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Subsea Optics and Imaging

Subsea Optics and Imaging

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Subsea Optics and Imaging

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1,120 pagine
Pubblicato:
Oct 31, 2013
ISBN:
9780857093523
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Libro

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The use of optical methodology, instrumentation and photonics devices for imaging, vision and optical sensing is of increasing importance in understanding our marine environment. Subsea optics can make an important contribution to the protection and sustainable management of ocean resources and contribute to monitoring the response of marine systems to climate change. This important book provides an authoritative review of key principles, technologies and their applications.

The book is divided into three parts. The first part provides a general introduction to the key concepts in subsea optics and imaging, imaging technologies and the development of ocean optics and colour analysis. Part two reviews the use of subsea optics in environmental analysis. An introduction to the concepts of underwater light fields is followed by an overview of coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and an assessment of nutrients in the water column. This section concludes with discussions of the properties of subsea bioluminescence, harmful algal blooms and their impact and finally an outline of optical techniques for studying suspended sediments, turbulence and mixing in the marine environment. Part three reviews subsea optical systems technologies. A general overview of imaging and visualisation using conventional photography and video leads onto advanced techniques like digital holography, laser line-scanning and range-gated imaging as well as their use in controlled observation platforms or global observation networks. This section also outlines techniques like Raman spectroscopy, hyperspectral sensing and imaging, laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) and particle image velocimetry (PIV), optical fibre sensing and LIDAR systems. Finally, a chapter on fluorescence methodologies brings the volume to a close.

With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Subsea optics and imaging is a standard reference for those researching, developing and using subsea optical technologies as well as environmental scientists and agencies concerned with monitoring the marine environment.
  • Provides an authoritative review of key principles, technologies and their applications
  • Outlines the key concepts in subsea optics and imaging, imaging technologies and the development of ocean optics and colour analysis
  • Reviews the properties of subsea bioluminescence, harmful algal blooms and their impact
Pubblicato:
Oct 31, 2013
ISBN:
9780857093523
Formato:
Libro

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Subsea Optics and Imaging - Elsevier Science

Griffiths

Preface

From coastline to deep-water and from lakes to rivers, many challenges face us in our drive to understand, utilise and preserve our aquatic environment. New techniques and instruments are continually being developed to enable us to probe and monitor its character and behaviour, and to help us optimise the oceans, seas and lakes of the world as sustainable resources of energy, minerals and food for the future. Of increasing importance amongst these techniques is the use of optical methodology, instrumentation and photonics devices for imaging, vision and sensing; this technology is playing an increasingly crucial role in our understanding and exploitation of this unique habitat.

Although the use of optics in studying our ‘subsea’ habitat has a long and distinguished pedigree stretching back to ancient Greek and Roman times, it was surely the invention of the laser in 1960 and the parallel developments of electronic detectors and high-performance computers that projected optics to the forefront as one of the cornerstones of underwater investigation. Since then, the progress and development of optical science and technology in general has been rapid, dramatic and profound. There is now hardly an aspect of modern life where optics and the laser have not had an impact; this is as true underwater as it is on land and in space.

This explosion of optics activity has led to new sensors being developed and new applications being tackled, across such diverse areas as holographic imaging, subsea laser welding, fibre-optic sensors, laser scanning systems, spectroscopic instrumentation, laser ranging and 3D imaging. Imaging has become a crucial tool for subsea operations and offers a new perspective for operational assessment of aquatic organisms. Hyperspectral sensing has improved the understanding of light and its interaction with biogeochemical water constituents, contributing to the global response to climate change and hazard mitigation. All these advances, many of which are described in this volume, have been supported by rapid developments in semi-conductor-, nano- and other enabling technologies, and promise even more sophisticated optical instruments for the next decade.

Subsea optics and imaging serves as an introductory textbook for students and workers in the field and, at the same time, offers a review of recent trends and technologies. Contributions have been written by renowned experts in the field and review progress in selected areas to provide a transition from fundamental background principles towards in-depth knowledge of specific technologies. We should note that the term ‘subsea’ is often used in reference to underwater technologies, equipment and methods, whether or not these are in the sea or in fresh-water. Throughout this book we will refer to ‘subsea optics’ as an interdisciplinary field of natural and engineering sciences focused on the utilisation of light below the water surface, in the context of environmental and industrial objectives.

The book is divided into three parts. The first part provides a general introduction to the concepts of subsea optics and imaging and puts them into a historical context. Two introductory chapters on subsea optics (Chapter 1) and subsea imaging technologies (Chapter 2) are provided by the editors themselves, and a third outlines the history of ocean optics and colour (Chapter 3).

Part II comprises those chapters with a biogeochemical and/or environmental theme. It starts with an overview of underwater light fields and the measurement of optical properties to understanding the nature of propagation of light in water (Chapter 4) followed by an overview of coloured dissolved organic matter – CDOM – (Chapter 5) and assessment of nutrients in the water column (Chapter 6). This section concludes with discussions of the properties of subsea bioluminescence (Chapter 7), an assessment of harmful algal blooms and their impact (Chapter 8) and finally an outline of optical techniques for studying the impact of turbulence and mixing in the marine environment of suspended sediments, turbulence and mixing (Chapter 9).

Part III encompasses all those chapters with an optical systems and imaging theme. Imaging and visualisation using conventional photography and video (Chapters 10 and 11) or advanced techniques such as digital holography (Chapter 12), laser line-scanning (Chapter 13), or range-gated imaging (Chapter 15) are key tools in our study of the oceans and their impact on our environment. They can offer new perspectives for monitoring aquatic life, mapping the seafloor, or mensuration of natural and man-made structures. In the wider context, high-resolution monitoring and rapid assessment of the environment rely on the application of optical sensors, often in parallel with acoustical and other physical/electronic probes. Such sensors can be integrated onto autonomously or remotely controlled observation platforms or global observation networks (Chapter 19). More recently, linked networks of observation platforms allow data from dozens of sensors to be combined; the whole field of data acquisition and visualisation, and subsea optical communications, is crucial to our developments. From conventional two-dimensional to three-dimensional imaging, subsea imaging and sensing have a vital role to play. Techniques such as Raman spectroscopy (Chapter 16) to hyperspectral sensing (Chapter 20) have improved our understanding of light and its interaction with biogeochemical water constituents. Laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) (Chapter 14), optical fibre sensing (Chapter 17) and LIDAR (Chapter 18) are examples of how important newer optical technology is in widening our understanding of the sea. Finally, a chapter on fluorescence methodologies (Chapter 21) brings the volume to a close.

There are many important benefits to be derived from the application of optical technology and from studying the interaction of light in the marine environment. These include increased effectiveness of subsea operations, a clearer understanding of the role of the oceans in the global carbon cycle, the introduction of new technical approaches to the measurement of particles and dissolved substances in seawater, and higher resolution monitoring of the emission and dispersal of pollutants. Subsea optics, therefore, can make an important contribution to international security, facilitate the protection and sustainable management of the resources of the oceans, and contribute to the urgent requirement for monitoring the response of marine systems to climate change. We hope that the chapters included in this volume will have demonstrated the power and importance of optics in the subsea environment inspiring and fostering research and application of subsea optics, imaging and vision.

Part I

Introduction and historic review of subsea optics and imaging

1

Subsea optics: an introduction

O. Zielinski,     University of Oldenburg, Germany

Abstract:

The interaction of light with water and its constituents is of major relevance to several physical, biological and chemical processes in the marine environment. It is the scope of this chapter to introduce the topic of subsea optics as an interdisciplinary field of natural and engineering sciences focused on the utilisation of light below the sea’s surface. Fundamental radiometric quantities, optical properties and classifications will be introduced to the reader, providing the framework of marine optics terminology needed throughout the book.

Key words

optical properties

light field

radiometry

subsea optics

colour classification

1.1 Light within aquatic media

Solar radiation is a fundamental prerequisite of life on Earth. It provides energy to heat the land and the sea, it drives the world’s atmospheric and ocean currents, it enables photosynthesis, and it influences the health and behaviour of many organisms. Arising from this, natural water bodies and their constituents are also strongly influenced by light abundance. Integral understanding of light interactions is a key element to understand and predict environmental processes in aquatic ecosystems (Dickey et al., 2011). Furthermore, light is, together with sound, among the primary approaches in probing aquatic media (Sanford et al., 2011). Utilising the interactions of light with water constituents via optical sensors enables an assessment of spatial, temporal, as well as spectral variability of optical properties and proxies that are associated to them (e.g. Daly et al., 2004; Zielinski et al., 2009).

While this book will refer to marine environments in general and to subsea topics specifically, it has to be emphasised that the physics of aquatic optical properties is also valid for freshwater systems, and even for industrial locations such as waste-water plants. This chapter strives to provide the reader with the framework of marine optics terminology needed throughout the book, introducing fundamental radiometric quantities, optical properties and classifications. While this inauguration into the discipline of aquatic optics is meant to be short and specific to the scope of the book and its constituent chapters, more detailed introductions are provided, for example by the textbooks of Kirk (2011), Arsti (2003), Mobley (1994) or Jerlov (1976).

The term ‘subsea’ is often used with reference to underwater technologies, equipment and methods. Frequent application of the subsea prefix is found in the oil and gas industry for underwater oil field facilities. Throughout this book we will refer to ‘subsea optics’ as an interdisciplinary field of natural and engineering sciences focused on the utilisation of light below the sea surface, in the context of environmental and industrial objectives.

1.2 Fundamentals of marine optics

Let us assume a narrow collimated beam of monochromatic light of a wavelength λ typically given in nanometres (1 nm = 10–9 m). Without loss of generality an Argon-ion (Ar +) laser with a resonance wavelength of 488.0 nm is chosen. Looking into the physics of this laser beam, it consists of a stream of energy quanta, called photons, travelling at the speed of light (C0), which is constant for a given medium. Wave–particle duality of matter and energy teaches us that both properties, particle-like and wave-like behaviour, need to be considered to explain photon propagation and interaction. The energy of a single photon (Wphoton) is linked to its frequency (ν), in units of s–1 (Hz), and is inversely related to λ

[1.1]

where Planck’s constant h = 6.626 × 10–34 J s. Since we refer to light in the water, we are actually looking at photons moving through a medium other than vacuum. The speed of light, which is approximately 2.998 × 10⁸ m s–1 in vacuum, is thus slowed down in relation to the refractive index (n) of the medium, which is varying itself with temperature, salinity and wavelength. Assuming nWater ~ 1.345 (which holds true for a salinity of S = 35 ‰ and a temperature of T = 10°C for our chosen λ = 488.0 nm), this leads to CWater ~ 2.229 × 10⁸ m s–1 and, since energy and frequency stay unchanged, to a lower wavelength. However, since physical interactions are based on energy, and since c0 and λ change in unison, Equation [1.1] is valid in vacuum as in water and all references to λ within this book are made to vacuum conditions. The energy of our Ar + -laser photons thus calculates to W488 nm = 4.07 × 10–19 J, independently of the medium.

Since there are a high number of photons emitted over time, the laser beam can be considered in terms of its radiant flux (optical power). This monochromatic radiation flux, expressed as quanta per second, can be converted to watts or with respect to a specific wavelength to the spectral radiant power Φ(λ), which has units of W nm–1 representing a fundamental quantity in spectroradiometry. In reverse, a given radiant flux Φ of a wavelength λ can be converted to quanta s–1 using the relation

[1.2]

A radiant flux of 1 W from our Ar + -laser at 488.0 nm thus contains 2.455 × 10¹⁸ quanta s–1, whereas the same radiant flux at 632.8 nm, the typical wavelength of a helium–neon laser, contains 3.183 × 10¹⁸ quanta s–1, given the fact that the individual energy of red photons (λ = 632.8 nm) is 23% lower than the energy of blue photons (λ = 488.0 nm). While technological applications often consider radiant power the crucial factor for system performance, some bio-optical processes such as photosynthesis are driven by the number of quanta of accessible wavelengths, expressed in units of mole photons s–1 m–2 or einst s–1 m–2, where one einstein is one mole (6.023 × 10²³) of photons.

Propagation of the light within the medium is in the first instance influenced by absorption and elastic scattering processes. Other influencing factors include inelastic scattering and emission of photons due to fluorescence and luminescence, which will be discussed later.

Now let us assume the above defined laser beam will intersect a thin layer (thickness Δz) of aquatic medium, forming a small volume (ΔV) of interaction between photons and medium (Fig. 1.1). Outside this volume, no interaction happens. Reflection and refraction at the volume’s surfaces are neglected. The medium is homogeneous inside this volume and no inner energy sources or energy transfers (wavelength conversions) occur. Effects of polarisation are not considered either.

1.1 Defining IOPs by interaction of a collimated beam of light with a small volume of aquatic medium.

Designing an appropriate photo-detector, we measure the full distribution of spectral radiant power Φ(λ) in polar coordinates (nadir angle θ and azimuthal angle ϕ). In reality, such an instrument measuring spectral radiant power will detect the photons of a geometrically defined solid angle (ω) projected on the detector area (A) leading to the operational definition of unpolarised spectral radiance (L in units of W m–2 nm–1 sr–1) defined as

[1.3]

from which all other radiometric quantities can be derived (Mobley, 1994).

In our experiment we will observe that only a fraction of the incident spectral radiant power Φi(λ) of the laser beam is transmitted through the olume without change of direction, called Φt(λ). Part of the light will be scattered in different directions (angle ψ) making up Φs(ψ, λ). Summing up the scattered power from all directions we will get Φs(λ). The rest of the incident energy will be absorbed within the volume Φa(λ). With the prerequisites made above, conservation of energy gives us:

[1.4]

If Δz now tends to be infinitesimally small, we get:

• absorption coefficient a(λ)

[1.5]

• volume scattering function β(ψ, λ)

[1.6]

• scattering coefficient b(λ)

[1.7]

• beam attenuation coefficient c(λ)

[1.8]

All the above are expressed in units of m–1, except for β(ψ, λ), which is in units of sr–1m–1. Since scattering is often considered individually in forward or backward direction, e.g. in remote sensing, the scattering coefficient can be divided into

[1.9]

with forward scattering coefficient bf(λ)

[1.10]

and backscattering coefficient bb(λ)

[1.11]

These large scale, or bulk, parameters are part of the inherent optical properties (IOP) of natural water, since they depend only on the medium and are therefore independent of the ambient light field within it. In contrast, properties depending both on the medium and on the directional (geometric) structure of the ambient light field are called apparent optical properties (AOP) if they show enough regular features and stability to be useful descriptors of the water body. Among them are diffuse attenuation coefficients and various reflectances (Preisendorfer, 1976; Mobley, 1994). While sensors measuring AOPs are in general passive, using the sun as their light source, IOP sensors generally employ an active light source. Cunningham and McKee (Chapter 4) will provide an introduction into hyperspectral underwater light field parameters and their measurement based on the spectral radiance (Equation [1.3]). Table 1.1 provides a summary of notations concerning subsea optics.

Table 1.1

Common symbols and units used in subsea optics

1.3 Optical properties of natural waters

Sensors measuring attenuation of an unpolarised collimated beam of light along a defined path length are commonly referred to as transmissometers or beam attenuation meters (or ‘c-meters’). Among them are single wavelengths, multiple wavelengths and hyperspectral c-meters with typical path lengths from 5 to 25 cm (see Moore et al., 2009 for an overview of manufacturers of optical sensors). Figure 1.2 illustrates such a hyperspectral beam attenuation sensor of 10 cm path length, measuring over a wavelength range from 360 to 750 nm utilising a 256 channel silicon photodiode array as detector.

1.2 Illustration of a hyperspectral beam attenuation sensor (VIPER VIS photometer) with 10 cm path length and a wavelength range 360–750 nm (courtesy of TriOS, Germany).

For a homogenous medium the transmitted spectral radiant power Φt(λ) for an optical path length z is expressed by an exponential decay:

[1.12]

with Φi(λ) as incident spectral radiant power. Therefore c(λ) can be estimated from

[1.13]

The attenuation c(λ) is a superposition of the attenuation of water itself cw and from the particulate and dissolved constituents in the sampled volume, also referred to as optically active substances (OAS). The main constituents to be considered in natural waters are non-algal particles (NAP), coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM, historically also named Gelbstoff, see Coble, Chapter 5) and phytoplankton (subscript ph), often characterised by chlorophyll a concentration. Figure 1.3 shows attenuation spectra of unfiltered samples from three different water types. Note that water attenuation cw was already subtracted from the spectrum using purified water as a reference sample.

1.3 Typical attenuation spectra of unfiltered water samples from the river Weser estuary (solid line), the German Bight near Helgoland (dashed line) and the North Atlantic near Greenland (dotted line). Water attenuation cw was subtracted from the spectrum using purified water as a reference.

Attenuation measurements are by no way limited to these constituents. Other OASs might be of interest for technical and environmental studies, such as dissolved oil or dyes used to trace water masses or leakages. In general, every substance that shows characteristic absorption and/or scattering properties might be identified by spectral decomposition if sufficient signal strength is given and ambiguities with other substances can be resolved. Since c = a + b the superposition also holds true for absorption and scattering:

[1.14]

[1.15]

[1.16]

where bCDOM = 0 m–1 is eliminated, since CDOM is an absorption property by definition. Measuring and modelling these optical properties can be sophisticated, and has been the subject of several publications and textbooks. It is beyond the scope of this introductory chapter to repeat these findings – however, some of them will be discussed in this book.

In Section 1.2 we restricted ourselves to absorption and elastic scattering. However, molecular physics is aware of processes in matter–energy interaction that result in a re-emission of photons at different wavelengths than were originally absorbed, be it inelastic scattering such as the Raman effect utilised subsea by Brewer and Kirkwood (Chapter 16) or photoluminescence spectroscopy. Generally speaking, luminescence means the emission of photons from electronically excited atoms and molecules. This requires a specific excitation energy, typically denoted by a corresponding prefix. Energy introduced by a biological metabolism thus may lead to bioluminescence, a topic discussed by Moline et al. later in the book (Chapter 7). In detail, this metabolic process is a chemical reaction, so that it might also be called chemoluminescence. Other forms of luminescence can result from mechanical, thermo- or electro-excitation, to name just a few. Of relevance for subsea optics and instrument design is the excitation with light, named photoluminescence, that can itself be subdivided into fluorescence and phosphorescence. The direct sensing of a spectroscopic ‘fingerprint’ via photoluminescence is a very sensitive way of assessing even the complex macromolecules we observe in nature. In comparison to the above discussed absorption spectrometry, several parameters may be derived from photoluminescence sensing, among them being quantum yield (the ratio of incident to emitted photons), polarisation, and lifetime of the luminescence decay signal. Furthermore, deriving luminescence spectra from a series of different excitation wavelengths leads to three-dimensional information, a method named excitation-emission-matrix-spectroscopy (EEMS). The difference between fluorescence and phosphorescence can be simply explained by the different excited states of the molecule. A molecule excited to a higher electronic state (Sx) will relax very rapidly (in the order of 10–14 s) and without photon emission to the lowest excited singlet state (S1). Fluorescence means that a photon of energy (S1 → S0) is emitted to reach the ground state (S0). This process is also rather fast, typically in the order of 10–9 s, showing a multi-exponential decay (e.g. Clark et al., 2002). Figure 1.4 shows fluorescence spectra of three marine water samples, using an excitation wavelength of 360 nm. Other ways for the molecule to relax from the excited state are chemical reactions and different forms of energy transfer. One of the latter is inter-system crossing, a change from the excited singlet to a triplet state (T1). The photo-emitting transition T1 → S0 is a factor 1000 times more unlikely than the singlet relaxation, thus leading to longer luminescence times and lower quantum fluxes. For the subsea environment, fluorescence sensors are of major relevance, and there are a number of specific rules and relationships in molecular physics that can be used to decipher the measured data. While this is beyond the scope of this introductory chapter, the reader can find more background in specialised physics textbooks (e.g. Saleh and Teich, 2007; DiMarzio, 2012). With reference to this book, fluorescence as a sensing method is used for the measurement of CDOM (Coble, Chapter 5) or Algae (Busch et al., Chapter 8).

1.4 Fluorescence spectra of the three water samples from Fig. 1.3 with excitation wavelength 360 nm. Please note the Raman peak from inelastic scattering of the water molecules around 410 nm.

1.4 Optical classification of water bodies

Interaction of mankind with natural water bodies, and our endeavour to develop environmental management criteria, led to a number of optical classifications. Along with these came tools and procedures enabling monitoring on larger scales, some of them reflected in the historic review from Marcel Wernand (Chapter 3).

One of the simplest optical classifications is the Case 1/Case 2 waters approach of Morel and Prieur (1977), even though it was not meant as a classification but merely as a way to treat two different situations for remote sensing algorithms. In Case 1 waters, the variation of optical properties of the water is mainly driven by the abundance of phytoplankton. This does not mean that CDOM and detritus influences are negligible, but they can be directly related to phytoplankton concentration. This favourable setup of one unknown constituent is initially applicable for wide areas of the ocean, and thus the basis of major remote sensing successes. Case 2 waters can best be described in terms of ‘everything else’ (Mobley, 1994). The optical properties are influenced. in addition to phytoplankton, by variable concentrations of detritus, bacteria, CDOM, and various types of inorganic particles. It is a most complex mixture and increased efforts in research have been undertaken to measure and model Case 2 waters. Even though it is common these days to synonymously use Case 1 for oceanic waters and Case 2 for coastal to estuarine waters, this is not inherently true. It is the dominating effect of phytoplankton abundance above all other OASs that comprises Case 1.

A frequently applied classification scheme based on spectral water transparency near the surface was suggested by Jerlov (1976). Instead of transparency, it is common to utilise the diffuse attenuation coefficient Kd(λ), an apparent optical property derived from the exponential decay of downward irradiance Ed(λ) with depth z (note the analogy to the attenuation coefficient c(λ))

[1.17]

Since Kd(λ) shows it is relatively insensitive to changes of the illumination, its variability is linked primarily to changes in the IOPs, making it a good proxy for optical classification of natural waters. There are five Jerlov water types for oceanic water (named I, IA, IB, II and III), generally corresponding to Case 1 conditions, and nine for coastal waters (named 1 through 9) corresponding to Case 2 waters (see Austin and Petzold, 1986 for a full table of revised Jerlov water types and associated downwelling irradiance diffuse attenuation coefficients).

Looking at historically developed water colour classification methods, the colour scale of François Alphonse Forel (1890) and Willi Ule (1892) is best known in limnology and oceanography, providing a long record of observations that has been recently analysed for global change indications by Wernand and van der Woerd (2010, see also Chapter 3). The Forel-Ule scale is made up of 21 vials of different colour, mixed from three basic chemical solutions. Comparing these vials with the observed water colour and identifying the closest fit provides a well-defined and repeatable observation, even though subjective influences of human perception and experimental conditions should be taken into account. Wernand and van der Woerd (2010) proposed a conversion from hyperspectral reflectance measurements to the Forel-Ule colour scale, bridging between modern sensor observations and historical records. Other colour scales and standards based on the comparison of optical transmission of water samples against chemical solutions do exist in the water, waste-water and chemical industry, such as Hazen, Saybolt, Gardner and Rosin colour (Hazen, 1896; ASTM D1544, 2010; ASTM D509, 2011; ASTM D1209, 2011; ASTM D156, 2012).

1.5 Conclusion and future trends

Advances in marine optical instrumentation are closely coupled to advances in electro-optical engineering and the availability of improved sensors and light sources. For example ultra-compact spectrometers based on lenses with nano-imprinted grating are now available in small sizes and are comparatively low in cost. They will foster the availability of hyperspectral sensors, and their implementation in higher numbers, e.g. as part of operational observation systems. However, this transition from multi- to hyper-spectral comes with a number of challenges, such as higher data rates and our need to develop appropriate models. Another example is the continuous development of light emitting diodes (LED) with deep ultraviolet emission characteristics. Fluorescence sensors for CDOM (Coble, Chapter 5) and polycyclic aromatics hydrocarbons (PAH) will benefit from them, as will attenuation sensors in the ultraviolet, targeted for example at the absorption of Nitrate below 240 nm (Prien, Chapter 6). As marine optics is expanding its spectral range of interest towards the deep UV and beyond, so will marine optical models and simulations.

A recent opportunity to significantly increase the number of observations and at the same time broaden public awareness is in the utilisation of modern mobile devices such as smart phones, tablet computers and the like. These devices are equipped with high resolution cameras and motion sensors, contain options for geo-positioning, and are linked to global networks. Providing software applications for monitoring tasks such as creek status reporting (Kim et al., 2011) or water colour imagery (Wernand et al., 2012; www.citclops.eu) will strengthen environmental responsibility of citizens and provide a widespread data set for scientists and policy makers.

Marine optical sensors are usually part of a larger sensor system, combining several sensors and eventually various platforms. The global initiatives for marine observatories, either fixed or mobile, and the increase in subsea operations require sensors to be long term applicable with low maintenance and high reliability. Hence, smaller, more energy efficient and smarter sensors are under constant development. One of the most challenging problems in this context remains the prevention of biofouling, especially for applications within the upper layer of the sea, where natural light enables photosynthesis. Several research projects were implemented in the past and almost all sensor manufacturers offer antifouling options for their products. The ‘silver bullet’, if there is one at all, however, has not been so far identified, and therefore biofouling can still be considered a major limiting factor for long term operations.

The general rise of automation in modern processes, along with the urge to enter deep sea environments for scientific and economic reasons, will lead to a boost in sensor applications. Subsea operations will therefore be increasingly linked to marine optical sensors, their technological components and their theoretical background.

1.6 Sources of further information and advice

A textbook often referred to for scientists entering the discipline of marine optics is the first part of Light & Photosynthesis in Aquatic Ecosystem by John T. O. Kirk, recently (2011), now in its third edition. More theoretical background is available from the first five chapters of Curtis D. Mobley’s Light and Water (1994), which is sold out as a printed edition but released as a CD version with some corrections and supplementary notes in 2004 and can be located easily in the internet. Concerning physics and technical aspects, Optics for Engineers (2012) authored by Charles A. DiMarzio is a recommended first reading.

Among the many conferences offered worldwide, four series have been chosen (based on the author’s personal experience) as starting points for participation and digging for abstracts. The Ocean Optics Conference series started in 1965 and is the biannual meeting point of the marine optics community (http://www.oceanopticsconference.org). ASLO organises Aquatic Sciences and Ocean Science Meetings, both large by their nature, with lots of room for optics in aquatic environments (http://www.aslo.org). IEEE/ OES Oceans Conference series is dedicated to ocean engineering aspects and offers optics as a constant thematic topic (http://www.oceansconfer-ence.org). In 2009 the European Optical Society started a biannual series of marine optics and instrumentations topical workshops, named ‘Blue Photonics’ (http://www.myeos.org).

Finally manufacturers of marine optical sensors are a recommended source of information on new products and applications. The origin of these companies can often be found inside universities and research institutions and, being innovation driven, they frequently participate in research and development projects. Moore et al. (2009) in their review on ‘Optical Tools for Ocean Monitoring and Research’ have provided a useful table of commercial manufacturers and their relevant products, openly accessible at www.ocean-sci.net/5/661/2009/.

1.7 References

Arsti, H.Optical Properties and Remote Sensing of Multicomponental Water Bodies. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2003.

ASTM D1209Standard Test Method for Colour of clear Liquids (Platinum-Cobalt scale). USA: ASTM International, 2011.

ASTM D1544Standard Test Method for Color of Transparent Liquids (Gardner Color scale). USA: ASTM International, 2010.

ASTM D156Standard Test Method for Saybolt Color of Petroleum Products (Saybolt Chronometer Method). USA: ASTM International, 2012.

ASTM D509Standard Test Methods of Sampling and Grading Rosin. USA: ASTM International, 2011.

Austin, R.W., Petzold, T.J. Spectral dependence of the diffuse attenuation coefficient of light in ocean waters. Opt. Eng.. 1986; 25:473–479.

Clark, D.C., Jimenez-Morais, J., Jones, G., II., Zanardi-Lamardo, E., Moore, C.A., Zika, R.G. A time-resolved fluorescence study of dissolved organic matter in a riverine to marine transition zone. Mar. Chem.. 2002; 78(2–3):121–135.

Daly, K.L., Byrne, R.H., Dickson, A.G., Gallager, S.M., Perry, M.J., Tivey, M.K. Chemical and biological sensors for time-series research: current status and new directions. Mar. Technol. Soc. J.. 2004; 38(2):121–143.

Dickey, T.D., Kattawar, G.W., Voss, K.J. Shedding new light on light in the ocean. Phys. Today. 2011; 64(4):44–49.

DiMarzio, C.A. Optics for Engineers. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2012.

Forel, F.A., Une nouvelle forme de la gamme de couleur pour l´étude de l´eau des lacs. Archives des Sciences Physiques et Naturelles. Société de Physique et d´Histoire Naturelle de Genève; VI, 1890. [25].

Hazen, A. The measurement of the colors of natural waters. J. Am. Chem. Soc.. 1896; 18(3):264–275.

Jerlov, N.G. Marine Optics. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 1976.

Kim, S., Robson, C., Zimmerman, T., Pierce, J., Haber, E.M., Creek watch: pairing usefulness and usability for successful citizen science. Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. ACM, New York, 2011:2125–2134.

Kirk, J.T.O. Light and Photosynthesis in Aquatic Ecosystems, 3rd edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.

Mobley, C.D.Light and Water. San Diego: Academic Press, 1994.

Moore, C., Barnard, A., Fietzek, P., Lewis, M.R., Sosik, H.M., White, S., Zielinski, O. Optical tools for ocean monitoring and research. Ocean Sci.. 2009; 5(4):661–684.

Morel, A., Prieur, L. Analysis of variations in ocean color. Limnol. Oceanogr.. 1977; 22(4):709–722.

Preisendorfer, R.W.Hydrologic Optics. Honolulu, Hawaii: U. S. Department of Commerce National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Research Laboratories, 1976.

Saleh, B.E.A., Teich, M.C. Fundamentals of Photonics, 2nd edition. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, 2007.

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Wernand, M.R., van der Woerd, H.J. Spectral analysis of the Forel-Ule ocean colour comparator scale. J. Eur. Opt. Soc.. 2010; 10014s:5.

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2

Subsea imaging and vision: an introduction

J. Watson,     University of Aberdeen, Scotland

Abstract:

The use of optics in studying the waters and oceans of the world has a long and distinguished pedigree. In this chapter we outline some of the developments in optical technology in subsea imaging and sensing. We present a potted history of subsea imaging and briefly discuss some of the more modern technologies that are being applied today as well as speculating slightly on the future.

Key words

subsea optics

subsea imaging

vision

2.1 Introduction

Although the use of optics in studying the oceans, seas and lakes of the world and their behaviour has a long and distinguished pedigree stretching back to ancient Greek and Roman times, it was surely the invention of the laser in 1960 and the parallel developments of electronic detectors and high-performance computers that projected optics to the fore as one of the cornerstones of subsea imaging, vision and sensing.

Optical methodology and associated instrumentation play crucial roles in our understanding and exploitation of our aquatic environment. From coastline to deepwater and from lakes to rivers, many challenges face us in our drive to understand, utilise and preserve this unique habitat. New techniques and instruments are continually being developed to enable us to probe and monitor its behaviour and to help us optimise the oceans as a sustainable resource of minerals and food for the future. Of increasing importance amongst these techniques is the use of optics and photonics technology in imaging, vision and sensing; many of these methods are described in this volume.

Imaging and visualisation using conventional photography and video (Chapters 10 and 11) or advanced techniques such as digital holography (Chapter 12), laser line scanning (Chapter 13) and range-gated imaging (Chapter 15) are crucial tools in subsea operations and offer new perspectives for monitoring aquatic life, mapping the seafloor, or mensuration of natural and man-made structures. In the wider context, high-resolution monitoring and rapid assessment of the environment relies on the application of optical sensors, often in parallel with acoustical and other physical/electronic probes. Such sensors can be integrated into autonomously or remotely controlled observation platforms or global observation networks (Chapter 19). More recently, linked networks of observation platforms allowed data from dozens of sensors to be combined; the whole field of data acquisition and visualisation and subsea optical communications is crucial to our developments. From conventional two-dimensional (2D) to three-dimensional (3D) imaging; from sensing of environmental parameters such as ocean colour (Chapter 3) to seafloor mapping; from studies of optical properties to understanding the nature of propagation of light in water (Chapter 4); or from monitoring of plankton or suspended particles (Chapter 9) and fish populations studies, subsea imaging and sensing have vital roles to play. Techniques such as Raman spectroscopy (Chapter 16) and hyperspectral sensing (Chapter 20) have improved our understanding of light and its interaction with biogeochemical water constituents. Laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) (Chapter 14), LIDAR (Chapter 18), optical fibre sensing (Chapter 17), and emerging technologies (Chapter 21) have all demonstrated how important optical technology is.

Other techniques which have found favour include structured-light illumination (Tetlow and Spours, 1999; Narasimhan et al., 2005), sediment profile imaging (Rhoads and Cande, 1971; Rhoads and Germano, 1982), polarised light illumination and chemical-optical sensors, such as ‘optrodes’. Other techniques, although not featuring in this volume, also have an important role to play. A crucial aspect in applying all of this advanced technology is the need for rapid communication over sometimes very large distances with each of these sensors, although it is outside the scope of this volume its importance in subsea instrumentation, whether optical or not, cannot be overstressed.

Of course, the use of light and optics is not the only way of recording ‘images’ in water; many other techniques, such as ultrasound, sonar, multibeam acoustics or X-radiography all offer important functionality and the reader is directed to the literature for reviews of these systems.

In this chapter we will focus entirely on optical methods of imaging and sensing that are currently in practice and attempt some ‘crystal-ball gazing’ into the future.

2.2 A ‘potted’ and selective history of underwater imaging and vision

Wernand’s chapter in this volume (Chapter 3) takes us right back to the Greeks and Romans for the first recorded attempts at studying the oceans of the world, and to the development of diving bells for subsea exploration (Aristotle in the fourth century bc). Diving using goggles is attributed to the Persians in around 1300 ad. The first recorded attempts at developing a diving suit were in 1405 when Konrad Keyser described a leather jacket and metal helmet with two glass windows. Diving technology developed slowly (as you might expect) over the next four or five centuries; it was not until 1825 that William James introduced the use of compressed air. The design of the diving suit changed little until the use of aqua-lung or scuba became popular in the 1950s and freed underwater scientists (and underwater tourists) from the constraints of tethered gear. The development of the submarine through its early incarnations of diving bell and bathyscaphe opened up our ability to study this environment. Even Leonardo da Vinci entered into the design of diving bells with an outline of how to breathe underwater. Of course, any optical observations which these early pioneers undertook were entirely with the human eye using natural lighting as the source. One of the first submarines was the Ictineo I, and its follow-up Ictineo II, developed by Monturiol Estarriol in Spain in the late 1850 s. These submarines were man-powered and had viewing ports.

Despite all this development of diving technology, it was not until the late nineteenth century that underwater optical imaging emerged as a useful tool in the hands of the oceanographer. It was probably the work of the French marine zoologist Louis Boutan (e.g. Vine, 1975) in the 1890 s that laid down the first markers in subsea imaging and established underwater photography as a tool in its own right. However, there is some dispute as to whether or not Boutan was the first to take photographs underwater; in a communication with the British Journal of Photography in 1985, JF Brown affords that honour to a British solicitor and amateur naturalist, William Thompson, who took the first underwater photograph in 1856. Thompson’s photograph was taken by rowing out into Weymouth Bay, UK, and lowering a 5″ × 4″ plate camera mounted on a long pole to a depth of nearly 6 m. Interestingly, the wooden box surrounding the camera leaked and some water got in, but the damage was not severe enough to ruin the image.

Boutan started his activities in 1893 on the French Mediterranean coast; photographs at a depth of more than 50 m depth were recorded. This pioneering work helped to identify many of the problems of underwater photography and camera design that still face underwater photographers today, such as making the cameras water and pressure resistant, the design of suitable power supplies, and the problems of lighting and backscatter. To enable him to take ‘photographie sous-marine’ he had to develop battery-powered underwater arc lamps and watertight housings (that took three men to lift!); he was hampered by the lack of high-speed film and a good illumination source (his exposures could last as long as 30 min, requiring him to stay underwater for as much as 3 h). Adopting a magnesium powder ‘flash’ as his illumination source dramatically sped up the process. This was all carried out wearing a full diving suit with airlines and a helmet; Boutan’s famous self-portrait was the first underwater photo ever published (Fig. 2.1).

2.1 The first underwater photograph – Louis Boutan’s self-portrait.

From this point on marine science laboratories the world over began to adopt optical technology as one of their main modus operandi in their study of the oceans, seas and lakes of the world. It is a great pity that Darwin’s Beagle voyages of 1831– 1835 and the Challenger voyages of the 1870 s predated this technology or surely the outstanding artistic renditions of the flora and fauna of the sea would have been replaced by photographs. Captain Nemo of 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea fame in his submarine Nautilus must surely go down as one of the first optical tourists of the

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