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The Ultimate Guide to Sugars and Sweeteners: Discover the Taste, Use, Nutrition, Science, and Lore of Everything from Agave Nectar to Xylitol

The Ultimate Guide to Sugars and Sweeteners: Discover the Taste, Use, Nutrition, Science, and Lore of Everything from Agave Nectar to Xylitol

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The Ultimate Guide to Sugars and Sweeteners: Discover the Taste, Use, Nutrition, Science, and Lore of Everything from Agave Nectar to Xylitol

Lunghezza:
394 pagine
5 ore
Pubblicato:
Dec 16, 2014
ISBN:
9781615192175
Formato:
Libro

Descrizione

“Whether you’re a healthcare provider, a chef, or simply a foodie, you’ll find The Ultimate Guide to Sugars and Sweeteners an accurate and complete resource.”—Hope Warshaw, MMSC, RD, CDE, BC-ADM, best-selling author of The Diabetes Food and Nutrition Bible and Diabetes Meal Planning Made Easy

An all-in-one reference to sugars and sweeteners—for any sweet-toothed consumer who also craves the facts

Today, supermarkets and natural food stores feature a bewildering variety of sugars and alternative sweeteners. The deluge of conflicting information doesn’t help. If choosing a sweetener leaves you scratching your head, this handy guide will answer all of your questions—even the ones you didn’t know to ask:
  • Which sweeteners perform well in baking?
  • Will the kids notice if I sub in stevia?
  • What’s the best pick if I’m watching my waistline, blood sugar, or environmental impact?
  • Are any of them really superfoods . . . or toxic?
Perfect for foodies, bakers, carb counters, parents, chefs, and clinicians, this delightfully readable book features more than 180 alphabetical entries on natural and artificial sweeteners, including the usual suspects (table sugar, honey), the controversial (aspartame, high-fructose corn syrup), the hyped (coconut sugar, monk fruit sweetener), and the unfamiliar (Chinese rock sugar, isomaltulose). You’ll also find myth-busting Q&As, intriguing trivia, side-by-side comparisons of how sweeteners perform in classic baked goods, and info on food-additive regulations, dental health, the glycemic index, and more. Your sweet tooth is in for a real education!
Pubblicato:
Dec 16, 2014
ISBN:
9781615192175
Formato:
Libro

Informazioni sull'autore

Alan Barclay, PhD is a consultant dietitian who worked for Diabetes Australia (NSW) from 1998-2014. He is coauthor of The New Glucose Revolution for Diabetes and a member of the editorial boards of the Diabetes Australia’s consumer magazine, Conquest, and health professional magazine, Diabetes Management Journal. Barclay is currently Chief Scientific Officer at the Glycemic Index Foundation.

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The Ultimate Guide to Sugars and Sweeteners - Alan Barclay

life.

ABOUT USING THIS BOOK

o make the information as accessible as possible, the main alphabetical entries on sugars and sweeteners in Part 1 follow a similar structure:

NAME

(Alternative names)

Description, including appropriate →cross references and substitution tips.

• AT A GLANCE summary to give you the fast facts you need to know.

For nutritive sweeteners (the ones that provide calories/kilojoules) they include:

Nutritive

Sugars tells you which sugars the sweetener contains—e.g., fructose, glucose, sucrose

Sweetness relative to sucrose

Calories (kilojoules) per level teaspoon

Health includes specific health concerns pertaining to a sweetener (e.g., warnings for those with certain health conditions or who are pregnant or breastfeeding); more general health information appears in Part 2 .

For nonnutritive sweeteners (the ones that don’t provide calories/kilojoules) they include:

Nonnutritive

Sweetness relative to sucrose

Calories

FDA approval

EFSA Number

ADI tells you the Acceptable Daily Intake per kilogram (2.2 pounds) of body weight per day; see Acronyms for more details

LTV tells you the Laxative Threshold Value and appears only if the sweetener has laxative properties; see Acronyms for more details

Health includes specific health concerns pertaining to a sweetener (e.g., warnings for those with certain health conditions or who are pregnant or breastfeeding); more general health information appears in  Part 2

In Part 2 we look at sugars, sweeteners, and health, with topics including added sugars, dietary guidelines, digestion and absorption of sugars and sweeteners, tooth decay, diabetes, heart diseases, weight gain, special diets such as gluten-free or low-FODMAP, and regulations regarding the labeling of sugars and sweeteners.

Part 3 is for those who love baking. We commissioned Chrissy Freer to report on how some of the most popular sweeteners measured up compared with granulated white sugar in baking a Vanilla Butter Cookie and Blueberry Bran Muffin.

To entertain, inform and round out the story, we have included:

BUZZ NOTES (or fact boxes) featuring snippets of science, ethnography, botany, biology, history, lore, and trivia

Q&As to give you the answers to the most frequently asked questions about sugars and sweeteners

To help you find what you are looking for as quickly as possible, the first time in any entry where the name of another entry is used, you will find it marked this way: →aspartame. When we refer to information other than entries, we provide page numbers.

Before you begin, check out our glossary of acronyms and the basic science behind the glycemic index.

MEASURING AND COUNTING

Calories and kilojoules

One gram of carbohydrates (that’s sugars and starches) contains 4 calories or 17 kilojoules (there are 4.2 kilojoules in 1 calorie). How does that compare with protein and fat? 1 gram of protein also contains 4 calories (17 kilojoules); 1 gram of alcohol contains 7 calories (29 kilojoules); 1 gram of fat contains 9 calories (37 kilojoules). Remember, calories and kilojoules are not a measure of a food’s quality or whether or not it is good for you, but of its energy content.

NUTRITION ANALYSIS

We sourced our nutrient data from the USDA and FSANZ databases. In select cases, when products were not included in these databases, we used nutrient information from manufacturers.

MEASURING

The teaspoon we refer to in this book for counting calories and grams of carbohydrates (and for measuring in the recipes) is not the silver teaspoon in your cutlery drawer; it is the standard teaspoon you find in a set of measuring spoons, and it is level (not heaped). One level teaspoon is equivalent to 5 milliliters (ml) and contains 4.2 grams (g) of available (digestible) carbohydrates (which excludes fiber). As this is not the most user-friendly number for mental math, it is standard practice in nutrition tables to round it down to 4 grams, and that is what we have done throughout the book to be consistent. However, you will find that some manufacturers round up to 5 grams on nutrition labels (and we think this is a good idea, as most people don’t use measuring spoons when adding sugar to their tea—and even if they do, they probably don’t use level ones).

DAY-TO-DAY MEASURING AND COUNTING

Nutrient data is based on level measures (teaspoons, tablespoons, and cups). While many of us will level off a cup measure in cooking and baking for optimal results, few of us will bother to level off a teaspoon of sugar with the back of a knife. But for day-to-day measuring and counting, you should allow for the fact that the teaspoon of sugar you stir into a cup of tea or coffee is probably rounded or heaping (equivalent to about 1½ teaspoons) and therefore has more calories than you thought. Check out the difference (measures rounded):

WHAT ACRONYM IS THAT?

ADI (ACCEPTABLE DAILY INTAKE)

The ADI is the amount of a specific food additive established as safe to consume per day. When regulatory food authorities evaluate sugar substitutes and sweeteners as additives for our food supply, they usually set an ADI. The figure is a conservative estimate based on the best available evidence of how much any person can safely consume each day over a lifetime. It includes a hundredfold safety margin, meaning that when the additive was tested in the lab, even an amount of the additive 100 times the ADI yielded no observable toxic effects.

In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) sets the ADI; in other countries it is established by the Joint FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN)/WHO (World Health Organization) Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA).

To work out how many cans of diet soda or packets of a nonnutritive sweetener you can safely consume each day, check the Acceptable Daily Intake Calculator of Noncaloric Sweeteners at nafwa.org/sweetener.php.

EFSA (EUROPEAN FOOD SAFETY AUTHORITY)

The European Food Safety Authority is an independent European agency funded by the EU budget that provides independent scientific advice and is the keystone of European Union risk assessment regarding food safety. See specific details about sweeteners at the EFSA website: efsa.europa.eu/en/topics/topic/sweeteners.htm.

E NUMBERS (EUROPEAN FOOD SAFETY AUTHORITY NUMBERS)

In the European Union all food additives are identified by an E number. Product labels must identify both the function of the additive in the finished food (e.g., sweetener) and the specific substance used either by referring to the appropriate E number or its name (e.g., E950 or →acesulfame potassium). You will find E numbers on food labels on packaged foods sold within the European Union and Switzerland, the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf, Australia, New Zealand, and Israel. They are occasionally found on North American packaging on imported European products.

The full list of E numbers covers:

Colors (E100–E199)

Preservatives (E200–E299)

Antioxidants, acidity regulators (E300–E399)

Thickeners, stabilizers, emulsifiers (E400–E499)

Acidity regulators, anticaking agents (E500–E599)

Flavor enhancers (E600–E699)

Antibiotics (E700–E799)

Glazing agents and sweeteners (E900–E999)

Additional chemicals (E1000–E1599)

Where applicable, we have included EFSA numbers for sweeteners used as food additives.

FDA (FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION)

The Food and Drug Administration (United States) is an agency within the Department of Health and Human Services that is responsible for protecting and promoting public health through the regulation and supervision of food safety. It also regulates tobacco products, dietary supplements, prescription and over-the-counter pharmaceutical drugs (medications), vaccines, biopharmaceuticals, blood transfusions, medical devices, electromagnetic radiation emitting devices (ERED), cosmetics, and veterinary products.

See specific details about sweeteners at the FDA website: fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/foodadditivesingredients/ucm397725.htm.

FSANZ (FOOD STANDARDS AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND)

Food Standards Australia and New Zealand is a bi-national government agency that develops and administers the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code, which lists requirements for foods such as additives, food safety, labeling, and genetically modified foods. See specific details about sweeteners at the FSANZ website: foodstandards.gov.au/consumer/additives/intensesweetener/Pages/default.aspx.

GRAS (GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE)

Before a sugar substitute or sweetener can be legally added to a food or beverage in United States, it must either have FDA approval or be accepted as GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe).

GRAS dates back to 1959, when the FDA established a list of food substances that were exempt from the then-new requirement that manufacturers test food additives before putting them on the market. It includes any substance that is intentionally added to food . . . generally recognized, among qualified experts, as having been adequately shown to be safe under the conditions of its intended use.

Manufacturers can self-affirm the GRAS status of food additives they use in their products. Based on evidence of safety recognized by qualified experts, the manufacturer notifies the FDA that a particular use of a substance (in foods or beverages) is GRAS. If the FDA agrees, it issues a No Objection letter. It goes without saying that additives are continually being reevaluated based on the latest evidence. Sweeteners with GRAS status in the United States include →stevia (steviol glycosides) and most →polyols (sugar

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