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Core Interventional Radiology Review: Self Assessment Questions  Volume 2

Core Interventional Radiology Review: Self Assessment Questions Volume 2

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Core Interventional Radiology Review: Self Assessment Questions Volume 2

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4/5 (1 valutazione)
Lunghezza:
356 pagine
3 ore
Editore:
Pubblicato:
Jan 10, 2015
ISBN:
9781483548715
Formato:
Libro

Descrizione

With the introduction of the new American Board of Radiology (ABR) Core Exam (a 13.5-hour, 2-day marathon) after the 3rd year of radiology residency, many residents are not receiving adequate interventional radiology (IR) exposure prior to the exam. The results of the recent Core Exam reflect this as IR again ranked lowest in mean national scores across all imaging modalities, similar to 2013. We decided that innovative teaching methods must be employed to improve radiology resident’s performance on the IR section of the ABR initial qualifying exam.

This self-assessment book, which is a compilation of the weekly e-mail questions that we send to our residents, covers a broad range of interventional radiology topics; however, this book is not a complete review of the field of interventional radiology. Our goal is to help you identify areas where your knowledge is lacking so that you can spend your study time wisely.

These self-assessment questions are designed to illustrate the clinical aspects of interventional radiology emphasizing the indications for, options to, and complications of interventional radiology procedures. Other than the some very basic technical information, the technical details of interventional radiology procedures will remain the domain of interventional radiology texts, as that material is unlikely to be on the ABR Core Exam.

Core Interventional Radiology Review: Self-assessment questions, 1st Edition, is divided into 2 volumes covering basic concepts, arterial and venous diseases, TIPs and trauma, catheters, stents and embolic devices, the peritoneum and pleura, interventional oncology, and other topics. Each volume contains more than 100 images or diagrams in over 200 pages to aide the resident’s grasp of interventional radiology concepts.
Editore:
Pubblicato:
Jan 10, 2015
ISBN:
9781483548715
Formato:
Libro

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Core Interventional Radiology Review - Jay A. Requarth

Contributors:

Jay A. Requarth, MD, FACS

Associate Professor

Vascular and Inteventional Radiology

Wake Forest School of Medicine

requarth@wakehealth.edu

Dan Golwyn, MD

Assistant Professor

Vascular and Interventional Radiology

Wake Forest School of Medicine

dgolwyn@wakehealth.edu

Clifford Howard, MD

Assistant Professor

Vascular and Interventional Radiology

Wake Forest School of Medicine

clhoward@wakehealth.edu

Brian Kouri, MD

Chief, Section of Vascular and Interventional Radiology

Associate Professor

Wake Forest School of Medicine

bkouri@wakehealth.edu

John Regan, MD

Associate Professor

Vascular and Interventional Radiology

Wake Forest School of Medicine

jregan@wakehealth.edu

Dan Hampton

Medical student

Wake Forest School of Medicine

Introduction to the 1st edition:

With the introduction of the new American Board of Radiology (ABR) Core Exam (a 13.5-hour, 2-day marathon) after the 3rd year of radiology residency, many residents are not receiving adequate interventional radiology (IR) exposure prior to the exam. The results of the recent Core Exam reflect this as IR again ranked lowest in mean national scores across all imaging modalities, similar to 2013. We decided that innovative teaching methods must be employed to improve our institution’s radiology resident’s performance on the IR section of the ABR initial certifying exam.

To that end, we have developed a weekly educational program that e-mails one or more IR questions to our radiology residents using a commercially available survey tool. These questions are written to help the resident understand an important concept in clinical interventional radiology. A few days after the question is sent out, the resident receives an e-mail with the answer/explanation in a PDF file. Radiology residents not affiliated with our institution can join the fun by contacting me at requarth@wakehealth.edu.

Our second educational tool is this self-assessment book, which is a compilation of the weekly e-mail questions. To date, we have written 57 weekly questions; thus, we have obviously added additional questions; nevertheless, this book is not a complete review of the field of interventional radiology. Hopefully, I will be able to fill in the omissions in coming editions. As the editor, I had to make the question and choose the most correct answer; thus, I am ultimately responsible for any mistakes in content, spelling, and grammar. Please feel free to e-mail me with any comments, corrections, and omissions; you may be able to help future generations of radiology residents.

Our third educational tool is the MyCareLibrary.com website. This free website has information about image-guided palliative care procedures for both physicians and patients. The website can be viewed as webpages or downloaded in a PDF format. Many of our questions use content, hyperlinks, and images/diagrams from this website. The MyCareLibrary.com website is written to fulfill the palliative medicine needs of interventional radiology. Any monies generated from this book will be used to fund the MyCareLibrary.com website.

Good luck with your exam; I hope this material helps.

Sincerely,

Jay A. Requarth, MD, FACS

Associate Professor

Vascular and Interventional Radiology

Wake Forest School of Medicine

Winston Salem, NC

Requarth@wakehealth.edu

ISBN: 978-1-4835487-1-5

Terms of use:

This book is intended to provide general information about interventional radiology. Any information contained in this bookis not meant to replace the information contained on product labeling or sound medical judgment. If you are a patient, this text is not meant to be a substitute for the advice provided by your own health care provider. While the authors use reasonable efforts to include accurate and up-to-date information, the authors do not intend to provide specialist advice concerning the products, services, or other health care advice. The authors make no warranties or representations as to this book’s accuracy. The authors disclaim all liability and responsibility for any errors or omissions in the content in this book.

Your use of the bookis at your risk. The authors nor any other party involved in creating, producing, or developing this book will be liable for any direct, incidental, consequential, indirect, or punitive damages arising out of your access to, or use of, this book. WITHOUT LIMITING THE FOREGOING, EVERYTHING IN THIS BOOK IS PROVIDED TO YOU AS IS WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR NON-INFRINGEMENT. Please note that some jurisdictions may not allow the exclusion of implied warranties, so some of the above exclusions may not apply to you. Check your local laws for any restrictions or limitations regarding the exclusion of implied warranties.

Any communication or material you transmit to the authors by electronic mail or otherwise, including any non-personal data, questions, comments, suggestions, requests or the like is, and will be treated as, non-confidential and non-proprietary. Furthermore, the authors are free to use any ideas, concepts, know-how, or techniques contained in any communication you sendfor any purpose whatsoever, including but not limited to developing, manufacturing, and marketing products using such information.

Images, diagrams, products, people or places displayed in this book are either the property of Dr. Requarth, or used with MyCareLibrary.com ’spermission. The use of these images by you, or anyone else authorized by you, is prohibited. Any unauthorized use of the images may violate copyright laws, trademark laws, the laws of privacy and publicity, and communications regulations and statutes. To request the use ofphotos, drawings, designs, images, other printed materials for educational purposes, please contact Dr. Jay Requarth at requarth@wakehealth.edu for more information.

The trademarks, logos, and service marks (collectively the Trademarks) displayed in this book are registered and unregistered Trademarks. Products depicted in this book may be protected and covered in one or more foreign and/or U.S. patents (collectively the Patents). Nothing contained in this book should be construed as granting, by implication, estoppel, or otherwise, any license or right to use any Patent-protected product or Trademark displayed in the bookwithout the advance written permission of Dr. Jay Requarth or such third party that may own the Trademarks displayed on the website. Your misuse of the Trademarks or Patent-protected products displayed in this book is strictly prohibited. Please be advised that the authors will aggressively enforce its intellectual property rights to the fullest extent of the law, including the seeking of criminal prosecution.

Any links or pointers to Internet websites maintained by third parties that are provided in this book are for convenience purposes only. The authors have not reviewed all of the third party sites linked to this website, and any information, products, services or claims on these third party sites are not operated or controlled in any respect by the authors. Such third party sites are provided as is and without warranties of any kind, either express or implied, and the linking to off-site pages or other sites are at your own risk.

Table of Contents:

Introduction:

Volume 1

Chapter 1: The Basics:

1.1 The consent

1.2 Billing and payment

1.3 Pre-procedural evaluation

1.4 Drugs and blood transfusions

1.5 Equipment: catheters, wires, stents - oh my!

1.6 Radiation

1.7 Emergencies

1.8 Miscellaneous

Chapter 2: Arteries

2.1 Basic arterial anatomy

2.2 Not so basic arterial anatomy

2.3 Peripheral vascular occlusive disease (PVOD)

2.4 Trauma causing arterial bleeding

2.5 Diseases causing arterial bleeding

2.6 Endovascular interventional oncology (IO)

2.7 Arterial diseases including thromboembolization

Volume 2

Chapter 3: Veins

3.1 Not so basic venous anatomy

3.2 Central veins and central venous access devices

3.3 Arteriovenous fistulas for hemodialysis

3.4 TIPS for variceal bleeding and ascites

3.5 DVT, Venous thromboembolism and IVC filters

Chapter 4: Abdomen and Pelvis

4.1 Enteric feeding catheters

4.2 Gallbladder disease

4.3 Biliary disease and injuries

4.4 Percutaneous interventional oncology (IO)

4.5 Abscesses and enteric fistulas

4.6 Ascites – treatments other than TIPS

4.7 Uterine Fibroid Embolization

Chapter 5: Thorax

5.1 Percutaneous lung procedures – biopsies and ablation

5.2 Pleural space problems

Chapter 6: Kidney, Ureter and Bladder

6.1 Hydronephrosis

6.2 Ureter

6.3 Miscellaneous

Chapter 7: Miscellaneous Topics

7.1 Image-guided pain procedures

7.2 Cementoplasty

7.3 Lymphangiograms

Chapter 3: Veins

Section 3.1: No so basic venous anatomy

Question 3.1.1:

During an IVC filter placement, an IVC venogram is performed with the following findings. What is the most correct statement?

A. Normal IVC-gram. Deploy the IVC filter.

B. The patient has an azygous continuation of the IVC. Deploy the filter.

C. The patient has a large circum-aortic renal vein. Deploy the filter below the renal veins.

D. The patient will need 2 IVC filters.

E. The patient will need a bird’s nest IVC filter

3.1.1: The most correct answer is D: The patient will need 2 IVC filters.

This patient has a duplicated IVC and will need 2 IVC filters – both placed below the renal vein confluence. See the next diagram for an explanation of the anatomy.

A duplicated IVC may be seen in approximately 1% of the population with the renal veins draining into the ipsilateral IVC limb.

Some more bizarre veins you should know:

Venous collaterals in portal hypertension

Portal hypertension collaterals can also include retroperitoneal collaterals from the splenic hilum to the ipsilateral adrenal or renal veins.

Circum-aortic renal vein: Just that, at least 2 renal veins go round the aorta. Must place an IVC filter below the lowest.

Azygous Continuation:

Question 3.1.2:

A 54-year-old female presents with a significant left iliofemoral DVT. The referring physician wants to know why he keeps seeing LEFT leg DVT’s. What is the most correct statement?

A. Random chance.

B. Right leg DVTs occur in the southern hemisphere.

C. Left sided colon cancer is known to cause compression of the left sided pelvic veins

D. A design flaw in humans, we were supposed to be walking on all 4’s.

E. Paget-Schroetter disease.

3.1.2: The most correct (and religiously inappropriate) answer is D: A design flaw in humans, we were supposed to be walking on all 4’s.

This problem is called the May-Thurner syndrome and is caused by compression of the left common iliac vein by the aortic bifurcation. This patient’s venogram is given below. The venogram was performed in the supine position with the catheter tip in the left external iliac vein. Note the left-to-right collaterals in the pelvis indicating a hemodynamically significant narrowing.

Although, this compression can be caused by an extrinsic mass, it is usually caused by the right common iliac artery (May Thurner Syndrome). As we get older the aorta becomes less compliant and starts to dilate due to atherosclerosis; thus the extrinsic pressure on the left iliac vein increases over time. This design flaw explains why most DVTs occur in the left leg.

The above diagram is helpful, but you can recreate this any time with your fingers. Point the index and middle fingers of both hands toward the floor in an upside down V. Place your left hand (the make believe aorta) over your right hand (the make believe IVC) – and you will see the left index finger (right common iliac artery) compressing the right index finger (left common iliac vein). To get this correct, all you need to remember is that the artery is in front of the vein and causing the compression.

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