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War Paint ! A Pictorial History of the 4th Marine Division at War in the Pacific. Volume IV: Iwo Jima

War Paint ! A Pictorial History of the 4th Marine Division at War in the Pacific. Volume IV: Iwo Jima

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War Paint ! A Pictorial History of the 4th Marine Division at War in the Pacific. Volume IV: Iwo Jima

Lunghezza:
564 pagine
2 ore
Pubblicato:
Aug 3, 2015
ISBN:
9781310812705
Formato:
Libro

Descrizione

War Paint: A Pictorial History of the 4th Marine Division At War in the Pacific - Volume IV Iwo Jima.

This is Volume Four of a four volume series. This volume continues where volume three left off. Now, the 4th Marine Division will participate in the battle for Iwo Jima, February - March, 1945, and return to their home base at Camp Maui for the duration of the war, with the uncertain prospect of invading Japan. All four volumes present over 850 photographs and more than 250 artworks. These intended for a mature audience. Viewing by children is not recommended.

During the Winter of 1942, New York City based modern artist, Theo Hios, enlisted in the U.S. Marine Corps. Soon thereafter, he found his way to other artists and the Marine Corps art program. Thus, a fully documented art movement within the ranks of the 4th Marine Division during the war in the Pacific is re-discovered.

This series will cover virtually every phase of the 4th Marine Division's history during WWII - from inception to the end of the War in the Pacific. If you are a history buff or art historian, then this series is for you.

Pubblicato:
Aug 3, 2015
ISBN:
9781310812705
Formato:
Libro

Informazioni sull'autore

Military history is what I research and write about. Majored in History with a BA at The City College. Former exchange student of Chinese language at Zhongshan University in Canton, China. Earned a Masters of Science at SUNY Maritime, and wrote extensively about China's Special Economic Zones. Former shipping and transportation logistics professional worked the China - Far East Trade. Assisted starting up a freight forwarding company, a container chassis leasing firm, and later I was the Owner's Operator that initiated a bulk cargo tramp steamship company. Also worked at the World Trade Center ground zero during the post 9/11 recovery for a U.S. Army Corps of Engineers contractor, and, Disaster Assistance Employee with FEMA. Much of my published work was researched at several archives, including NARA, The National Museum of the Marine Corps, The Marine Corps University, Smithsonian, Brown University and Veterans from the 4th Marine Division Association. Business and general inquiries emailed to: americanidols1944@gmail.com

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War Paint ! A Pictorial History of the 4th Marine Division at War in the Pacific. Volume IV - Theo Servetas

Bibliography

Chapter One

Iwo Jima

The Battle of Iwo Jima, code named Operation Detachment, lasted from February 19 through March 26, 1945. It was a joint operation of the 5th Amphibious Corps commanding the 3rd, 4th and 5th Marine Divisions. During the hellish thirty-six day battle, the Navy Department concluded, the Americans suffered more than 26,000 casualties, including 6,800 dead.¹ Iwo Jima was defended by more than 22,000 Japanese soldiers, only 216 were taken prisoner during the battle.²

Iwo Jima, meaning Sulphur Island, is part of the Japanese Volcano Islands. Mt. Suribachi is Iwo’s highest point at 528 feet, a dormant volcano situated at the south west end of the island. Although Iwo Jima is 765 nautical miles south of Tokyo, it is administered by Tokyo as Iojima Village. Hence, the American invasion of Iwo Jima is the first time U.S. forces set foot on Japanese soil. Taking Iwo denied the enemy an airbase to intercept U.S. B-29 Superfortress bombers from the Marianas enroute to the Japanese home islands. The Americans also needed the airfields at Iwo for emergency landings, and to establish a P-51 fighter aircraft wing tasked with B-29 bomber escort protection.

The 4th Marine Division prepared for Operation Detachment with maneuvers at Maalea Bay, Maui December, 1944. Thence sailed to Honolulu, Oahu, and, to the Marshall Islands, at Eniwetok January 27, 1945. Around February 13, 1945, arrived at the Marianas Islands for more maneuvers off Tinian Island. By D-Day February 19th, the 4th Division had been deployed at sea over forty five days before hitting Iwo Jima’s beaches of proverbial black sands.

While underway, the Marines were informed of their objective just two days prior to the invasion; but, scuttlebutt laid odds the destination was Iwo many days before. Bill Gallo recalled prior to deployment, stories were published in Maui’s newspapers about the air raids at the Volcano Islands that lasted seventy-two days. Aerial photographs gave the impression that Iwo was barren and desolate. Taking Iwo was supposed to be an easy job, like taking Roi Island. What the Marines did not know then there were at least 22,000 well concealed Japanese troops dug in.³

General Tadamichi Kuribayashi was overall Commander of the Japanese Garrison on Iwo Jima, and planned for the defense of the island. Upon his arrival at Iwo in June of 1944, General Kuribayashi halted construction of beach defenses, opted instead to construct defenses further inland. The five week battle sustained by the Japanese defenders used guerilla warfare tactics, had the advantage of over 11 miles of tunnels, 5,000 caves and pillboxes. Paraphrasing historian James Bradley, author of Flags of our Fathers, tells General Kuribayashi deliberately chose to fight a battle that would drive up the casualty rates, with the goal to outrage American public opinion to bring the war with Japan to a rapid end.

View of Honolulu From a Gun Turret, January 1945,

By Marine Corps combat artist Theo Hios.

Watercolor 12 x 18.

(Art Collection, National Museum of the Marine Corps, Triangle, Virginia)

View of Honolulu from Troopship, January 1945

By Marine Corps combat artist Theo Hios

Watercolor 12 x 18.

(Art Collection, National Museum of the Marine Corps, Triangle, Virginia).

Hios wrote: View of Honolulu from my transport, U.S.S. Napa APA 157.

The Convoy Steams Out to Sea, 1945,

By Marine Corps combat artist Harry D. Reeks.

Watercolor.

(Anne S.K. Brown Military Collection, Brown University Library)

Troop Ships in the Pacific Theater, 1945,

By Marine Corps combat artist Harry D. Reeks. Watercolor.

(Anne S.K. Brown Military Collection, Brown University Library)

Transports – Pacific, 1945

By Marine Corps combat artist John Fabion.

Watercolor, 11 x 15

(Art Collection, National Museum of the Marine Corps, Triangle Virginia)

Lookout Post, U.S.S. Napa, January 30, 1945.

By Marine Corps combat artist Theo Hios.

Watercolor 14 x 20

(Art Collection, National Museum of the Marine Corps, Triangle, Virginia)

The artist wrote: Study of Arthur Rivira, 5 2/C from Houston, Texas. U.S.S. Napa.

Sgt. Theo Hios, H&S Co. 4th Eng. Bn., 4th Mar. Div.

View of Saipan from an LCVP aboard U.S.S. Napa,

H&S Co. 4th Engr. Bn, 4th Mar. Div. February, 1945.

By Marine Corps combat artist Theo Hios.

Watercolor 12 x 18

(Art Collection, National Museum of the Marine Corps, Triangle, Virginia)

The 4th Division returned to the Marianas while underway to Iwo Jima.

Plowing the Blue Pacific, H&S Co. 4th Engr. Bn. February, 1945.

By Marine Corps combat artist Theo Hios.

Watercolor 14 x 20.

(Art Collection, National Museum of the Marine Corps, Triangle, Virginia)

Murphy, Damm, Van Zandt.

By Marine Corps combat artist Theo Hios.

Watercolor 12 x 16. (Author’s Collection)

The artist wrote: Study of three Combat Engineers aboard U.S.S. Napa. From left to right: Sgt. E.G. Murphy from Huntington, W. Va; Cpl. E.H. Damm from Richmond Hill, N.Y.; Sgt. H.A. Van Zandt, Yurba City, Ca. Sgt. Theo Hios, H&S Co. 4th Engr. Bn., 4th Mar. Div. February 5, 1945.

Troop Ships in the Pacific Theater, 1945.

By Marine Corps combat artist Harry D. Reeks.

Watercolor.

(Anne S.K. Brown Military Collection, Brown University Library)

Half Way, 1945.

By Marine Corps combat artist Harry D. Reeks.

Watercolor.

(Anne S.K. Brown Military Collection, Brown University Library)

Marine Corps combat radio correspondent Master T/Sgt. Alvin M. Josephy, Jr., was on a troop transport headed for Iwo. His observations about working and living at sea are presented in his short story:

Iwo Transport

The Marines aboard this transport bound for Iwo Jima are old hands at transport life. Most of them have been in the Pacific more than two years. They have ridden transports in and out of action from the Solomons to the Marianas. Every few months they leave their camps ashore, hike to the beach and embark for another island nearer Japan. Nevertheless, there is a difference between this trip and all the others that preceded it. This one has taken us out of the tropics for the first time since we left the States, and it is cold. The holds, which are usually stifling hot without it, are steam heated. The fresh water showers, a cooling luxury on trips farther south, are ignored. Instead, the men sit around in newly issued, lined combat jackets, huddling in the companionways or seeking warmth in sheltered corners on deck. At night no one sleeps topside. It is a shock to realize that the temperature is actually only in the sixties. It is not cold at all, but our blood has got thin after months in the jungle. It leads to a lot of unpleasant jokes by the southern boys about how the Northerners will be unable to stand it back home in New England and Chicago and the Northwest.

In any climate, transport life to the enlisted men can be miserable. This transport is more comfortable than many others. Unlike the converted passenger or cargo vessels, some thought seems to have been given to the comfort of men. The holds are whitewashed, and the tiers of sacks have some room between them in which to move around. There is plenty of light and enough fresh air. The holds of the older ships were like sweltering Black Holes of Calcutta, so dark, crowded and oppressive that sleeping topside in a pouring rain was preferable to remaining below. The sacks, which are roomy tiers of five on the new ships, are the same as always --- oblong pieces of canvas, laced to pipe frames. Every so often one comes out of its moorings, and the unfortunate owner, together with his pack, blanket roll, helmet and whatever else he is lying on, crashes down on the men below him. Long, circling, whitewashed tubes carry cool air, blown down from the top deck. In warmer climates men sleeping beside the tubes punctured them so that some of the refreshing air would blow directly out on their faces. Now, in this comparatively freezing zone, the men have frantically stuffed the holes with paper and pieces of cloth.

Most of the Marines fortunately have something to do during the trip to keep them from becoming bored, although it is doubtful if they appreciate the work handed to them. Some have been assigned to the mess hall to serve on the chow line and clean up after meals. Others are doing guard duty along the companionways and railings. They keep order and see that no man gets too near the railing. A favorite occupation is considering whether or not a transport in convoy would stop to pick you up if you fell overboard. I still don’t know the answer. Other Marines were put in sweeping details, cleaning gangs, and break-out parties. The latter groups bring up the chow each day from the ship’s storage compartments. In the tropics this is considered a good job because you work in the ship’s refrigerator where it is cool. This far north it’s not so good. Aside from these official and not always appreciated jobs, there are few pleasant ways to pass time. There is a lot of reading of pocket-size books, pony editions of magazines and comics, but this becomes painful and not worth the effort when you have to keep moving around to stay out of the way of men cleaning the decks, officers moving back and forth, and sailors carrying on the daily routine of running the ship. Playing cards, cleaning weapons, discussing the coming operation, and arguing remain as the chief opponents to boredom.

The arguments particularly are worth while, serving as entertainment as well as merely something to do. An argument begins perhaps with an innocent remark concerning the help that naval gunfire will give us on D day. Immediately from several quarters an authoritative burst of screaming and yelling commences, continuing in more and more colorful language until finally a brawl is under way over whether or not a man can support a wife and two children on forty dollars a week. Sometimes the fact that the Marines doing the loudest yelling know so little or nothing concerning what they are shouting about only adds to the fascination. The average Marine aboard is probably about twenty, but you would never know it to hear the enthusiasm with which they tackle subjects which older men would approach with care and hesitation. Arguing, however, is one of the few rights left to the Marines, and they exercise it to the fullest. Their other right, of course, is griping, and they gripe from the moment they awake until well into the night.

Although there is nothing concerning the Marine Corps, pas, present or future, that escapes criticism, it is all strictly a family affair. Let a sailor interject a word of criticism about the Marines, and every man on deck will mysteriously overhear him and take offense, and nothing will do until the bewildered sailor apologizes.

The Marines and sailors generally get on well together. The Marines acknowledge that they are travelling guests of the swabbies, a somewhat peculiar relationship which is justified by the realization that sailors view the transport they man as their home. But sailors go to chow first, they usually get the best places from

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