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History Of India Vol. II

History Of India Vol. II

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History Of India Vol. II

valutazioni:
5/5 (2 valutazioni)
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738 pagine
11 ore
Pubblicato:
Aug 15, 2014
ISBN:
9781782894780
Formato:
Libro

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“Appointed through family influence to the East India Company, Mountstuart Elphinstone (1779-1859) arrived on the subcontinent in 1796, quickly learning Persian and developing an interest in Indian civilisation. After postings in Benares, Afghanistan and Poona, he became governor in 1819 of the recently acquired territory that became known as the Bombay Presidency, where he remained until his resignation in 1827. On his return to England, he devoted much of his time to writing and was a founder member of the Royal Geographical Society. This two-volume history, based on a range of Indian sources and first published in 1841, is infused with his lifelong understanding of Indian culture, science and philosophy. A scholarly refutation of James Mill’s History, it was the most popular work of its kind among the early Victorian public. Volume 1 takes the history of the subcontinent up to the thirteenth century, while Volume 2 continues to the demise of the Mogul empire in the mid-eighteenth century.”- Cambridge Library Collection
Pubblicato:
Aug 15, 2014
ISBN:
9781782894780
Formato:
Libro

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History Of India Vol. II - Mountstuart Elphinstone

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Text originally published in 1841 under the same title.

© Pickle Partners Publishing 2013, all rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted by any means, electrical, mechanical or otherwise without the written permission of the copyright holder.

Publisher’s Note

Although in most cases we have retained the Author’s original spelling and grammar to authentically reproduce the work of the Author and the original intent of such material, some additional notes and clarifications have been added for the modern reader’s benefit.

We have also made every effort to include all maps and illustrations of the original edition the limitations of formatting do not allow of including larger maps, we will upload as many of these maps as possible.

The History of India

by the Honourable Mountstuart Elphinstone

In two volumes

Volume I

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS 4

Book 6 – Kings of Delhi, to the Accession of the House of Teimur, 1206–1526 5

Chapter 1 – Slave Kings 5

1206, Independence of India – Kutb u din – Progress of a Turki Slave – 1210, Aram – 1211, Shams u din Altamsh – 1217, Conquests of the Moguls under Chengiz Khan – 1221, King of Kharizm pursued into India – 1223, Returns to Persia – State of Hindostan – 1236, Health of Altamsh – Rukn u din – Sultana Rezia – Her Virtues – Her Weakness – Rebellion – 1239, The Queen defeated and put to death – Moizz u din Behram – Mogul Irruption into the Panjab – 1241, Ala u din Masaud – Mogul Irruptions – 1246, Nasir u din Mahmud – Gheias u din Bulbun Vizir – 1253, Removal of Bulbun – Discontents and Intrigues – Bulbun restored – 1266, Gheias u din Bulbun – Bulbun puts down the Influence of the Slaves – His Character – 1279, Revolt of Bengal – Suppressed – Mogul Irruption – Victory and Death of the Heir Apparent – 1286, Death of Bulbun – Kei Kobad – Intrigues and Power of the Vizir – Massacre of Mogul Mercenaries – King’s Interview with his Father – Murder of the Vizir – 1288, The King dethroned and put to death. 5

Chapter 2 – House of Khilji – Jelal u din Khilji 18

1288, Jehal u din – Mild Government of Jelal u din – Vigour of Ala u din, the King’s nephew – 1294, Ala u din’s Invasion of the Deckan – Submission of Deogiri – Return to Hindostan – 1295, Assassination of Jelal u din – Singular Instance of Credulity and Injustice – Ala u din – 1297, Expedition to Guzerat – Mogul Incursions – 1298, Serious Invasion by the Moguls – Their Defeat at Delhi – 1299, Designs of the King’s Nephew – He attempts to assassinate the King – 1299, His Failure and Death – 1300, Other Disturbances quelled – 1303, Capture of Chitor – 1304–1305, Unsuccessful Invasions of the Moguls – Discontinuance of their Incursions – 1306, Expedition to the Deckan – Story of the Princess Dewal Devi – 1309, Failure of an Expedition to Telingana – 1310, Conquest of Carnata – Conquest of Maaber up to Cape Comorin – 1311, Massacre of Mogul Converts – 1312, Taking of Deogiri, and Conquest of Maharashtra – Intrigues and Influence of Cilia – Revolt of Guzerat – Recovery of Chitor by the Rajputs – 1316, Death of Ala u din – His Character – His internal Policy – Mobarik Khilji – 1319, Conquest of Malabar – Influence of Khusru, and Ascendancy of a Hindu Party at Court – 1321, Murder of Mobarik, and Extirpation of his Family. 18

Chapter 3 – House of Toghlak, Seiads, and House of Lodi 33

House of Toghlak – 1321 to 1412 – 1321, Gheias u din Toghlak – 1322, Failure of an Expedition to Telingana – 1323, Conquest of Telingana, and Capture of Warangol, the Capital – 1325, Death of the King – Mohammed Toghlak – Character of Mohammed Toghlak – Wild Schemes of Mohammed – 1325, Projected Conquest of Persia – Attempt to conquer China – Introduction of Paper Money – Tyranny and Exactions of the King – 1338, Rebellions – 1340, Permanent revolt of Bengal and of the Coast of Coromandel – 1344, Restoration of the Hindu Kingdoms of Carnata and Telingana – 1345–6, Other Rebellions – Rebellion of the Mogul Troops in Guzerat – 1347, General Revolt of the Deckan – Vigour and Activity of the King – 1351, Death of Mohammed Toghlak – Removal of the Capital to Deogiri and other Caprices of Mohammed – Foreign Accounts of his Court and Government – The Mahometan Territory in India at its greatest Extent in this Reign – Firuz Toghlak – 1356, Independence of Bengal and the Deckan recognised – The King’s Infirmities – 1385, Rivalries at his Court – 1388, His Death – His Laws – His public Works – Gheias u din Toghlak II. – 1389, Abubekr Toghlak – 1390, Nasir u din Toghlak – 1394, Mahmud Toghlak – Dissolution of the Monarchy – 1398, Invasion of Tamerlane – Defeat of the Indian Army – Sack, Conflagration, and Massacre of Delhi – 1399, Tamerlane retires from India – His Character – Anarchy at Delhi – Government of the Seiads – 1414, Seiad Khizr Khan – 1421, Seiad Mobarik – 1435, Seiad Mohammed – 1444, Seiad Ala u din – House of Lodi – 1450, Behlol Lodi – Rise of the Family of Lodi – Panjab re-annexed to Delhi – 1478, Recovery of Juanpur – 1488, Secander Lodi – Good Administration of Secander – His Bigotry – 1517, Ibrahim Lodi – Discontents and Rebellions – 1521, Invasion of Baber – He retreats from Sirhind – December 1525, Return of Baber – 1526, Defeat and Death of Ibrahim – Occupation of Delhi and Agra 33

Book 7 – House of Teimur – From the Conquest of Baber to the Accession of Akber 51

Chapter 1 – Reign of Baber 51

Descent and early Life of Baber – His Wars and Adventures in his Youth – He is driven out of Transoxiana – 1504, Acquires the Kingdom of Cabul – His Views on India – 1526, Baber’s Proceedings after his Victory over Ibrahim – Discontent of his Troops – His War with Sanga, Rana of Mewar – 1527 March, Battle of Sikri – Victory of Baber – Settlement of the Country – 1528, Siege of Chanderi – Afghan Insurrection – 1529, Defeat of the King of Bengal – Sickness of Baber – Intrigues regarding the Succession – 26 December 1580, Death of Baber – His Character. 51

Chapter 2 – First Reign of Humayun 64

1531, Arrangement with the King’s Brothers – Separation of Cabal from India – Afghan Insurrections in India – 1532, Disputes with Bahadur Shah, King of Guzerat – 1534, Invasion and Conquest of Guzerat – 1535, Expulsion of the Moguls from Guzerat – Early Life and Rise of Shit Khan Sur – He obtains Possession of Behar – Conquers Bengal – 1537, Humayun marches against him – Military Features of Behar and Bengal – January 1538, Siege of Chunar – Shir Khan’s Plan for resisting the Invasion – 1538, June or July. Taking of Gour by Humayun – His difficulties during the rainy Season – Active Operations of Shir Khan – Retreat of Humayun – Shit Khan assumes the Title of King – Intercepts Humayun on his Retreat – June 1539, Surprises him and disperses his Army – Second Campaign – May 1540, Final Defeat of Humayun – His Flight – July 1540, Arrives at Lahor – 1541–2, Fails in an attempt on Sind – Seeks refuge in Jodpur; which is refused – Horrors of his march through the desert – 1542, Is hospitably received at Amercot – 14 October 1542, Birth of Akber – Second attempt on Sind – 1543, Humayun consents to retire to Candahar – His Dangers in that Country – His Flight to Persia. 64

Chapter 3 – Shir Shah, and others of the Family of Sur 77

1540, Shir Shah takes possession of all Humayun’s Dominions – 1542, Recovers Malwa – 1543, Massacres the Garrison of Raisin – 1544, Invades Marwar – Takes Chitor. – 1545, Is killed at Calinjer – His Character – His internal Improvements – Selim Shah Sur – Selim supplants his elder Brother – 1547, Quells an obstinate Rebellion – 1553, Dies – Account of a fanatical Sect – Mohammed Shah Sur Adili – Mohammed Adili murders his Nephew and usurps the Throne – His Vices and Incapacity – Hama, a low Hindu, made Prime Minister – Vigour and Talents of Herrin – Oppressive Measures of the King – 1554, Rebellions – Separation of Delhi and the western Provinces – Revolt of the Panjab under Secander Stir – 1555, Revolt of Bengal – 1555, Revolt of Malwa – 1555, July. Return of Humayun – Success of Hemu – 1556, His Defeat by Akber, and Death – 1557, Death of Mohammed Adili. 77

Chapter 4 – Humayun Restored 82

1544, Reception of Humayun in Persia – Account of the Safavis or Sophis – Magnificence and Hospitality of Shah Tahmasp – His Arrogance and Caprice – Forces Humayun to profess the Shia religion – Sends an Army to restore Humayun – September 1545, Taking of Candahar – Which is ceded to the Persians – Treacherously recovered by Humayun after the Departure of the Persian army – Taking of Cabul – Expedition to Badakhshan – Camran recovers Cabul – April 1547, Is driven out by Humayun – August 1548, Gives himself up to Humayun, and is kindly treated – 1549, Humayun invades Balkh – Fresh Rebellion of Camran – Calamitous Retreat from Balkh – 1550, Humayun defeated by Camran, and deserted by his army – 1551, Camran again expelled – September 1553, Taken and blinded – January 1555, Humayun marches to recover India – Defeats Secander Sur – July 1555, Takes Delhi and Agra – January 1556, His Death. 82

Book 8 – State of India up to the Accession of Akber 91

Chapter 1 – History of the Independent States of India after the Dissolution of the Empire of Delhi 91

States formed on the Dissolution of the Empire under Mahmud Toghlak – Recovery of Telingana and Cantata by the Hindus – Further Dismemberment of the Empire – Kingdoms of the Deckan – 1347–1518, Bahmani Kingdom of the Deckan – Increased Intercourse with the Hindus – Rivalry between the Shia and Sunni sects in the Court and Army – 1489–1512, States formed out of the Bahmani dominions – Bijapur – Ahmednagar – Golconda – Berar – Bidr – Their history – 1565, Battle of Talicota – Fall of the Kingdom of Bijayanagar – Kingdoms in Hindostan and the Adjoining Countries – Guzerat – Malwa – Other Mahometan kingdoms – The Rajput States. – Change in the Condition of the Rajputs after the Mahometan Conquests in India – State of the Rajput Princes at the Accession of Akber – Mewar – Marwar – Bikanir – Jesalmer – Amber or Jeipur – Harauti – Petty States in the Desert – Petty States on the East of the Table Land – Other unsubdued Tracts. 91

Chapter 2 – Internal State of India 99

Internal state of the Mahometan Empire – The King’s Power – His Ministers – Provinces – Army – Law (Mahometan and Common) – Church – Moulavis – Fakirs – Superstitions – Sects – Hindus – Conversions – Revenue – Condition of the People – State of the Country – Towns and Commerce – Coinage – Architecture – Manners – Mahometan Literature – Language. 99

Book 9 – Akber 110

Chapter 1 – From 1556 to 1586 110

1556, Accession of Akber – Behram Khan – Loss of Cabul – 1556, November Defeat and Death of Hemu – Recovery of Delhi and Agra – Campaign in the Panjab – Submission of Secander Sur – Arbitrary Government of Behram Khan – General Discontent at Court – 1560, March. Akber assumes the Government – Perplexity of Behram – He revolts – 1560, September. His Submission and Pardon – His death – Difficult Situation of the young King – His Plan for restoring and consolidating the Empire – Extent of his Territory – Insubordination and Rebellions of his Officers – Quelled, after a Struggle of Seven Years – Affairs of Mill – Nominal Government of Prince Hakim, Akber’s brother – 1566, Hakim invades the Panjab – Revolt of the Mirzas – They fly to Guzerat – Miscellaneous Occurrences – 1567, Foreign Affairs – the Rajputs – 1572–1573, Conquest of Guzerat – 1575–1576, Conquest of Bengal – State of that Province – 1577, Mutiny of the Troops in Bengal and Behar – Insurrection of the Afghans in Bengal – 1592, Final Settlement of the Province after fifteen Years of Disturbance – 1579, Revolt of Prince Hakim – Reduction of Cabul – 1581–1593, Insurrection in Guzerat. 110

Chapter 2 – From 1586 to the Death of Akber 126

1586, Akber interferes in the Disputes of the Deckan – Akber moves to Attok on the Indus – 1586–1587, Conquest of Cashmir – Wars with the north-eastern Afghans – Description of those Tribes and of their Country – Sect of the Roushenias – 1586, Destruction of the invading Army by the Eusofzeis – 1600, Imperfect Settlement at the end of fifteen Years – 1591, Conquest of Sind – 1594, Recovery of Candahar – Complete Settlement of Hindostan – 1595, Expedition to the Deckan – Chand Sultana – Her Defence of Ahmednagar – 1596, Peace agreed on – War renewed and extended to the whole of the Deckan – 1599, Akber goes in person to the Deckan – 1600, Death of Chand Sultana – Taking of Ahmednagar – 1601, Conquest of Candesh – Akber returns to Hindostan – Refractory Conduct of his eldest Son, Selim (afterwards Jehangir) – 1602, Murder of Abul Fazl – 1603, Reconciliation of Akber with Selim – Continued Misconduct of Selim – He is placed under Restraint and soon after released – His Quarrels with his own Son, Khusru – Death of Danial, Akber’s third Son – Sickness of Akber – Intrigues regarding the Succession – Unsuccessful Combination to set aside Selim – 1605, 13th October. Death of Akber – His Character. 126

Chapter 3 – Internal Policy 141

His internal Policy, religious and civil – His general Toleration and Impartiality – Progress of his religious Opinions – Feizi – His Translations from the Shanscrit – He superintends Translations from that and other Languages – Abul Fazl – Akber’s Attachment to those Brothers – Akber’s religious and philosophical Conferences – Religious System of Akber – His Discouragement of the Mahometan Peculiarities – His Restrictions on the Hindu Superstition – His general Indulgence to Hindus – Discontents among the Mussulmans – Limited Progress of his own Religion – His civil Government – Revenue System – Todar Mal – Subahs or Governments, and their Establishments – military, judicial, and police – Reform and new Model of the Army – Fortifications and public Works – Household and Court. 141

Book 10 – Jehangir – Shah Jehan 155

Chapter 1 – Jehangir 155

1605, State of India at the Accession of Jehangir – Moderate Measures at the Commencement of his Reign – 1606, Flight of Prince Khusru – His Rebellion – Quashed – Barbarous Punishment of the Rebels – Imprisonment of Khusru – 1607, Wars in Mewar and in the Deckan – 1610, Insurrection of a pretended Khusru – Ill Success of the war in the Deckan – Malik Amber – He recovers Ahmednagar – Marriage of the Emperor with Nur Jehan – Her History – Her Influence – Combined Attack on Ahmednagar – 1612, Defeated by Malik Amber – War with Mewar – 1613, Victories and Moderation of Shah Jehan (Prince Khurram) – 1614, The Rana submits on honourable Terms – Influence of Shah Jehan – Supported by Nur Jehan – Insurrection in Cabul quelled – 1615, Embassy of Sir T. Roe – His Account of the Empire, Court, and Character of Jehangir – Prince Khusru – Unpopularity of Shah Jehan – Prince Parviz – 1616, Shah Jehan declared Heir Apparent – Sent to settle the Deckan – 1616, October The Emperor moves to Mandu – Sir T. Roe’s Description of his March – 1617, Complete Success of Shah Jehan – September 1617– September 1618, Residence of the Emperor and Shah Jehan in Guzerat – 1621, Renewal of the Disturbances in the Deckan – Shah Jehan marches to quell them – His Success in the Field – He comes to Terms with Malik Amber – Dangerous Illness of the Emperor – Measures of Parviz and Shah Jehan – Suspicious Death of Khusru – Alienation of the Empress from Shah Jehan – Candahar taken by the Persians – Shah Jehan ordered to retake it – His Reluctance to leave India – The Enterprise committed to Prince Shehriar – To whom most of Shah Jehan’s Troops are transferred – Mohabat Khan called to Court by the Empress – 1622, Increased Distrust between the Emperor and Shah Jehan – 1623, Rebellion of Shah Jehan – Advance of the Emperor – Retreat of Shah Jehan – Its Consequences – Shah Jehan retreats into Telingana – 1624, Makes his Way to Bengal – Obtains Possession of Bengal and Behar – He is pursued by Prince Parviz and Mohabat Khan – Is defeated and flies to the Deckan – State of the Deckan – Shah Jehan unites with Malik Amber – Pressed by Parviz and Mohabat Khan – Deserted by his Army – 1625, Offers his Submission to the Emperor – The Emperor marches against the Roushenias in Cabul – Persecution of Mohabat Khan by the Empress – His History – He is summoned to Court – Brutal Treatment of his Son-in-law by the Emperor – 1626, March. Mohabat seizes on the Emperor’s Person – Spirited Conduct of Nur Jehan – She attacks Mohabat’s Camp – Is repulsed with heavy Loss – She joins the Emperor in his Confinement – Insecurity of Mohabat’s Power – Artifices of the Emperor – Quarrel between the Rajputs and the King’s Troops – Plots and Preparations of Mr Jehan – 1626, September. Rescue of Jehangir – Terms granted to Mohabat Khan – He is sent against Shah Jehan – End of 1626, He breaks with the Emperor, and joins Shah Jehan – October 1627, Sickness and Death of Jehangir. 155

Chapter 2 – Shah Jehan, till 1657 176

1627, October. Asof Khan takes part with Shah Jehan – Imprisons the Empress – Defeats Shehriar, who is put to Death – 1628, January. Shah Jehan arrives from the Deckan, and is, proclaimed at Agra – Local Disturbances – History of Khan Jehan Lodi – His Flight from Agra – His Proceedings in the Deckan – 1629, October. The Emperor marches against him – State of the Deckan – Khan Jehan driven out of Ahmednagar – Pursued by Azim Khan – Fails in obtaining an Asylum at Bijapur – His Ally, the King of Ahmednagar, defeated – Khan Jehan flies from the Deckan – 1630, Is cut off in Bundelcand – Continuance of the War with Ahmednagar – Famine and Pestilence in the Deckan – 1631, The King of Bijapur joins the King of Ahmednagar – Murder of the King of Ahmednagar by his Minister, Fatteh Khan – Who submits to Shah Jehan – War with Bijapur continues – 1632, Tergiversation of Fatteh Khan – Siege of Bijapur – Failure of the Siege – The Emperor returns to Delhi – 1633, February. Final Surrender of Fatteh Khan – 1634, Ill Success of the Operations in the Deckan – Shahji Bosla attempts to restore the King of Ahmednagar – 1635, November. The Emperor returns to the Deckan – Failure of another Attempt on Bijapur – 1636, Peace with Bijapur – Submission of Shahji Bosla – The Emperor exacts a Tribute from Golconda – 1637, Returns to Delhi – Local Disturbances and Successes in Hindostan – Recovery of Candahar – All Merdan Khan – 1641, Invasion of Balkh – Services of the Rajputs in the Mountains of Hindu Cush – 1645, Shah Jehan moves to Cahill – Balkh reduced by Prince Morad and Ali Merdan Khan – Overrun by the Usbeks from beyond the Oxus – 1647, Aurangzib sent against them – Is besieged in Balkh – Shah Jehan abandons his Conquest – Disastrous Retreat of Aurangzib – 1648, Candahar retaken by the Persians – 1649, Aurangzib sent to recover it – Fails in the Siege of Candahar – 1652, Second Attempt on Candahar under Aurangzib – Its Failure – Great Expedition under Prince Dara Sheko – Siege of Candahar – 1653, November. Failure and Retreat of Dara Sheko – Death of the Vizir, Saki Ullah Khan – 1655, Renewal of the War in the Deckan under Aurangzib – Intrigues of Aurangzib at Golconda – Mir Jumla – Treacherous Attack on Heiderabad by Aurangzib – Submission of the King of Golconda – 1656, Unprovoked War with Bijapur. 176

Chapter 3 – From 1657 to the Deposal of Shah Jehan 191

1657, Dangerous Illness of the Emperor – Characters and Pretensions of his Sons – Dara She – Shuja – Aurangzib – Morad – Daughters of Shah Jehan – Data administers the Government under the Emperor – Rebellion of Shuja – And of Morad – Cautious Measures of Aurangzib – His Collusion with Mir Jumla – He marches to join Morad – Defensive Measures of Dara – Shah Jehan re-assumes the Government – Shuja continues to advance on Agra – Is defeated by Soliman, Son of Dara, and returns to Bengal – 1658, April. Aurangzib and Morad defeat the Imperial Army under Jeswant Sing at Ujen – Shah Jehan’s Anxiety for an Accommodation – Dara marches from Agra to oppose his Brothers, against the Wish of Shah Johan – 1658, June. Is totally defeated – Dara flies to Delhi – Aurangzib enters Agra – Shah Jehan adheres to the Cause of Dara – Is confined in his Palace – 1658, August. Aurangzib imprisons Morad, and openly assumes the Government – High Prosperity of India under Shah Jehan – Magnificence of Shah Jehan – His Buildings – The Taj Mahal – His Economy – His personal Character. 191

Book 11 – Aurangzib (or Alamgir) 202

Chapter 1 – From 1658 to 1662 202

Soliman deserted by Jei Sing and Dilir Khan – Flies to Sirinagar and is made Prisoner by the Raja – 1658, July. Aurangzib marches from Delhi in pursuit of Dara – Dara flies from Lahor – 1658, November. Aurangzib returns to Delhi – Marches against Shuja, who is advancing from Bengal – Treacherous Attack on his Baggage by Jeswant Sing – 1659, January. Defeat of Shuja – Jeswant Sing threatens Agra and flies to Marwar – Dara Sheko appears in Guzerat, and is acknowledged in that Province – He sets out to join Jeswant Sing – Jeswant Sing is won over by Aurangzib – Abandons Dara – Dara is attacked and defeated by Aurangzib – Disasters of his Flight to Gazer& – He is met by Bernier – Ahmedabad shuts its Gates on him – He flies towards Sind – He is betrayed by the Chief of Jun and delivered up to Aurangzib – 1659, July. He is brought to Delhi – Sympathy of the People – He is put to death – Operations against Shuja by Prince Sultan and Mir Jumla – 1659, June. Prince Sultan goes over to Shuja – 1660, January. Returns to his Allegiance – And is imprisoned by his Father – Shuja flies to Aracan – Uncertainty regarding his Fate – Soliman given up by the Raja of Sirinagar – 1661, November. Morad murdered in his Prison – Expedition of Mir Jumla to Assam – 1663, March. Death of Mir Jumla – Dangerous Illness of Aurangzib – Intrigues and Agitation – Firmness and Self-possession of Aurangzib – 1662, December. His Recovery – Disturbances in the Deckan – Description of the Maratta Country – Account of the Nation – Rise of the Bosla Family – Shahji Bosla – Sevaji Bosla – His Robberies – His Adherents – He surprises a Hill Fort – He usurps his Father’s Jagir – Obtains Possession of several Forts – Revolts against the Government of Bijapur – 1648, Takes Possession of the Northern Concan – His Attachment to the Hindu Religion – 1649, The Government of Bijapur seize Shahji as a Hostage for his Son – 1653, Shahji released – Renewal of Sevaji’s Encroachments – Plunders the Mogul Provinces – 1658, Obtains Forgiveness from Aurangzib – Afzal Khan sent against him from Bijapur – Is assassinated by Sevaji – 1659, And his Army dispersed – Another Army sent from Bijapur – The King of Bijapur takes the Field – 1661, Recovers most of Sevaji’s Conquests – Sevaji makes a very favourable Peace – Extent of his Territory. 202

Chapter 2 – From 1662 to 1681 220

1662, Sevaji’s Rupture with the Moguls – Shaista Khan marches against him – Occupies Puna – Night Exploit of Sevaji – Prince Moazzim sent against him – 1664, January. Sevaji plunders Surat – Death of Shahji – His Possessions in the South of India – Maritime Exploits of Sevaji – Sevaji assumes Sovereignty – Raja Jei Sing sent against him – 1665, Submission of Sevaji – He co-operates with Jei Sing against Bijapur – Goes to Delhi – Haughty Reception by Aurangzib – Sevaji escapes from Confinement – 1666, December. Arrives at Raighar – Death of Shah Jehan – Prosperous State of Aurangzib’s Empire – Failure of Jei Sing’s Attack on Bijapur – His Death – Return of Prince Moazzim and Jeswant Sing – Progress of Sevaji – He makes Peace with the Emperor – Levies Tribute on Bijapur and Golconda – His Internal Arrangements – Schemes of Aurangzib to entrap &wail – Aurangzib breaks the Peace – Sevaji surprises Singhar – Ravages the Mogul Territory – Chout – 1672, Defeats the Moguls in a Field Action – Khan Jehan made Viceroy of the Deckan – Suspension of active Operations in the Deckan – 1673–1675, Aurangzib occupied by a War with the north-eastern Afghans – 1676, Aurangzib returns to Delhi – Insurrection of the Satnarami Religionists – Aurangzib’s Bigotry – His vexatious Treatment of the Hindus – 1677, He revives the Jezia or Poll Tax on Infidels – General Disaffection of the Hindus – Oppressive Measures against the Widow and Children of Raja Jeswant Sing – They escape from Delhi – Combination of the Rajputs – 1679, January. The Emperor marches against them – Grants favourable Terms to the Rana of Mewar – 1679, July. The Rana breaks the Peace – Devastation of the Rajput Country – Permanent Alienation of the Rajputs – Prince Akber joins the Rajputs with his Army – Is proclaimed Emperor – Marches against Aurangzib – Dangerous Situation of the Emperor – His Presence of Mind – Defection of Akber’s army – Akber flies to the Marattas – Protracted War with the Rajputs. 220

Chapter 3 – From 1681 to 1698 236

Affairs of the Deckan resumed – Sevaji’s Conquests from Bijapur – 1675, June. Is crowned at Raighar with additional Solemnity – Makes an Incursion into the Mogul Territory – 1675, And first crosses the Nerbadda – Sevaji’s Expedition to the South of India – 1677, He takes Jinji and Vellor, and recovers all his Father’s Jagir in Mysore – 1678, The Moguls under Dilir Khan invade Golconda – 1679, Lay Siege to Bijapur – Sevaji’s Son, Sambaji, deserts to the Moguls – He returns to his Father – Siege of Bijapur raised – Death of Sevaji – His Character – Unsuccessful Attempt to set aside Sambaji – He is acknowledged Raja – Sambaji’s Cruelty – His Obstinacy in besieging Jinjera – 1681, Joined by Prince Akber – Plots against his Authority – Executions – Gives himself up to a Favourite, Calusha – 1682, Fails at Jinjera – Decline of his Affairs in the Deccan – 1683, Aurangzib arrives in the Deccan – His Views – 1684, His first Operations – Destruction of Prince Moazzim’s Army in the Concan – Invasion of Bijapur – 1685, Sambaji ravages the Country in the Emperor’s Rear – Failure of the Invasion of Bijapur – Sambaji plunders Baruch – Aurangzib invades Golconda – Makes Peace with the King – Aurangzib in Person moves against Bijapur – 1686, October 15. Takes the Capital and destroys the Monarchy – Aurangzib breaks the Peace with Golconda – 1687, September. Takes the Capital and subverts the Monarchy – Imprisons Prince Moazzim – Effects of these Conquests – Disordered State of the Deckan – 1688, Aurangzib takes possession of Bijapur and Golconda, as far as Tanjore – Inactivity of Sambaji – Prince Akber goes to Persia – Sambaji made Prisoner – 1689, August. Put to death – Weakness of the Marattas – Aurangzib sends a Detachment to besiege Raighar – Regency of Raja Ram – 1690, Raighar taken – Raja Rain escapes to Jinji – Is proclaimed Raja – System of Defence adopted by the Marattas – Zulfikar Khan sent to reduce Jinji – 1692, Marattas renew the War by desultory Operations under independent Leaders – Comparison of the Mogul and Maratta Armies – 1694, Siege of Jinji committed to Prince Cambakhsh – Disgust of Zulfikar – He obstructs the Siege – 1697, Santaji Gorpara advances to raise the Siege – Cambakhsh placed under Restraint by Zulfikar – Retreat of the Besiegers – Aurangzib cantons on the Mina – Releases Cambakhsh – Increased Disaffection of Zulfikar – He renews the Siege, but protracts the Operations – Resentment of the Emperor – 1698, January – Jinji taken. 236

Chapter 4 – From 1698 to the Death of Aurangzib 253

Dissensions among the Marattas – Murder of Santaji Gorpara – 1699, Raja Ram takes the Field in Person – New Plan of Aurangzib – a besieging and a pursuing Army – Exhaustion of the Moguls – Sieges by the Emperor in Person – 1700, Takes Sattara – Death of Raja Ram – 1701, Aurangzib goes on taking Forts – Spirit and Perseverance of Aurangzib – Difficulties and Hardships to which he was exposed – His indefatigable Industry – His Attention to Details – His Distrust of all around him – His Management of his Sons and Courtiers – Increased Disorders of the State – 1702, Successes of the Marattas – 1705, They begin to recover their Forts – Exhausted State of the Army – Disorder of the Finances – Grand Army hard pressed by the Marattas – 1706, Retreats to Ahmednagar – Declining Health of the Emperor – His Fears of encountering the Fate of Shah Jehan – His Suspicions of his Sons – His Alarms at the Approach of Death – 1707, February. His Death – And Character – His Letters – Miscellaneous Transactions. 253

Book 12 – Successors of Aurangzib 263

Chapter 1 – To the Accession of Mohammed Shah 263

Bahadur Shah – Contest between Prince Azim and his elder Brother, Prince Moazzim – 1707, June. Victory of Moazzim, henceforward Bahadur Shah – Revolt of Prince Cambakhsh in the Deckan – 1708, February. His Defeat and Death – Bahadur’s Proceedings in the Deckan – State of the Marattas – Factions of Raja Saho and Tara Bai – Daud Khan Panni left in charge of the Deckan for Zulfikar Khan – Makes a Truce with the Marattas – Transactions with the Rajputs – 1709, Peace with that Power – End of the fifteenth Century, Rise of the Siks – Peaceful Character of their Sect – 1606, Persecuted by the Mahometans – Their Revolt – Guru Govind – He forms the Siks into a religious and military Commonwealth – Their Doctrines and Manners – They are overpowered at first – Their Fanaticism – Their Successes, Ravages, and Cruelties under Bandu – 1710, Bahadur marches against them – They are driven into the Hills – Escape of Bandu – 1712, February. Death of Bahadur Shah – Contest between his Sons – Artifices of Zulfikar Khan – He secures the Victory to Jehandar Shah – Jehandar Shah – 1712, May or June. Accession of Jehandar Shah – His Incapacity – Arrogance of Zulfikar Khan – General Discontent – Revolt of Prince Farokhsir in Bengal – He is supported by Abdullah and Hosen Ali, Governors of Behar and Allahabad – Defeats the Imperial Army – Zulfikar betrays Jehandar Shah to the Enemy – 1713, February. But is put to death along with the Emperor – Farokhsir. – Great Power of the Seiads Abdullah and Hosen All ib. – Jealousy of the Emperor – His Intrigues – Hosen All sent against Ajit Sing, Raja of Marwar – Makes an honourable Peace – Increased Distrust – Submission of the Emperor – Hosen All marches to settle the Deckan – Farokhsir instigates Daud Khan Panni to resist him – 1716, Defeat and Death of Daud Khan – Renewed Devastations of the Siks – They are defeated and nearly extirpated – Cruel Execution of Bandu – Progress of the Marattas – Chin Kilich Khan (afterwards Asof Jah) – Ill success of Hosen Ali – 1717, He makes Peace with Raja Saho, and submits to pay the Chout – Farokhsir refuses to ratify the Treaty – State of the Court of Delhi – Abdullah Khan – Plots of Farokhsir – Combination of great Nobles to support him – His Levity and Irresolution – Disgusts his Confederates – 1718, December. Return of Hosen Ali, accompanied by 10,000 Marattas – Farokhsir deposed and put to death – Nominal Emperors set up by the Seiads – 1719, February. Rafi u Dirjat – 1719, May, Ran u Doula. 263

Chapter 2 – To the Departure of Nadir Shah 277

Mohammed Shah – 1719, September. Mohammed Shah – General Indignation against the Seiads – Internal Dissensions of their Party – Insurrections – Proceedings of Asof Jah – 1720, April. He establishes his Power in the Deckan – 1720, June and July. Defeats the Armies of the Seiads – Alarm at Delhi – Prudent Conduct of Mohammed Shah – His Plans against the Seiads – Mohammed Amin Khan – Sadat Khan – Hosen Ali marches against Asof Jah, accompanied by the Emperor – 1720, October. Assassination of Hosen Ali – The Emperor assumes the Government – Difficult Situation of Abdullah Khan – He sets up a new Emperor – Assembles an Army – 1720, November. Is defeated and taken Prisoner – 1721, Sudden Death of Mohammed Amin, the new Vizir – Rapid Decline of the Monarchy – 1722, January. Asof Jah Vizir – Indolence of the Emperor – His Favourites – His Dislike to Asof Jah – Asof Jah sent against the refractory Governor of Guzerat – Quells the Insurrection and retains the Government of the Province – Expedition against the Jats of Bhartpur – Disgust of Asof Jah – 1723, October. He resigns his Office, and sets off for the Deckan – The Emperor instigates Mobariz Khan, Governor of Heiderabad, to supplant him – 1724, October. Mobariz defeated and slain – Asof Jah’s policy towards the Marattas – Consolidation of the Maratta Government – Balaji Wiswanat Peshwa – Establishes the Government of Saito – October, 1720, Dies – His complicated Revenue System – His Motives – Baji Rao Peshwa – His enterprising Policy – Character of Sabo – Of Bali Rao – Baji Rao ravages Malwa – 1725, Obtains a Cession by the Governor of the Chout of Guzerat – 1725–1729, Asof Jah foments the Dissensions of the Marattas – 1729, He is attacked, and compelled to make Concessions – 1730, Accommodation between Sao and his Rival, Samba – Renewed Intrigues of Asof Jah – Dabari, a great Maratta Chief in Guzerat – Marches to depose the Peshwa – 1731, Is anticipated by Baji Rao, defeated, and killed – Moderation of Bali Rao in settling Guzerat – Origin of the Families of Nat., Holcar, and Sindia – Compromise between Baji Rao and Asof Jah – Raja Abhi Sing of Marwar, Viceroy of Guzerat – Procures the Assassination of Pilaji Geikwar – Retaliation of the Marattas – Abhi Sing retires to Marwar – 1732, Successes of Baji Rao in Malwa, – Obtains Possessions in Bundelcand – Raja Jei Sing (the 2d), Viceroy of Malwa – 1731, His tacit Surrender of the Province to the Marattas – 1736, Baji Rio increases his Demands – Further Cessions by the Emperor – Alarm of Asof Jah – He is reconciled to the Emperor – 1737, Baji Rao appears before Delhi – He retreats – Arrival of Asof Jah at Delhi – Marches against Baji Rao – Is attacked by Baji Rao near Bopal – And constrained to make great Cessions on the Emperor’s part – 1738, Invasion of Nadir Shah – Previous Transactions in Persia – Western Afghans – Ghiljeis – Abdalis (or Duranis) – 1708, Revolt of the Ghiljeis – 1720–1722, Conquest of Persia by the Ghiljeis – Their tyrannical Government – Their Wars with the Turks and Russians – Rise of Nadir Shah – 1729, He drives out the Ghiljeis, and recovers Khorasan from the Abdalis – Renewed Invasion of the Abdalis – February 1731, Nadir takes Herat – And gains the Attachment of the Abdalis – August 1731, He deposes Tahmasp Shah – February 1736, Is himself elected King – He suppresses the Shia Religion – Invades the Ghiljeis – March 1738, Takes Candahar – His conciliatory Policy – 1738, His Difference with the Government of India – Supineness of the Court of Delhi – Nadir invades India – 1739, February. Defeats Mohammed Shah – March 1739, Advances to Delhi – Insurrection of the Inhabitants – General Massacre by the Persians – Nadir’s Extortions – His Rapacity and Violence – He prepares to return – The Country west of the Indus ceded to him – May 1739, Mohammed Shah restored – Amount of the Treasures carried off by Nadir Shah. 277

Chapter 3 – To the Death of Mohammed Shah 302

Deplorable Condition of the Capital and of the Empire – Internal Dissensions – Proceedings of the Marattas – Baji Rao resumes offensive Operations – Attacks Asof Jah’s Possessions – 1740, Is repulsed by Asof’s Son, Nasir Jang – Perplexed Affairs of Bail Rao – 1740, April. His Death. – His Sons – Wars in the Concan before Baji Rao’s Death – With Angria – With the Abyssinians of Jinjera – With the Portuguese – Balaji Rao – Domestic Enemies of Baji Rao – The Pirti Nidhi, Raguji Bosla – Damaji Geikwar – Their Intrigues to prevent Balaji succeeding to the Office of Peshwa – 1740, August. Success of Balaji – 1742, Balaji marches into Malwa – Revives his Father’s Demands on the Court of Delhi – Invasion of Bengal by Raguji Bosla – The Emperor purchases the Aid of Balaji by the formal Cession of Malwa – 1743, Balaji defeats and drives out Raguji – Fresh Combinations against the Peshwa – He buys over Raguji by liberal Cessions – Raguji again invades Bengal – His General murdered by the Viceroy – 1751, He ultimately obtains the Chout of Bengal, and a Cession of Cattac – Affairs of Asof Jah – 1741, Revolt of Nasir Jang – Asof Jah returns to the Deckan – 1748, His Death – 1749, Death of Saho Raja – Intrigues and Contests for the Succession – Boldness and Address of Balaji – Alleged Abdication in favour of Mari – 1750, Mail takes Possession of the Government – March 1751, Marches against Salabat Jang, the son of Asof Jah – He is recalled by the Insurrection of Tara Bai and Damaji Geikwar – Balaji seizes Damaji by Treachery – December 1751, Salabat Jang advances on Pena – Superiority of the Invaders – M. Bussy – Balaji is saved by a Mutiny of Salabat’s Army – 1752, An Armistice concluded – Transactions at Delhi resumed – Rise of the Rohillas – 1745, The Emperor marches against them – Fresh Invasions from the Side of Persia – 1748, Revolutions in that Country – Tyranny of Nadir Shah – His fears of the Shins – He puts out the Eyes of his Son – His intolerable Cruelties – His Favour to the Afghans – June 1747, He is assassinated by the Persians – Retreat of the Afghans – Ahmed Khan Abdali – October 1747, Ahmed crowned King at Candahar – Changes the name of Abdalis to Duranis – His skilful Management of his unruly Subjects – His Views on India – He occupies the Panjab – He is repulsed by an Indian Army under Prince Ahmed, the Heir Apparent – April 1748, Death of Mohammed Shah. 302

Chapter 4 – To the Extinction of the Mogul Empire 316

Ahmed Shah – Internal Arrangements of the new King – 1748, December. Attempts to subdue the Rohillas by Safdar Jang, the Vizir – 1750, The Vizir marches against them in Person, and is defeated – 1751, He calls in the Marattas – Who compel the Rohillas to submit – Defeat of the Imperial Troops in Marwar – Second Invasion of Ahmed Shah Durani – 1752, Cession of the Panjab – Discontent of Safdar Jang, the Vizir – He assassinates the Emperor’s Favourite – Ghazi u din the younger – Resists the Vizir – Calls in the Marattas and expels the Vizir – The Emperor plots against Ghazi u din – 1751, Is defeated and deposed – Alamgir – 1754, June 2. Ghazi u din, Vizir – His violent Government – His Life in Danger in a Mutiny – His Suspicions of the Emperor – 1756, His treacherous Seizure of Ahmed Shah Durani’s Governor of the Panjab – Third Invasion of Ahmed Shah – He takes Delhi – Massacres and Exactions – 1757, June. His Return to his own Dominions – His Arrangements for the Protection of Alamgir II. against Ghazi u din – Najib u doula, Minister – Ghazi u din applies for the Assistance of the Marattas – Previous Transactions of that Nation – Ragoba, the Peshwa’s Brother, marches to support Ghazi u din – 1758, Takes Delhi – Escape of the Heir Apparent – And of Najib u doula – May 1758, Ragoba takes Possession of the Panjab – Plans of the Marattas for the Conquest of Hindostan – General Combination of the Mahometan Princes – The Marattas invade Rohilcand – September 1759, Fourth Invasion of Ahmed Shah – Murder of Alamgir II. by Ghazi u din – Events after the Death of Alamgir II. – The Maratta Troops in Hindostan dispersed by Ahmed Shah – Power of the Marattas at its Zenith – Their Army – Great Preparations for the Contest in Hindostan – Arrogance of the Commander Sedasheo Bhao – He takes Delhi – Ahmed Shah’s Negotiation with Shuja u doula – Who joins the Mahometan Confederacy – Ahmed Shah marches against Sedasheo Bhao – October 1760, His bold Passage of the Jamna – Marattas retire to Panipat and intrench their Camp – Their Numbers – Force under Ahmed Shah – Protracted Operations – Failure of the Maratta Supplies – 6 January 1761, Battle of Panipat – Destruction of the Maratta Army – Despondency of the Maratta Nation – Death of the Peshwa – Dissolution of the Mahometan Confederacy – Extinction of the Mogul Empire. 316

Appendix – On the States Formed on the Dissolution of the Empire of Delhi 332

Bahmani Kings of the Deckan – 1347, Hassan Gangu, an Afghan of Delhi – Wars with the Hindus – Conquest of Rajamandri and Masulipatam – Partial Conquest of the Concan – Dynasty of Adil Shah at Bijapur – 1489, Founded by Eusof Adil Shah, a Turkish Slave – Extent of the Kingdom – Attempt to introduce the Shia Religion – Religious Factions – Rise of the Marattas – Wars with the other Mahometan Kings – League against Bijayanagar – Wars with the Portuguese – Dynasty of Nizam Shah at Ahmednagar – 1490, Founded by Ahmed, a Hindu Convert – Religious Factions – Wars with the other Kings of the Deckan – Miscellaneous Facts – Extent of the Kingdom – Dynasty of Kutb Shah at Golconda – 1512, Founded by Kutb Kuli, a Turkman Soldier – Kutb professes the Shia Religion – Extent of his Kingdom – Conquests from the Hindus – Wars with the other Mahometan Kings – 1550, Ibrahim, the fourth King – His Wars – Conquests on the Coast of Coromandel – Dynasty of Imad Shah in Berar – 1481, Founded by Fatteh Ullah, descended from a converted Hindu – Dynasty of Barid Shah at Bidr – Guzerat – Description of Guzerat – Original Extent of the Kingdom – 1396, Founded by Mozaffer, the Son of a Rajput Convert – His Wars – His Occupation and subsequent Evacuation of Malwa – 1411, Ahmed Shah – His Wars with Malwa and his Hindu Neighbours – And with other Mahometan Kings – Mohammed Shah – 1451, Kutb Shah – His Wars with Mewar – Daud Khan – 1459, Mahmud Begarra – His vigorous Government – He rescues the Bahmani King of the Deckan – Marches to the Indus – Takes Girnar and Champaner – His Wars with Mahometan Kings – His maritime Power – 1508, He co-operates with the Mamluks of Egypt in a naval War with the Portuguese – 1511, Mozaffer II. – Generosity to the King of Malwa – War with Sanga, Rana of Mewar – 1526, Bahadur – Takes Part in the Wars of the Deckan – His Supremacy acknowledged by the Kings of Candesh, Relit., and Ahmednagar – 1531, Conquest of Malwa, and its Annexation to Guzerat – Troubles in Wawa – War with Mewar – War with Humayun and Expulsion of Bahadur – 1535, Bahadur recovers his Kingdom – Disputes with the Portuguese at Diu – Interview with the Portuguese Viceroy – Death of Bahadur – Miran Mohammed Shah – Mahmud III. – Ahmed II. – 1561, Mozaffer III. – 1572, Guzerat conquered by Akber – Malwa – 1401, Founded by Dilawar, of a Family from Ghor – Wars in Hindostan and the Deckan – 1512, Mahmud II. – Ascendancy of Medni Rai, a Hindu Chief – Mahmud flies to Guzerat – 1519, Is restored by Bahadur Shah – Is defeated, taken Prisoner, and released by Sanga, Rana of Mewar – His Ingratitude – 1531, He is defeated, and his Kingdom annexed to Guzerat – Candesh – Founded by Malik Raja, a Person of Arab Descent – Prosperity of Candesh – 1599, Conquered by Akber – 1338–1576, Bengal – 1394–1476, Juanpur – Sind – Multan. 332

REQUEST FROM THE PUBLISHER 357

Book 6 – Kings of Delhi, to the Accession of the House of Teimur, 1206–1526

Chapter 1 – Slave Kings

1206, Independence of India – Kutb u din – Progress of a Turki Slave – 1210, Aram – 1211, Shams u din Altamsh – 1217, Conquests of the Moguls under Chengiz Khan – 1221, King of Kharizm pursued into India – 1223, Returns to Persia – State of Hindostan – 1236, Health of Altamsh – Rukn u din – Sultana Rezia – Her Virtues – Her Weakness – Rebellion – 1239, The Queen defeated and put to death – Moizz u din Behram – Mogul Irruption into the Panjab – 1241, Ala u din Masaud – Mogul Irruptions – 1246, Nasir u din Mahmud – Gheias u din Bulbun Vizir – 1253, Removal of Bulbun – Discontents and Intrigues – Bulbun restored – 1266, Gheias u din Bulbun – Bulbun puts down the Influence of the Slaves – His Character – 1279, Revolt of Bengal – Suppressed – Mogul Irruption – Victory and Death of the Heir Apparent – 1286, Death of Bulbun – Kei Kobad – Intrigues and Power of the Vizir – Massacre of Mogul Mercenaries – King’s Interview with his Father – Murder of the Vizir – 1288, The King dethroned and put to death.

Kutb u din Eibak

Independence of India

From the death of Shahab u din, India became an independent kingdom; and after the disturbance occasioned by the dissolution of his empire had subsided, it ceased to have any connection with the countries beyond the Indus.

Progress of a Turki slave

The life of Kutb u din, the founder of this new monarchy, affords a specimen of the history of the Turki slaves, who rose to sovereignty throughout Asia, and who for a long time furnished a succession of rulers to India.

He was brought to Nishapur in his infancy, and purchased by a wealthy person, who had him instructed in Persian and Arabic. On his death, Kutb was sold to a merchant, who presented him to Shahab u din. He soon acquired his master’s favour, and was in command of a body of horse, when, in some border warfare with the Kharizmians, he was taken prisoner on an occasion in which his gallantry had been conspicuous. Being afterwards recaptured, he was received with an increase of favour; and by his subsequent good conduct stood so high in his sovereign’s estimation, that, after the defeat of the raja of Ajmir, he was left in charge of all the new conquests.

His master’s subsequent successes were greatly promoted, as has been shown, by Kutb u din’s ability in his new station; and in process of time the conduct of affairs in Hindostan was almost entirely confided to his discretion. A natural manliness of character inherent in the Turks gave to newly raised officers of that nation an estimation among the other great men which seldom falls to the lot of the creatures of princes; and Kutb u din, instead of being an object of jealousy, seems to have been generally beloved for the frankness and generosity of his disposition.

Besides the friendships formed with the great, he strengthened himself by family connections with persons circumstanced like himself. He married the daughter of Eldoz; he gave his sister in marriage to Nasir u din Kubacha; and he afterwards bestowed his daughter on Altamsh, another rising slave, who afterwards succeeded to his throne.

Nasir u din from the first acknowledged his superiority, and held Sind of him, under the supremacy of Mahmud of Ghor; but Eldoz, with whom ambition had more force than family ties, affected to treat India as if it were still a dependency of Ghazni, set out with an army to enforce his claim, and almost immediately gained possession of Lahor. He was soon after driven out by Kutb u din, who followed up his success by the capture of Ghazni.

1205, AH 603

After being some time in possession, he was expelled in his turn by Eldoz, and spent the rest of his life in the government of his own dominions, where he left a permanent reputation as a just and virtuous ruler.

1210, AH 607

He had only been four years on the throne, but his administration had been known for the twenty years that he officiated as the representative of Shahab u din.

Aram

Aram, his son, succeeded him. He showed no capacity, and was dethroned within a twelvemonth by his brother-in-law, Altamsh.

Shams u din Altamsh

1211, AH 607

It is related of Altamsh, probably after his elevation, that he was of a noble family, but was sold, like Joseph, by his envious brothers. Sultan Shahab u din, unwilling to pay the price demanded for him, allowed Kutb u din as a favour to purchase him for 50,000 pieces of silver. He passed through different stations, and was governor of Behar at the time of his revolt. He was invited to the throne by a party; but a numerous body of Turki chiefs were opposed to him, and he did not gain possession without a battle.

Eldoz, in his assumed superiority, gave him investiture unasked; but being soon after driven out of Ghazni by the king of Kharizm, he made an attempt to establish himself in India.

1215, AH 612

He penetrated to Tanesar, and had even made a party in Altamsh’s court, when he was defeated, was taken prisoner, and ended his days in confinement.

1217, AH 614

Altamsh next marched against his wife’s uncle, Nasir u din Kubacha, who had asserted his independence in Sind; but, although he displayed great activity and personal gallantry, he did not succeed in establishing his sovereignty{1}.

At this time it seemed far from improbable that the Kharizmians would pursue their conquests into India, and Nasir u din had already been engaged with bodies of their troops which had approached the Indus.

Conquests of the Moguls under Chengiz Khan

But all these alarms were suspended by an event which changed the whole face of Asia. Chengiz Khan, originally a petty chief among the Moguls, having subdued the three nations of Tartary, and swelled his bands with their united hordes, burst on the Mahometan kingdoms with an army that never was equalled in numbers either before or since.

This irruption of the Moguls was the greatest calamity that has fallen on mankind since the deluge. They had no religion to teach, and no seeds of improvement to sow, nor did they offer an alternative of conversion or tribute; their only object was to slaughter and destroy; and the only trace they left was in the devastation of every country which they visited. The storm first fell on the Sultan of Kharizm, who had drawn it on himself by the murder of Chengiz’s ambassadors. His armies were defeated, his cities demolished, his country laid waste, and a great part of his subjects either massacred or reduced to slavery. He himself died of a broken heart, in an inaccessible retreat on an island in the Caspian, and his son and successor, Jelal u din, was driven into the eastern extremity of his dominions.

1221, AH 618

This prince defended his country gallantly to the last. He gained a victory near Candahar, and another still further to the east; but these successes did not even retard his ruin. His last battle was on the Indus, where, after displaying the most obstinate valour, and witnessing the total destruction of his army, he swam the river with seven followers amidst a shower of arrows from his enemies, whom he left in admiration of his intrepidity{2}.

King of Kharizm pursued into India

In the course of the night and next day he was joined by 120 of his soldiers; and, before many days were passed, he had assembled 4000 horse.

The Moguls threatening to cross the Indus, he fled towards Delhi, and applied to Altamsh for assistance, or at least for an asylum. Altamsh sent a courteous answer, but was too prudent to draw on himself the resentment of the Moguls; and Jelal u din, left to his own resources, formed an alliance with the Gakkars, drew together an army by means of plunder, and at length attacked Nasir u din Kubacha, and forced him to take refuge in Multan.

Returns to Persia 1228, AH 620

After this be kept no measures with any one: he ravaged the country on the Indus; invaded and conquered Sind; and would, perhaps, have maintained himself in the possession of it, if some hopes in Persia had not induced him to pass into Kirman.

Finding the Mogul armies withdrawn from Persia, he again established his power in that country, opposed them with vigour in a new invasion, and was killed at last in Mesopotamia, ten years after his passage of the Indus{3}.

During his abode in Sind, Ferishta relates that a Mogul army{4} came in pursuit of him, laid siege to Multan, and, being repelled by Nasir u din, continued their march to Sind, which Jelal u din had quitted. They conducted themselves with their usual barbarity throughout; and finding provisions scarce in their camp before they departed, they put to death 10,000 Indian prisoners, when they would have been equally relieved by setting them free.

After he was delivered from this succession of enemies, Nasir u din was again invaded by Altamsh, who, this time, was more successful than before.

1225, AH 622

Nasir u din was constrained to retreat to Bakkar; and on attempting, afterwards, to continue his course to Sind, he was drowned, with all his family, in a sudden squall on the Indus, and the whole of the territory subject to him submitted to the victor.

The country to the south of Tatta seems to have maintained its independence from the time of Mohammed Casim to that under discussion. It may, perhaps, have acknowledged the superiority of some of the intermediate dynasties during the interval, but the internal government was never out of the hands of the Sumera Rajputs.

In the same year with this expedition to Sind, Altamsh marched against Bakhtiar Khilji, who looked on Behar and Bengal as his own conquest; and, though he professed obedience to Kutb u din (to whose daughter he was married), openly disclaimed all dependence on his successor. Altamsh was successful in this undertaking; he deprived Bakhtiar of Behar (the government of which he conferred on his own son), and obliged him to hold Bengal under the crown of Delhi. Bakhtiar made a subsequent attempt to retrieve his losses, was defeated by the prince who governed Behar, and lost his life in the conflict.

1226, AH 623, to 1232, AH 630

Altamsh was now occupied for upwards of six years in reducing the part of Hindostan which had remained independent. He began by taking Rintambor, which, though so much in the line of former conquests, had been protected by its mountainous situation. He next took Mandu, a town of great extent and natural strength in Malwa Gwalior, which had revolted, was

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