aerobic storage, three Pseudomonas species, namely Pseudomonas fragi, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Pseudomonas lundensis, are the most important in producing slime and odors as the main signs of spoilage (Stanbridge and Davies, 1998). Psychrotolerant species of the family Enterobacteriaceae (eg, Hafnia alvei, Pantoea agglomerans, and Serratia liquefaciens) have also been associated with spoilage of various foods (fresh vegetables and foods of animal origin) under refrigerated storage conditions (Table 1.2). Lactic acid bacteria (mainly Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc species) have been linked to the aerobic spoilage of chilled meat, fish, dairy, and freshly cut vegetable products (Holzapfel, 1998). They constitute, along with Brochothrix thermosphacta, the most important causes of food spoilage under vacuum or modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) conditions (Table 1.2), resulting in product souring rather than putrefaction.

Table 1.1

Molds and Yeasts in Various Commodities

Arias et al. (2002), Basaran et al. (2004), Dennis and Buhagiar (1980), Elez-Martinez et al. (2005), Filtenborg et al. (1996), Fleet (2006), Fleet and Mian (1987), Gouws et al. (2005), Hocking and Faedo (1992), ICMSF (1998), Ikutegbe and Sikoki (2014), King and Mabbitt (1982), Kurtzman (1990), Kurtzman and Fell (1998), Kurtzman et al. (1971, 2001), Legan and Voysey (1991), Lund et al. (1995), Magan and Aldred (2006), Marvig et al. (2014), Mehyar et al. (2011), Panagou (2006), Pitt and Hocking (1997), Rankine and Pilone (1973), Rodrigo et al. (2001), Sampedro et al. (2007), Sand and van Grisven (1976), Spicher (1980), Steels et al. (1999), Suriyarachchi and Fleet (1981), Thomas (1993), Tran and Farid (2004), Van der Horst (2001), Vantarakis et al. (2011), Waite et al. (2009), and Wiley (1994).

Table 1.2

Bacteria in Various Commodities

MAP, Modified-atmosphere packaging.

Ben Embarek (1994), Björkroth et al. (2000), Borch et al. (1996), Boulares et al. (2012), Bramley et al. (1984), Brocklehurst et al. (1987), Broda et al. (1999, 2000a,b), Chai et al. (1968), Champagne et al. (1994), Chenoll et al. (2007), Cogant and Beresford (2002), Cousin (1982), Dainty and Mackey (1992), Dalgaard (2000), Dalgaard et al. (1993), Deeth et al. (2002), Drosinos and Nychas (1996), Ercolini et al. (2011), Gardner (1981), Gill and Newton (1979), Gram and Huss (1996, 2000), Harmon et al. (1987), Ikutegbe and Sikoki (2014), Jeon et al. (2015), Jørgensen et al. (2000), Kalchayanad et al. (1993), Karl et al. (2014), Korkeala et al. (1988), Lafarge et al. (2004), Lahellec and Colin (1979), Legan (1993), Leroi et al. (1998), Løvdal (2015), Lyhs et al. (2004), Marvig et al. (2014), McMeekin (1977), Meer et al. (1991), Muir (1996), Nguyen-the and Carlin (1994), Ogunnariwo and Hamilton-Miller (1975), Pothakos et al. (2014), Samelis et al. (1998), Santos et al. (2005), Shaw and Latty (1988), Shay and Egan (1981), Stohr et al. (2001), Sundheim et al. (1998), Sutherland et al. (1975), Suzuki, 2011, Techer et al. (2014), Tekinsen and Rothwell (1974), Torrianni et al. (1996), Truelstrup Hansen et al. (1995), Tsigarida and Nychas (2001), Valeiro et al. (2012), Voidarou et al. (2011), Walker and Stringer (1990), and Walls and Chuyate (2000).

Spore-forming bacteria of the genera Clostridium and Bacillus have also been associated with the spoilage of various commodities including bakery products, cheese, chocolate products, eggs, sous vide products, and vacuum packed meat (Table 1.2). With particular reference to Bacillus spp., these microorganisms, and more specifically the species Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus, and to a lesser extent Bacillus cereus, have been strongly implicated in a recurrent microbiological issue for bakery industries known as rope spoilage or ropy spoilage (Pepe et al., 2003; Valerio et al., 2012). Bacillus spores, usually originating from raw materials (eg, flour, semolina, grain, brewer yeast, improvers) or the processing environment (Valerio et al., 2012), may survive the applied baking process and, under favorable environmental conditions, germinate; the resulting vegetative cells are responsible for the aforementioned spoilage process, which is manifested by a considerable deterioration in bread texture due to slime formation resulting from the combined effects of proteolytic and amylolytic bacterial enzymes (Rosenkvist and Hansen, 1995; Valerio et al., 2012; Viedma et al., 2011).

1.3. Factors Affecting Microbial Growth in Foods and Beverages

Generally, food spoilage may be considered as an ecological phenomenon which encompasses changes in the available nutrients during proliferation of microorganisms, with the latter being involved in various processes within food products, regardless of their origin (eg, animal or plant origin). The microbial processes that will eventually dominate in a food product depend on various factors prevailing throughout the food chain, ie, during processing, transportation, and storage. It is a well-established fact that any food ecosystem includes five categories of ecological determinants: (1) intrinsic (inherent characteristics of the food products themselves); (2) extrinsic (prevailing environmental conditions); (3) implicit (related to the food product's microbial association); (4) processing (parameters associated with the applied processing procedures); and (5) the emergent effect. These factors affect the establishment of particular microbial processes and determine the rate at which a maximum microbial population is attained.

The microorganisms that are able to adopt various ecological strategies and, eventually, dominate and be responsible for the spoilage of a given food product are known as ephemeral/specific spoilage organisms (ESO or SSO) (Koutsoumanis and Nychas, 2000; Nychas et al., 2007). The ecological strategies developed by the ESO are the consequence of the existing environmental determinants (eg, stress, the limitation or availability of nutrients, and oxygen) and allow them to proliferate in all available niches. In fact, all the aforementioned ecological determinants constitute a virtual (n dimensional) ecological niche in which an organism is influenced in (micro-) space and time (Boddy and Wimpenny, 1992). This ecological approach relies strongly on the understanding of the changes occurring in products throughout the food chain, from farm to fork. Hence, food scientists and technologists should, in practice, aim at controlling or modifying some or all of the parameters noted above to extend the shelf life of food products.

1.3.1. Intrinsic Factors

The term intrinsic factors refers to inherent characteristics of the foods themselves that may affect the growth of microorganisms, both spoilage and pathogenic, and include the pH and aw values, the nutrient content, the redox potential, mechanical barriers to microbial invasion (biological structures such as skin of fruits and vegetables, testa of seeds, shell of nuts, animal hide, and the shell, cuticle, and membrane of egg), as well as antimicrobial compounds, either naturally present in foods or formed or added during processing. A detailed description of all the above intrinsic factors and their effects on the microbial association of foods has been recently provided by Hamad (2012). Given the complexity of food systems, it may be difficult to quantify or even categorize some of its features and their potential effects on microbial population dynamics or the ability to recover a target organism from a particular food. In this context, in addition to the aforementioned, many more parameters could be identified and characterized as intrinsic food factors with potential influence on microbial growth. For example, food structure (eg, gels, mayonnaise-based products, drinks, fruit juices), may also affect the environmental limits for growth of microorganisms (Aspridou et al., 2014; Koutsoumanis et al., 2004).

1.3.2. Extrinsic Factors

Among the environmental conditions encountered throughout the food production chain, the prevailing atmospheric (ie, composition of gases and relative humidity) and temperature conditions have been acknowledged as the most important factors influencing food spoilage as well as safety (Hamad, 2012; Nychas et al., 2008; Pothakos et al., 2014). All food products, unless appropriately packaged, transported, and stored, will inevitably spoil in a relatively short time. Furthermore, these two extrinsic parameters are expected to determine not only the rate/extent of food spoilage but also the microorganisms responsible for it. As demonstrated by the findings of two recent studies undertaken by Pothakos et al. (2012, 2014), gaseous composition (ie, packaging technology) and chilling temperature appeared to have a greater impact and exert a more severe selection pressure on microbial evolution compared to the intrinsic parameter of food matrix. In the context of these studies, a wide range of packaged food products was analyzed (ready-to-eat vegetable salads, raw and cooked meat products, and composite foods) (Pothakos et al., 2012), and despite the variety of ecosystem characteristics, the common (in all samples) aspects of low storage temperature and low oxygen availability resulted in the predominance of only few bacterial isolates at the end of the products' shelf life (Pothakos et al., 2014). Indeed, given their CO2 tolerance and their competent psychrotrophic character, the lactic acid bacteria of the genus Leuconostoc are among the most commonly isolated microorganisms from chilled packaged food products (Björkroth and Holzapfel, 2006; Pothakos et al., 2014).

From 2005 to 2015, the mass consumption of fresh food products of both animal and plant origin, as well as new consumer trends (eg, reduced cooking times for minimal quality loss and microwave cooking), has accentuated the need for the constant and systematic control of food spoilage, with proper temperature control throughout the chill chain, from production (slaughter house, field) to consumption, being of vital importance toward this direction. Several studies have recently been carried out to assess the importance of handling highly perishable food products at low temperatures. Additionally, particular emphasis has also been placed on the effect which temperature fluctuations or temperature abuse during handling will have on product quality (Koutsoumanis and Taoukis, 2005; Koutsoumanis et al., 2006; McMeekin et al., 2006). Thus, an important aspect of the distribution and consumption of food, either fresh or processed, is the effective monitoring of time/temperature conditions which affect both safety and overall quality (spoilage). It is generally recognized by the European industry, retailers, food authorities, and consumers, that there are stages in the chill chain, such as transfer points or storage rooms, which are likely to be weak links in the management of perishable food. The chill chain, especially in the case of foods of animal (eg, fish and meat) and plant origin, includes two main steps: the primary and secondary chilling. Both steps are important for microbiological stability, eating quality, and production yield (Koutsoumanis and Taoukis, 2005). Primary chilling is commonly applied in meat production and refers to the process of cooling animal carcasses after slaughter from body to refrigeration temperatures (c. 3°C). It is clear that effective chilling at this point offers a number of advantages in product quality and safety, as well as in production economics, since rapid reduction of temperature on the food surface can prevent growth of both spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms and, ultimately, extend the shelf life of a product. After primary chilling, any subsequent handling (eg, cutting and mincing) is expected to increase food temperature, and, therefore, secondary chilling is necessary to reduce the temperature below 7°C. Secondary chilling is also of great importance in precooked food products (eg, meat, fish, and vegetables).

Different technologies used to chill food products before transportation are (1) air chilling, (2) immersion chilling, (3) spray chilling, and (4) vacuum cooling. The effectiveness of air chilling applications depends on a number of factors including air temperature and velocity, relative humidity, the weight and fat cover of the products, and product loading. Immersion chilling is probably the least expensive method and provides very rapid cooling with no risk of freezing. Spray chilling is an alternative method to immersion chilling which has been increasingly used, especially in the United States, for meat and meat products (Allen et al., 1987; Johnson et al., 1988). It is based on a combination of spray and air chilling during the initial stage of the chilling cycle, and the use of air alone in the remainder of the chilling period. Finally, vacuum cooling is a rapid batch process in which high-moisture products (eg, meat, fruits, and vegetables, and some bakery products) containing free water are cooled by the evaporation of moisture in a vacuum (Mellor, 1980). Rapid cooling in a vacuum has the advantage of significantly reducing the count of both phychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria, even after several days of food storage (McDonald et al., 2000).

Finally, during the meat marketing route to the final user for preparation and consumption, food products are stored in tracks, retail cabinets, and home refrigerators, points which are also of great importance regarding quality and safety. Industrial and track chambers differ in characteristics and performance (Koutsoumanis and Taoukis, 2005). The size of cabinets, initial temperature of the incoming food (which depends on the type of food), targeted storage temperature, temperature of the surroundings, and mechanical characteristics (location of refrigeration machinery, compressors, ventilation, and insulation) as well as energy/cost factors are all important issues when considering cold storage requirements.

1.3.3. Implicit Factors

The term implicit factors refers to the intrinsic biotic parameters of foods, namely factors related to the microorganisms themselves, including interactions among the microorganisms contaminating the food as well as interactions between these microorganisms and the food (Hamad, 2012). As noted previously, a vast number of studies in food microbiology have established that spoilage can be attributed to a relatively small group of microorganisms, the ESO, with the metabolic activity of the latter dictating the microbial processes taking place within food ecosystems (Nychas et al., 1998), a concept that has contributed significantly to our understanding of food spoilage. In addition to the abovementioned intrinsic (abiotic) and extrinsic factors, the type of microorganisms present in a given food matrix and under certain environmental conditions, their populations, and the underlying microbial interactions also are expected to affect the product's quality and shelf life.

The microbial association of food commodities depends largely on the microbiological status of the raw ingredients, as well as on the applied processing conditions and practices, as described subsequently. For instance, the physiological state of animals at slaughter and the condition of fruits and vegetables at harvesting are expected to affect the microbial association of foods of animal or plant origin, respectively. Moreover, the food quality changes composing spoilage are related to the metabolic activity of the ESO, and the type and availability of the required energy substrates in foods. The ability of certain microbial species to predominate in certain foods depends on their competence in utilizing different nutrient sources, tolerating stresses, or producing compounds acting as growth inhibitors for other

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