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Basic Electronics: Book 2

Basic Electronics: Book 2

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Basic Electronics: Book 2

5/5 (9 valutazioni)
170 pagine
1 ora
Jun 29, 2012


Basic Electronics Book 2 continues from where Book 1 left off. Many standard electronic components have stood the test of time and continue to play a major role in the industry. This book covers some of the more common components and discusses their practical uses. Like Book 1 this book has numerous charts and diagrams. Sample project diagrams are also included that utilize these components.

Jun 29, 2012

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Basic Electronics - Paul Daak


Book 2

By: Paul Daak

Copyright 2012 Paul Daak

Smashwords Edition

All rights reserved. This book, or any parts thereof, may not be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without written permission from the publisher.

Table Of Contents


Chapter 1: Zener Diodes

Chapter 2: Vacuum Tube Triodes

Chapter 3: Field Effect Transistors

Chapter 4: Junction Transistors

Chapter 5: Silicon Controlled Rectifiers

Integrated Circuits

Chapter 6: Integrated Circuit - Voltage Regulators

Chapter 7: Integrated Circuit - Operational Amplifiers

Chapter 8: Integrated Circuit - Digital Logic Gates

Chapter 9: Integrated Circuit - 555 Timers

Appendix: Some useful projects



About the Author

First I must give thanks to my dad for the inspiration that got me involved in electronics. I was in junior high school at the time. He provided me with the fundamentals I needed to get started as well as a big junk box full of parts to play with.

Back then, in the late 1960s, the electronics industry was a lot different than it is today. Vacuum tube circuits were very common and semiconductors were working their way up the food chain. I didn't hear much about integrated circuits until I was in high school. During that time most of my calculations were done the long way, on paper, because my abilities with a slide rule were somewhat limited. Calculator? What calculator?

My formal education in electronics actually began when I was in high school. I was very fortunate to have a teacher that was not only a highly skilled educator, but also one of the nicest people on the planet. I also want to give thanks to him for helping me to become the technician that I am. I have had many opportunities throughout my career to teach electronics and I try to use his methods as an instructor. And by the way, they work well.

As it turned out writing Basic Electronics Book 1 was only the beginning of this project. The biggest response I have had is, Where is Book 2? So now Book 2 picks up where Book 1 left off. I hope you find it to be as helpful and enjoyable, if not, more so.

And there's one more thing. I also want to thank you for your interest in learning about electronics and for purchasing my books.

Understanding Components

Qualified automotive experts know more than just how to drive. At the very least they have an understanding of what each component does and how they work together in the operation of the vehicle. Designing, modifying, troubleshooting, and repairing require an in-depth knowledge of each part including its function and individual specifications. For example, not all spark plugs are the same, and some engines don't even use them.

The electronics industry is no different. Qualified electronics experts know more than just how to push buttons, turn knobs, and swap circuit boards. They utilize circuit design concepts and component specifications to create and manipulate electronic equipment. Electronic technology must be an ongoing learning process for dedicated technicians. Among the vast assortment of components available there are now more variations in transistors than anyone can imagine. And new types of integrated circuits are being developed at a rate that makes them obsolete before they even become publicly known.

Some electronic components have stood the test of time and continue to play a major role in the industry. This book covers a few of the more standard electronic components and discusses practical uses for them. From time to time you will see references to lessons in Book 1, so it will be good to have it on hand as you proceed with this book.

Chapter 1: Zener Diodes

Zener Diode

In Basic Electronics Book 1 we learned about general-purpose semiconductor diodes. We discussed their construction, main characteristics, and ratings. Zener diodes are also semiconductor components but have one trait that makes them unique. A standard silicon diode has a PIV rating that must not be exceeded in its circuit application. But a Zener diode is designed for and intended to be used in an application that exceeds that rating.

Clarence Melvin Zener, an American scientist of the twentieth century, studied the properties concerning the breakdown of electrical insulating material. The Zener diode was developed by Bell Labs and appropriately named after him.

Zener diodes and general-purpose silicon diodes usually look the same, so the best way to identify them is by their manufacturer's part number. Their schematic symbols are also very similar but the Zener diode has little added marks on the cathode. (See drawing 1-1)



When the PIV rating of a general-purpose silicon diode is exceeded its junction breaks down and begins to conduct. This reversed bias conduction of electrons, which happens very quickly and vigorously, is referred to as avalanche current. In many cases this avalanche current will destroy the component.

In forward bias conditions a Zener diode will act much like any other silicon diode. In reversed bias conditions its doping properties allow it to breakdown and conduct without being destroyed by avalanche current. However, in this circumstance the amount of current must be carefully controlled. Excessive reversed bias current could destroy the component. In most applications a resistor is connected in series with a Zener diode to limit the current through it. (See diagram 1-2)


Voltage Reference

The reversed bias break down voltage is called the Zener voltage. Zener diode voltages generally range between 3 volts and 100 volts. Manufacturing techniques permit them to be made with fairly good precision and stability. Zener voltage tolerance ratings of 5% or 10% are very common.

Having good Zener voltage tolerance ratings and stability Zener diodes make good voltage references in power supply applications. There are other types of more complex circuits that utilize them as voltage references as well. Most Zener diodes are small axial lead components and they generally do not have the ability to dissipate much power. Typically they have a power dissipation rating of 1/2, 1, or 2 watts. Some higher power Zener diodes are designed for mounting on heat sinks, thus preventing damage by dissipating their excessive heat. Like all other electronic components their maximum ratings must be considered when selecting them for an application.

Zener Diode Power Dissipation

When a Zener diode is conducting electrons in its reversed bias condition it is dissipating power in the form of heat. The Zener voltage and the current flowing through the diode determine the amount of power it will dissipate. For example, let's say we have a power source proving 12 volts. And to that we connect a 10 volt Zener diode in series with a 100 ohm current limiting resistor. With the remaining 2 volts dropped across the resistor we use ohms law to calculate the current to be 20 milliamps. Our reverse biased 10 volt Zener diode conducting 20 milliamps of current will be dissipating 0.2

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